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PDHonline Course M451 (4 PDH)


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PDHonline Course M451


Practical Definitions


Pipe is a pressure tight cylinder used to convey a fluid or to transmit a fluid pressure in applicable
material specifications. Tube or tubing in the specifications are treated as pipe when intended for
pressure services, under ASME B31.1 - Power Piping and ASME-B31.3 - Process Piping.
Piping is an assembly of piping components used to convey, distribute, mix, separate, discharge,
meter, control or stop fluid flows. Piping also includes pipe-supporting elements but does not
include support structures, such as building frames, foundations, or any equipment excluded
from Code definitions.
Piping components are mechanical elements suitable for joining or assembly into pressure-tight
fluid containing piping systems. Components include pipe, tubing, fittings, flanges, gaskets,
bolting, valves and devices such as expansion joints, flexible joints, pressure hoses, traps,
strainers, tie-ins, loops, unions, couplings, spools, in-line portions, instruments, separators, etc.

Pipe General Considerations:

A vast array of materials for the manufacturing of pipes are employed today. Only A.S.T.M
(American Society for Testing and Materials) specifies more than 500 different types of materials.
Below is a summary of the main materials used:

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Tube Manufacturing Processes:

There are two types of industrial processes for the manufacture of pipes:

2) Welded Pipe The welding process consists of two phases: In the first one the contact
surface of two elements is heated using currents of high frequency. Next, the two welded
elements are clenched.
1) Seamless pipe manufacturing:
Seamless steel pipe is made from a solid round steel billet which is heated and pushed or pulled
over a form until the steel is shaped into a hollow tube. The seamless pipe is then finished to
dimensional and wall thickness specifications in sizes from 1/8 inch to 26 inch OD.

Rolling Process:

The methods of manufacturing seamless steel pipe vary slightly from manufacturer to
manufacturer, but these are the basic stages.
a) Cast Round Billets: High-quality steel round bars are required for seamless tubular
products (Fig. 1/8).

Figure 1/8:Casting Process

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b) Round Reheating: The rounds are cut to the required length and weighed prior to being
reheated in a furnace (Fig. 2/8).

Figure 2/8:Round Reheating

c) Rotary Piercing Mill: The round billet is gripped by the rolls, which rotate and advance it
into the piercer point, which creates a hole through its length (Fig. 3/8).

Figure 3/8:Rotary Piercing Mill (RPM)

d) Mandrel Pipe Mill: The pipe is rolled using several stands over a long, restrained
mandrel (Fig. 4/8).

Figure 4/8:Mandrel Pipe Mill (MPM)

e) Shell Reheating: The MPM shell is transferred to a reheat facility, where it can be
cropped and weighed prior to reheating (see Fig 5/8).

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Figure 5/8:Shell Reheated in a Furnace

f) Stretch Reducing Mill: The reheated and descaled pipe is conveyed through a stretch
reducing mill, which utilizes up to 24 stands to reduce the diameter to the required
finished size (Fig. 6/8).

Figure 6/8:Stretch Reducing Mill

g) Cooling Bed: The pipe lengths are placed on cooling bed (Figure 7/8).

Figure 7/8:Pipe on a Cooling Bed

h) Batch Saws: After cooling, batches of the as-rolled mother pipe are roller conveyed in
parallel to carbide tipped batch saws for cropping into specified lengths (Figure 8/8).

Figure 8/8:Batch Saws.


Extrusion Process:

Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is

pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross-section. The main advantages of this
process are the ability to create very complex cross-sections, work brittle materials, because the
material only encounters compressive and shear stresses and form finished parts with an
excellent surface finish.
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a) Hot extrusion:
Hot extrusion is a hot working process, which means it is done above the material's recrystallization temperature to keep the material from work hardening and to make it easier to push the
material through the die. Most hot extrusions are done on horizontal hydraulic presses that range
from 230 to 11,000 metric tons (250 to 12,000 short tons).
Pressures range from 30 to 700 Mpa (4,400 to 100,000 psi), therefore lubrication is required,
which can be oil or graphite for lower temperature extrusions, or glass powder for higher
temperature extrusions. The biggest disadvantage of this process is its cost.
b) Cold extrusion:
Cold extrusion is done at room temperature or near room temperature. The advantages of this
over hot extrusion are the lack of oxidation, higher strength due to cold working, closer
tolerances, good surface finish, and fast extrusion speeds if the material is subject to hot
Materials that are commonly cold extruded include: lead, tin, aluminum copper, zirconium,
titanium, molybdenum, beryllium, vanadium, niobium and steel. Examples of products produced
by this process are: collapsible tubes, fire extinguisher cases, shock absorber cylinders
and gear blanks.
c) Warm extrusion:
Warm extrusion is done above room temperature, but below the recrystallization temperature of
the material the temperatures ranges from 800 to 1800 F (424 to 975 C). It is usually used to
achieve the proper balance of required forces, ductility and final extrusion properties.
Metals that are commonly extruded include:
Aluminum: is the most commonly extruded material. Aluminum can be hot or cold extruded. If
it is hot extruded it is heated to 575 to 1100 F (300 to 600 C). Examples of products include
profiles for tracks, frames, rails, mullions, and heat sinks.
Brass: is used to extrude corrosion free rods, automobile parts, pipe fittings, engineering parts.
Copper: (1100 to 1825 F (600 to 1000 C)) pipe, wire, rods, bars, tubes, and welding electrodes. Often more than 100 ksi (690 MPa) is required to extrude copper.
Lead: and tin (maximum 575 F (300 C)) pipes, wire, tubes, and cable sheathing. Molten lead
may also be used in place of billets on vertical extrusion presses.
Magnesium: (575 to 1100 F (300 to 600 C)) aircraft parts and nuclear industry parts.
Magnesium is about as extrudable as aluminum.
Zinc: (400 to 650 F (200 to 350 C)) rods, bar, tubes, hardware components, fitting, and handrails.
Steel: (1825 to 2375 F (1000 to 1300 C)) rods and tracks. Usually plain carbon steel is
extruded, but alloy steel and stainless steel can also be extruded.
Titanium: (1100 to 1825 F (600 to 1000 C)) aircraft components including seat tracks, engine
rings, and other structural parts.
Obs.: Magnesium and aluminum alloys usually have a 0.75 m (30 .in) RMS or better surface
finish. Titanium and steel can achieve a 3 micrometres (120 .in) RMS.
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d) Steel
Pipe Extrusion:
ed into hot-rolled (extrussion) and co
old drawn seamless
The manufacturing processes iss also divide
pe. Cold-rolled seamlesss steel tubes tend to be
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mless steel tubes.

e) Drawing:
g simply invo
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eel Pipe:

ugal casting is a common casting steel
processs where molten metal is funneled
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PDHonline Course M451

The aspect ratio of the part to be cast is what determines which of the techniques can be used.
When the diameter of the desired part is larger in comparison to the overall-length (ring shaped),
vertical casting is most commonly used. Likewise, when the length is larger compared to the
diameter (tube shaped), horizontal casting setups are used.

ASTM A660 - Standard Specification for Centrifugally Cast Carbon Steel Pipe: This specification
covers carbon steel pipe made by the centrifugal casting process intended for use in hightemperature, high-pressure service, suitable for fusion welding, bending, and other forming
Centrifugal castings use directional solidification and pressure from the centrifugal force to create
castings with a denser sound structure, with superior physical properties in comparison to
statically poured castings.
It has been made clear that centrifugal casting is a versatile process with benefits in the
areas of mechanical properties and overall process cost-effectiveness. The utilization of this
process can be beneficial when producing a variety of products.
Size Limitations of Centrifugal Castings:

Diameter: Up to 3 m (10 feet)

Length: 15 m (50 feet) length
Wall Thickness: 2.5 mm to 125 mm (0.1 - 5.0 in)
OD Tolerance: as fine as 2.5 mm (0.1 in)
ID Tolerance: can be 3.8 mm (0.15 in)
Surface Finish: from 2.5 mm to 12.5 mm (0.1 - 0.5 in) rms

2) Cast Iron Pipes:

Historically are used as pressure pipes for transmission of water, gas and sewage, and as a
water drainage pipe, during the 19th and 20th centuries. The material is predominantly gray cast
iron, frequently used uncoated, although later developments did result in various coatings and
linings to reduce corrosion and improve hydraulics.
Gray cast iron pipes were gradually superseded by ductile iron pipes, which is a direct
development, with most existing manufacturing plants transitioning to the new material during the
1970s and 1980s. There is currently almost no new manufacture of gray cast iron pipe.
Iron is melted in the cupola furnace at approx. 1,550C (~2820F) using scrap steel and recycled
materials. In order to obtain ductile cast iron, the iron is injected in the converter with a
magnesium alloy. The pipes are manufactured from the injected iron using the centrifugal
casting process.
The centrifugal cast pipes are annealed at 960C (1760F) in a continuous furnace, so that the
cementite can be broken down into ferrite and graphite. All pipes are then given a zinc or
zinc-aluminium casing, cleaned in the sleeve area, spray-galvanised and pressure-tested at
up to 50 bar (725 psi) , followed by a visual, dimensional and material check.
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The Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute (CISPI), organized in 1949, is the leading American of cast
iron soil pipe and fittings for most of manufacturers. The Institute is dedicated to aiding and
improving the plumbing industry.
3) Welded Pipe Manufacturing:
The manufacturing process generally involves the following stages in a step by step procedure,
as shown below.
a) Slitting: is a process in which a coil of material is cut down into a number of smaller coils
of narrower measure, selectively thin (0.001 to 0.215 in.) and can be machined in sheet
or roll form.
The illustration that follows provides a two-dimensional look at a typical coil slitting process. Note
how the metal workpiece is drawn past the upper and lower slitting blades, leaving two coils the
same length as the original wide coil.

b) Rolling: is ametal formingprocess in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls,
according to the temperature of the metal rolled. Hot rolling is when temperature of the
metal is above recrystallization temperature. Cold rolling is when temperature of the
metal is below its recrystallization temperature. Hot Rolled (HR) Coils are slitted to predetermined widths for each and every size of pipes.

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c) Uncoiling, End Shearing: The slitted coil is uncoiled at the entry of edge mill. The
leading end of the coil is precisely cut to provide an edge that can be effectively joined
with the trailing end of the previous coil being processed. This allows for a continuous
pipe making operation.
d) Forming: The edge milled coil is introduced into the three roll edge pre-bending
assembly and then into the forming assembly, which consists of three forming roll banks
and several outside cage rolls. This forming assembly combines the strength and
precision to form the exact outside diameter and the other dimensional properties of the
desired pipe for tack welding at a rate of up to 40 feet per minute.

e) ERW Welding: This operation provides a continuous weld seam, strong enough to keep
the desired pipe OD end shape. In this stage, the future pipe open edges are heated to
the forging temperature through a high-frequency, low-voltage welding system, and
welded by forge rolls, making perfect and strong butt weld without filler materials.
f) Final Welding Station: The pipe is then taken to the final welding station, where the full
length of the tack welded seam is completed by a Submerge Arc Welding (SAW).
Superior SAW quality is achieved first by precise tracking of the weld seam, in order to
maintain the alignment of the pipe ID and OD.
g) De beading: In this stage, the weld flash on top and inside of the pipe, is trimmed out
using the carbide scarfing tools.
Hydrostatic Testing: During this testing procedure, the pipe is filled with water and subjected to
the specified pressure for a minimum of 10 seconds. The testing is accomplished by a 5,000 psi
ultra-modern testing unit, performed to ensure the welding integrity of the pipe.
Ultrasonic Testing: Non-destructive tests are performed to further ensure the integrity of the
pipe weld and pipe body. An ultrasonic shear wave inspection of the full length of the weld zone
and the heat affected zone is made. After ultrasonic evaluation is complete, pipe ends are
inspected by X-Ray in a separate operation.
Seam Normalising: When required, the welding portion and the heat affected zones, are put to
normalizing treatment and then cooled down in a air cooling bed.
Quenching and Tempering: When also required, the quenching and tempering of tubes include
a number of variables that can have a big effect on the process and the finished product. The
process of quenching and tempering carbon steel tubulars, is heated to about 1,600 F, cooled
rapidly, and reheated to a temperature less than about 1,300 F. The exact temperatures and
times are dictated by the steel chemistry and the desired mechanical properties.

