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The Residential Quarter of the Minoan Palace

Author(s): J. Walter Graham


Source: American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 63, No. 1 (Jan., 1959), pp. 47-52
Published by: Archaeological Institute of America
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The

Residential

Quarter

of

the

Minoan

Palace*

J. WALTER GRAHAM
PLATES

15-18

The complex, multi-roomed Minoan palaces, seats


of the administration of the Minoan realms, were
surely also the residence of their rulers.' It was
reasonable therefore for Sir Arthur Evans to identify as the "Domestic Quarter" a suite of rooms
whose spaciousness and careful decoration proclaimed them to be quite different from the multitude of small cult-rooms, storage-rooms,and workrooms throughout the rest of the ground floor of the
palace, yet which were located so far from the
principal entrances of the building and were so
insulated and self-contained as clearly not to be
intended for important public reception rooms. The
latter, indeed, Evans located in the "Piano Nobile,"
i.e. the first storey above the ground floor in the
area west of the Central Court; and surely that is
where we are to look for similar state apartmentsin
the other palaces at Phaistos, Mallia, and probably
at Gournia.2
The two lower storeys of the Knossos Domestic
Quarter-or, as I prefer to term it in order to avoid
any implication that it was intended for the "domestics," the "Residential Quarter"-were set in a
great artificial cutting made to the southeast of the
Central Court.' The lower of these two storeys,
whose floor-level lay some eight to nine meters below that of the Central Court, was remarkably well
preserved, thanks to the slow settlement of the
upper storeys, and has been restored to a semblance
of its original condition (pl. 16, fig. 2). It is reached
today, as in antiquity, by the "Grand Staircase"so

ingeniously rebuilt by Evans. At the foot of these


stairs a corridor passes east along the north side of
the light-well, and from this a door opens south
into the "Hall of the Double Axes." On the right,
i.e. west, of this great hall a two-columned portico
opens on a light-well. Halfway down the room is a
"pier-and-door partition"4 of four bays, followed
by another at the east end of the room, and one of
three bays along the eastern half of the south side;
beyond, to the east and south, an L-shaped portico
or veranda with six columns and a square pier at
the angle provides a view over the valley and hills
beyond.' The floors throughout the Hall were paved
with slabs of gypsum, and a high gypsum dado
faced the lower part of the walls; above this ran a
painted spiral band to which was attached, Evans
suggests, a series of figure-of-eightshields,6a scheme
imitated with painted shields on the walls of the
Grand Staircase. Against the north wall of the
western section of the Hall traces of a formal
wooden chair or thronos were found, surmounted
by a canopy.7
Near the southwest corner of the Hall a narrow
corridor, with a door at both ends, leads by two
right-angled turns into a smaller but similar chamber called the "Queen's Megaron" by Evans but
which, to avoid the term "megaron" in a Cretan
context, we shall refer to as the "Queen's Hall." A
series of bays on the west, south, and east sides of
the room open on a bath and two light-wells;8 between the east light-well and the room runs a nar-

* The author wishes to thank the American Philosophical


Society and the University of Toronto for grants in aid of
research.
1 The Palace at Mari on the Euphrates, occupied from about
2000 to about 1700 B.C., is a similar complex of "quarters"
used for storage, artisans' workrooms, administrative offices,
cult-rooms, and state reception rooms, as well as for the royal
living-quarters which have been identified in the northwest
corner of the vast palace. Parrot, Une ville perdue (I936);
Mari (1953).
2 Cf. "The Phaistos 'Piano Nobile,' " AJA 6o (1956)
151-157;
and "Windows, Recesses, and the Piano Nobile," forthcoming.
3 Evans has published the "Domestic Quarter" in detail in
the Palace of Minos III, 282-390. A storey at the level of the
Central Court, and at least one above this, may also have formed
part of the royal residential quarters.
4 By "pier-and-door partitions" we mean the series of piers

with double-doors in each opening or bay, such as we find


very commonly in Minoan palace and house architecture; by
closing the doors the apartmentcould be subdivided into smaller
rooms, or a room could be closed off from an open portico or
area beyond; cf. Palace of Minos III, 340. In a previous article
(AJA 6o [1956] 51I, note 4) I used the term "semi-partition"
for this purpose, but the term proposed here, though slightly
more cumbrous, is certainly less ambiguous.
5 The existence of doors in the north and south walls east
of the east row of columns does not prove that the east, or even
the south, terrace walls were high enough to obstruct the view;
they may have formed a parapet two or three feet high, or have
been higher but pierced by broad openings.
6 See the color restoration of the Hall of the Double Axes,
PM III, pl. xxiv.
7PM III, 333-338.
8 The scheme on the east and south sides somewhat resembles

