Topic 5

:

Wave Motion

lf the waveform of a wave moves or progresses relative to its space, it is a progressive wave.
The transfer of energy is facilitated by progressive waves. Stationary waves retain enersv. Related formulae Derivation ofv=

f
pe
od

Period

tr-11 I

l:4
Phase Difference 0

'l

Dr(ldn(e lravelled by wave in one
5pee0 ol wave

-

i

distdn(p lrdvellpd by wave in onp ppriod period ofwave

=I=(1..]^=" T \'T,]

This is expressed in terms of a fraction ol lhe wdve cy( lp or in ter m\ o[ dn anglp.

Note:2n rad or 360"

= one cycle

0LxLt 2tt 1
Situations

'l'

Graphical lllustration
(assuming wave(s) is/are moving from left

to ri

Between 2 waves ofthe same frequency

(i) From displacement-distance graph Distance between 2 correspondinq points

Phase

differen.e between the5e 2 wdves:

0=

Ax

Tx2tt

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(ii)

From displa€ement-time graph

Time interval between 2 corresponding points (At)

Phase difference between these 2 waves:

T

{b) Between 2 points on the same

From displacement-distance graph

Distance between P and Q (Ax)

1

wavelength ( )

Phase difference between points P and

0

=Exzn

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lntensity
lntensity o( (amplitude)'?

16A2
/

or or

"(+

[z [a
2;
r, - 5.6

!q!g-!: Forthe same point

source, power {P} is a constant.

Note 2: Most questions involving the concept of intensity should be approached using the 'comparison' method, i.e. using ratios_
Example 1:
A small source produces a sound of intensity 3.0 x 1O2 Wm_, at a distance 5.0 m away. Calculate

the intensity of the sound at a distance 10.0 m away.
Solulion

Given

11= 3.0

x 10-'Wm

6

lz=
For

?;
P is a

r, = 10.0 m
constant. Hence

the same source,

Ix{
t,

- ("\'
x lo

,, (';)' ",, (#)'

x 3.0

2

7.s

x r o-r wm )

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Example 2:

A plane wave of amplitude A is incident on a surface of area 5 placed so that ,t is perpendicular to the direction of travel ofthe wave. The energy per unit time intercepted by the surface is E.
The amplltude of the wave is increased to 2A and the area ot the surface is redLrced to S/2.

How much energy per unit time is intercepted by this smaller surface? Solution:

Given: Pr = E; Amplitudel P, =

A; 2A;

Area, = 5

?; Amplitude,

=

Area2=S/z

Since intensity

=ry

= k x (Amplitude)z,

P2 4

(Arnplitude2)2 x Area2
t

Arnpt,hlden, xAreo,

P2 (2A)2 ' "E A2xS
Pz=2E

fxample J:
A sound wave is emitted from a point source: The intensity

ofthe sound wave is inversely proportional to the square ofthe distance from the source. At a distance r from the soltrce, the amplitude ofthe wave is 8X.
What
is

the amplitude at a distance 2r from the source?

Solution: Given:

A=8X; A'=?;

r=r
t' =2r

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Since intensity
Hence Az

c<

+

and intensity

c< ,42,

e

\

or A

<!.

r

A' 7r BX:;

!q!e.f:

ln other questions, you'll see that more than one relationship is stated. This suggests that you may have to consider them simultaneously.
ExamDle 4:

The intensity of a wave depends on the amplitude. The intensity is also proportional to the

square of the frequency.
A wave has Jrequency 3.0 Hz, amplitude 1.5 cm and intensity l.

What is the intensity of a similar wave offrequency 6.0 Hz and amplitude 0.5 cm?
Solution
Given Hence

I

c<

Az and
A2

I

d.

f2

I

(x

fz
4 : ,l;
Iz

Further given

Ar =

1.5

ctn;

fr -

3.O

Hz

=?;

Az = 0.5

c-m;
I, 12
Az2

fz = 6.0 Hz

fzt

T = Ls4,
4

0.5262

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Note 4: We have also seen many questions which require you to determine the diaection of movement of a particular point P on the wave profile. This is how to do it:
Transverse wave moving to the right

)

Step 1: lf the question states that the wave is moving to the

ig[t

translate the wave profile

slishtlv to the !gb!.

,' Translated profile

Step 2: As this is a transverse wave, we know that point p will vjbrate in the vertical plane, i.e.

aand +.

' Translated profile
5!gL1: As the point corresponding to P on the:translated profile lies below the or;ginal point p, we can say that the P was moving downwards at that instant.
Exception: lf the points lie on the crest or trough, the points can be viewed as being stationarv at that tnstant,

Comparison between Transverse and Longitudinal Waves Ttansverse waves Direction of wave particles is perpendicular wave direction. Electromagnetic waves can travel through vacuum. Can be polarized.

to

longitudinal waves Direction of wave particles is parallelto wave direction. Need a material medium to propagate, cannot propagate through vacuum. Cannot be polarized.

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Difference between a displacement vs distance graph AND a pressuae vs distance graph
A displacement node is a pressure antinode. A displacement antinode is a pressure node.

Displacement -distance graph rarefaction compressron displacement / m

Pressure - distance glaph Min pressure {Not zero pressure) Max pressure

Points P, Q and R are particles on a longitudinal wave. distance /

m

Pressure I Pa

Particles Pand Rare undergoing compression while Q is experiencing rarefaction.
Its corresponding pressure while it is at its current positions are shown in the pressure vs distance qraph.

distance / m
Using a cathode-ray oscilloscope (c-r.o,) to determine the

tlgglelly

of sound

Procedure 1:
The sound source is placed near to the microphone

which in turn is connected to a c.r.o.
The time base

ofthe c.r.o.

is adtusted

until a

stationary trace is obtained. This trace can be seen as a displacement-time graph.
The frequency of the wave can be calculated using Period (T)

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Using a cathode-ray oscilloscope (c.r.o,)to determine the

Eeygblglh of sound (stationary

waves)
The sound source is placed at a distance awayfrom a

hard suaface. The sound waves produced are consistently rebounded from the hard surface,

forming a straight trail ofstationary waveThe microphone connected to a c.r.o. is moved along

the trail. Alternating high and low intensity signaltraces are recorded by the c.r-o,
The distance between 2 consecutive high signal traces (d) on the c.r_o. is measured using a measuring tape placed between the sound source and the reflecting surface.
The wavelength of the wave can be calculated using

Practice ouestions from booklet

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