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Sizing: After water quenching, slight reduction is applied to pipes with sizing rolls. This results in
producing desired accurate outside diameter. Laser Length Measuring Device provides precision
accuracy of pipe lengths and automatically records the length, to a pipe computer record.
Cutting: In cutting stage, the pipes are cut to required lengths by flying cut off disc/saw
cutter.The traveling Cutoff and Length Optimization equipment, optimize and maximize pipe
lengths, resulting in fewer field girth welds.
End Facing And Bevelling: The pipes ends are faced and bevelled by the end facer by
automatic arrangements, controlled through touch screen operator interface panels. Each pipe
end is beveled to the specified profile bevel (bevel angle -30 to 35 degrees and root face of 0.031
to 0.904). If required, the plain ended tubes go for processing, such as galvanizing, threading,
black varnishing and more.
Galvanizing Line: Continuous Hot-Dip galvanizing mill roll out galvanized coils are supported
with on line tension leveling, trimming lines and skin pass mills, to take care of special
requirements of customers, in terms of coating mass, width, thickness etc.
Bar Code Labeling: When also required, bar codes are attached to the I.D. surface of each pipe
for tracking. The conventional bar code consists of the traceable Pipe ID number. The twodimensional bar code is encoded with all of the pipe data that is printed on the label. The label is
in addition to required paint markings.
Pipe Corrugation: At customers request, the pipe go to a corrugator machine (sheet-to-sheet
type) capable of profiling galvanized sheets up to 3 meters (10 ft) length with maximum dimensional accuracy.
OCTG Piping: OCTG is abbreviated from Oil Country Tubular Goods, which refer to a special
kind of seamless steel pipes, mostly welded ones, used for oil and gas exploitation and
production.The common OCTG products are: tubing, drill pipes, associated tubular products and
accessories to the Oil & Gas related projects.
4) Design Temperature:
The design temperature is assumed to be the same as the fluid temperature, unless calculations
or tests support use of other temperatures. If a lower temperature is determined by such means,
the design metal temperature is not permitted to be less than the average of the fluid
temperature and the outside surface temperature.
ASME B31.1 Power Piping - does not have a design minimum temperature for piping, as it does
not contain impact test requirements. This is perhaps because power piping generally does not
run cold. Certainly, operation of water systems below freezing is not a realistic condition to
4.1) Material Allowable Stress:
The Code provides allowable stresses for metallic piping in Appendix A, the lowest of the following with certain exceptions:

1/3.5 times the specified minimum tensile strength (which is at room temperature);
1/3.5 times the tensile strength at temperature (times 1.1);
Two-thirds specified minimum yield strength (which is at room temperature);
Two-thirds minimum yield strength at temperature;
Average stress for a minimum creep rate of 0.01%/1,000 hr.;
Two-thirds average stress for creep rupture in 100,000 hr.;
80% minimum stress for a creep rupture in 100,000 hr.
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4.2) Internal Pressure Design:

The ASME B31.1 (Power Piping) and ASME B31.3 (Process Piping) codes provides the basic
methods for design of components for internal pressure.
(1) The ASME B16.5 for flanges, are considered suitable for the pressure rating specified in the
standard. Other methods of pressure design provided in ASME B31.1 and ASME B31.3 can be
used to determine pressure ratings above the maximum temperature.
(2) The ASME B16.9 for pipe fittings, state that the fittings have the same pressure rating when
matching seamless pipes. The components are considered to have the same allowable pressure
as seamless pipes of the same nominal thickness. Design calculations are not usually performed
for these components, but are performed for straight pipes and matching fittings.
(3) Design equations for straight pipes and branch connections are provided in ASME B31.1 and
ASME B31.3 to determine the required wall thickness with respect to internal pressure of
(4) Special components may be designed in accordance, since the procedure provides accepted
methods, such as burst testing and finite element analysis, to determine the pressure
capacity of these components.
(5) The equations in the Code provide the minimum thickness required to limit the membrane
and, in some cases, bending stresses in the piping component to the appropriate allowable
stress. To this thickness must be added the mechanical and corrosion/erosion allowances.
(6) The ASME B31.1 code for power piping (boiler external piping) have ASME stamp scheme,
that is, the construction contractor must be certified by ASME organization and hold the PP
stamp. This is the reason in the ASME B31.3 code you can not see the words of Authorized
Inspector, but you can see the words owner inspector.
5) Carbon Steel Pipes:
Due to its low cost, excellent mechanical properties and ease of welding and forming, carbon
steel is called "material commonly used" in industrial piping, ie, only if it fails to employ
the carbon steel when there is any circumstance special banning. Thus, all other materials
are used in some specific cases.
In processing industries, more than 80% of the tubes are of carbon steel, which is used for fresh
water, low pressure steam, condensate, compressed air, oil, gas and many other low corrosive
fluids, at temperatures from - 45C (-113F), and at any pressure.
Some tubes are galvanized carbon steel, ie with an inner lining and outer hot-zinc deposit in
order to give increased corrosion resistance.
The mechanical strength of carbon steel begins to suffer a sharp drop in temperatures above
400C (752F), mainly due to the phenomenon of permanent creep deformation (creep), which
begins to be observed from 370C (698F), and must be considered mandatory for any service at
temperatures above 400C (752F).
The creep deformations will be much larger and faster the higher the temperature the greater the
tension material and the longer the time during which the material was subjected to temperature.
At temperatures above 530C (986F) carbon steel undergoes intense oxidation surface (scaling)
when exposed to air, with the formation of thick oxide crusts, which makes it unacceptable for
any continuous operation.

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Prolonged exposure of steel carbon at temperatures above 440C (824F) can also cause a
precipitation of carbon graphitization, which makes the material get brittle. For all these reasons
it is not recommended the of use of carbon steel pipe working continuously over 450C (842F),
although any temperature may be permitted up to 550C (1022F), provided they are of short
duration and not coincident with large mechanical stresses.
The greater the amount of carbon in the steel, the greater is the hardness and the greater is
the yield and tensile stress, to compensate the increase in carbon, affecting the ductility and
weldability of the steel.
Therefore, in steel pipes the amount of carbon to 0.20% and 0.25% C, the weld is very easy,
and up to 0.35% C the pipes can easily be bent cold. Carbon steels can be killed with addition of
up to 0.1% Si, to remove gas, or "effervescent" (rimed-steel), which contain no Si. Low carbon
steels (up to 0.25% C) have the tensile strength of the order 31.0 to 37.0 kg/mm (~44000 to
52600 psi), and yield strength between 15.0 to 22.0 kg/mm (~21000 to 31000 psi).
Medium-carbon steels (up to 0.35% C) are respectively 37.0 to 54.0 kg/mm (~44000 to 76700
psi) and 22.0 to 28.0 kg/mm (~21000 to 39800 psi). At very low temperatures, carbon steels
have a brittle behavior and subject to sudden brittle fracture. This effect is enhanced when low
carbon steels are standardized to obtain fine grains.
Therefore, to work at temperatures below 0C (32F) should be steels with have a maximum
content of 0.3% C and normalized to a fine grain. Piping operating in this temperature range,
should be required the "Charpy" impact test to verify its ductility.
The minimum temperature for the standard carbon steel conform to ANSI.B.31.3 is below -6C
(-20F), but not lower than -10C (-50F); the coincident pressure should not exceed 25% of the
design pressure and the combined longitudinal stresses should not exceed 6 ksi.
Carbon steels when exposed to the atmosphere undergoes uniform corrosion (rust), which is more intense the higher the humidity and air pollution. Direct contact with the ground, causes a penetrating rust pitting, which is more severe in wet acid soil, so that contact should be avoided.
The carbon steel is violently attacked by mineral acids, especially when diluted or hot. The
service alkali is possible up to 40C (104F), however, for temperatures above 70C (158F),
should be done a heat treatment of stress relief. Higher temperatures cause a serious problem
of corrosion in carbon steels. In general, residuals from these corrosions are not toxic, but can
affect the color and taste of the contained fluid.
5.1) Commercial Carbon Steel Pipes:
a) ASTM A-106 - Specification for seamless pipes of 1/8" to 24" nominal diameter, highquality carbon killed steel, for use at elevated temperatures. This specification sets out
the requirements for chemical composition and mechanical properties testing.

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Note: Grade "A" pipes for services where there are cold bending tubes. Grade "B" pipes,
should only be used up to 200C (392F). The use of grade C are recommended with
temperatures up to 600C (~1100F) at maximum pressure of 150 psi.
b) ASTM A-53 - Specification for carbon steel pipes, medium quality, with or without
seam, 1/8" to 24" nominal diameter, for general use.This specification also sets the
requirements for chemical composition and mechanical properties testing.

Grade "A": low carbon steel, TS= 33 kg/mm (~46900 psi), YS= 20 kg/mm (~28000 psi.
Grade "B": medium carbon steel, TS= 41 kg/mm (~58000 psi), YS= 24 kg/mm (~34000 psi).
The carbon steel by this specification is not always killed.The pipes may be black; i.e
unfinished, or galvanized. The specification distinguishes two grades of material for pipes
manufactured by welding or electrical resistance. For cold bending tubes should be used "A"

Although the maximum temperature allowed by ANSI.B.31 to pipes A-53 grades A and B are
the same of the pipes A-106 (A and B grade), the materials of this specification should not be
used in permanent service above 400C (752F).
The pipes according to the ASTM A-53 are cheaper than pipes according to the ASTM A-106,
and thus, represent most of the carbon-steel pipes from industrial installations in general.
c) ASTM A-120 - Specification for carbon steel pipes, with seam or seamless black or
galvanized, structural quality of 1/8" to 16" nominal diameter.This specification, does not
prescribe requirements for complete chemical composition, then, this material specification has no quality assurance. The A-120 steel pipes, should not be bent cold and
not used at temperatures above 200C (392F) or below 0C (32F).
OBS.: The standard ANSI.B.31.3 only allows the use of A-120 pipes for fluids known as "Category D", which includes not inflammable fluids, non-toxic, at pressures up to 10 kg/cm (150
psi) and temperatures up to 180C (356F).These pipes, are cheaper than the former, however,
widely used for water, compressed air, condensate and other services of low responsibility.
d) ASTM A-333 (Gr. 6) - Specification for seamless carbon steel pipes, special for low
temperature use.This specification has a rate up to 0.4% C and 1.0% Mn, always normalized to refinement of grain and is subjected to "Charpy" impact test at -46C (-15F).
e) API-SL - Specification of the "American Petroleum Institute" for carbon steel pipes of
medium quality. It covers pipe from 1/8" to 64" nominal diameter, black, seam or seamless.The requirements of chemical and mechanical properties are similar to specification ASTM A-53.
f) API-SLX - Specification for tubes and seamless, made of carbon steels of high strength,
special pipelines. Distinguished below, in a table, are the six degrees of material, all of mecarbon steels:

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OBS.: According to the standard ANSI.B.31, the pipes of this specification should not be used
at temperatures above 200C (392F). The ANSI B .31.1, prohibits the use of these tubes for
steam application.
5.2) Specifications for Welded Pipes:
a) ASTM A-134 - Specification for pipes manufactured by protected welding arc, for
diameters above 16" and wall thicknesses up to 3/4", with longitudinal or spiral weld.
b) ASTM A-135 - Specification for pipe manufactured by electrical resistance welding for
diameters up to 30". Pipes grade "A" have a tensile strength up to 33 kg/mm (~46900 psi)
and grade "B" up to 41 kg/mm (58000 psi).
The standard pipes specifications A-134 and A-135 are allowed for fluids "Category D".
b) ASTM A-671 - Specification pipe manufactured by protected welding arc to be used
at room temperature and low temperatures, with diameters of 12" or larger. The
specification covers nine classes, depending on the requirements of stress relief heat
c) ASTM A-672 - Specification for pipes for moderate temperatures. The manufacturing
process and diameter range for carbon-steel pipes are the same ASME A-671.
Obs: The pipe specification A-671 and A-672 were previously covered by the specification A-155
which was suppressed. The pipes are made from killed carbon steel plates (ASTM A-515 or A516) or not killed (ASTM-A-285 Gr C), with standard radiograph and total pressure testing.
d) ASTM A-211 - Specification for spiral welded pipes from 4" to 48" nominal diameter,
alloy and stainless steels. Alloy steels have any number of other elements in addition
to enter in the composition of carbon steels.
5.3) Alloy Steel Pipes:
There are three general classes of alloy steels pipes, molybdenum, chromium-molybdenum
and nickel alloy steels. The molybdenum alloy steel and chrome-molybdenum contain 1% Mo
and up to 9%Cr, in various proportions, as shown in the table below. Stainless ferritic materials (magnetic), are specific for use in high temperatures.