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48

J. WALTER GRAHAM

[AJA 63

row corridorwhose winding route to the terrace above and reached by a broad stairway north of the
and verandasat the east of the Hall of the Double Grand Propylon, the main entrance of the palace."
Axes was guaranteedagainst intrusionby no less From a lower landing of this stairway a corridor
than four doors.The Queen'sHall was also floored leads into a rather large square peristyle-court,and
with gypsum slabs,and Evans has restoredpaint- from its northeast corner a flight of steps descends
ings of dancinggirls and of dolphinsin a seascape to a landing from which it continues in a longer
as mural decoration,from the evidence of frag- flight (76) to the east.
ments found in the fill.
The complex of rooms served by this stairway
On the west side of the Queen'sHall a narrow (pl. 17, fig. 5; pl.
I8, fig. 7), rooms 50 and 77-86,
door leads to the familiarMinoanbathroom.This was set on a great artificial terrace cut along the
was lighted by "borrowed"light from the hall and north edge of the hill on which the palace was
decoratedwith painted spirals above a gypsum built, and seems to have been accessible from no
dado.Remainsof a paintedterracottabathtubwere other direction.12Certainly there is no entrance to
found just outside the door of the room. On the it from court 48, south of 50, nor from the long
south side of the bathrooma long corridorcon- passage 87 leading north from this court to a northnects with even more private apartmentswhich east entrance to the palace. Its isolation is therefore
include a well-devisedtoilet.
comparable to that of the Knossos Residential
One lastpoint of importance.Two sets of narrow Quarter and in the official Italian publication these
stairways,one leading from the northeastcorner rooms are described as the quartiere signorile;"3inof the Queen'sHall and the otherin the northwest deed an examination of these apartmentswill reveal
part of the DomesticQuarterand reachedboth by many analogies with those at Knossos.
way of the roomof the Queen'stoiletand by a door
From a corridor at the foot of the "grand stairfrom the "Hall of the Colonnades"at the foot of way," 76, a door opens north into one end of
a
the GrandStaircase,connectwith the storeyabove. spacious hall, 77-79. At the right a two-columned
This storey,as restoredby Evans, was similar in portico opens on a light-well, 78. Across the middle
plan to the one below it, and no doubtformedpart of the room extends a pier-and-door partition of
of the living quartersof the royalfamily.9
four bays, while along the whole north side of 79
The remarkablesimilarityof the variousMinoan and 77 another of six bays
opens on a columned
palaces in general plan and in many individual portico, possibly originally L-shaped, with a magfeatures, such as the Central Court, the Piano nificent view across the plain toward the range of
Nobile, and the detailsof the west fagade,"0
would Ida on the north. Both floors and walls were covlead one to expect analogousResidentialQuarters ered with gypsum slabs.
in the otherpalaces,but it is not, I think,adequately At the southwest corner of the Men's
Hall, 79,
realized that these do in fact exist, and that the a narrow corridor leads two
by
right-angled turns,
mutualresemblance
in detailis ratherextraordinary. with a door at both ends, into a smaller
chamber,
This paper will describefour such sets of apart8i. This clearly formed the main room of a suite
ments other than the familiarone at Knossos,and of rooms
Its floor was laid in a
secondary to
79-77will attemptto generalizethe featureswhich they regular
pattern of gypsum slabs (like 79) and its
exhibit in common.
walls were faced partly with gypsum, partly with
Let us look firstat Phaistos(pl. 15,fig. i). The en- stucco painted with
designs among which vegetable
tire series of rooms along the west fagadeon the motifs can be
recognized. From 8i a few steps led
groundfloorseemsto haveserved,as at Knossos,for down to the usual Minoan type of bathroom, 83, no
storageandfor cult purposes,with the PianoNobile doubt illumina'ed by borrowed light from
its
8i;

the pier-and-door partition, but only at the north end of the


east side is there a door; the other pillars are set on a low
parapet which forms a series of seats in the bays; PM III, 367369 and frontispiece.
9 PM III, 290ff, 354.
10 See "Windows, Recesses, and the Piano Nobile," forthcoming, and "The Central Court as the Minoan Bull-ring,"
AJA 61 (1957) 255-62.
x "The Phaistos 'Piano Nobile,'" AJA 60 (1956) 15I-157.

