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NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND TECH. CO.

LTD
(NETCO)

PIPELINE ENGINEERING
TRAINING
MANUAL

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0

OBJECTIVES

2.0

INTRODUCTION

2.1

DEFINITIONS

2.2

CODES AND STANDARDS

2.3

PROJECT ACTIVITIES

3.0

PIPELINE ENGINEERING DELIVERABLES

3.1

QA/QC PROCEDURES:

3.2

DESIGN DELIVERABLES

3.3

INPUT TO PROPOSALS

4.0

INTERFACE WITH OTHERS

4.1

OTHER ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES

4.2

PROJECT CONTROLS

4.3

PROCUREMENT

4.4

CONSTRUCTION

5.0

UNIT CONVERSION FACTORS

APPENDIX

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1.0

OBJECTIVE
This pipeline engineering discipline training manual is intended to provide information
about pipeline engineering and to list design deliverables produced by the discipline. It
also includes guide to the pipeline engineer on the methodology and basic
approach/work process towards producing the deliverables. Furthermore, it x-rays the
work interface with other engineering disciplines and departments in NETCO with
respect to the pipeline engineers responsibility on a project. It is however not intended
to be a design manual.

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2.0

INTRODUCTION
A pipeline is the means of conveying fluid from one location to another or generally
from source to user. There are three major groups of oil and gas pipelines namely:
Gathering, Transmission / Trunk and Distribution pipelines.
Gathering pipelines connect individual oil/gas sources to central treating or processing
facilities.
Transmission pipelines refer to pipelines that transport gas, crude oil or refined
products.
Flowlines are relatively small diameter pipelines that convey untreated oil/gas to a
central facility for processing.
Distribution pipelines are mostly applicable to gas transportation where they are used
in a network to convey gas from utility companies to end-users.
Pipeline engineering involves the scientific task of designing, constructing, operating
and maintaining pipeline systems. The pipeline engineer should decide on which
specific pipeline installations (materials and otherwise) are suitable for transporting the
fluid involved. In deciding this, the pipeline engineer utilizes some codes and
standards and recommended practices to ensure a safe pipeline system. Note that
pipeline involves fluid transportation off-plot (outside the plant area) in contrast to
piping which relates to the pipework in and around the plant area or facility.
This training manual presents aspects of pipeline engineering relating to the design of
a pipeline.

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2.1

DEFINITIONS

Pipeline

A tubular material used to convey variety of liquids, gases and


solids over distances that range from a few metres to hundreds of
kilometres.

Flow Line

A small diameter pipeline transporting untreated fluids from one or


more wells to a gathering center, generally less than 20kms.

Condensate

Liquid hydrocarbons that are sometimes produced together with


natural gas or the liquid formed when a vapour cools
(condensation).

Dewpoint

Temperature at which a vapour, contained in a closed vessel at a


given pressure, will first form liquid on the subtraction of heat.

Hydrate

A solid compound formed by the chemical union of water with a


molecule of some other substance. Hydrocarbons with one or four
carbon atoms can form hydrates under the right conditions if free
water is present.

LNG

Liquefied Natural Gas, mostly methane, held in liquid state by the


application of low temperature, to facilitate storage.

LPG

Liquefied Petroleum Gas, mostly propane/butane held in liquid


state by the application of pressure and/or low temperature.

NGL

Natural Gas Liquids, condensate derived from natural gas.

Natural Gasoline

Those liquid hydrocarbon mixtures containing essentially


pentanes and the heavier hydrocarbons, which have been
extracted from natural gas.

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Sour Gas

Gas that has sour components, e.g. H2S or other corrosive


sulphur compounds.

Sweet Gas

Hydrocarbon gases essentially free from sulphur compounds.

Acid Gas

Gas which contains a significant amount of CO2.

Two Phase Flow

Simultaneous flow of gas and liquid in the same pipeline.

Multiphase Flow

Simultaneous flow of two or more fluid phases (i.e. gas, oil and
water) in the same pipeline.

Pig

Solid or semisolids (i.e. gel) tool which is driven through the


pipeline by differential pressure developed across it. This is used
for cleaning, gauging, inspection and batch separation.