Chromium mainly causes a significant improvement in oxidation and corrosion resistance at

high temperatures, particularly to oxidizing, whose effects are more pronounced when is larger
the amount of chromium. Up to the amount of 2.5% Cr, there is a slight increase in creep
resistance, but larger percentages of Cr reduce sharply this resistance (except in austenitic
stainless steels containing nickel).
For this reason, the alloys up to 2.5% Cr are specific for services of high temperature, with
large mechanical loads and low corrosion and where the main concern is the creep resistance.
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While the most amount of chromium steels are specific for services in high temperature, with
reduced mechanical strength and high corrosion, where is most required, oxidation or corrosion
resistance, molybdenum is the most important element for improvement of the creep resistance
of steel, contributing also to increase corrosion alveolar resistance.

In the same way that carbon steels, alloy steels are also subject to sudden brittle fracture
when subjected to very low temperatures, and thereby being employed in any services with
temperature below 0C (32F). Mo and Cr-Mo alloy steels also oxidate, although more slowly
than carbon steels. The behavior of these steels, in relation to acids and alkalis, is similar to
carbon steels.

Materials with up to 2.5% Cr are specific to services at high temperatures, such as

superheated steam pipes. Materials with more than 2.5% Cr are very used in services with hot
oil. Due to its high resistance to corrosion by sulfur compounds contained in hydrocarbons. All of
these services are still employed to steels with hydrogen.

5.4) Process Application:

The stainless steels are those containing at least 12% of chromium, which confers the
property of not rust, even in prolonged exposure to a normal atmosphere. The main cases that
justify the use of these special steels (stainless and alloy steels) are as follows:
a) High Temperatures - temperatures above the limits of use of carbon steels, or even below
these limits, when it required great mechanical strength, creep and corrosion resistance.
b) Low Temperatures - temperatures below 0C (32F) for carbon steels which are subject to
brittle fracture.
c) High Corrosion - Services with corrosive fluids, even within the range of use of carbon steels.
In general, the alloy steels and stainless steels have better corrosion resistance qualities than
carbon steels. However, there are numerous cases of exception: the salt water, for
example, destroys the special steels as fast as carbon steels.
d) Need for non-contamination - Services that can not be allowed contamination of the
circulating fluid (food and pharmaceuticals, for example). Corrosion can cause contamination of
the circulating fluid, when rust is loaded by the current flowing. For this reason, is often employed
special alloy steels.
e) Safety - Services with hazardous fluids (hot, flammable, toxic, explosive, etc.), where required
safety against possible leaks and accidents. For these cases not normally need special steels.
d) Types of alloys - Depending on the total amount of alloying, the elements are distinguished
from the low alloyed steels with up to 5% of alloying elements, intermediate alloy steels
containing between 5% and 10 %, and high alloy steels, with more than 10%.
5.5) Steam Pipes,Hydrocarbons and Hydrogen:

Alloy steels containing nickel are special materials for use in very low temperatures, the
temperature lower limit both the greater the amount of nickel, as shown in the table below. The
main specifications of ASTM alloy steels for pipes are:

a) Seamless Pipes:
A-335 Cr-Mo alloy steels,
A-333 Ni alloy steels.
b) Seamed Pipes (great diameters):
A-671 up to the 2.5% Ni alloy steels,
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A-672 up to the 0.5% Mo alloy steel,

A- 691 Cr-Mo alloy steels.

5.6) Stainless Steel Pipes Application:

There are two main classes: the austenitic stainless steels (non-magnetic), containing 16% to
26% Cr, and the ferritic stainless steels (magnetic) containing basically 12% to 30% Cr in
austenitic condition.

All austenitic steels retain the ductile behavior even in extremely cold temperatures, and some
were employed to near absolute zero. These steels are all easy welding materials. The table
below shows the more employed types of stainless steels:

Obs.: The austenitic stainless steels have an extraordinary resistance to oxidation and
fluency with high temperature values, except the low carbon (AISI 304L and 316L), where the
limit is 400 C (752F) due to the lower mechanical strength of these steels.
The ASME types 304, 316 steels and other so-called "non-stabilised", are subject to a precipitation of carbides of Cr (sensitisation) when subjected to temperatures between 450C and
850C (840F to 1560F), which diminishes the corrosion resistance of the material, and shall be
subject to a severe form of corrosion (corrosion intergranular) in acidic media.

This phenomenon can be controlled by adding Ti or Nb (for "stabilized" steels, ASME types 321
and 347), or by reducing the amount of carbon (very low carbon steels, ASME 304L and 316L).
The presence of even the tiniest quantities of HCI, chlorides, hypochlorites, etc., (chlorine
ions), can cause severe corrosion in all intro-cellular austenitic stainless steels, and should
therefore be avoided.

The austenitic stainless pipes are more used for very high temperatures and very low
temperatures (cryogenic services), oxidizing and corrosive services, food and pharmaceutical
and other services of non-contamination, hydrogen in high temperatures and pressures etc.
Ferritic and martensitic-austenitic steels, have much less resistance to creep and corrosion in
general, as well as lower temperature oxidation start, so it is more low temperatures usage limits.
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On the other hand

d, are chea
aper materia
als than the
e austenitic and less prone
to co
mena and under-voltage
e. cellular T
These steells are all difficult
ering and are
a not
suitable to servicess at low tem
mperatures. The main material spe
ecification for
f stainless
s steel
tubes is
s the ASTM A 312, cove
ering seamlless and seamed pipes

5.7) Co
ommercial Pipe Diam eters:

ers of comm
mercial carb
bon steel and alloy stteels pipes are defined
d by the Am
d ASME B.36.10,
d for stain
nless steels
s pipes byy the ASME
E B.36.19. These
ds cover pip
pes manufacctured by anyy of the usual processess of manufaccturing, desiignated
by a num
mber called "Nominal Diameter"
PS (Iron Pipe
e Size), or "n
nominal gau
The AS
SME B.36.10
0 covers the
e piping dime
ensions from
m 1/8 "up to
o 36", and the
t ASME B.36.19
covers from
1/8 to
o 12". From
m 1/8 to 12" the nomin
nal diameterr does not match
any physical
pipes dimension; fro
om 14 to 36
6", the nomin
nal diameterr matches the external diameter.

For eacch nominal diameter

the pipes are m
ed with vario
ous wall thickknesses. Ho
for each
h nominal diameter, outs
side diamete
er is always the same, varying
only the inner diiameter
ng to the thic
ckness of the tubes.

As an example,
forr a steel pip
pe 8" nomin
nal diamete
er, the exterrnal diamete
er is 8,625 inches.
When the thicknesss correspon
nds to a Sc
ch. 20, the thickness iss 0.250 inch and the internal
er is 8,125 in

For a Sch. 40 pipe, 8 nomina

al diameter,, the thickne
ess is 0.322 inch with an
a inside dia
of 7.981
1 inches. Fo
or a Sch. 80 pipe, the thickness iss 0.500 inch
h and the internal diam
meter is
7.625 in
nches; for a Sch. 160, th
he thicknesss is 0.906 inch, the internal diametter is 6.813"".

The pipe series from 1/8" up to

o 36" includes about 30
00 different thicknessess, but only 1
100 are
ary in practtice and currrently manu
ufactured. The
al diameterrs standardized by
B 36.10 are
e: 1/8", 1/4", 3/8", 1/2", 3
3/4",1", 2", 21/2'',
3", 31//2", 4", 5", 6",
6 8", 10", 12
2", 14",
16", 18"", 20", 22", 24", 26", 30" and 36".
For sea
amless pipes
s there are not
n fixed lengths, beca
ause the vallues depend
d on the weiights to
fabri-catte the seriess, ranging in practice between 6 (20
( ft) and 12
1 m (40 ft),, or up to 16
6 m (52
ft). Othe
er thicknesse
es are produ
uced by orde
d pipes can also be manufactured iin any length, however, this require
ement makes pipes
more exxpensive, without benefits for the cu
urrent usage. In practice, these pipes have also always
acturing varia
able lengths
s ("random le

The ske
etches below
w shows th
he cross secctions of thrree pipes w
with nominall diameter, 1" with
dized seriess of different thicknesse
es. Outside the ASME standard, stteel pipes are
a also
ctured by AS
SME B.36.10
0. Steel pipe
es are manu
ufactured witth three type
es of ends fin
ng to the acc
cessories prrocess to be attached:


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- Smootth tips, simply square.

- Bevele
ed edges, for use with to
op welding.
- Thread
ded (screwe
ed tips speciffication ASM
ME B. 2.1 an
nd API).

- Rolled
d plate pipes, with longiitudinal weld
d seam prote
ected arc, manufactured
d in diameterrs up to
80 in, with
w plates 0.75 in, depen
nding on the diameter. Larger
eters obtaine
ed upon requ
- Pipes
s with spira
al welding, manufacture
ed with 4 in to 120 in dia
ameter, with
h plates of 0.625
to 0.5 in
n thick, mainly used for lo
e pipes, abovve ground, ffor water and
d gas.
5.8) Wa
all Thicknes
ssesfor Stee
el Pipes:

Nominal diameter pipes

E B.36.10 arre manufacttured in thre
ee different thicknesses
as: stan
ndard-S, ex
XS, and double extra-s
S. The ASME B.36.10 adopted
the "Se
eries" or S
Schedule Numbers
o designate the thickne
ess (or weig
ght) of pipin
ng. The
serial nu
umber is a number
obtained approxximately by th
he following expression::

Numberr = 1000.PS
P = internal pressurre in psi;
S = perm
missible stre
ess of the ma
aterial in psi.
The se
eries or schedules are 10, 20, 30,
3 40, 60, 80,
8 100, 120
0, 140 and 160.
The Schedule
40 is eq
quivalent to the old "no
ormal weight" with diam
meters up to
o 10 inches, and are the most
nly used for diameters begining
m 3 inches.