In arguing that this complex of rooms did not form "


'il
gineceo,' " as it was at first termed in the preliminary reports,
Miss Banti says that the north portico was easily accessiblefrom
the north, but this is far from clear to me from the remains;
enclosing porticoes may have extended northward on one or
both sides, FestrbsII, 255.
13 ibid. 479. And so recognized by Dinsmoor, Architectureof
Ancient Greece (1950) 15.
12

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1959]

RESIDENTIAL QUARTER OF THE MINOAN PALACE

49

wallswerefacedpartlywith gypsum,partlywith palace(pl. 15, fig. I)*1 Enteredonly througha


coloredstucco.A doorin thewestwallof 81opened smalldoorofftheeastporticoof theCentralCourt,
intostillmoreprivatequarters
beyond.Of these82 a few stepsleadup to thelevelof therooms.Again
had a floorof paintedplaster;whilethe westside we note the samegeneralscheme(pl. 16,fig. 4).
of the unnumbered
roomto the northof this,un- The main room,63, with perhapsa light-well,
fortunatelyincompleteon the north,was paved markedby a cementfloorprovidedwith a drain,
with slabsof gypsumat the northwestcornerof in its southeast corner; and a pier-and-door partiwhich anothergypsumslab, a few centimeterstionof threebaysrunningacrossthemiddleof the
alsoof threebays,opensto the
is piercedwith room,whileanother,
higherthanthe generalfloor-level,
a
on
a rectangular
holeconnecting
witha drainrunning east
columned,L-shapedporticoor veranda
northward,
clearlythe remainsof a latrine(Festas witha fineviewto eastandsouth.The higherlevel
II, fig. 184).Anotherdoorin the northeastcorner of the native rock surfacebeyondthe cementwith flooredareabetweenthe two porticoes,makesit
of the main room,8i, would communicate
The
the porticoesnorthof the Men'sHall. Surelythis perfectlyclearthatthis was not a peristyle.18
suiteof roomscan,on the analogyof the similar remainsof threestonestepsbeyondthe southeast
suite in the ResidentialQuarterat Knossos,be cornerof the courtsuggestsa smallerterraceat a
lower level; we might well think of a terraced
identifiedas the Queen'sApartments.
The suiteof roomsnumbered50 on the Italian garden.
cornerof themainroom,63,a
plan, and also enteredfrom stairway76, clearly At the northwest
formedpart of the residentialquarter.Its light- dooropensintoa narrowspacewhichwouldbe of
well,14in the center,openedto east and west verylittleuseas a closet;ratherit suggestsa small
and the roomto flightof stepsto roomsabove,andthe analogyof
throughtwo-columned
porticoes,
the westhad a gypsum-flagged
floorandveneered the stairsleadingfrom50 in the northResidential
wallsaroundthe baseof whichis a low gypsum Quarteris so closeas to makethis interpretation
bench."A furtheranalogywith the Knossosplan almosta certainty."
is the flightof stairsleadingfromthe northwest Anotherdoorfrom the southeastcornerof 63
cornerof 50directlyto theroomsabove,whichmay opensinto63b,whosepositionrelativeto themain
havebeenbedrooms.
room,combinedwith the presenceof a bathroom
The northern,insteadof eastern,orientation
of reachedby a few stepsdownfromit, anda couple
the PhaistosResidentialQuarteris quite under- of moreprivateroomsbeyond(onewitha toilet?eitherbecauseof the superior
theResiviewfrom notedrainin southeast
standable,
corner),completes
this direction-theMinoanlove of naturalbeauty dentialQuarter,as we havecometo knowit from
is obviousfrom theirwall-paintings;"6
or because the two precedingexamples,with the "Queen's
of the heat,for the summersun at Phaistos,as I Apartments."
cansayfromexperience,
is something
to beavoided! The nearby"summer-palace"
or "villa"of Hagia
Butwhatof thecoolerwintermonths? Therulers Triadadiffersfromthe standard
planof the three
of Phaistoshad takenthat into theircalculationsgreatpalacesin many respects,but most of the
too andprovidedthemselves
witha secondary,
of the Residential
less characteristics
Quarterappearin
Residential
at
the
in
a
of
northwest
cornerof the
same
suite
rooms
the
Quarter
sumptuous,
position as at Knossos, the southeastern part of the

palace (pl. i6, fig.