Pig Trap

Pressure vessel designed to allow pigs to be launched (pig


launcher) and received (pig receiver) using pipeline fluids as the
driving medium.

Pig Signaller

Externally located indicator which detects passage of pigs.

Sphere Pig

An hydraulically inflated rubber/polyurethane sphere used as a pig


to separate fluids in a pipeline, or to remove condensate, filled
with inhibited water to a 102-105% of diameter.

Scraper Pig

Pig fitted with scraper blades to remove wax coating.

Inhibitor

Substance added to pipeline fluids to inhibit corrosion or hydrates.

Slug Catcher

Vessel designed to collect periodic slugs of liquid from a twophase pipeline.

Peak Shaving

The practice of augmenting the normal supply of gas during peak


or emergency periods from another source where gas may have

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either been stored during periods of low demands, or


manufactured specifically to meet the demand.
Line Pack

A method of peak shaving by withdrawing gas from a section of


the pipeline system in excess of the input into that section, i.e.,
normally, the difference between the actual volume of gas in the
pipeline at low flow (increased pressure) & that at normal flow.

Design Life

Time period to which the pipeline is designed to operate from


initial installation or use until decommissioning of the pipeline.

Design factor

Ratio of the hoop stress in the pipe at the design pressure to the
yield stress of the pipe material.

MAOP

Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure is the maximum pressure


under routine operating conditions or maximum value of all
pressures including random transient pressure surges caused by
unexpected incidents.

Safety factor

Maximum allowable ratio between the stress produced by the


maximum service pressure of the circulating fluid and the elastic
limit of the steel.

Laminar Flow

Flow with Reynolds number less than 2000. In this flow, the flow
patterns of fluid patterns are laminar and parallel, since any
tendency towards turbulence is counteracted by forces of
viscosity.

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Turbulent Flow

Flow with Reynolds number in a range going from between


1000 to 4000, to a high limit depending on the roughness of
the pipe wall.

Absolute Pressure

Gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure.

Atmospheric Pressure

Pressure of the weight of air and water vapour on the


surface of the Earth. Approximately 14.7lbf/in 2 at sea level.

Gauge Pressure

Pressure generally shown by measuring devices. It is the


pressure in excess of that exerted by the atmosphere.

SCADA

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.


A system that controls the gathering and polling of data
relating to the pipeline(s), processes the data, controls the
running of any pipeline model, and activates alarms and
other monitoring routines.

ANSI

America National Standard Institute

ASME

America Society of Mechanical Engineering

IP

Institute of Petroleum

BS

British Standard

IGE

Institute of Gas Engineers

API

America Petroleum Institute

DNV

Det Norske Veritas

ASTM

America Society of Testing and Material

NACE

National Association of Corrosion Engineers

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2.2

CODES AND STANDARDS


Some of the applicable Codes and Standards used in the design, construction and
testing of pipelines include:
ANSI/ASME B31.8 Gas transmission and distribution piping system
ANSI/ASME B31.4 Pipeline transportation systems for liquid hydrocarbons and other
liquids
API 5L

Specification for line pipe

API 5L1

Recommended practice for railroad transportation of line pipe.

API 5LW

Recommended practice for transportation of line pipe on barges


and marine vessels

API 6D

Pipeline Valves

API 1102

Recommended practice for liquid petroleum pipelines crossing


railroads and highways

API 1104

Standard for welding pipelines and related facilities

API RP 1110

API Recommended practice for pressure testing of liquid


petroleum pipelines

API RP 1111

Recommended practice for design, construction, operation and


maintenance of offshore hydrocarbon pipelines.

ASME B16.34

Steel valves (Flanged and Butt-welding End)

ASME B16.20

Ring-Joint gaskets and grooves for steel pipe flanges

ASME B16.5

Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings

ASME B36.10M

Welded and seamless wrought steel pipe

BS 8010 Part 1&2

Pipelines on land: Design, construction and installation.

BS 8010 Part 3

Subsea Pipelines: Design, construction and installation.