Above 10
1 inches the Sch. 40 is heavier than
the normal weightt. Up to 8 in
nches the Sch.
onds to XS.. Extra-stro
ong (XXS) fo
or 8 inches
s pipes do not
n have exa
act matching
g numbers, be
eing close to
o the 160 serries.
5.9) Pip
pe Requirements:

The pipe
es specificattions are alw
ways referred
d to their no
ominal diame
Examplle: Pipe ASM
ME B.36.10, ASTM A53 grade B, Scch. 40, seam
mless, black, butt weldin
ng ends
in accorrdance to AS

ail for a Weldin
ng Joint Witho
out Backing R

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The main lines for the manufacturing of pipes are:

a) Seamless Pipes:

- Black, smooth edges, beveled, 1/2 " to 10", ASTM A-106, ASTM A-53, API-5L, 5LX, ASTM A333A (grades 1, 3, 6, 7), ASTM A-335 (grades Pl, P2, P5, P7, P11, P12, P21, P22).
- Black or galvanized, with thread, 1/2" to 10", Sch. 40 and 80, ASTM-A-120.
- Black, heavy-duty for steam, with thread, 3/8" to 8", according to DIN-2441.
- Black or galvanized, for water, air or gas, with thread, 3/8" to 8", according to DIN-2440.

b) Welded Pipes with Longitudinal Welding Arc:

-Black, beveled ends, 12" to 64", according to the API-5 L, API-5LX, ASTM A-134, ASTM A-139,
ASTM A-155 and ASTM A-252.

c) Welded Pipes with Longitudinal Electrical Resistance Seam:

- Carbon steel, black, smooth beveled ends, up to 64", according to API-5L, API-5LX, ASTM
A- 53, ASTM A-120, ASTM A-135 and ASTM A-252.
- Carbon steel, black, galvanized, with threaded ends, up to 12", ASTM A-120.
- Stainless steel, ASTM A-312, up to 4".

d) Welded Pipes with Spiral Seam:

- Carbon Steel, black, beveled ends, from 18" to 80", API-5LS, ASTM A-134, ASTM A-139,
ASTM A-211, ASTM A-252, with different specifications of AWWA (American Water Works

6) Cast and Wrought Iron Pipes:

Cast iron pipes are used for water, gas, sewage and sea water, in low-pressure services, room
temperature, and where there is large mechanical loads with good resistance to corrosion,
mainly to corrosion of soil. Good quality types are commonly manufactured by centrifugal

Wrought iron pipes known as "galvanized iron pipes" (almost always galvanized), employed in
secondary applications, low pressures and temperatures used for water, compressed air,
condensate and commonly used in soil water and gas installations.
Cast iron pipes are manufactured from 2" up to 24" diameters, smooth edges, threaded with
integral flanges, tested to pressures up to 400 psi.
Wrought iron pipes are manufactured by pressure welding
and electrical resistance, up to 4", with the same diameters
and wall thicknesses of steel pipes. Wrought iron pipes
have lower mechanical strength, but good corrosion
resistance, equivalent to iron and much better than carbon

The ferro-silicon is the most common of these alloys,

containing up to 14% Si, very resistant to attack from most
acids and with exceptional abrasion resistance. The ASME
B.31 only allows use of iron pipes for oil and other
flammable fluids in soil buried piping, temperatures up to
150C (300F) and maximum pressures up to 150 psi.

In remote locations, in case of refineries, the allowable pressure may go up to 400 psi. The
ASME B.31 prohibits the use of iron piping for toxic fluids into any further conditions,
("category M1"), as well as to services in temperatures below 0C (32F).
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7) Non-Ferrous Piping:

Making a comparison between the non-ferrous metals and carbon steels, we can say that the
non-ferrous metals have better corrosion resistance. However, has lower mechanical
strength and lower resistance to high temperatures, presenting better behavior at low

Due mainly to its high cost, the application of non-ferrous metals is little used. To almost all
corrosive services, the non-ferrous metals have been replaced by plastics, with price advantages
and much better physical and chemical properties. The main types are:
7.1) Copper and Alloys:
A wide variety of materials, including commercially pure
copper, and various types of brass and cupro-nickel, have
excellent resistance to corrosion from air, water (including
sea water), dilute acids, alkalis, many organic compounds
and of numerous other corrosive fluids.

Copper alloys are subjected to severe effects of corrosion

when in contact with ammonia, amines and other nitro
compounds, to be used in continuous operations, from 180C (-350F) up to 200C (~400F. Due to the high heat
transmission coefficient, the brass and copper piping are
much employed in coils, and as cooling and heating tubes.

In small diameters (up to 2"), the copper tubes are also very used to water, compressed air, oils,
low-pressure steam, refrigeration services, and for transmitting instrumentation signals. Pipes
made of copper and alloys should not be used for food or pharmaceutical, because can carry
toxic residues.
The main specifications are:

Copper pipe: ASTM B-88

Brass pipe: ASTM B-111
Copper-nickel pipes: ASTM B-466
7.2) Aluminum and Alloys:

These metals are very light (about 1/3 of the weight of steel), with a high coefficient of heat
transmission, very good corrosion resistance to atmosphere, water and many organic
compounds, including organic acids. The waste resulting from corrosion is not toxic.

The mechanical strength of aluminum is low, however, can be improved by the addition of small
amounts of Fe, Si, Mg and other metals. Both the aluminum and its alloys can work in continuous
operation since -270 C (-518F) up to 200C (~400F), employed for heating systems, refrigeration, cryogenic services and non-contamination processes. The main specifications are pipes
for conduction, ASTM B-241-10 (Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys).

Lead and Alloys:

Lead pipes are soft, heavy, with low mechanical strength, but exceptional corrosion resistance,
used in the atmosphere, soil, water (including sea water and acids), alkalis, halogenous and
other various corrosive media.

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The lead is one of the rare metal materials that can work with sulfuric acid in any concentration.
The temperature limit of work, depending on the alloy goes from up to 200 C (~400F). Lead
pipes are employed primarily for sewer piping, atmospheric pressure.
7.4) Nickel and Alloys:

The materials of these classes are: Nickel, Monel (67% Ni, 30% Cu) and Inconel (80% Ni, 13%
Cr), with exceptional corrosion and temperature resistance, both high as too low, excellent
mechanical qualities and can also be applied in services with various dilute acids and alkalis.

The most usual is the Monel metal, used for salt water piping, dilute sulphuric acid, hydrochloric
acid, alkali and other corrosive services with non-contamination. The temperature limit is 550C
(~1020F) for Monel, 1,050C (~1920F) to 1,100C (~2000F) for Inconel. The high costs restrict
the use to a few special cases.
7.5) Titanium, Zirconium and Alloys:

Considered until recently as rare metals, almost laboratory curiosities. Currently, these metals
have been used in industrial application, although prices are still extremely high. These materials
have extraordinary properties for corrosion resistance, with excellent mechanical qualities.
Specific gravity is about half the weight of steels. The behavior with many strongly corrosive
media is better than stainless steels and nickel alloys.

7.6) Non-Ferrous Piping - Diameters and Thicknesses:

1. Brass pipes and tubing, copper-nickel, aluminum and its alloys are manufactured with
diameters of 1/4" to 12", gauged by the outside diameter, with thicknesses according to BWG
sizes or decimals of an inch. The brass tubes and aluminum, are found in usually rigid bars with
6 m (~20 ft) long.

2. The copper pipes and tubing are manufactured commonly in 3, usually known as K, L and M,
beeing the K the heavier, found in rigid bars with 6 m (~20 ft) long or in coils.
3. Lead pipes and tubing are manufactured in diameters from 1/4" to 12", gauged by the internal
diameter with various thicknesses and sold in rolls.

8) Nonmetallic Pipes:

Manufacturing of pipes and tubing with a wide variety of nonmetallic materials, as follows:

8.1) Plastic Materials:

Currently is the most important group of nonmetallic materials. The employment of these
materials has grown a lot in recent years, mainly as a
substitute for stainless steels and non-ferrous metals. Some
plastics can be translucent, allowing a visual observation of the
movement of fluids through pipes.
Plastics can be used in direct contact with the ground, even in
the case of humid soils and rarely can be found acids or
contamination of the circulating fluid, since plastics do not
produce toxic waste.
Most plastics is attacked by highly concentrated mineral acids.
The behaviour in the presence of organic compounds is variable: hydrocarbons and organic solvents dissolve some
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Plastics usually resist corrosive, being unnecessary to apply over thicknesses to corrosion. The
destruction of plastic materials occurs by dissolution or by direct chemical reaction. Almost all
plastics suffer a slow decomposition process when exposed to sunlight for a long time, due to the
action of ultraviolet rays, becoming brittle (wheatering).


- Light weight, density varying between 0.9 and 2.2.

- High resistance to corrosion
- Very low friction coefficient
- Manufacturing facilities and handling (can be cut with a hacksaw)
- Low electrical and thermal conductivity
- Colour and permanent painting, gives good looking,
- Allows to adopt color codes for identification of pipelines.

- Low heat resistance is the biggest disadvantage. Despite the great strides the majority of these
materials cannot work at temperatures higher than 100C (212F).
- Low mechanical strength. The tensile strength limit is on the order of 2.0 to 10.0 kg/mm (~2800
to 14000 psi) for most plastics. Some thermostable plastics, laminated in successive layers of
plastic resins and glass fibres have better mechanical strength, though lower than iron or carbon
- Poor dimensional stability, subject to deformation by fluency in any temperature (cold creep).
- Uncertain mechanical behaviour, chemical and physical data. The margin of error is much
greater than in relating to metals.
- High coefficient of expansion, up to 15 times than carbon steels. Some plastics are fuels or at
least capable of powering slowly combustion.

The general classes of plastics are: thermoplastics and thermosettings.

8.2) Thermoplastics:
A thermoplastic (sometimes written as thermo-plastic) is a type of plastic made from polymerresins that becomes a homogenized liquid when heated and hard when cooled. When frozen,
however, a thermoplastic becomes glass-like and subject to fracture.
The RTP (reinforced thermoplastic pipe) is a high
pressure plastic pipe system, which consists of three
layers, the outer and inner layers are made of PE, and the
middle layers is made of aramid fiber reinforced tape.
With the application of heat, may be repeated times
thermosettings cannot be molded by heat. Resist diluted
mineral acids, alkalis (even when hot), halons, saline
solutions and acidic, the salt water and the numerous
other chemicals.
The addition of dark pigments greatly improves the plastic resistance and is recommended that
when plastics are to be permanently exposed to the sun and rain have pigments of black carbon.
Plastic materials can not be used for fire protection piping.

ASME B.31 allows the use of plastics for fluids "category D", water pipes and non-flammable
chemicals in vapor generation plants. Thermoplastic materials are usually employed for small
and medium diameters, while the thermostable are preferred for large diameter pipes.

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8.3) Main Plastic Materials:

a. Polyethylene:is the lightest and simplest of the thermoplastic materials, with excellent resistance to mineral acids, alkalis and salts. It is a combustible material, with low mechanical
strength (2800 to 5000 psi), whose temperature limits range from 38 to 80(100 to 176F),
depending on the specification. Polyethylene is used for moderate pressure. Flexible pipes are
manufactured with diameters of 1/2" to 4", common classes, 6.0 to 10.0 kg/cm (85 to 150 psi).

b. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC):one of the most common industrial thermoplastics, corrosion resistance equivalent to polyethylene, very good mecha-nical qualities, temperature from 20 to
130C (68 to ~270F). Although this material can be burned, the flame is extinguished
spontaneously. Rigid PVC pipes are very used in water piping, sewer, acids, alkalis and other
corrosive fluids.

Covers manufacturing diameters from 1/2" to 10" according to Sch. 40 and 80, with smooth or
threaded ends and external cladding in successive layers of polyester resin and glass fibre
wounds ("filament winding"), from 25 to 400 mm in diameter, to severe corrosive fluid services.
Can also be manufactured in two classes (class 300 psi and class 450 psi), with smooth ends
with bags, or integral flanges.

c. Acrylic Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Cellulose Acetate: thermoplastic qualities, similar to

those of PVC used for rigid pipes, with small diameters. Both are combustible materials.
d. Fluorinated Hydrocarbons: known as "Teflon", used for coatings of steel tubes and joints or
in high corrosion services. Thermoplastics of the non-fuels group, with exceptional qualities for
corrosion resistance and with a wide range of temperature application, up to 260C (500F).
8.4) Asbestos-cement:

Asbestos-cement pipes (transits) are made of cement and sand mortar with frameworks of
asbestos fibres. Mechanical strength is small, and may only be used for low pressure and where
they are not subject to major external efforts.

