Nz€k 3 r,t-rlotictlt

Two 9ourc€ lnterreren.e (e.s. vounsrs Do!bl€ S!it Experimenrl

Lzi'ri\

Q'

E:3!!ple2

Conditlons iorobsetuable. steadv interterence panerns (irinoes)

Wtlr referen@ to Exampte 1, the h{o colrerent sou.@s are now generating waves out ol phase Detem ne wheth€r constructve or desttuclve interferen€ occuB ai each oo nt
Exampie 3

(i) (i) (i)

The sources mlsl be cohereni (ioplyng sources rrave same rrequency afd
They have roughLy ih€ sahe amplillde {1o achlev€ mmpete wave cznceLalion and good cont.asl belween maxima and miniha or nlensly) For lrais@6e wav€s they mlsl be eilhe. unpolarlsed or polarized in rh6 same
plane

Two microwaves solrces A and B are n phase wrh one anolher. They emt waves or wavelength 40 0 mm The ampllrde ofthewavefom source B s 3 times thal ot solrce A A deleclor s pla@d at po nl P where it is 1.00 m irom A 6nd 1.19 m i.om B as shown berow

(rortknsveFewaves)

lX =nr.
where,=0.1

Constructivs

oesirucrive

_
A,l o"
2

^o

2. = 2nr Ed -nL 2

=r"
=

jn

wrerer=o
{2n

j,z.
lrr
€d
Expainwhvthe intensity detected at pont P s a m nma
Path dlilerencG BP - AP;1 18'1,00 =0,13 h = 4,51, Since the sources Aand B are in phas€, dgstruclive inlerference occuE at P.nd intensityat P is minlmum.

wher€n=01

wherer=0,'l ^x

=1a l1i wh€re.=o 1 2

(i)

\$E.AEIA{L!qIE

.lfth€ bro coheBnt sources ha\e a ohase

ditrerence aln /ad. the conditions for constructive and d€structive interlerence are lnterchanded.

(i)

What s the facl on ofth€ nlenslyatPcomparedlorhe nlenstyatO Amplituds at P = 34-A= 2A Ampliluds at O -3A+ A= 44 since

EI3lplel -rhe

d agram below shows n{o coherenl sour@s ge.eratino wave n phase Tlre dashed lnes denote the wave lroughs soid ines denole lrre wsve cresls Th€ tvo waves nterfere ln the shaded.eglon Delemine whelher conslructve ordeskuctve l.lerierence occuis ateaclr po nl

r.,a:. !

= /arll'?=

%

Palhdfle.ene/i
1

lnlerferefce

(iD

As the deteclor s moved from P lo O. a serles ofminma and ha,maw€.€ obsetued Expla n lh s phenomenon and staie how many mi.imum and ma{mum po nts w I be encouflercd alons lhe way to o (ncus ve ol P and o)

2

l
5
31.

As the d6tecto. moves to Oj the intenslty alt6rnates dueto rhe changing path difierence. There willbe 5 minlma {lncruding P)and 5 maxima (inctuding O)

-

2.5I=0.5t

(iv)

State lhe type

ol fl€rfe@nce al

P

when

solre

B is changed to be anl,phase

wlh

Conslructive interf erenco-

Ya!-o-s5-D.a!.bl9sl!!s-q-a!.s!
Lighl sou.ce olwavelen9th r.
I

1c)

Delermine how the sDacnq belween lhe tlnges on th€ screen woud be ,fieded if the
lo low ng changes were made separatey

J

I I

I
x

I

O (i) (i)
(v)
ir.ges)
(v)

lhe screen Slnc6

Ls

brought nearerlo lhe sits by0 5 m
D decreases by 0.5 m, x

1.,

io,
t I

r cD, il

willdocrease too.

I. lerBrorsflrnse I+ enlG brgrrLrrnge I. rElDrsnrrrnse

the sits are separaled turlh€rapad by 0.5 mm

Since x d 1/a,
a red

ifa is increased,
O

x willdecrease,

lght oiwaveLength 7

x 1o

r

m is used

ls.

