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AP Statistics Final Project!

Group Members: Austin Lubetkin!

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Topic: In this project I intend to test the association between the proportion of colors in dark a
chocolate versus regular M&Ms through a chi-squared 2 way test of independence. I chose to
compare those two varieties because they are the closest in shape and colors among the
varieties.!

Method of Data Collection: To begin I purchased a party sized bag of regular M&Ms and I also
purchased two regular size bags of dark chocolate M&Ms which is equivalent in ounces of
chocolate. To begin I sorted the M&Ms into 5 bowls which were:!
1. Milk chocolate red, green, and blue pieces!
2. Milk chocolate orange, yellow, and brown pieces!
3. Dark Chocolate red, green, and blue pieces!
4. Dark Chocolate orange, yellow, and brown pieces!
5. Anomalies!
I discarded bowls 2, 4, and 5 from the experiment and I included a picture of the anomalies in
my data section. Next I placed my camera on a suspended tripod that held it in place and
created a controlled light environment that had minimal shadows. I placed a baking pan in my
environment and placed sheets of white paper inside to act as a background. I used a kitchen
utensil to mix the bowl to ensure randomization then proceeded to pour bowl 1 into the pan and
then I photographed it. I then scooped out the pieces with a tool that would not disturb the
setup and returned them to their bowl. I then repeated this procedure two more times mixing
them in between to ensure randomization until I had three pictures total. I then repeated this
procedure with bowl 3 and obtained three more photos. Finally, I ran the photos through a
computer program that analyzed the average color of the bowl and gave me proportions of red,
green, and blue.!

Data:!
Anomalies !
2x pure white pieces (could not discover intended color)!

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1x Pink piece (could not determine if intended as orange or red)!
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Milk Chocolate M&M captures!

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Milk Chocolate averages and Data!

red: 106 [0.42]!


green: 124 [0.49]!
blue: 91 [0.36]!
hue: 94 [0.26]!
saturation: 26 [0.27]!
brightness: 49 [0.49]!

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red: 107 [0.42]!


green: 129 [0.51]!
blue: 96 [0.38]!
hue: 98 [0.27]!
saturation: 25 [0.26]!
brightness: 50 [0.51]!

red: 106 [0.42]!


green: 128 [0.51]!
blue: 95 [0.37]!
hue: 99 [0.28]!
saturation: 25 [0.26]!
brightness: 50 [0.51]!

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Observed Milk
Chocolate Averages

Red

Green

Blue

Value!
(0-255)

((106+106+107)/(3)) =
106.33333333333

((129+128+124)/(3)) =
127

((91+96+95)/(3)) = 94

Color Intensity!
(0-1)
Proportion

0.42 ((0.51+0.51+0.49)/(3)) = ((0.38+0.36+0.37)/(3)) =


0.50333333333333
0.37
((106.33333333333)/
(127+94+106.33333333
333)) =
0.32484725050916

((127)/
(127+94+106.33333333
333)) =
0.38798370672098

((94)/
(127+94+106.33333333
333)) =
0.28716904276986

It should be noted that consistent saturation and brightness values mean that there were
consistent and controlled light conditions for the photographs!

Dark Chocolate M&M captures!

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Dark chocolate averages and Data!
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red: 76 [0.30]!
green: 98 [0.39]!
blue: 116 [0.46]!
hue: 206 [0.57]!
saturation: 34 [0.35]!
brightness: 45 [0.46]!

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red: 78 [0.31]!
green: 102 [0.40]!
blue: 122 [0.48]!
hue: 206 [0.57]!
saturation: 35 [0.35]!
brightness: 47 [0.48]!

red: 75 [0.29]!
green: 96 [0.38]!
blue: 118 [0.46]!
hue: 210 [0.58]!
saturation: 36 [0.36]!
brightness: 46 [0.46]!

Observed Dark
Chocolate Averages

Red

Green

Blue

Value!
(0-255)

((76+78+75)/(3)) =
76.333333333333

((96+102+98)/(3)) =
98.666666666667

((118+116+122)/(3)) =!
118.66666666667

Color Intensity!
(0-1)

((0.3+0.31+0.29)/(3)) =
0.3

((0.38+0.4+0.39)/(3)) =
0.39

((0.46+0.46+0.48)/(3)) =
0.46666666666667

Proportion

((76.333333333333)/
(76.333333333333+98.
666666666667+118.666
66666667)) =
0.25993189557321

((98.666666666667)/
(76.333333333333+98.
666666666667+118.666
66666667)) =
0.33598183881952

((118.66666666667)/
(76.333333333333+98.
666666666667+118.666
66666667)) =
0.40408626560727

It should be noted that consistent saturation and brightness values mean that there were
consistent and controlled light conditions for the photographs. The lower values versus the milk
chocolate variety in saturation and brightness can be attributed to the fact that the dark
chocolate has a grey logo with dark written below it while the milk chocolate variety has a white
logo.!

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Tests:!
Chi-Squared 2-Way test of independence!
Since all counts are greater than 5 it is alright to proceed!
Null Hypothesis: Observed = Expected!
Alternate Hypothesis: Observed Expected!
Alpha = 0.05!
Observed

Red

Green

Blue

Milk Chocolate

106

127

94

Dark Chocolate

76

99

119

Expected

Red

Green

Blue

Milk Chocolate

95.835748792271

119.00483091787

112.15942028986

Dark Chocolate

86.164251207729

106.99516908213

100.84057971014

Chi-Value = 9.6219016038089!
P-Value = 0.0081401163789267!

Conclusion: Since the p-value is less than alpha there is enough evidence to conclude that at
the 95% confidence level that the data would unlikely occur given the two variables are
independent