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DNV Rules for submarine pipeline systems


DNV RP E305

On-bottom stability design of submarine pipelines

IP (Part 6)

Model code of safe practice - Petroleum pipelines

NACE RP0169

Control of external corrosion on underground or submerged


metallic piping systems

NACE RP0675

Control of corrosion on offshore steel pipelines

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3.0

PIPELINE ENGINEERING DELIVERABLES


Pipeline design covers the full design life of the pipeline, and consequently,
maintenance and inspection methods / procedures should be considered during the
design process.
3.1

QA/QC PROCEDURES:

A number of work procedures are applicable in the pipeline group. Project specific
procedure usually called Pipeline Discipline working procedure is prepared by the
responsible discipline engineer in a project and endorsed by the project QA/QC
personnel prior to approval by the Project Manager.
Basically, the discipline working procedure states the pipeline intended scope of works
and highlights the resources (codes/standards, software, discipline team, etc) to be
used in executing the project.
3.2

INPUT TO PROPOSALS

For any proposal, the scope of work to be undertaken is determined by the pipeline
engineer from relevant documents provided by the Client. Also, since most projects
are interdisciplinary by nature, proposal meetings are held where the pipeline engineer
interacts with other discipline personnel to further clarify his scope of work and
responsibilities.
The input to proposals by the pipeline engineer can be broken down as follows:
(i)

Preparation of Man-hour Estimate

A list of deliverables expected to be produced during the project execution is prepared


based on proposed designs to be undertaken and materials required. Based on the

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number of deliverables and the extent of activities expected, the man-hour estimate is
prepared.
The methodology involved in producing man-hour estimate includes:
Step 1
Carefully study the pipeline engineering / discipline scope of activity contained in the
tender / proposal document
Step 2
List out the expected deliverables (studies, calculations, specifications, drawings, data
sheet, material requisitions, etc.)
Step 3
Using the Engineering scope and man-hour summary form (F-5054-Pipelines), input
the information of step 2 including the associated hours. See Appendix for form
F-5054 Engineering scope and man-hour summary (Typical) for the Pipelines group.
Step 4
Pipeline LDE to check the deliverables / estimated hours against the standard
discipline default man-hour and revise as appropriate.
Step 5
Submit the LDE approved man-hour to the Proposal Manager for review/approval and
subsequent inclusion in the overall engineering man-hour summary.
(ii)

Execution plan

Arising from the project specific requirements, discipline execution plan is prepared.
This would be in accordance with the ITB and is to be submitted to the Proposal

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Manager for inclusion in the proposal documents. The basic information to be


contained in the discipline execution plan includes:

3.3

Outline of activities to be executed by the discipline

Expected deliverables

Methods and tools to be used

Deviation from Client ITB method if any

Any other requirement(s) as may be directed by the Proposal Manager

DESIGN DELIVERABLES
For any project involving pipeline design activities, the deliverables list depends
on the work-scope established by the Client. However the following list includes
the common deliverables produced in a pipeline design effort:

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Design Studies

Routing studies

Design Basis

Material Specifications (Line pipe, Bends, Valves, Risers, Pig traps, etc.)

Other Specifications (Welding, Installation, Hydrostatic tests etc.)

Pipeline Hydraulics

Pipeline Mechanical Design


-

Wall thickness determination

Stability calculation

Stress Analysis (Buckling, expansion, span, crossing, installation etc.)

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(a)

Material Data sheets (Linepipe, valves, bends/fittings, pig traps, etc.)

Material Take-off (MTO)

Drawings

Pipeline planimetry (route map)

Pipeline alignment sheet

Crossing drawing (Road, river, pipeline, rail, etc.)

Riser drawing

Riser guard / clamp detail

Kilometer marker post drawing

Pig launcher / receiver details, etc.

Design studies
In some projects, pipeline design studies are necessary in order to carry out
effective, efficient and safe design. The common areas include routing, material
selection, pigging, hydraulic study, constructability study, etc. In each study
case, experience and sound judgement are pertinent.

