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M Abdul Rehman

called "Active Elements", i.e. resistors, capacitors,

diodes, inductors, and switches.

dissipate or store it are called "Passive Elements

i.e. transistors, triacs, varistors, vacuum tubes,

relays, and op-amps.

Characteristics only when a change in voltage or

current is made in the circuit in which it exist.

do not Dissipate Energy as does the resistor but

store it in a form that can be returned to the circuit

whenever required by the circuit design.

two charged bodies.

This electric field is represented by electric flux

lines, which are drawn to indicate the strength of

the electric field at any point around the charged

body; that is, the denser the lines of flux, the

stronger the electric field.

The flux per unit area (flux density) is represented

by the capital letter D and is determined by

charged body to a negatively charged body

The Electric Field Strength that a point is the

force acting on a unit positive charge at that point

If Q2=1, then?

Abdul Rehman (Circuit Analysis)

store charge on its plates, in other words its storage

capacity.

Two parallel plates of a conducting material separated

by an air gap have been connected through a switch

and a resistor to a battery.

If the parallel plates are initially uncharged and the

switch is left open, no net positive or negative charge

will exist on either plate.

The instant the switch is closed, however, electrons

are drawn from the upper plate through the resistor to

the positive terminal of the battery.

Abdul Rehman (Circuit Analysis)

terminal through the lower conductor to the

bottom plate at the same rate they are being

drawn to the positive terminal.

This transfer of electrons continues until the

potential difference across the parallel plates is

exactly equal to the battery voltage.

Abdul Rehman (Circuit Analysis)

common surface area of the plates, producing an

effect known as fringing.

This effect reduces capacitance somewhat, can be

neglected for most practical applications.

electric field to oppose the electric field set up by

free charges on the parallel plates.

the two plates separated by a distance of d, the

electric field strength between the plates is

determined by

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that of a vacuum is called the relative permittivity

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a. Determine the capacitance.

b. Determine the electric field strength between the plates

if 450 V are applied across the plates.

c. Find the resulting charge on each plate.

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area as the plates is inserted between the plates of

a Capacitor

a. Find the electric field strength between the plates.

b. Find the charge on each plate.

c. Find the capacitance.

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part to impurities in the dielectric and forces

within the material itself.

When a voltage is applied across the plates of a

capacitor, a leakage current due to the free

electrons flows from one plate to the other.

The current is usually so small, however, that it

can be neglected for most practical applications.

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Electrolytic Capacitor

It is a type of capacitor that uses an electrolyte as one of

its plates to achieve a larger capacitance per unit volume

than other types.

All capacitors conduct AC and block DC and can be

used, amongst other applications, to couple circuit blocks

allowing AC signals to be transferred while blocking DC

power, to store energy, and to filter signals according to

their frequency.

Electrolytic capacitors are polarized; hence, they can only

be operated with DC.

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Fixed Capacitors

Many types of fixed capacitors are available today. Some

of the most common are the mica, ceramic, electrolytic,

tantalum, and polyester-film capacitors.

The typical flat mica capacitor consists basically of mica

sheets separated by sheets of metal foil.

Data such as capacitance and working voltage are

printed on the outer wrapping if the polyester capacitor

is large enough.

Color coding is used on smaller devices

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Variable Capacitors

Usually the dielectric for variable capacitors is air.

Capacitance is changed by turning the shaft at one end to

vary the common area of the movable and fixed plates.

The greater the common area, the larger the capacitance

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marking schemes have been adopted to provide the

capacitance level, the tolerance, and, if possible, the

maximum working voltage.

In general the size of the capacitor is the first indicator

of its value.

The smaller units are typically in pico-farads (pF) and the

larger units in microfarads (mF).

On larger mF units, the value can usually be printed on the

jacket with the tolerance and maxi-mum working voltage.

However, smaller units need to use some form of abbreviation

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capacitance meter.

Simply place the capacitor between the provided

clips with the proper polarity, and the meter will

display the level of capacitance.

The longer leg is positive and shorter leg is

negative in Electrolytic Capacitors.

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electrons are drawn from the top

plate and deposited on the bottom

plate by the battery, resulting in a

net positive charge on the top plate

and a negative charge on the bottom

plate.

The transfer of electrons is very rapid at first, slowing down as

the potential across the capacitor approaches the applied

voltage of the battery.

When the voltage across the capacitor equals the battery

voltage, the transfer of electrons will cease and the plates will

have a net charge determined by

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jumps to a value limited only by the resistance of

the network and then decays to zero as the plates

are charged.

The rapid decay in current level, revealing that the

amount of charge deposited on the plates per unit

time is rapidly decaying also.

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related to the charge on the plates by Vc, , the

rapid rate with which charge is initially deposited

on the plates will result in a rapid increase in Vc.

Eventually, the flow of charge will stop, the

current I will be zero, and the voltage will cease to

change in magnitude the charging phase has

passed.

