Topic

3:

Dynamics

Newton's laws ot motion

A body remains at rest or continues to move in a straight line wiih a unifoam velo€ity unless a net external Iorce acts on it to change that state. The rate of change of the momentum of the body is directly proportional to the net external force acting on the body and takes place in the direction of that force.
Second Law

(for constant mass)

(for constant velocity)

Third Law

For every action, there is always an equal and opposite collinear reaction-

Linear momentum {p) ol a body is known as the quantity of motion and is defined as the product of its mass (m) and its velocity (y).

lmpulse changes the momentum of a body. The change in momentum of a body can be determined by calculating the area under a Force - Time graph.
Force

Change in momentum Ap

: pz

p1 = area under Force

-

Time graph = impulse

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law of conservation of linear momentum states that when obtects of a closed system interact, their total momentum before impact is equal to their total momentum after impact, if no net
externalforce acts on the closed system.
This law applies to every situation.

lnelastic
Total KE is conserved

.

Total KE is NOT conserved

Ut-U):91-Yt
For perfectly inelastic collision

.:.

The 2 bodies coalesce after impact

Note 1: remember to take into account the srgn conventions of the velocities when dealing with
questions involving momentum and impulse!

Note 2: this concept oI conservation of momentum is usefut in solving questions that involving {a) moving {body) bodies that undergoes cotlision/contact.

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