14 This is
certainly a long, narrow light-well of the normal
type, though it supplies light in two directions like the one in
the Residential Quarters at Hagia Triada (pl. I6, fig. 3), and
not a square peristyle-court anticipating the scheme of the
Tuscan Atrium, as stated in Pernier and Banti, Guida degli
Scavi Italiani in Creta (I947) 6i, and hesitatingly reaffirmedin
FestobsII, 471; this is indicated by the fact that the stylobates
on both the east and west sides continue through to the north
and south walls where there are pilasters to receive the ends of
the beams of the epistyle.
15
Gypsum was used in abundance at Phaistos thanks to the
nearby quarries at Hagia Triada which are again being used by
the Italians in their restorationwork at both Phaistos and Hagia

Triada.
16 Snijder's contention that the Minoans had no feeling for
beauty of landscape and did not construct their palaces with
reference to it is rightly denied in Festbs II, 478.
17 This is also recognized in
Festbs II, 478.
18 Although so stated by Dinsmoor, loc.cit.
19 Festbs II, 169 suggests, on the basis of a not very compelling
analogy, that the space was used as a sleeping-room, and that
the original idea that a flight of steps was located here ought
to be abandoned; however no reasons are given why the original
view is impossible.
20 See Pernier and Banti, Guida 30-32.

3)*20

A broad flight of fourteen

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J. WALTER GRAHAM

50

steps leads down from a higher level to the east to


a point opposite a door opening, as before, into one
of the long sides of the main room 3, 12. Again we
have the light-well to the right with two-columned
porticoes to east and west, resembling the arrangement of 50 of the north Residential Quarter of
Phaistos (pl. 17, fig. 5), and like that too there is a
room beyond (4) with gypsum-flagged floor, gypsum-veneered walls, and a continuous gypsum
bench around the walls. The room to the north of
4 has a large flat slab of gypsum in one corner and
the suggestion is made in the Guida that this was
a bedroom.2"
Returning to the main room we find the usual
pier-and-door partition with four bays dividing it
into an eastern and larger western section (12 and
3). Another with six bays along the north side of 3
opens on an L-shaped veranda with a corner pillar
(compare Knossos) and two columns preserved
(pl. i8, fig. 9). The terrace, on which the verandas
face and which has been artificially extended and
supported by a retaining wall, affords the finest
view from the site: north to the range of Ida, and
west over the fertile plain of the Geropotamos to
the blue waters of the Gulf of Mesara beyond
(fig. 9).
A door at the northeast corner of 12 opens into
a corridor, at the west end of which another door
turns north into 13.22 By analogy, then, room 13
should be the Queen's Hall. Can 14, to the east and
entered from 13 by a door, be an unrecognized
bathroom? A pier-and-door partition leads into a
destroyed room to the north, and at the northeast
corner a half dozen steps descend to a door into a
tiny open court and to a stairway leading to an
upper storey.
The main rooms and the porticoes of the court all
seem to have had gypsum-paved floors, and some
rooms, such as 4, had gypsum dadoes on the walls,
while in 14 were found the fragments of the wellknown "Cat-and-Bird"mural.
21 ibid. 31; cf.
Festbs II, 169.

22 The corridor was probably not open at its east end as it


appears on the plan, but for this and other details we must wait
for Miss Banti's promised publication of the site.
23Preliminary accounts have appeared in Chapouthier and
Charbonneaux, Fouilles exdcutces a Mallia, premier rapport
(1928); Chapouthier and Joly, Fouilles . . Mallia, deuxisme
rapport (1936); Chapouthier and Demargne, Mallia, troisirme
rapport (1942); also numerous reports in the BCH and an
article by Charbonneaux,BCH 52 (1928) 347-363.
24 A group of rooms labeled "VI" is described as a
probable
domestic quarter in Mallia I, 19-26, but it is certainly not a

