Module J Nutrition Reading Assignment: Potter and Perry 7th ed. Ch. 44, Pages: 1085 – 1128. Linton Chapter 9 pgs.

91-121 I. Study of Nutrients A. How living organisms: a. ingest b. digest c. absorb d. transport e. use f. excrete I. Anatomy and Physiology of the Digestive System A. Nutrition - Purpose a. Provide energy for body processes , metabolism, organ function, growth, & movement b. Provide structural material for body tissue & repair c. Regulating body processes d. So organisms may grow, function and reproduce. A. Types of Nutrients a. Carbohydrates b. Fats c. Proteins d. Vitamins e. Minerals f. Water A. BASAL METABOLIC RATE a. The sum of all chemical activities that maintain the body at rest. b. A measure of energy required at rest c. Factors Influencing BMR i. Major factor is lean body mass ii. Growth and age iii. Fever / Disease iv. Climate v. Food intake vi. Exercise vii. Gender A. Factors Influencing Total Energy Requirements a. BMR b. Activity c. Food intake d. Energy Measurement A. Unit of measure is the calorie

a. The amount of heat necessary to raise one Kg of water one degree C. b. Energy Values of Food c. Carbohydrates yields 4 calories per gram d. Proteins yield 4 calories per gram e. Fat yields 9 calories per gram A. Energy Value of Food a. Calculate snack: a. 10 grams carbohydrate, 15 grams protein, 6 grams fat: Total calories equal. I. CARBOHYDRATES (Min. 50-100 grams daily) A. Monosaccharides: simple sugars made only of one sugar a. Glucose b. Fructose a lot of frood are sweetened w/ fructose. c. CARBOHYDRATES A. Disaccharides: two simple sugars are combined a. Sucrose (table sugar) = glucose + fructose b. Lactose (milk sugar) = glucose + galactose only one that comes from an animal source, all the others come from a plant source. c. Maltose (malt sugar) = glucose + glucose A. POLYSACCHARIDES: many sugars, Complex Carbohydrates a. starches b. fibers bulk roughage in diet. Do not provide many calories or nutrients. Necessary for aiding things to move through system in timely manner. They absorb cholesterol. Dietary Fiber 20-35 g/day i. Soluble: Able to dissolve in H2O, Beans, oatmeal, barley, broccoli, citrus fruits. Regulate blood glucose level, Weight loss, Lowers cholesterol ii. Insoluble: Incapable of being dissolved. Fruits and vegetable. skins, nuts, popcorn. Promote bowel regularity. Decreases risk diverticular diseases, cancer A. CARBOHYDRATE STORAGE a. Basic unit that is stored in the body in the form of : b. Glycogen (stored in Liver and Muscles) A. FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATES a. Supplies heat and energy body’s main source of energy. b. Protein sparing if you do not take in enough carbs body will break down protein for energy. c. Primary Source of Energy A. CARBOHYDRATE SOURCES a. Candy Simple sugars b. Pies c. Starches complex sugars d. Fruits e. Grains

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f. Dried beans Fats (Lipids) (< 35% total calories,<10% saturated) BASIC UNIT: a. fatty acids and glycerol (glycerides) b. Second Preferred Source of Energy Fat (Lipid)Classifications a. Triglycerides 3 fatty acids along with glycerol. Most of our fats in the diet. 95% b. Saturated and Unsaturated i. Monounsaturated fatty acids: One carbon to carbon double bond ii. Polyunsaturated fatty acids: More than one carbon to carbon double bond FUNCTIONS OF FATS a. Energy b. Thermal insulation c. Protection d. Nerve impulse transmission e. Structure to cell membrane Sources of Fat a. Meats b. Butter and cheese c. Cream d. Bacon e. Fried foods f. Nuts and seeds g. Avocado h. Cheese Cholesterol (<300mg daily)body is capable of synthesizing cholesterol. Carries fats to parts of the body where it is needed. Fat related compound Produced by the liver Present in animal products and lunch meats, egg yolks, fish, shrimp, dairy products. Plant foods DO NOT contain cholesterol Cholesterol Production a. Liver and dietary sources Sterol / Cholesterol a. Sterol hormones like sex hormones b. Basic material for brain and nerve tissue c. Makes bile d. Vitamin D Lipoproteins