The asbestos-cement has excellent resistance to air, soil, alkaline, neutral water, salt water, oils
and organic compounds. For the most of these, the material is completely inert, resisting
indefinitely. The cement-asbestos should not be used for services with acids or acidic water
solutions. The main job of the cement-asbestos pipes is for sewerage piping.
Asbestos-cement pipes are manufactured in two main types:
- Conduction pipes 2 to 16 classes for pressures 100 and 150 psi respectively. There are
asbestos-cement pipes diameters up to 36", for pressures up to 200 psi.
- Sewer pipes 2 to 20, lightweight types, buried, for services without pressure.

8.5) Reinforced Concrete:

Reinforced concrete pipes, used mainly for important piping

(large diameters) for water and sewage. Corrosion resistance,
equivalent to asbestos-cement pipes, but the mechanical
resistance is greater.

There are three types of reinforced concrete pipes:

1) Framed with steel bars, with longitudinal or transversal

steel screens for low pressures (up to 100 psi) and small

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2) Framed with steel plates embedded in concrete, for pressures up to 150 psi or smaller,
for services where is necessary to guarantee better tightness.

3) Framed with wire in prestressed concrete with high strength spiral wound steel, under
strong tension, to put the concrete pipe in permanent compression.

These pipes have also secondary steel plate frames, to ensure tightness, employed for
pressures up to 600 psi, and liability in strong overloads. The reinforced concrete pipes are
manu-factured by centrifuged and vibrated cement, diameters from 10 to 150 and 3 to 6 ft

8.6) Glaze Clay or Ceramics:

The glaze pottery pipes or tubes, also called "manilhas", have excellent resistance to corrosion,
being inert in relation to the ground, to the atmosphere and to most corrosive fluids. The
mechanical strength is low, however, a little better than the cement-asbestos pipes, employed
almost exclusively for sewering, manufactured in short lengths (1.0 m approx.) with nominal
diameters from 50 to 500 mm, and with tips and socket edges.
8.7) Glass:

Are rare manufacturing pipes and tubes, for special services only employed for high corrosion or
when it requires absolute purity of the circulating fluid. Glass is the best material for corrosive
media all in small diameters, applied up to 3/8 at most.

8.8) Rubber:

Rubber pipes or tubes are manufactured with many types of natural and synthetic elastomers for
various ranges of pressures and temperatures, generally flexible applications (hoses and
sleeves). For severe services and high pressure, the pipes usually have multiple rubber and
canvas reinforce-ments, often vulcanized with steel wire spiral frames, up to 400 mm nominal

Although these materials have different properties and

often have extraordinary specific elasticity, causing
rupture with a very large elastic deformation (300 to
700%), without any permanent deformations, the
normal service temperature limits range from 25C to
100C. Some rubbers are good fuels, others burn
In the same way as most plastics, rubbers suffers a
deterioration as a result of long exposure to sunlight,
making it brittle. The addition of black carbon improves
resistance to light and also increases the resistance to
surface wear.

Natural rubber resists well to acidic waters (and alkaline), dilute acids, salts and the numerous
other corrosive media, but is attacked by oil products and all several solvents and organic

The most important of the synthetic types are called Neoprene and SBR (styrene-butadiene).
The Neoprene is resistant to oil products, while SBR is an economical synthetic rubber, with
properties similar to natural rubber.

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Thermoestable material used for pipes of large diameter (up to 900 mm), with smooth ends and
integral flanges. The pipes or tubes are of laminated construction, in successive layers of plastic
resin and glass-fibre wounds, to improve mechanical strength, called "FRP"- Fiberglass
Reinforced Plastic). The epoxy is a plastic material with very good corrosion resistance, it burns
slowly, and can be used at temperatures up to 150 C.

8.10) Polyester and Phenolic Compounds:

Thermostable materials, epoxy-like characteristics. The phenolic compounds may work up to

150 C, with a wide range of diameters, manufactured in a laminated construction way, with a
glass fiber frame (FRP) reinforcing PVC externally.

9) Steel Pipes with Internal Coatings:

When the nature of the service requires a high resistance to corrosion and abrasion, mechanical
strength and high pressure, the best application is the use of steel pipes with an inner lining. In
general, it is better to use steel pipes or tubes with internal coatings, specific for abrasion
resistance, than integral tubes with a need of more wall thickness to withstand a high pressure.

However, should be also evaluated, the

fluid to be handled, the air environment
or application in soil; in these cases, the
pipes with internal coatings do not apply.
In extreme corrosion cases, the coating
rubbers, graphite, porcelain, rubber,
asphalt, etc.

Pipes with concrete coating are very

used in salt water pipes with a concrete
layer between 0.6 cm to 1.2 cm thick,
automatically placed inside with a centrifugal way. In most piping diameter of 20" is welded a
steel screen internally to improve the adhesion of the concrete to prevent cracks or extrication of
lining pieces.

Other important types of internal coating in steel pipes, are the plastic coatings and rubbers.
Plastic coatings (teflon, epoxy, phenolic compounds, etc.), and hard rubbers are used for
pipelines carrying salt, acids, alkalis, salts and other chemicals, while the soft rubber coverings
are used for pipelines of abrasive fluids.

High corrosion services requires that the coating is perfect and continuous because any flaw
(crack, bubble, scratch etc.), may result in localized corrosion point, which can pierce the wall of
the pipe more rapidly than an uniform corrosion.
10) Pipe Connections:
The primary means of connecting pipes are:

- Threaded connections (screwed joints).

- Welded connections (welded joints).
- Flanged connections (flanged joints).
- Tips and sockets (bell and spigot joints).
- Other systems of compression connections: special, proprietary connections, etc.

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The choice connections to use depends on many factors such as: material and diameter of the
pipe, purpose and location, degree of security required, work pressure and temperature, fluid
contained, whether or not dismantling, etc.

The most often used connection purposes are:

a) The current connections are weldings along the pipe, where the main concern is low cost and
safety from leaks;

b) Threading and flanging are used to connect the ends on pumps, valves, tanks, vessels and
other equipment, where is a necessary ease of disassembly.

11) Threaded Connections:

Threaded connections are one of the oldest means of binding pipes. The nominal diameter
maximum current usage is 2", although there is manufacturing of pipes with threaded ends, with
connections up to 4" or larger yet.

For connecting pipe fittings together for easy desassembly, is employed three types of pieces;
couplings, nipples and unions, with internal threads for screwing with the internal or external
threads of the pipe ends.

The threads of the pipes, as the unions, nipples and couplings are conical, with the grip there is
an interference between the screw threads, ensuring the tightness. For sealing, there are closure
sealants, sealing out completely.

It is important that the sealant used does not contaminate or be attacked or dissolved by
circulating fluid. For services with water or gas, typically using red lead as a sealant. The unions
are employed when you want the piping easily dismountable, where arrangements without the
existence of unions the threading would be impossible.

However, the threading weakens the wall, for this reason, when there are threaded
connections use always thick-walled pipes (Sch. 80 minimum). Threaded connections are only
used for hot-dipped galvanised steel tubes or wrought iron. Although, not exclusively, may be
threading on carbon steel pipes, alloy steels, cast iron and plastic materials, always limited to the
nominal diameter of 4 ".

The American standards for pipe threads are according to ASME.B.2.1. The threaded
connections are limited to the nominal diameter of 2", but not for services cyclical heavily. Except
for pipes "Category D" is required the minimum thickness for Sch. 80 up to 1 1/2" and Sch. 40 for
larger diameters. For thermoplastics, the minimum thickness should be Sch. 80, any diameter.

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This sam
me standard
d requires th
hat the pipe
e threads arre conical, and recomm
mends the ssealings
are mad
de on the th
hreads which
h work with flammable fluids, toxic, and otherss in that we should
have be
etter safety against leak
ks. Any thre
eaded conne
ection is alw
ways a weak
k point in th
he pipe,
subject to possible leaks
and with less mecchanical strength.
For this reason, thre
eaded conne
ections, are limited in prractice, exce
ept for rare exceptions,
to pipes
in low la
and plants responsibilitties and seccondary servvice pipes in industrial plants (e.g. water,
ssed air and
d condensate
e, at low pre
essure and te

12) Butt-welding and Socket-w


The pip
pes and othe
er accessorries with buttt welding must
have ends
ation with notches,
ng to ASME
E B.16.25 or other stand
dards. Accorrding to this specification
n, pipes with
h a wall
thicknesss up to 3/16
6", must hav
ve smooth tip
Butt Weldin
ng: Is the mo
ost widely ussed system for
f connectio
ons between
n tubes 1 1/2
2'' to 2''
a) B
o larger, any type of ste
eel. Can be a
applied to alll range of prressures and
d temperatu
ures, for
2 or larger pipes. Exce
eptionally, th
he welding can
c be emplloyed in smaller diametter (1"),
f example,, in service with
w hydroge

Pipes with wall

w thicknessses from 3//16" to 3/4", which are tthe most ind
dustrial typess, must
a "V" groove
mfer with 75 angle.
with a wall thickne
ess exceedin
ng 3/4", the chamfer mu
ust be in "dou
uble J ".

The roo
ot opening de
epends on the
t thicknesss of the wall and pipe diameters, ra
anging from 0.125
to 1/4". Welding rin
ngs may be
e placed insside the pip
pes that are usually inccorporated into the
welding, used prima
arily for large
e diameter tu
ubes (over 20").

These rings
are inttended to im
mprove the q
quality of the weld, makking the com
mplete pene
speed up
u the weldin
ng, facilitate
e the alignme
ent of the tubes and givve the correc
ct keyhole op
These rings
are discouraged fo
or services subject to cre
evice corrosiion. When th
hey are used
d, must
be remo
oved and grind the welding.


PDHonlline Course M451


b) S
Socket welding: this type of weld
ded connecttion is used
d in most industrial tube
es with
up to 1 1/2'' to
t 2'', throug
ghout the usual range off temperaturres, pressure
es, and
a type of steel pipes. This weldin
ng is also em
mployed, alth
hough not exclusively, in
n pipes
u to 4", non
n-ferrous me
etals and pla
astics. The ASME
3, recommen
nds not to use
u this
of weld for high services, corrrosion or ero
13) Flan
nged Conne

d connectio
ons consist of two flang
ges, a sort of screws o
or bolts and gasket kits with a
sealant,, to be easiily dismantled, mainly used for 2 diameters or larger, to
o connect the
e pipes
with vallves and eq
quipment (pu
umps, comp
pressors, tanks, vesselss, etc.), and
d at severall points
where itt is needed ease
of disassembly; an
nd pipes whe
ere are not normally
ed other connection
types: welding,
threads, tips and
d sockets, etc.
The pipe
e is connectted through couplings orr unions, when you want to ease the
e disassemb
bly. The
pipe, co
oupling or un
nion, are we
elded with a single exterrnal cord (fillet welding).. For steel pipes
non-ferrrous metals,, the weldin
ng is of the same mate
erial of the ttubes. Plastiic pipes to employ
suitable adhesives-plastic type.

In indus
strial pipes, most conn
nections are
e welded, with
fusion welding
h good mecchanical
nce (almost always equ
uivalent to the integral pipe), perffect tightnes
ss and perm
s in applicattion of therm
mal insulatio
on and paintting. No nee
ed for mainttenance. The main
disadvantages, unim
mportant in most
cases, are the diffiiculty in dism
mantling of pipes,
and th
he need
of skilled
d workers.

