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International

Journal of Civil Engineering


and OF
Technology
ISSN 0976 6308
INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL
CIVIL(IJCIET),
ENGINEERING
AND(Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 2, February (2015), pp. 16-21 IAEME

TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)

ISSN 0976 6308 (Print)


ISSN 0976 6316(Online)
Volume 6, Issue 2, February (2015), pp. 16-21
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IJCIET
IAEME

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF STEEL SLAG


AGGREGATE AND ARTIFICIAL SAND IN CONCRETE
Prof. Mrs. A. I. Tamboli
ME Structure, Sinhgad Academy of Engineering, Kondhwa (Bk),Pune-48
1

Shelar Nilesh B.,


1,2,3,4,5

3
Nimse Ajinkya S.,
Chile Nilesh N.,
5
Suryawanshi Vyankatesh C.

Patil Swapnil S.,

Sinhgad Academy of Engineering Civil Engineering Dept.

ABSTRACT
Steel slag is a byproduct of steel making processes of steel industry. Its also one of the
biggest industrial waste which is being produced worldwide in a huge quantity. This research deals
with substantial replacement of natural aggregates and natural sand used in concrete. In this study
coarse aggregate were partially replaced with steel slag aggregate with different replacement
percentage in concrete i.e. 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. In which we found compressive strength of
concrete with various percentage of steel slag aggregate. We found a significant increase in
compressive strength at 20% aggregate replacement. We got an increase in compressive strength by
1.1 times than that of our convectional concrete.
Decreasing sand resources are posing environmental problems and hence government
restrictions on sand quarrying are put under action which resulted in scarcity and significant
increasing in its cost. So there is a great need to find an alternate to natural sand. So now a days
artificial sand is being used in wide range of work. We had also used artificial sand in our concrete
as an application to green engineering concept.
Key words: steel slag aggregate, artificial sand, OPC, compressive strength, coarse aggregate.
INTRODUCTION
Conventionally concrete is mixture of cement, sand and aggregate. Properties of aggregate
affect the durability and performance of concrete, so aggregate is an essential component of
concrete. Fine and coarse aggregate constitute about 75% of total volume. It is therefore, important
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 2, February (2015), pp. 16-21 IAEME

to use right type and good quality aggregate in concrete, because the aggregates the main matrix of
concrete. Now days aggregate are obtained from natural rocks which is decreases day to day.
Therefore it becomes more necessary to find suitable sustainable alternative source to natural
aggregates for preparing concrete.
STEEL SLAG
At present many steel plant are being set up across the world causes a huge production of
solid waste material like slag. Presently, total steel production in India is about 72.20 million metric
tones and the waste generated annually is around 19 million metric tones and 50 million metric tones
worldwide. . However, steel slag and slag has not been used efficiently and thoroughly for long,
which causes its great accumulation, waste of land, and serious air and water pollution. Steel slag
contains a certain amount of important minerals of cement clinker, such as C2S and C3S.So it can be
used as cement and concrete admixtures.
Steel slag is industrial waste resulting from steel refining plants in conversion process. There
are two methods for steel slag production: Basic Oxygen Steel (BOS) and Electric Arc Furnace
(EAF). BOS slag is obtained by blowing high pressure oxygen into a vessel containing molten iron,
steel scrap and lime and EAF utilizes high voltage current to generate heat for doing the same
process. The main utilization of BOF slag is as aggregate in road construction because of its suitable
characteristics. In Europe about 65% of the produced steel slag is used as aggregate in road
construction specially, as a substitute for high-quality natural aggregate in asphalt wearing courses.
In china 40% of BOF slag production is used in BOF slag cement.
Owing to the large
production, the research work for last 30 years have shown that 65%of steel slag used today is for
qualified field application. But remaining 35% of slag is still dumped. There are also few researches
that have been performed regarding the utilization of steel slag in concrete as aggregate. This shows
that it is advantageous to increase physical, chemical and mechanical properties of concrete.
ARTIFICIAL SAND
The global consumption of natural sand is very high, due to the extensive use of concrete or
mortar. In developing countries, the demand of natural sand is quite high to fulfill the rapid
infrastructure growth, in this situation developing country like India facing the problems of shortage
of good quality natural sand. In India, natural sand resources are being limited. Increasing extraction
of natural sand from river beds causing many problems, loosing water retaining sand strata,
deepening of the river courses and causing bank slides, loss of vegetation on the bank of rivers,
exposing the intake well of water supply schemes, disturbs the aquatic life as well as affecting
agriculture due to lowering the underground water table etc . Therefore an alternative to river sand
has become a necessity.
The cheapest and easiest alternative to natural sand is manufacturing sand by crushing
rocks/stones in desired size and grade by suitable method. Sand produced by such means is known as
manufactured/ crusher/artificial sand. Also such sand increases the physical and mechanical
properties of concrete.
This paper presents the results of experimental investigation of full replacement of natural
sand by artificial sand.