A. HDL good cholesterol . High density. Attaches to fat to help eliminate it from body. B. LDL bad cholesterol. Low density. Sticks to arterial and vessel walls. a. VLDL (becomes LDL after it unloads fat) A. Changes To Lower Cholesterol a. Eat less fat Eat more fiber b. Eat less cholesterol Eat more starches c. Drink less caffeine and alcohol I. PROTEIN (10-35%of total calories daily) A. BASIC UNIT: a. AMINO ACIDS made of 20 amino acids. 9 are essential. b. Final Preferred Source of energy A. Types of Proteins a. Complete proteins contains all 9 essential amino acids. Meat, cheese, eggs, milk. Only one plant source is complete: Soy. b. Incomplete proteins Lack 1 or more essential proteins. These are grains, plants, beans, nuts. Can eat combo of incomplete to get all 9. c. Complementary proteins combining different incompletes to make a complete. A. FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS a. Repair and builds tissue #1 function of protein. No protein no muscle. b. Aids in resisting disease need protein for antibody production. c. Maintains nitrogen balance homeostasis, acid and base balance. d. Provides energy e. Maintains osmotic pressure f. Buffers A. PROTEIN SOURCES a. Eggs b. Milk c. Cheese d. Legumes e. Leafy green vegetables f. Navy beans g. Nuts I. Vitamins A. VITAMIN A (700-1300mcg) excess stored in liver. Will cause jaundice. a. Maintains integrity of epithelial tissue b. Growth of skeletal and soft tissue c. Provides natural defense mechanisms d. Vitamin A Food Sources i. Major sources: sweet potatoes, cabbage, spinach, collards, broccoli ii.Minor sources: milk, meat, eggs A. VITAMIN D (5-15mcg)

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a. Absorption of calcium cannot use calcium w/o adequate amount of D b. Active transport c. Vitamin D Sources i. Ultraviolet rays ii.Butter iii.Egg yolks iv.Fatty fish v.Liver vi.Fortified milk Vitamin E (15mg) stored in the fat. Can be toxic if you take too much in. a. Protects cell membrane and tissue b. Natural defense mechanisms c. VITAMIN E SOURCES i. Vegetables oils,Grains,Seeds, nuts ii.Green leafy vegetables VITAMIN K (65-80mcg) stored in liver. Synthesized in the GI tract by bacteria (normal flora) a. Synthesis of blood clotting factors must have it for blood clotting. b. Vitamin K Sources i. Green leafy vegetables ii.Spinach iii.Cereals iv.Fruits v.Cheese, vi. milk vii.Meat Vitamin C (75-90mg) a. Builds and maintains body tissue b. Aids in absorption of iron c. Helps maintain resistance to infection d. Helps with stress e. Vitamin C Sources i. Green leafy vegetables ii. Citrus fruits iii.Tomatoes Vitamin B Complex a. Directly effects metabolism b. Thiamin B1 c. Sources include: i. whole and enriched grains ii. meat Vitamin B2 Riboflavin a. Important in the metabolism of protein b. Riboflavin B2

c. Sources: i. milk ii.liver, kidney iii.whole and enriched grains iv.Vegetables: broccoli, v.(dark leafy green vegetable,) vi.Fish vii.Meats viii.Eggs A. Niacin B3 a. Converts protein to glucose as needed b. Sources: i. meat ii.peanuts iii.dried beans iv.peas A. Vitamin B12 a. Sources: i. Animal products A. Calcium (1000-1300mg) a. Bone and teeth formation b. Blood clotting c. Nerve transmission d. Muscle contraction and relaxation Calcium Sources Sources: milk milk products cheese PHOSPHORUS 700mg Formation of teeth and bones Effects metabolism Maintains acid/base balance Sources: milk and milk products,

eggs, cereals, grains and meat. Sodium 1.5 gm Water balance Muscle action Cell permeability Sources: table salt processed foods seafood Potassium:K+ 4.7gm Aids in normal function of nerve and muscle Helps with sodium to maintain water balance Sources: oranges bananas dried fruits Iron (Fe) Carries oxygen Has a role in oxidation of glucose for energy Sources; liver green vegetables eggs

dried fruits

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