[AJA 63

Last we turn to Mallia where we are somewhat


handicapped, as at Hagia Triada, by the fact that
the palace has not yet received its final publication.23
In general plan the palace is strikingly like Knossos
and Phaistos, but since it was built on a nearly level
site we have no terrace at a lower level to mark the
position of the Residential Quarter.
In the northwest corner of the palace, however,
we find a suite of rooms accessible from the rest of
the building only by one or two doors reached in
round-about ways (pl. 17, fig. 6; pl. 18, fig. Io).24
One of these, via IV 6, opens into a long side of
the familiar "main room," 1117, on the left (south)
of which is the usual two-columned light-well.
Again the room is divided transversely by a pierand-door partition with four bays.25 Beyond this
the section of the room to the north has, like the
Hall of the Double Axes, pier-and-door partitions
in front (north) and on one side (east). The east
partition with three bays opens into a room with
a central pillar. The north partition, with three
bays, opens into the usual columned portico facing
north. Other columns were found for a portico
facing west, and although the French thought that
these belonged to some earlier constructions because they are at a slightly lower level, their regular
relationship to the other portico, and the analogy
of the L-shaped porticoes at Knossos, Phaistos, and
Hagia Triada, suggest that they form part of the
same ensemble.26 The French searched diligently
for some sign of rooms in the area north of this and
were surprised to find nothing but a few low straggling walls of uncertain period.27 And surely for
good reason: for again we have royal residential
verandas facing the view over the sea and the cooling breezes blowing from it.
Nor are the "Queen's Apartments" missing. A
door near the southwest corner of the main room
opens into a paved corridor at the north end of
which another door opens into a smaller paved
room, III I, with a door at its northeast corner on
royal residential quarter.
25 The existence of this
pier-and-door partition, and of those
noted below, has not been recognized in the French publications, yet is perfectly clear at the site (fig. io). The position of
the piers is marked by rectangular gaps in the stone stylobate, for there are no remains of the dressed-stone bases
regular elsewhere--even at Mallia in several of the private
houses. This was first recognized by Platon as a result of some
repairs, Kpfr7tK&rXpoVLKd I (1947) 635f; cf. Demargne and
Santerre, 1tudes Critoises IX, I05, and further referencesthere.
26Mallia III, figs. 6f.
27ibid. 26-31.

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1959]

RESIDENTIAL QUARTER OF THE MINOAN PALACE

51

the northportico,andone at its southwestcorner on an open terrace.A secondary and more private
which by a few steps down leads to the usual suite of rooms, presumably the queen's, is reached
bathroom,1114;still anotherdoor opens into a by a narrow corridor with doors at both ends. Off
roomon the west.The wholearrangement
of the this room one door leads down a few steps to a
is astonishingly
similarto that bathroom, another to more private rooms beyond,
Queen'sApartments
of thenorthResidential
Quarterat Phaistos(pl. 17, and a third connects with the terrace and its porticoes. Narrow stairways lead directly to the rooms
fig. 5).
Finally,the privatestairwayto the floorabove above, which presumably form part of the same
has been recognizedby the French excavatorssystem. The Men's Hall, the Queen's Hall, and the
to thesouthof thebathroom
at IIIb. It couldhave bathroom have the lower parts of the walls and the
beenreachedeitherfromthe southend of the cor- floor covered with stone, which with the exception
ridorleadingto the Queen'sHall, or throughthe of Mallia is gypsum; the upper walls are sometimes
light-wellat the southend of the mainroom.
plastered and painted with designs, particularly at
Thus virtuallyall the typicalelementsof the Knossos and Hagia Triada, but also at Phaistos.-"
Residential
Quarterareto be seenin thiscomplex The general quality of the principal rooms both in
of rooms.If the stonebasesfor the piersof the regard to size and decoration distinguishes them
pier-and-door
partitionsare lacking;if the floors from the ordinary rooms of the palace.
aremoreirregularly
pavedwithslabsof limestone; One more question would seem worth attempting
andif thewallsarecoveredonlywithstuccoor thin to answer. The ceremonial rooms or state reception
slabsof slate(?), thisonlyreflects
themoremodest rooms were located-for reasons we have tried to
qualityof thepalaceasa whole.
suggest elsewheres2-well above the ground floor
We maysumup thenby simplygivinga generic (in the "Piano Nobile"). Why then was the
of theResidential
of theMinoan lowest-and this was probably the principal-storey
Quarter
description
which,with the specifiedex- of the Residential Quarter placed at the ground
palace,a description
level, in fact often considerably below the general
ceptions,appliesto all five knownexamples.
The RoyalResidentialQuartersin the Minoan ground level of the palace? And this in spite of the
palacesconsistedof a suiteof roomslocatedalong fact that most of the area at this level was given over
the northor eastexteriorsideof the buildingin a to "service" uses: workrooms, storage-rooms, and
positionselectedon the basisof view and climatic small cult rooms! The explanation will, I think, be
Sinceit thereforenormallyoccupieda plain to many a man who today prefers his little
conditions.
positionalongone edgeof the hill on whichmost house in the suburbs where he can step out into
palaceswerebuilt (exceptMallia),it was usually his small back garden to being immured in a lofty
setin a terrace
in wholeorin partartificially
created modern apartment-house.The halls of the Minoan
and extending.The com- Residential Quarter could be opened wide, as we
by scarping,excavating,
fromtherestof thepalace have seen, on to spacious and well-shaded porticoes,
plexwaswellsegregated
and normallyreachedonly by a singleentrance. and from these one could pass into a pleasant open
The mainroom("Men'sHall"or "General
Living- court or garden, sometimes provided, it may be,
room")was an oblongroomenteredby a door with descending terraces, and commanding a fine
placednearoneendof oneof its longsides,witha panorama over the sea and the mountains. The
light-well,flankedby two columns,at one end; it garden with its pools of water and formal plantings
wasdividedinto two usuallyunequalsections,the of flowers, shrubs, and trees was a familiar feature
smallercontaining
the entrance,
by a pier-and-doorof the home of the Egyptian noble of the second
one or two of the other millennium B.c. Appreciation of the delights of
partitionof four bays;28
sidesof the largersection29havesimilarpartitionsnature is not a discovery of modern man!33

