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Chapter 1 Waves
1.1 Understanding Wave
Wave : A travelling disturbance that carries energy along with direction of its
Basic type of wave :
Transverse wave
- e.g. Water, Electromagnetic wave
- Particle moves perpendicular with wave direction.
Longitudinal wave
- e.g. Sound wave
- Particle moves parallel with wave direction.
Oscillating System
Amplitude : Maximum displacement from start.
: Time for one complete oscillation.
Frequency : f = 1/T, SI unit HZ. How many wave cycles completed in one second.
Wavelength : Distance between two succesive equivalent points on a wave.
e.g. two amplitudes.

: f * wavelength. m s-1

Oscillating System Damping.

- Due to energy loss, the amplitude of the wave will get smaller until it stops
- An oscillating system has a natural frequency that responds with similar frequ
ency periodic force. This phenomenon is called resonance.
- Maximum energy transfers when the periodic force resonate with the oscillating
Radio receiver tunes in the same frequency as transmitted radio waves; in which
this cause a resonance to induce a large current that can be amplified into soun
Opera singer singing at high frequency can break glasses because the sound wave
frequency matches natural frequency of vibrating particle of glass.
1.2. Reflection of Wave
- Wave meeting obstacles will be reflected, in which the angle of incident wave
= reflected wave.

- i = r
- The reflected wave will retain the frequency, wavelength and speed of incident
1.3 Refraction of Wave
- Refraction occurs when the wave changes direction as a result in the change in
speed when travelling across different medium.
- Water wave slows down when travelling to shallow area, speeds up when travello
ng to deep area.
- Light travels slower in denser medium.
- Sound wave are amplified in denser medium. e.g. Warm air propagates sound fast
er than cold air.
Angle of Refracted Wave :
IF angle of incidence is not 0 THEN i > r
1.4 Diffraction of Waves
- When a wave moves against an obstacle or gaps, it will be diffracted.
- The diffraction effect depends on the size of the obstacles.
- Diffraction can change the direction and the spread of the incident waves. i.e
., the smaller the obstacles/gap; the greater diffraction effect.
- Diffracted waves would have smaller amplitude than the incident wave.
1.5 Wave Interference
- a *
- a x d -

x = wavelength *
distance between
distance between
distance between

fringes (node/antinode)
slit and view.

- In double slit experiment; an incident light is diffracted causing the resulti

ng light to interfere with each other in constructive and destructive manner.

2.0 Electricity
2.1 Electric Fields and Charge Flow
- Charge vs Current
. Charge is sourc of electrical forces
. Positive and Negative charge repels like charges while attract unlike charge
. Coulomb's force / electrostatic force is the electric force between two char
. Flow of electrical charges is known as electric current
Q = ne
n - number of electron
e - 1.6e-19

. Electric current is a result of flowing electrons; which carries a negative

charge of 1.6e-19
. Current : rate of electrical charges flow through a conductor
I = Q / t
SI unit A


3.0e-5 A
7200 s
Q /t
It ------------- Q = ne || n = Q/e
3.0e-5 * 7200

0.216 = n * 1.6e-19
n = 0.216 / 1.6e-19
= 1.35e18
-Electric Field
. A field where electric charge experience electric force
. Electric field is a vector quantity of both strength and direction
. Positively charged object has electrical field that pushes away from the obje
. Negatively charged object has electrical field that pulling towards the objec
2.2 Electric Current vs Potential Difference
- Potential Difference
. V = W / Q
. 1 volt = 1 joule / 1 coulomb
. Electric charge need Work to move in against Electric Field. This charge wou
ld have electric potential.
. The work done in moving the charge from two points is known as the potential
diffence between two points.
- Ohm's Law
. The current passing through a conductor (I) is directly proportional to the
potential difference (V).
. If and only if other factor kept constant. E.g. Temp,conductor properties,et
. constant = V/I
- Resistance
. The measure of conductor opposition to electric curent flow is called resist
ance. Different type of conductor have different resistance.
. V / I = R or V = IR
. 1 ohm = 1 Volt / 1 Ampere
- Factors Affecting Resistance
. Resistivity, Length of conductor, Cross Sectional area, Temperature
. Resistivity (directly proportional to Resistance), p
. Length (directly proportional to Resistance), l
. Cross-Sectional Area (inversely proportional to Resistance), A
. Is affected by temperature
. R = p(l/A)
- Superconductors
. Electrical Resistance cause power loss and heating

. Superconductors have little to no resistance making it suitable to use in el

ectronics, power transmission line, computer chips etc.
2.3 Series vs Parallel Circuits
- Series circuit : all components in single path.
- Parallel circuit : components are connected on seperated paths.
----------------------------------V = V1+V2+.. |
V = V1=V2=..
----------------------------------I = I1=I2=.. |
I = I1+I2+..
----------------------------------R = R1+R2+.. | 1/R = 1/R1+1R2+..