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 2, February (2015), pp. 16-21 IAEME

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Table 1: MATERIAL PROPERTIES INVESTIGATE


Nominal Max. Size Of Coarse Aggregate
20 mm
Slump Range
50-75 mm
Fineness Modulus Of Fine Aggregate
2.88 (ZONE II)
Fineness Modulus Of Coarse Aggregate
5.12 (ZONEII)
Specific Gravity Of Fine Aggregate
2.65
Specific Gravity Of Coarse Aggregate
2.75
Specific Gravity Of Steel Slag Aggregate
2.67
Specific Gravity Of cement
3.15
Water Absorption Of Fine Aggregate
4.7%
Water Absorption Of Coarse Aggregate
1.65%
Water Absorption Of Steel Slag
4.6%
Table 2: CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL SLAG
PERCENTAGE%
Constituent
Calcium Oxide (CaO)
Silicon Dioxide (SiO2)
Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3)
Magnesium Oxide (MgO)
Iron (FeO or Fe2O3)
Manganese Oxide (MnO)
Sulfur (S)

Mean
39

Range
34-43

36
10
12
0.5
0.44
1.4

27-38
7-12
7-15
0.2-1.6
0.15-0.76
1.0-1.9

Table 3: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL SLAG


Physical Properties

Steel Slag

Colour

Black

Specific gravity

2.67

Appearance

Crystalline

Compacted Unit Weight


(kN/m3)

10.98-13.34

Absorption (%)

4.6%of total weight

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
Materials used in this study were OPC 53 grade cement confirming to IS 8112 and fine
aggregate & coarse aggregate confirming to IS 383-1970. The cement and aggregate were tested to
fulfill the IS requirement.
Concrete mix were designed in accordance with IS 10262-1982 and IS 456-2000 by
assuming good degree of quality control and moderate exposure conditions. The concrete mix is
designed for M20 grade with 100% replacement of natural sand by artificial sand and partial
replacement of coarse aggregate by steel slag with 0% 10% 20% 30%. The adopted mixes
proportions by weight batching method are summarized in Table:

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 2, February (2015), pp. 16-21 IAEME

Table 4: Concrete Mix Proportion: (kg/m3)


SR.NO.

WATER

CEMENT

F.A

C.A

1.

191.58

383.16

556.59

1256.04

2.

0.5

1.45

3.27

The exact amount of concrete ingredients were weighed and mixed thoroughly in laboratory
till the consistent mix was achieved. The workability of fresh concrete was measured in terms of
slump value.
The standard cubes of 150x150x150 mm size were cast in steel moulds and compacted. The
specimens were cured in water for 28 days by immersion and tested immediately. The 12 cube
specimens were tested for determining the compressive strength.
TEST CONDUCTED
Compression Testing Machine (CTM) was used to carrying test on hardened concrete. Test
was carried out for finding the compressive strength. A standard test procedure is followed for each
test and strength performance of hardened concrete is studied.
COMPRESSION STRENGTH
Totally 12 concrete cubes of 150x150x150 mm size were casted and it is allowed for 28 days
curing. After drying, cubes were tested in Compression Testing Machine (CTM) to determine the
ultimate load.
The compressive strength calculated by formula fcu = P/A
Where, fcu = compressive strength of cube, MPa or N/mm2
P = compressive load at failure, N
A = area of loading, mm2

Fig.1: Test arrangement for compressive test

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 2, February (2015), pp. 16-21 IAEME

Fig.2: Compressive test


Table 5: Compressive strength
Sr. NO

% steel slag

Compressive strength in 28 days (N/mm2)

1
2
3
4

00
10
20
30

29.96
30.44
32.13
26.09

40
30
20

28 Day's

10
0
0%

10%

20%

30%

Compressive Strength (N/Mm2) V/S Replacement Percentage off Steel Slag


TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Test results shows that the compressive strength of the concrete increases and the optimum
value was found at a slag replacement proportion of 20% for coarse aggregate
aggregate and after that any
further replacement of slag decreases the compressive strength. We got an increase in compressive
strength of 1.1 times than that of our convectional concrete.

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 6, Issue 2, February (2015), pp. 16-21 IAEME

CONCLUSION
From above research work we are concluded that,
1.
We got an increase in compressive strength at 20% of replacement ratio with 100% of
replacement of natural sand with artificial sand in concrete.
2.
The enhancement in compressive strength was observed to be 1.1 times than that of our
convectional concrete at 28 days of curing.
3.
Such type of combination can be used in our construction as its giving good strength and also
supports green engineering concept.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to thank the Management, Principal, Head of Civil Engineering Department
and staff of Sinhgad Academy of Engineering College, Pune and Authorities of Savitribai Phule
Pune University for their support. The authors express their deep and sincere thanks to Mrs.
Amena.I.Tamboli(Department of Civil Engineering, SAE Pune) for her tremendous support and
valuable guidance from time to time.
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ASTM C 33. (2003). Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates. ASTM International.
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