In this case,
all the
e pipes of wrought
iron, carbon steel, non-ferro
ous metals and
various plastic
pipes, where
are normally emp
ployed weld
ding connecttions. For pipes with intternal coatin
ngs the
flanged connection is the best solution, because it allo
ows the perffect continuitty of coating
g, since
this exte
ends also on
n the faces of
o the flangess.

PDHonline Course M451

As a general rule, the flanged connections should be used in the smallest possible number,
because they are always points of possible leaks, and because are expensive and heavy. The
flanges can be integrals, i.e., fused or forged together, welded or threaded with the pipe. The
flanges of valves, pumps, compressors, turbines and other machines are almost always integrals
with such equipment.

Although the standardized series of ASME B.16.5 covers nominal diameters from 1/2" to 24", are
not used flanges for pipes or tubes less than 1/2".

13.1) Common Types of Flanges:

The most common types of flanges, according to ASME B.16.5 are:

a. Integral Flange: used only in some cases to cast iron pipes. It is the oldest type of flanges
and also what is proportionally more resistant.

b. Welding-neck-WN): is the most often used in industrial pipes for all pressures and temperatures, for diameters from 1/2'' to 24. The welding neck flanges are the most resistant, provides
an important reinforcement for use in several applications involving high pressure and elevated
temperatures, giving conditions to lower residual stresses.
This flange is connected to the pipe with a single butt weld, with the inner surface of the pipe
perfectly smooth and seamless to facilitate the concentration of efforts or corrosion. The
assembly with these flanges is expensive because each piece of pipe shall have beveled edges
for welding, and must be cut square in the right measure, with very small tolerance in length.

c. Slip-on-OS):is cheaper and easier to install than the previous one, because the tip of the tube
fits into flange, facilitating the alignment, avoiding the need to cut the pipe in the exact measure.
The flange is connected to the tube by two welds on internal and external angle.

This flange can only be used for pipes in severe, because the services are not permissible grip is
much less, residual stresses are high and the section discontinuities result in the concentration of
efforts and facilitate erosion and corrosion.
Should not also be used for services with hydrogen and discouraged for cyclical services, subject
to wide variation in temperature and crevice corrosion. The overlapping flanges are always
weakness points into the pipe, because the mechanical strength is lower than the pipe itself.

d. Screwed-SCR): used only for non-weldable metal pipes (iron for example), and for some
types of non-metallic pipes, such as those of plastic materials. Can also be employed for carbon
steel and wrought iron in secondary pipes applications (water, compressed air, etc.) and proper
The ASME B.31 recommends sealing welds between the flange and the pipe, for flammable,
toxic, hazardous or great piping responsibilties. The permissive grip with these flanges is small,
and tensions developed are high as the screw acts as an intensifier of efforts, and also as a
permanent cause of leakage.

e. Socket Weld-SW):similar to overlapping flanges, but more resistant with a full socket on the
tip of the pipe for internal welding. This type is used for most steel pipes of small diameter, up to
2". Due the internal discontinuity these flanges are not recommended for services subject to
corrosion under contact.
f. Lap Joint:also called "Van Stone" and different from others, do not stay attached or welded
on the pipeline, but, able to slide freely released on the pipe. At the end of the pipe there is a
rebound or ledge (stub-end), which will serve as a stop for the flange.
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The big
g advantage
e of these flanges is tthe fact they
y are comp
pletely out of
o contact with
working fluid being much emplo
oyed in servvices that req
quire specia
al expensive materials, ssuch as
oys of Ni, Ni--Cr, etc., as well as for pipes
with internal coatin
stainless steels, allo

g. Blind
d Flange: ussed for closin
ng the ends of pipelines or closing the flanged nozzles.

Face Finishing:

The finisshing accord

ding to ASME B.16.5, be
eing the mosst usual type
es are:
a. Raise
ed face-RF)):is the mosst common fa
ace type for steel flange
es, applicable to any con
of presssure and tem
mperature. The
T salience has 1/16" in height forr pressure classes
150 psi and
300 psi,, and height of 1/4" to higher press
sure classes

The surrface salienc

ce can be smooth
or grooved
h concentricc or spiral grooves),
eing the
spiral grooves
more commo
on and ch
heaper. Acccording to MSS-SP-6
6, "Manufa
Standarrdization Society", the slots
must h
have a dep
pth of up to
o 1/8 and a pitch of 0,02
0.04. For
F servicess with hydrrogen and p
pressure exxceeding 15
50 psi, is usually requ
uired a
um average roughness
o 0.003 mm
m (0.125).

b. Flat face-FF): is
s the usual face
ng for cast iron flanges,, steel plate flanges and
d other
fragile materials
ch as plasticcs, for example. Howeve
er, if the casst iron flange
es and otherr fragile
materialls have face
es with a salience, the g
grip screws could cause
e fractures at
a the edgess of the
flange in
n consequen
nce of bending.

It is imp
portant to notte that when
n to attach fla
at face flang
ges of valvess and equipm
ment manufa
in cast iron, should also be used
d flat face fla
anges, even
n when these
e flanges are
e made of stteel.
c. Ring
g type jointt-RTJ: this kind of face
e is used in
n steel flang
ges for sev
vere services, high
es and tem
mperatures, such
as ste
eam (for cla
ass 600 psi, flanges or above), or hydrocarbons
s (for 900 psi flanges, orr above) or, in
i any case, for tempera
atures above
e 550C (102

PDHonline Course M451

The face of these flanges has a circular deep slot, which fits a metallic ring, to a better sealing
with the same degree of tightness of the screws, not only because of the actions of wedge ring,
but the internal pressure tends to dilate the squeezing ring seal against the slot walls.

The hardness of the face of the flanges should always be higher than the metallic ring and the
minimum values according to material:

- Carbon Steels: 120 Brinell;

- Alloy and Stainless Steels, 304, 316, 347 types and 321: 160 Brinell;
- Stainless Steels 316 L and 304 L types: 140 Brinell.

d. Male & female-tongue & groove: These type of face is used for special services with
corrosive fluids, because the metallic joint can be confined, in the absence of the fluid contact. It
should be noted that, with these facings, the couples between flanges are different from one

14) Materials, Manufacturing, Classes and Diameters:

Forging is the most common system for manufacture of steel flanges of any type. In practice, due
to the high cost and the difficulty of obtaining large forgings, for 20 largest flanges, are the
following alternative process for manufacturing:

- Hot rolled steel flanges. These flanges can be accepted as equivalent to quality forged:

- Flanges made of rolled sheet metal (or pressed), in two halves welded at the ends, when
observed that all inspection and manufacturing requirements (ASME, sec. Vlll, div. 1, par. UA46), must be accepted without restrictions.

The main specifications of ASTM forged flanges are:

- A-181: carbon steel forged flanges for general use.

- A-105: carbon steel flanges calmed with itself for high temperatures.
- A-182: steel flanges-Mo, Cr-Mo alloy and stainless steels.
- A-351: carbon steel flanges and Ni alloy steels for low temperatures.

The ASME B.16.5 sets the classes with nominal pressure: 150 psi, 300 psi, 400 psi, 600 psi, 900
psi, 1,500 psi 2,500 psi. The "primary non-shock rating" is the allowable pressure without a
certain temperature.

The carbon steel flanges are for temperatures up to 260 C (500 F) for class 150 psi and 455 C
(850 F) for the other classes. For alloy steel and stainless steel flanges these temperatures may
vary according to the material, being higher than the corresponding to the carbon steel.
Allowable pressures for any material and any class, decrease with increasing temperature. Thus,
for example, carbon steel flanges for class 150 psi, we have the following correspondences
between permissible temperatures and pressures:

38C (100F): 19 kg/cm (275 psi);

150C (300F): 14 kg/cm (210 psi)
260C (500F): 10 kg/cm (150 psi)
370C (700F): 7.5 kg/cm (110 psi)
480C (900F): 5 kg/cm (70 psi).

The number that represents the nominal pressure, does not mean the allowable pressure with
which the flange can work, as is erroneously interpreted. The allowable pressure for each
nominal pressure, depends on the temperature and flange materials.

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For each class of nominal pressure, an allowable pressure variation curve as a function of
temperature. In the ASME B.16.5 these curves are transformed into tables giving the permissible
pressure for all temperatures and for all usual materials.

14.1) Pressure/Temperature of Carbon Steel Flanges:

The ASME B.16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, sets for each nominal diameter and
pressure class all dimensions of flanges: inner and outer diameters, length, thickness, circle,
diameter drilling, number of screws, etc. The nominal diameter flanges with same pressure class
are exactly alike and will adapt to the same pipe. The nominal pressure classes cover all types of
flanges from 1/2" to 24", with the following exceptions:

- Class 2,500 psi is manufactured up to 12" diameter. Socket flanges are manufactured to 150
psi and 600 psi classes. Threaded flanges class 1,500 psi, manufactured up to 12" in diameter.

- Flanges of 3", nominal diameters or smaller up to 400 psi class, are the same as those of the
class 600 psi. Flanges 2 1/2" nominal diameters or smaller up to 900 psi class, are the same for
those of the class 1,500 psi.

Carbon steel flanges more than 24", according to MSS-SP-44 or according to API-605 (up to 60"
diameter nominal), or according to the standards of some manufacturers. Stainless steel flanges
have the face and machining patterns often lighter than the standard flanges, for economy of

Example: Flange welding neck, 6", ASME B.16.5, face with RF finishing, 300 psi, ASTM A-181
Gr. I, for Sch. 40 piping (ASME B.36.10).

15) Flanges with Other Materials:

Flanges are also of malleable iron, non-ferrous metals and various plastic materials. Cast
iron flanges (ASME B.16.1) are manufactured in nominal pressure classes 125 psi and 250 psi,
1" to 24", threaded and blind.

Drilling of cast iron flanges class 125 psi is the same of the steel flanges 150 psi class, which can
be engaged with each other; the same for cast iron flanges class 250 psi and 300 psi class steel.

Brass flanges, bronze and aluminum are manufactured in 150 psi 300 psi classes and, from 1/2"
to 4" in diameter. Plastic PVC flanges are manufactured in class 150 psi (ASME B.16.5), 1/2" to
8" in diameter, threaded, blind and socket weld with the appropriate adhesive to the piping.