(b)

Route selection report


This deliverable only applies where the client has not firmed up the desired
route for the pipeline. The methodology for routing a pipeline involves extensive
studies and discussions with landowners and appropriate authorities. The major
factors governing the choice/selection of a pipeline route includes economic,
technical and safety considerations. The shortest route may not always be the
most suitable. In choosing a pipeline route, the following main factors should be
considered:

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Pipeline operating conditions and requirements

Terrain and subterranean conditions

Hazards and obstructions

Environmental impact

Permanent access

Existing and future land/seabed use etc

It is noteworthy to mention here that it is necessary to carry out a survey of the


pipeline route and choosing a tentative route should be preceded by a desk
study.
(c)

Design Basis
This is sometimes referred to as design premise, basis of design, design
memorandum etc. It contains all the information necessary for the specific
design, installation and testing of the pipeline. This includes information on the
route, pipeline operating conditions (flow, pressure, temperature etc), fluid
characteristics, design and installation requirements etc. As the name implies, it
outlines the design requirements of the entire pipeline system and serves as a
guide to the engineering design of the pipeline. Therefore, the deliverable is first
among others.

(d)

Material Specifications
These documents outline the technical requirements for the specific pipeline
items/equipment in question. The commonly prepared material specifications
include those for:
-

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Line Pipe and Bend Material

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Pipeline valves

Flanges and other Pipeline fittings

Pig launcher and receiver etc.

Pipeline material/equipment specification must state the following as a


minimum:
-

Process of manufacture of the material/equipment

The tests to be carried out on the item(s)

Quality control/assurance measures

Transportation / Delivery conditions.

For the above information, appropriate codes/standards are used in addition to


Client specific requirements and experience. (Refer to Section 2.2 for Codes
and Standards).
(e)

Construction / Installation Specifications


This is similar to the above except that here, the pipeline engineer specifies the
types/methods of construction/installation, testing and pre-commissioning /
commissioning requirements. Use of codes/standards/Client requirements and
experience is also necessary.

(f)

Pipeline Hydraulics
Hydraulics is the study of flow of fluids under an external force. In pipeline
hydraulics, the engineer considers fluid flow conditions, whether the fluid is
compressible (gas) or incompressible (liquid). This is with the view to
determining the appropriate pipe or line size for the pipeline. This is achieved by
determining the pressure loss and any temperature changes along the pipeline

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length. The analysis of pressure losses in pipelines is critical as these losses


have a significant impact in installation cost, operating cost and also the
pipeline capacity i.e. size.
Some design software/literature are available for hydraulic analysis. Software
includes PIPESIM, PLGAS, and PIPEPHASE etc.
Typical ranges of economic velocities are as follows:
Liquid Pipelines

1.5 to 2.5 m/s

Single phase liquid

1.0 to 4.5 m/s

Single phase gas

less than 18 m/s to limit noise

Two phase gas/liquid

Greater than 3m/s and less than fluid


erosional velocity

(Erosional velocity, Ve = 122*1/1/2, where is fluid density, Kg/m3)


(g)

Pipeline Mechanical Design


This relates to the overall design for strength and integrity of the pipeline
system. The engineer carries out calculations and analysis to determine the
appropriate requirements for the pipeline. The calculations/analysis carried out
include:

Pipeline wall thickness calculation

In most cases, the pipeline wall thickness calculated is governed by applicable


codes/standards (e.g. ANSI B31.4 & B31.8, DNV etc.). The wall thickness
determination is based on the design internal pressure or the external
hydrostatic pressure (in the case of subsea pipelines). Reference to the pipeline

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design codes/standards or specific requirements from the Client should always


be made.

Pipeline stability calculation

Stability analysis of pipelines is usually carried out where the pipeline is planned
to be installed in a swamp (high water table area) or offshore area (on the
seabed or buried). In each case, the hydrodynamic loads on the pipeline are
analyzed and the required submerged weight for stability of pipeline is
determined. Depending on the required submerged weight, concrete coating of
the pipe may be necessary.