Sinc€ x d

l, if l

increases, x lncreases too.

one olthe doube s

ts

s cove@d

where

Th6 interference fringes will disappear,
s lhe dlstan@ benve€f tuo adia@nl brqhl fnnqes {or two dark a s the distan@ behreen the doLbre sils (sitsepamton) D s lhe distan@ irom the sltslo the sc€en

the d slan@ betleen lhe doub e

slls and slng

e sLit s

edlced

i
Exampl€ 4

is the wavelenglh

orllre ighl

Ths rring. sopa€tion is unaffected, lntensliy ol brighlfringes is increased.

(v) lhe spae between the doube sll and sceen slledwlhal.ansoarentm€diumoJ
reiracl ve index lrigher than thal for air orvac!um

lnaYouiqsdoubLesllexpe nent a tulrerent honochromallc bue llghl ol waveength 4 0 x 10' m I lum nales two naFow para Ie s its s€paraled by 0 50 mm A wh le screen s p a@d 2 !
m aqay irom lhe

slls

as shown below:

Th€ rringes produced on the sc@en wlrl b6 narrowor. This is becauso tho wavel6n9th I is smaller in medium where the refracttve index is higher than

=g

=l =B
Descib€ whal caf be seen on thescreen.
(b)

h,^",,t,w,,w,r'v",.rrr,wl

I

,,.,.

'-)
a

I
llghiwill
be

(vi) one of the doubie sits iscovered by

thin

g ass sh€et

The opticaL path ls increased and the tringe sysbm is shilted

Evonly spaced and approxlnately equally brighltringos of blu€

fomed

Calculalethe separaton beh{een the fringeson lhe screen

Examolo 5

O
see a. expermenta
arangemenl ior srldynS the tEnsmtsston

Wial

s the phase d li€rence. in rad ans. befiveen lhe waves

atrving at po nl S?

Fg

5.1 below shows nol lo

phase diite6nce atS = 2r x

.
v

(c)
't.

The spaclng ol the
nirrmation kom th€

s s in the
d

ro

expenmenl was 020.0nr. use lhs tolerher wlh aqrams.lo ca cltate rhe wave enarh oi the toht

io,. )6 .o,

'o
P

F.om Fig, 5,2, fringe separatlon y = 1,8 x 1ot m Youns s Doubls s irs Equarroni). = !l

60fr
=6.0r 10i
m

l4onochromatic lghl from a aser fa]ls norma yontwo narrow coseyspa@dparae sits. The inl€fsily olLght transmtted is sludied by movng a sma ighl sensor a ong the inepe,at 2 perpe.d cu ar d stane of 6 0 m froh llre s its Fg 5 2 shows how the iqhl ntenstv vartes

(d) Descrbeandexpranchanges(itany) nFi!.5.2

I the I ne pQ is I led wirh p ctoser to

r I'or r"

f )'oi

From O ro Qj the intonsity peaks wi become sma erand the separation between rhe peaks (frrng€ separatioh)wideras e ts now turtheriion theatirs.

OQ

+o"OtoP the
Exaholo 6

nr€nsity peahs wittbe(ome tdrgerand rhe soparaton berw.en the pea(s wil become "a ro6or .s P is now nearerro rho stirs

Fg.6
so€ed

beow shows n{o speakers. S, and S,, confected to a stgfatlenerator The wav€s

ofi.'rn.l'q

rrn (

-6.0

-4.r1

0

?.0

,10

6.0

Fig. 5,2

Explalnwhyllre Nvo lghl waves from the stG prodLe a min mum intensity at R As the two wav6s are oul of phase on aniva at R, destructive interfe@nce takes

l
Fiq.6
(0 Whal

Ih6

superposed wav€ is a minimum and thus intensity (that is proporUo.at to sqlate of €surtanr ampritudel is atso a minimum,

woud a person standng at point

p h€ar a

oud or soit sound tntensty?

(i)

Point o s equid slanl fron the sirs sial€ d fferen@ belween the waves arriv.q atS Since

.

re.ns oithe wavee.gth

I

rhe parh

il

Path diftereace = 1 m = 2(0.5) = A, ie. n A, duftipte ot wavetensth sinc. sources arc in phase, cohsttuctive inteiercnce takes ptace Thetelore,.taud saund wilt be heard atpointp.

atp

ls the second order

mtmim!m arS, the path difierence = {1 + %)L

{ii) Ih€

person stzds lo move away rrom p towards O Ca cu ate rhe d slance that he has ro coversuch thal he wt frst reaclr a pointthalgiv€s mnimum sound inlensity?