At this point the capacitor takes on the

characteristics o.f an open circuit

Abdul Rehman (Circuit Analysis)

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equivalent once the charging phase has passed.

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Charging Current ic

measure is the second.

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essentially zero after five time constants of the

charging phase have passed in a dc network.

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Charging Voltage Vc

The factor

is a decaying function, the factor

will grow toward a maximum value of 1 with time.

As E is the multiplying factor, the voltage Vc is E volts

after five time constants of the charging phase.

If we keep R constant and reduce C, the product RC will

decrease, and the rise time of five time constants will

decrease and vice versa.

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a)

b)

curves for the transient behavior of Vc, ic, VR

when the switch is moved to position 1.

How much time must pass before it can be

assumed, for all practical purposes, that Vc =E,

ic=E volts?

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Solutions

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moved to position 2.

Capacitor will begin to discharge

at a rate sensitive to the same time

constant.

The established voltage across

the capacitor will create a flow of

charge in the closed path that will eventually discharge the

capacitor completely.

The capacitor functions like a battery with a decreasing

terminal voltage.

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Discharging Current

The current iC has reversed direction, changing the polarity of

the voltage across R.

During the discharge phase the current will also decrease with

time.

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Discharging Voltage Vc

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The voltage drop across resistor R will be same as that of

capacitor.

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thrown into position 2

Find the mathematical expressions for the transient

behavior of VC, iC, and VR after the closing of the

switch. Plot the curves for VC, iC, and VR using the

defined directions and polarities. Assume that t=0

when the switch is moved to position 2

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the

voltage across the capacitor if the switch is thrown into position 1

at t = 0 s.

b. Repeat part (a) for iC.

c. Find the mathematical expressions for the response of vC and

iC if the switch is thrown into position 2 at 30 ms (assuming that

the leakage resistance of the capacitor is infinite ohms).

d. Find the mathematical expressions for the voltage vC and

current iC if the switch is thrown into position 3 at t=48 ms.

e. Plot the waveforms obtained in parts (a) through (d) on the

same time axis for the voltage vC and the current iC using the

defined polarity and current direction.

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behavior of the voltage across the capacitor if the switch

is thrown into position 1 at t=0 s.

b. Repeat part (a) for iC.

c. Find the mathematical expression for the response of

vC and iC if the switch is thrown into position 2 at t

=1RC of the charging phase.

d. Plot the waveforms obtained in parts (a) through (c)

on the same time axis for the voltage vC and the current

iC using the defined polarity and current direction

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therefore a voltage on the plates at the instant the

switching action takes place.

The voltage across the capacitor at this instant is called

the initial value.

Once the switch is thrown, the transient phase will

commence until a leveling off occurs after five time

constants.

This region of relatively fixed value that follows the

transient response is called the steady-state region,

and the resulting value is called the steady-state or

final value.

Abdul Rehman (Circuit Analysis)

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previous section, an equation for the voltage vC

can be written for the entire time interval

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voltage of 4V.

a. Find the mathematical expression for the voltage

across the capacitor once the switch is closed.

b. Find the mathematical expression for the current

during the transient period.

c. Sketch the waveform for each from initial value to final

value.

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or current at a particular instant of time that is not an

integral multiple of t. For example, if

the voltage vC may be required at t=5 ms, which does

not correspond to a particular value of t.

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not have the simple series form.

It will then be necessary first to find the Thvenin

equivalent circuit for the network external to the

capacitive element. Eth will then be the source

voltage E, and Rth will be the resistance R. The

time constant is then t=RthC.

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behavior of the voltage vC and the current iC following

the closing of the switch (position 1 at t=0 s).

b. Find the mathematical expression for the voltage vC

and current iC as a function of time if the switch is

thrown into position 2 at t=9 ms.

c. Draw the resultant waveforms of parts (a) and (b) on

the same time axis.

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the mathematical expression for vC after the

closing of the switch.

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for the voltage vC after the closing of the switch

(at t=0).

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and in parallel.

Increasing levels of capacitance can be obtained

by placing capacitors in parallel, while decreasing

levels can be obtained by placing capacitors in

series.

For capacitors in series, the charge is the same on

each capacitor

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closed loop gives

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b. Determine the charge on each plate.

c. Find the voltage across each capacitor.

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b. Determine the charge on each plate.

c. Find the total charge.

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Find the voltage across and charge on each capacitor for the network.

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C1 after it has charged up to its final value.

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capacitor of the network after each has charged up

to its final value.

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energy supplied to it.

It stores the energy in the form of an electric field

between the con-ducting surfaces.

The power curve can be obtained by finding the

product of the voltage and current at selected

instants of time and connecting the points

obtained.

The energy stored is represented by the shaded

area under the power curve.

Abdul Rehman (Circuit Analysis)

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