Stress analysis

Stresses are imposed on the pipeline by internal and external factors. These
include stresses due to fluid operating conditions (pressure and temperature),
environmental and installation conditions. The stresses are analyzed under
various criteria e.g. buckling (lateral or upheaval), pipeline expansion, span
analysis, installation stress analysis, crossing (due to specific crossing
requirements) etc. In each case, the imposed stress is obtained and checked
against the code or Client allowable stress value. However, in span analysis,
the intent is to determine the allowable pipeline span length based on the
avoidance of excess stress levels (which may lead to pipeline vibrations or
oscillations). Design software like AUTOPIPE etc. can be useful.
(h)

Pipeline Material Take-off (MTO)


This summarizes the pipeline material requirements obtained through the
engineering design. It presents quantities of materials, type, grade, class of

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material etc. In preparing this, a percentage (1% - 10%) margin or allowance is


usually given to allow for possible wastage or contingency.
(i)

Material Data sheets


Data sheets are used to summarize the technical requirements / information
about the respective pipeline materials. Design/operating parameters, testing
conditions, material type, quantity, tag no. (if applicable), material requisition
number (if applicable) etc. are information given in the data sheet.

(j)

Drawings
Various pipeline construction drawings are produced based on the specific
project requirement. The most common drawing is the Pipeline Alignment
sheet. As the name suggests, the drawing summarizes all the relevant data
needed to define the pipeline route and the detail design of the pipeline from
one point to another. The sheet(s) covers consecutive sections of the pipeline
and are usually divided into strips containing the following information:
Plan of survey details, ground profile and construction details.
Other pipelines drawings include crossing drawings (river, rail, road, pipeline
crossing etc.), kilometer marker post, bathymetry drawings, riser detail
drawings, pig launcher/receiver drawings etc.

4.0

INTERFACE WITH OTHERS

4.1

OTHER ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES


In NETCO, there are other disciplines that feature in pipeline projects. These
may include Corrosion, Control systems / Instrumentation, Mechanical, Civil /

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Structural, Piping, Process and Electrical. Direct interface or coordination with


any of the discipline engineers depends on the project scope and requirements.
For instance, the corrosion engineers input is required in determining the
corrosion rate of the internal/external environment of the pipeline. Also he
advises on the right corrosion control/mitigation methods to be adopted.
Similarly, the process discipline engineer would advise on the fluid operating
conditions and sometimes provide initial design conditions.
In the final analysis, there should normally be review of project deliverables by
other relevant disciplines prior to issue of such documents to the Client. This
ensures uniformity of information from the project team.
4.2

PROJECT CONTROLS
Interface with project controls on a project is always present. As the project
controls section is always involved in project planning, monitoring, cost control
and cost estimation, the pipeline engineer makes necessary input to the project
controls specialist on the project. The pipeline engineers man-hour estimation
vis--vis deliverable preparation status is checked and reported on by the
project control specialist as part of project management effort. The pipeline
engineers responsibility under here include:

Preparation of weekly discipline project report highlighting


deliverables started, completed or reviewed/issued for internal
checks/client review or approval.

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Completion of weekly/Biweekly man-hour timesheets.

Participation in the weekly progress meeting, etc.

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4.3

PROCUREMENT
Procurement activities on a project (where applicable) involve the
acquisition/purchase of pipeline equipment/materials and services for the
project. Included in this acquisition is the checking/review of vendor or
manufacturers data. The pipeline engineers responsibilities include:
Preparation of material take-off (MTO)
Preparation of material requisitions (MRs)
Participation in the preparation of bidders list
Evaluation of technical bids/proposals
Review/approval of vendor or manufacturers drawings and data.
Vendor Liaison meetings
Inspection at Vendor / Manufacturers shop (if applicable).

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5.0

UNIT CONVERSION FACTORS


Length
1in.

25.4 mm

1 ft

0.3048 m

1mile

1.609 km

1nautical mile

1.852 km

1 fathom

= 6ft

1.8288 m

1 in2

6.4516 cm2

1 ft2

0.0929 m2

1 in3

16.387 cm3

1 ft3

0.028317 m3

Area

Volume

Liquid Volume
1 oz
1 gal (US)

= 0.134 ft3

1 gal (Imp)
1 barrel

29.574 ml

3.785litres

4.546litres

= 42 gal (US)=

158.99litres = 5.6146 ft3

Mass
1 lbm

= 0.4536 kg

1 slug

= 1 lbf sec2/ft

1 slug

=32.174 lbm = 14.59 kg

Note:

lbm = pound of mass; lbf = pound of force

Force
Note:

Weight = force when gravity is 32.17 ft/sec2 or 9.81 m/sec2.