which open on columned porticoes.These columned


porticoes are L-shapedso with the corner support,
except at Phaistos, a square pier, and they face out
28 Only 3

baysin the east ResidentialQuarterat Phaistos.

29 One side at Hagia Triadaand both


examplesat Phaistos;

two at Malliaand Knossos.


30This is uncertainfor the northPhaistos
example.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM

81 Festbs II, 295, pl. XL.


82AJA 6o (1956) 151ff.
3S Suites of rooms similar to those studied in this article are
also to be found in several Minoan houses. Perhaps the clearest

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52

J. WALTER GRAHAM

[AJA 63

instance is House A a at Mallia (Demargne and Santerre, verse partitions-with a latrine at the far end; a bathroom (11)
tudes CrItoises IX, pls. 63, 66). It includes a large "Men's opens off a corridor (14) serving both halls. Other probable
Hall" (3) paved with irregular flagstones, which has a trans- examples may be seen in the Royal Villa, Rooms E, F, G, H
verse four-bayed pier-and-door partition and a single-columned (Palace of Minos II, fig. 227); the House of the Chancel Screen,
light-well. Reachedfrom it by a narrow corridor (5) is a "Wom- Rooms 4, 5, 6 (ibid. fig. 224); Nirou Khani, Rooms 2-10 (ibid.
en's Hall" (6) with a similar floor; the usual sunken bathroom fig. 167); House B at Palaikastro,Rooms 2, 3, 6 (ibid. fig. 354);
(7) opens off one side, while at the far end is a space enclosed Houses A and C at Tylissos (Hazzidakis, Tylissos, pl. 33);
with a thin adobe-brick wall, probably a latrine. House Z a and perhaps in the Little Palace at Knossos (Palace of Minos
at Mallia (ibid. pls. 65, 66) is similar in its arrangement: a II, fig. 3I8).
Men's Hall (12) and a Women's Hall (5)-both with trans-

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GRAHAM

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Fig. 1. Plan of the last palaceat Phaistos


(adaptedfrom Festbs I, pl. ii)

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PLATE

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Fig. 2. Plan of Knossos ResidentialQuarter

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Fig. 3. Plan of Hagia Triada ResidentialQuarter

Fig. 4. Plan of PhaistossoutheastResidentialQuarter

North at top

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Fig. 5. Plan of Phaistos north ResidentialQuarter

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Fig. 6. Plan of Mallia Residential Quarter


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17

Fig. 7. Phaistos north Residential Quarter


from east

Fig. 8. Phaistos southeast Residential Quarter


from southwest

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Fig. io. Mallia Residentia


from south

Fig. 9. Hagia Triada Reside


and view from south