Diitraction qratinq eouatlon

a='l(1f14-5n )D Ai.t2
Hencehe haslo nave0,6
ExamFle 7

Th€ sou.ces are at in phase Atthe biglrt spots @nstructive interieren@ occurs,lhus path dlferen@ ni. =

n

ftom p.

1.",
),."..'
1,:t',, ...
o
F,60o hum is obsetoed
q

1..-"..'

,"

Two oudspeake6 L, and L, drven rrom a @nmon osci taror a@ ara.ged as showf be ow A ddd-o'r dd co! D ea , o rpos.ratoi gred_atr .cd.eo

where

n s an

nteger. the order ot diffraction

ioa,-0! to,000.1/rt-oele.Fo

ord pd.sF. 1.o.q'
m n

I

rs the waverength ol

tght

d is the 9ratng spacng 3i is the anqte ofdifiracl on

Ca cu ate the frequency

al whch the second

ven that the speed ot

Ange oi d lrraction s the angte beh!€ef the dnedon oi the nlh order brqrrt ine and the stra ghtlhro!gh d.ectior
Example 8 (N95/l /3)

The appdrarus

ae asked 1o nnd ttie wavelefOth ot monochromatic red tght emred by a taser
You

s

Iustral€d

n

the n9!re

patn aifierencs =

rzo- Lro= ./40t;!i -

---

qo =

r

m

The dillEclon gratng has 5.gt105 ines per melre and s set so that irs plane is fomatio the incident ight and is situated 1 50 m froh a arg€ screen Bright spols are obserued at 055 m and I44 m from lhe @nlE bnght

f10
Since thesound waves orlglnating tron both sp€akeF are tf phase, the sound waves ariving at D are tr rad ou!-of"phase and a minimum ts obsewed when t= t70 Hz. As tinc€ases, A oisound waves decreases, When

0

Ca cu ate lhe wave ength d

ofthe taser tghr ofthe nrst ord€r dfiracted tqht

=1/5.5x10' = 1,82x10' m,

Ax;l,

a maxlmum is obseNed and when Ax =

3/2l, a htnimum

Using
is obseru€d

I

andforn-1

1=dnn, =r

82\Loir-fll=625,,
il5r+o 5t

Ihe second nln mum occurswh€n

(i)

suqs€st o.e advanrage and one dsadvantaqe oi obtaining lhe wav€tengrh by usng obseryations olthe secand,orderdifiracred ighl ratherlhan thef6rode.d fiiacte; i!ht.'

!19
I

= 5 ro

H.

oisadvantago: 2"d ord6r tmage is t6ss shalp and tess brlqhl determinarion of th6 oostrroa ol ,? is toss accu€!6i tess accuacy in ca c-tdred vatue ot i., Aold-rage: 2 d oro€r image has targe, d) compae ro r. lrom 1! oder rmdge. Largervarue of A? g&€s towet percenkge uncedaj.ty itr tho measurem6nt ofr? a;d
cal.ulated value of i.,

Example 9

Example 10

.espermm susedtoexamine ilhl toh a gtow ng gas lis loundthatlhelrslordervioelfrngeefrergedalangtell.5 lromthe st.atghllhro!gh positior

o bl Fl0r'

ddsa. o-aar.gr'r/50

pos ons on

Fd200.n b.yolor.Fo.h 9les ^ s! eF.ola a scale o.lhe s.r€en as showf n F. 4 2

.pdro I o..oid
o

c..-,dI

0

Show that llr€ wave enqth ofthe votet lghr ts 3 99 x tO r m d

sino = 2 x 1Oi Xsin11,5l = l d

=O.OO1/5OO-2x10{ m,€ =

nl

11.5,

n=1

(1)A

399nm

(i)

obseNed lrral the 3'd order red fiinge overaps wilh the 4ri order vio el irnoe Deterfrine the wave ength oithe red tght
Lt s

Since theirlnq6s ovedap, the difractlon angle,0, isrhe same

n,Ir/d = n!4,/d h€nce, n..\. : n! A! 3I. :4(399x10!) l, : 532 nm o.5.32 x lot h
sin 0=
slnce sio

i

(i)