Flanges for tubes "FRP" are manufactured in glass fibre reinforced plastics and these pipes
diameters range according to standard class 150 psi, ASME B.16.5; these flanges can be
integral to pipe or loose as lap joints.
15.1) Flange Joints or Gaskets:
For all flanged connections there is a joint which is the sealing element. The joint is subject to a
strong clamping screw compression and a shear stress due to internal pressure of circulating
fluid. It is necessary that the pressure exerted by screws is higher than the internal pressure of
the fluid, so that there is no leakage through the joint.
For this reason, the greater the fluid pressure harder and resistant is the joint to resist the dual
effort of compression and shear by the pressure screws. The joint must also be sufficiently
deformable and elastic to model irregularities of the surfaces of the flanges, ensuring the sealing.
The material of the joints should also resist the corrosive action of the fluid, as well as, the whole
possible range of temperature variation.
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15.2) Jo
oint Applica
Joints and
s are to be used in a w
wide variety
y of static ssealing appliications for bolted,
bonded, brazed, and welded joiints:
- Chemiical/industria
al piping;
- Marine
e engine and
d transmissio
on housing;
- HVAC (Heating, Ventilation,
and Air Cond
ditioning) steam, chilled w
water, and re
- Autom
motive engine
e cooling sysstem housing;
- Sealed
d electrical housings
d cabinet;
15.3) Ap
pplication Details:
Surface irregularitie
es, joint pre
essure extru
usion, and stress
can ccause leakss in conven
bolted and gasketted joints. Although liq
quid sealan
nts can red
duce leaks by filling surface
ctions, adhe
ering to jointt surfaces, a
and minimizing gasket tthickness, process conttrol and
servicing can be diffficult.
Liquid sealants
ed in a highlyy finished jo
oint can fail, resulting fro
om sealant breakdown.
and we
elded joints eliminate some
limitattions and costs
of bolted joints, but may in
able process
s variability and
a hinder future disasssembly.
15.4) Jo
oint Types:
a. Non-metallic: flat
joints are
used to
o face flang
ge to flange for sealin
ng purpose
es. The
thicknessses range from
(0.7 mm) to 0.125 (3
3 mm) and the
t most common thickkness is
1/16 (1
1.5 mm). The
e main mate
erials are:

Natural rubb
bers: for wate
er, air, condensate up to
o 60C (140F).
rubbers: for oils up to 80C
C (176F).
erials: for corrrosive fluidss at low presssure and temperature.
askets: gen
neric name to denote various
classses of com
mpressed assbestos
h a binder material.

ng to specifiications, the following m
major types of
o joints are:

Asbestos with natural ru

ubber: water, air, saturatted steam, up to 200C (392);
with compound rubber: ste
eam, ammonia, caustic, etc., up to 500C
nt composite
e with asbesstos: for gene
eral acids up
p to 450C (8
with metallic frrame: for ste
eam, hydroccarbons, etc., up to 590C (1094F);


PDHonlline Course M451


b. Semii-metallic, spiral:
insertted metal bla
ade, twisted,, with asbesttos filler betw
ween each lap. For
raised fa
ace flanges with service
es exceeding the limits allowed for hydraulic joints pressurre class
flanges 600 psi or higher
with maximum
avverage roug
ghness of 0.003 mm (12
25 RMS). Gaskets,
spiral arre notable du
ue great elasticity.
c. Metallic: with a cover
metal,, flat or corru
ugated filled
d of asbestoss; thickness up to 1/8 ((3 mm).
ng sealing flanges with smooth finissh with maximum avera
age roughness of 0.002 mm or
with con
ncentric groo
oves. Depen
nding on the conditions of
o service, th
he metallic hood
can be carbon
steel, sttainless stee
el or Monel.
d. Meta
allic gaskets
s: For raised
d face flange
es (very high
h pressures) and groove
ed male and female
flanges.. All metal jo
oints are tong
gue and groove types.
e. Ring
g Metallic Joints
(JTA): massive metal rings,, oval or occtagonal sec
ction. Accorrding to
ASME B.16.20,
e dimensionss of the ring may vary with the diameter and the
e nominal pre
usually made of stainless steel, carbon stee
el, alloy stee
els, nickel an
nd Monel me

15.5) Bo
olts and Stu
ud Bolts forr Flanges:
For the connection of
o a flange iss employed two types off bolts:
- Machin
ne bolts;
- Stud bolts:
e or hexagon
nal head boltts with two nuts.
Studs th
hat have thrreads over th
heir full leng
gth or may have
an unthreaded porrtion on the central
area of the body dia
ameter. There are studss threaded on each endss or with an unthreaded portion
on the body.

PDHonline Course M451

Threads: The cases are designated by the total length and the nominal diameter of the screw.
The dimensions of screws, nuts and threaded fillets are standardized by the ASME B.18.2 and
ASME B.1.1. All studs and bolts shall have Class 2A unified screw threads.
Size 1" and below shall have UNC threads.
Size 1 1/8" and above shall have 8 threads per inch.
15.6) Application Standards:
The ASME B.2.1 allows the use of carbon machine screws, for flanges up to 300 psi, nonmetallic gaskets and temperatures up to 260C (500F), and cast iron flanges 150 psi class.
There is a large variety of alloy steels for stud bolts and nuts, applicable to various working
conditions. The ASME B.31.3 Process Piping, has tables giving the allowable stresses and
temperature limitations for various materials.




-195 to 102C
(-383F to 215F)

ASTM A 182
Gr. F304, F304L,

A320 Gr. B8 Class 2

A194 Gr. 8A

-102 to -47C
(-215F to -116F)

ASTM A 350
Gr. LF3

A 320 Gr. L7

A 194 Gr. 7

-29 to 427C
(-84F to 800F)

ASTM A 105

A 193 Gr. B7

A 194 Gr. 2H

427 to 538C
(800F to 1000F)

ASTM A 182
Gr. F11, F22

A 193 Gr. B16

A 194 Gr. 2H

537 to 650C
(998F to 1200F)

Gr. F11, F22

A 193 Gr. B8 Class 1

A 194 Gr. 8A

650 to 815C
(1200F to 1500F

Gr. F304 H, F316 H

A 193 Gr. B8 Class 1

A 194 Gr. 8A

Note: Materials in the table above are being provided for guidance purposes

Obs.: Due to low mechanical resistance, austenitic stainless bolts, should not be used for severe
services, limiting the to pressure class flanges up to 400 psi, according to ASME B.31.
The tightness of the flanged connection screws, compresses the joint and introduces bending
efforts in the flanges. For this reason, the rules lay down limits for the yield strength of low
resistance steel flanges, such as cast iron. The following initial tightening values for some types
of joints are:
- Soft rubber joints: 25 to 40 kg/cm (~350 to 550 psi).
- Hydraulic gaskets: 80 to 120 kg/cm (~1100 to 1700 psi).
- Metal joints: 200 to 400 kg/cm (~2800 to 5600 psi).
15.7) Flange bolt torque:
The residual grip is to combat the effect of internal pressure in pipeline that tends to separate the
flanges. To avoid leaks, it is enough tighten 1 1/2 to 2 times the value of internal pressure. The
Appendix E and ASME VIII Div.1, Appendix 2 established based on tests of a number of gasket
groups, but more accurate values for specific gaskets may be obtained from the gasket vendors.
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The seating stress is a function of the gasket thickness. For example a catalog may specify y =
1600 psi for a 3/16 gasket, 2100 psi for 1/4, 2600 psi for 3/8 and 3000 psi for 1/2. The thicker
gaskets require larger compressive stresses for proper seating. Values are listed in ASME B16.5.
The minimum bolt torque T needed to achieve a preload, Fi, is: Tmin = K.Fi.d, where:
Tmin = minimum bolt torque, in-lb,
K = nut factor,
Fi = required preload, lb,
d = nominal bolt diameter, in.
K values:
Waxed or Lubricated (e.g. as supplied on high strength nuts) = 0.10,
Hot dip galvanized = 0.25,
Plain non-plated bolts (as received) = 0.20.
Nut factor is a factor established experimentally and depends on the metal and lubricant. It
typically ranges from 0.10 to 0.20 for lubricated bolts, and can be as high as 0.5 for unlubricated
bolts. The total tightening area is:

- The table below gives the tightening torque for A193 bolts:
ASTM A193 Bolts
Tightening Torque
Bolt Size
Lubric. Galvan.











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16) Belll and spigott connectio

A conne
ection betwe
een two secctions of pipe
e, the straight spigot en
nd of one se
ection is inse
erted in
the flare
ed-out end of
o the adjoin
ning section; the joint is sealed by a caulking co
ompound orr with a
ssible ring. Bell and spiigot connecttions are a very
old sysstem, more commonly
the follo
owing classe
es of pipes:

- Cast Iron
pipe for gas, water, sewage and
d corrosive liquids;
- Glaze
e clay pipes and
a cement--asbestos.
- Simple reinforced concrete pipes.
Ring oil seals, rubb
ber or plasticc seal eleme
ents are also
o very used for tube or pipe
fittings.. These
rings fitss with small pressure, inside the piipe slot. The
e rubber gasskets rings for
f iron pipe
es allow
considerable angullar moveme
ent (4 to 8
8, dependin
ng on the diameter), used for pipelines
ed to uneven
nness of the
e ground.
Bell and
d spigot pipe
es are emplo
oyed for liquids up to 15 kg/cm (300 psi) and fo
or gases up to 10.0
kg/cm (150 psi) . The ASME B.31 only allows the use
u of these
e connection
ns on pipelines for
water or
o sanitation. For reinforced concre
ete pipes with steel reinforcements
s, serve as rubber
retainer rings; ceme
ent mortar iss placed aftter to close up the spacce between the two tub
bes and
give the
e finishing.
16.1) Pa
atented Join

The pattented jointss types "Dre

esser", "Vic
ctaulic", Fle
exlock, Giba
ault, etc., are all rigid and
always have a reassonable angular movement between
n the two po
oles of the tu
ube. The "D
ng through screws usses two ring
gs, compressing again
nst rubber retainer glo
oves to
guarantee the sealin
ng. The jointts "Gibault and
a Flexlock
k" are similarr to the "Dres
sser" types.

The "Vic
ctaulic" joint has a single
e rubber reta
ainer ring, with
w a special format thatt fits into ope
en slots
at the ends
of both
h pipes. The
e retainer rin
ng, outside, has two pa
arts, fitted to
ogether by screws,
each on
ne covering half the circumference o
of the pipes.. The tighten
ning of the screws
the parts of the reta
ainer ring, givving the requ
uired sealing

All these
e joints are limited to re
elatively low
w pressures (300 psi m
max.) and in general sho
ould not
work witth vacuum or
o suction lin
nes of pumpss. All can co
ompensate fo
or depressio
ons of installation in
soil and
d possible to make small pipeline movements, or
o provisiona
al assembly of piping, ass is the
case of irrigation lines.

16.2) Co
onnections for steel piipes:

as the steel pipes repre
esent the va
ast majority of all indusstrial pipes, we can ma
ake the
g summary of connectio
on systems tthat can be recommend
ded for the pipes
of any type of
steel, in accordance
e with the us
sual practice


PDHonlline Course M451


ers1/2" up to 4" thread
ded connecttions: with nipples or couplings, alon
ng the pipe to nonsevere services.
op welding fo
or severe services.
ers 6"and larger:
Top welding
flanges, screwe
ed or overlap


Not severe service mea

ans fluid no
ot dangerous
s, maximum
m pressure up
u to 10.0 km/cm
psi), he
ead tempera
ature up to 100C (212F
vice means high
responssibility (flammable fluidss, toxic gase
es etc.) or prressure
temperatures excceeding the limits mentio
oned above..

17) Exp
pansion join

Expansion joints arre non-rigid parts which are inserted

d in pipeline
es in order to
t absorb wh
holly or
nsion from temperature
e changes and also to
o prevent the propaga
ation of
partiallyy the expan

Expansion joints are,

er, rarely used: in mo
ost cases, the
control of piping thermal
expansion is done simply by appropriate
e curves on
n the pipelin
nes, with se
everal chan
nges of
n, so that the
e pipe has enough
own flexibility.

The follo
owing list the
e major case
es which jusstifies the em
mployment expansion joiints:

Available sp
pace is insuffficient to a flexible
pipe capable of a
absorbing exxpansions.
I large diam
meter pipes (over
20 "), w
with the sho
ortest possible path.
I pipelines that have re
ectilinear patths, with min
nimal loss of load.
I pipes sub
bjected to vib
brations of la
arge amplitud
onnected to equipment
hat cannot be
b transmitte
ed efforts.

Comparring an exp
pansion joint with a pipe with
curves capable
of absorbing
a dilatation
equivalent, it
es that the pipe with ben
nds, due to the greater
length of
o the pipelin
ne, leads to greater
es of heat,
which ca
an reach 20%.

The mo
ost serious disadvantage
e of expanssion joints,
however, is the factt they are always a wea
ak point of
the pipe
e, subject to
t defects, leaks, and increased
wear, and
may givve rise to se
erious accid
dents, and
with con
nstant need for inspection and maiintenance:
this is th
he main reasson of its littlle use.

17.1) Ty
ypes of exp
pansion join
nts in motion.

The axia
al movemen
nt, which can be from d
distension, compression, or both, is the most co
entry typ
pe, deriving in general, from
piping rrelating to exxpansion joints.