1 lbf

= 4.448 N

1 lbf

= 32.174 poundals

1N

= 1 kg*m/sec2

1 ton (short)

= 907.2 kg

1 ton (long)

= 1016.0 kg

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0.225 lbf

21

1 lbf/ft

= 14.59N/m

1 lbf/ft

= 1.488kg/m

1 lbf/ft2

= 47.880N/m2

1 KN

= 224.8 lbf

Density
1 lbf/in3

= 27.68 g/cm3

1 lbf/ft3 (pcf)

= 16.02kg/m3

Pressure or Stress
1 psi

= 0.006895 Mpa = 6.895 kPa = 6895Pa

1 psi

= 68947 dynes/cm2

1 psi

= 0.0703 kg/cm2

1 psi

= 0.0680 atm

1 psi

= 0.0685 bar

1 psf

= 47.88 Pa

1 psf

= 4.882 kg/m2

Flow
1 gal/min

= .0631l/s

1 ft3/sec

= 101.94m3/hr

1 ft3/min

= 0.472 l/s

1 bbl/hr

= 0.159 m3/hr

1 MBPD

= 158.99 m3/day

Viscosities
Kinematic ()
1 ft2/sec

= 929 cm2/s (stokes)

1 ft2/sec

= 92903 cs (centistokes)

Absolute ()
1 lbm/sec*ft

= 14.88 Poise (g/s*cm)

1 lbm/sec*ft

= 1488 cp (centipoise)

1 lbf*sec/ft2

= 47880 cp

1cp

= 0.001 Pa*s

Note: = /

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Energy
1 cal

= 4.184 J

1 Btu

= 778.2 ft*lbf

1 ft*lbf

= 1.3556 J

1 ft*lbf

= 0.324 cal

1 ft3*lbf/ in2

= 46.66 cal

1 Btu

= 1055 J = 252 cal

1 Btu

= 0.2931 W*hr

1 Btu

= 0.000393 hp*hr

Notes:
1.

The SI unit for energy is the Joule (J) but calories are commonly used.

2.

The conversion factors for Btu and calories depend on the temperature. The
values given above are the main values.

Power
1 Btu/hr

= 0.2931 W

1 Btu/hr

= 0.00039846 hp (metric)

1 hp (Imp.)

= 745.7 W = 1.0139 hp (metric)

1 ft lb/min

= 0.0226 W

1 ft lb/sec

= 0.324 cal/s

Note:

The SI unit for power is the Watt (W) = 1J/s; however, horsepower (SI) is
often used (735.5W). SI and Imperial systems have different hp units.

Specific Energy (or Latent Heat)


1 Btu/lbm

= 2.326 J/g

1 Btu/lbm

= 0.556 cal/g

Specific Energy per Degree (Specific Heat)


1 Btu/lbm*oF

= 4.186 J/g*oC

1 Btu/lbm*oF

= 4186 J/Kg*K

1 Btu/lbm*oF

= 1.0007 cal/g*oC

1 Btu/slug*oF

= 130.1 J/Kg*K

Note: Degrees Celsius and Kelvin can be used interchangeably in these formulas.

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Heat Flux
1 Btu/hr*ft2

= .0003155 W/cm2

1 Btu/hr*ft2

= .00007535 cal/s*cm2

1 Btu/hr*ft2

= .2712 cal/hr*cm2

Heat Transfer
1 Btu/hr*ft2 *oF

= .0005678 W/cm2*oC

1 Btu/hr*ft2*oF

= .0001356 cal/s*cm2*oC

1 Btu/hr*ft2 *oF

= 4882 cal/hr*m2*oC

Thermal Conductivity
1 Btu/hr*ft *oF

= 0 .0173 W/cm*0C

1 Btu/hr*t *oF

= 1.731 W/m*0C

1 Btu/hr*ft*oF

= 0.004134 cal/s*cm*0C

Speed
1 knot

= 0.514 m/s

1 mi/hr (mph)

= 1.61 km/hr

= 1.688 ft/s

Temperature
O

= (9/5)*K

= [(9/5) *0C] + 320F

= (0F - 320F)*(5/9)

= K 273.15

= Degrees Rankine

= Degrees Kelvin

R
F
C
C
F
R

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R 459.67

24