Use the
,

lrst orderspectrum

to dedu@ a

va!e forthe waveenlth ofih€ btu€ ighl

d "dqed*ri
3: n,l,/ d

o

-.tEna' .226, =ra1.3

n,

<1,

<

(2t 10-6)/(5.32 x 101=3.3
s =

<d/4,

dsin9,=h^

Thereforc maximum order ls 3

FromsnS=n,4./d

5

sini(3)(s.32x 1oJ)/(2 x 1011
(D

r'-l! =ro.ro". and ."i =! ard n = 1 r=4ra=14 !. o.,la,=4rr, o .
Howwourd the panem obl:ined be diflerenl itred tghtwere used n p a@ of blle lght? You are nol elpected lo make any €tcuatonswhen answering ths parl oithe queston.
Red light has a rongerwavetongrh than that of the bhe tiqht. Fron the equatjon , we erpsct the orderspecrums ro be sodcod runhe,apaar;or oae

(v) comment on how the irnge palteh and co rasr oirhe fringeswolld chafqe ifa gratng or'1000 ines p€rmm sLsed.stead Assumetlre stiwidrh is corslanl
When numberolslits pe.mm is doubled, spacing between brightriinges ircrease, totalnumberoi brightlringes reduced, Fringes b€come brighrerand sharperj or contrast is improved (not bn9ht34.

,

o

anot'oron thesc.een

slnco

is largerto d tong"rsave,elgr". rep€aledw h jnrra.ed.adia|on?

(i) Whatprobemwolld arse rtheexperimenr;ere
Suggesl how lh s prob em cou d be overcome.

The 6ain problom i3 that lrfra{ed radiation is invisibt€, hence no image can b€ seen on th€ sceen. Any dovice which can b€ used to d6t€cr heat auch as a thernopilo may be used to de16ct regions oinaxima,

200s

Jczts2Fhyscs SlpeFoston

E&splc]l
Lighl waves ollrequency 7 5 x

(v)
10! Hz is used
S. a

Sial6 one assumpUon in your
D

*lcuallons

in part {iii).

"

2

-"p"

10

"t" soJ es

oblan a pallern of high and ow intens ly on a

) a OR Amaximsm int€nsity lstoond alO.

(')

The above expe mentis repealed

1 2.

bltwith a tew modiicalons LishlorwavelenglhS0xl0i misused A dlfi.acton gratinA wth 1000 inespermo sused lvhe lhe deEcro. c plsFo dl P, a xal o.de fa, r L- 5
where this maxihum is delecled.

{,)

Siale and explain the princlp e wh ch causeslhe patlem

iofom

on th€

screef

d=-=ta/ta. 1000 using d sin€ :

nI,

n:

1

Principle of Superposition, Wh6n 2 or moro waves me6t in tne same space a.d time, the Esultant ot the waves

ls the vector sum ot the indivldual waves and 6ach wavo procoods as tholgh no
(D

Skte 2 condliofs thal musibe F.esentin orderlo oblaln obsetoabe interlerene panems.
The sources mustbe 2. The waves

coheent

AND

be or the safre tpo, 4. Th€ wav€s mustbo of simlla. am plitud€\$

3,Ihe waves

dlsl

mlsleither be unpolartzed or b. polarlzed ln tho san€ plan€

(ii) A deiecior. whose inlia posillon is O, s moved along the screen inlhe d recllon ofP noa o o-o erorg dl P d roe or 6 nlelJa P 'roJ d ar srdlig aa.rr.r I e.!psa'edFrA.ed Tl'"d6ra ceD s I0ihl.'eoDbb0r r0'{. f'1d
lhe dslan@ betwe€n the 2 sources

.-'+i++-i++.-i+..-.?-|+'i.++.-]L
(Dirqfn
7

harimlm iit.nr ly 3p.L)

/ Annhine

10

\$h@ lhal OP
's

?., rims the

d

stare b€lwd

2

@'rsu1ile

5x=6.0x 103

m

u.n..=19

o=

I.lo'! ^to ?5 10"

hen@ x=8Ox1Orm

5^ro

'-