This typ
pe of move
ement occurrs, for exam
mple, in rectilinear liness fitted with
h expansion joints.
Angularr and lateral movements
s are characcteristic of exxpansion joiints in short pipelines between
two vessels or any equipment,
a a result o
of dilatation.

With exxception of articulated

oints, intende
ed exclusive
ely for angullar movements, any oth
her type
of expansion joints must be pla
aced between two fixed
d points of tthe system, meaning th
he fixed
points and
a anchorin
ng nozzle equipment mu
ust have their own foundation.
Articulatted joints re
equire the syystem be ge
eometrically stable and ccannot there
efore stay between
each tw
wo fixed pointts, where the
ere are more
e than three expansion joints.


PDHonlline Course M451


17.2) Telescopic

pansion tele
escopic join
nt (slide join
nts) consistss
The exp
primarilyy of two pie
eces of con
ncentric pipe
es, that slip
one ove
er the other, each one connected
o the ends off
the join
nt. It has a conventio
onal gasket box, with
clamping screws to get the sea
al between th
he outer and
er tube pipe, only to absorb axial m
movement off
the inne
the pipe

opic joints with
diameters above 3"" usually ha
ave a system
m to guide and directin
ng axial
ent, avoiding misalignm
ment and ro
otations caussed by lateral efforts, especially
open. All
A telescope
e joints mustt have a limit device tha
at prevents the excessiv
ve opening. These
devices can be internal or exterrnal or adjusstable rod lim

mployed prim
marily for lo
ow-pressure steam pipe
es, hot water or conden
nsate in
These joints are em
congestted locations
s, where it is
s not possiblle placing exxpansion currves. Joints type "Dresser" and
other similar articles
s, may also be employe
ed as expan
nsion joints, to absorb small expanssions in
lower piping and no
s fluids.

17.3) Be
ellows jointts:

Bellowss (packless or
o bellows jo
oints) essentially consisst in a seriess of success
sive slices made
flexible thin sheets, and since do not havve sealings there is no risk of leak
ks. Maintena
ance is
much smaller comp
pared with telescope
oints. For th
his reason, iti can be ussed in severe fluid
s, flammable
e, toxic, etc.

All bello
ows joints alw
ways bring weaknesses
s to the pipelline, not
only beccause the mechanical
sttrength of the thin bellow
ws plate
is much
h smaller tha
an the pipe thickness, b
but also bec
cause is
more prone
to fa
atigue by cyclical
servvices and greater
e by corrosio
on and erosio
The big
g risk in these joints is the sudd
den rupture of the
bellows, which can
n cause sign
nificant leaks or even a fire of
proportions. For this reason, th
he choice off good materials for
construcction of the bellows
uld be extrem
mely carefull.

The wellds must be all butt weld

ding, located
d to ensure minimal
ation of the bellows
and absolutely perfect.
In th
he joints
of good
d quality the
e bellows mu
ust have on
nly one long
seam without
mferential we

Should be obligato
ory all the non-destru
uctive tests
s, consisten
nt with the material and
thicknesss of the pla
ate (x-rays, "magnaflux"" etc.). Afterr the joint is installed an
nd put into service,
there must be a me
eticulous inspection of th
he bellows on
o a regular basis, outside and insid
de. The
axial efffort required to comprress or to d
distend the belows join
nt, is much
h smaller th
han the
onding efforrt on a telesccope joint of the same diameter and work pressu

17.4) Ty
ypes of belllows joints:
Bellowss joints are used prima
arily for large diameter and hot pip
ping above 20", where
e is not
e or not cos
st-effective th
he employm
ment of expa
ansion piping
g bends. When the exp
joint is intended to
o work with fluids that can accum
mulate depo
osits or sediments, sho
ould be
d a small ste
eam injection
n, compresssed air or oth
her fluid under pressure,, between th
he inner
lining an
nd the bellow
ws, to clean the piping ccontinuously..

PDHonline Course M451

The following major types of joints are:

- Single Joints.
- Joints with equalization rings.
- Joints with articulation (hinge-joints).
- Double Joints.

a) Single Joints: are used only for no stringent services, where can be ensured the piping is
always perfectly guided and supported. These joints consist simply in a thin plate bellows directly
soldered to the extremes, usually flanged.

Single axial joints allow angular motion and also small lateral movement. Without rods the
bellows would be subject to an excessive distention, or even rupture, effect of internal pressure
which tends to increase indefinitely the length of bellows.

b) Joints with equalization rings: the rings are usually cast steel, externally placed between
each bi-partite, with the two halves fastened by means of screws. Without the equalization rings,
these rings would absorb the largest share of the movement, and could deform the belows.
The main purpose of these rings are to increase the resistance of the internal pressure bellows,
which tend to deform diametrically and also serve to prevent distension or excessive bud folding,
distributing the efforts.

c) Hinge joints:When the movement of the piping is only angular, the hinge joints are used with
external hinges fixed to the pipeline ends. The pins of articulation must have a permanent
lubrication system for ease of movement.

d) Double Joints:Used for the absorption of axial and lateral combined movements, or for large
lateral movements, that are nothing more than two joints with a short piece of intermediate pipe.

The bellows for all kinds of joints are manufactured with resistant materials against corrosion:
stainless steel, copper, nickel alloy, Monel metal etc., according to pressure, temperature of the
fluid and nature of service.

The joints are manufactured until 4.5 m (~15 ft) diameter, nominal temperatures up to 870C
(~1600F) and pressures since the absolute vacuum, up to 40 kg/cm (~560 psi). The axial travel
can reach up to 20 cm (8 in) and the permissible angular deflection in small diameters is up to
50. The ends of the joints are usually bellows, flanged or more rarely butt welded.

18) Steam extractors, separators and filters:

The steam (steam-traps) are automatic separating and disposing of the condensate formed in
steam pipes and heaters, while escaping steam. These devices should be called, with more
property, of "condensed extractors." Besides removing the condensate, also eliminate the air
and other gases (CO2, for example) that may be present. The following are the causes of steam
condensate in pipes:

- The condensate is formed by precipitation of moisture.

- In saturated vapour the condensate appears as a result of the losses of heat by irradiation.
- The condensate can appear as a result of the entrainment of water coming from the boiler.
- The condensate always forms in operation of the system, when all pipes are cold.
- When the system is taken from operation and the steam will condense inside the piping.
18.1) Application of steam:

Steam extractors are employed in two typical cases:

1) For removal of condensate formed in in general steam pipes (drainage of steam pipes).
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2) To hold
the ste
eam in heating appliancces (steam heaters, hea
ating coils, autoclaves, greenhouses etc.), leaving only the co

on must leavve a bowl called "conden
nsed accumu
ulator" (drip--pocket) insttalled
Obs.: This
at the bo
ottom of the steam pipe. The conde
ensate should always be
e able to run by gravity in
nto the
18.2) Installation details:

1. The condensate
enever possible, run by gravity
from the drain tub
be or appara
for the purger.
Where it is not possible to m
make the con
ndensate to d
drain by gravvity, should be
placed a check valvve to preventt the reflux of
o condensatte to be pushed by the pressure
of steam.

mes is neces
ssary an acc
cumulator when the purg
ger is installe
ed higher than the pipe line, so
that the condensate
e can be collected by gra
In contin
nuous opera
ation, where there is a co
ondensate re
eturn, should be provide
eded a bypass pipe
with ma
anual adjustm
ment valve (globe valve
e) for use when
the purrger is out of
o operation,, or put
two para
allel extracto

gh the cond
The exttractor condensate is always a function of diffferential presssure throug
ature and pu
urger. Set th
he minimum differential pressure an
nd the quan
ntity of conde
choosing the appropriate mode
el using the ccatalogs of manufacture
ers, who provvide the function of
differenttial pressure

18.3) Ca
alculation of
o the amou
unt of conde
ensate to eliminate:

Can be distinguishe
ed two generral cases.
- For drrainage of stteam pipelines.
- The am
mount of con
ndensate can be calcula
ated by the fo
ollowing exp

PDHonline Course M451


Q = Total amount of condensate (or > Q);

n = Safety factor;
Qa = Amount of condensate formed as a result of heat loss, at the start of the operation of the
Qs= Amount of condensate formed as a result of heat loss by irradiation in normal operation.

The safety coefficient n varies from 2 to 5, recommended by manufacturers for each specific

There are many tables and charts giving the values of Q, for various types of installation, pipe
diameters and thermal insulation classes. In the absence of other elements, these quantities can
be calculated by the following formula (QaandQsin Ib/h):


L = Length of pipe (feet).

w = Unit weight of the empty pipe (Ib/ft).
t = Temperature difference between the steam and the environment (F).
QL = Latent heat of steam in the final temperature (Btu).
N = Number of minutes of duration of heating pipes (usually takes N = 5).
a = Lateral area of the pipe (ft/ft).
U = Unit loss of heat through the thermal insulation.

Note: For the isolation of calcium silicate or 85% Mg, 2" thick - U = 0.286 Btu/ft/ F/h. For usual
steam piping the coefficient N is 2 to 3. The first two purgers at the output line of a boiler must
be oversized (safety factor = 4), to be able to eliminate the water dragged by steam.

19) Classification of Industrial Pipelines:

Process pipelines or fluid pipelines constitute the basic purpose of industry, whose main activity
is industries processing, storage or distribution of fluids, such as oil pipelines in refineries,
terminals and storage, facilities and distribution of products, steam piping in thermoelectric power
stations, chemical piping, etc.
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Utilities are auxiliary fluid piping, whose main activity is

industries processing, storage or distribution of fluids
and in all industries engaged in other activities. The
utility piping can serve not only the functioning of the
industry itself (refrigeration, heating systems, steam for
powering machines etc.), as well as, to any other
purposes, such as: maintenance, cleaning, fire fighting,

Instrumentation manifolds are pipelines for derivation

of compressed air or various fluids, to control valves for
automatic systems or automatic instruments, and also
small pipes. The instrumentation pipes are not intended
for transport of fluids.
Hydraulic piping is intended for transportation of hydraulic fluids. They are used for commands
of hydraulic servo-mechanisms. The pipes form an integral part of the machinery and equipment
(boilers, furnaces, heat exchangers, motors, etc.), but are not considered belonging to the piping

For an industrial installation can be distinguished two general cases:

- Piping within the work areas or fluid processing (piping in process units).
- Interconnection piping, outside lines to process areas, linking these areas among themselves.
Transport pipelines are ramifications employed for transporting liquids and gases out of
industrial installations, such as the adductors of water, oil and gas, drainages and collectors.

Distribution pipelines are the network out of industrial installations, (water, steam, etc.) when
the flow is toward the ends of the collecting branches (sewerage, drainage, etc.).
Pipelines for freshwater with neutral reaction (pH between 5 and 9), is a low fluid corrosion, up
to 60C (140F), not buried:

a). Low pressure piping and moderate temperature (up to 150 psi).

- Piping up to 4 "diameter: galvanized carbon steel (ASTM A-120), or galvanized malleable iron,
with threaded connections; networks of small diameter can be used PVC pipes, also threaded.
- Valves up to 4" diameter: Bronze, also with internal of bronze, threaded.
- Pipes, diameters from 2" or larger: carbon steel (ASTM A120 or A134), with over thickness to
corrosion of 1/8, butt welded connections.
- Valves, diameters of 3" or larger: cast iron, with internal mechanism of bronze, flat face flanges.
- Carbon steel forged flanges: (or plate manufactured), slip-on types and flat face flanges.
- Joints: natural rubber, hydraulic (up to 60 C), buried:
- Piping up to 2" diameter: PVC, with threaded connections.
- Pipes diameters of 3" or larger: cast iron for diameters of 20" or larger, and reinforced concrete.
- Valves (any diameter) flanges and gaskets: as above, for non-buried pipes.

b). High pressure piping (above 150 psi) and higher temperatures, not buried, within industrial
plants, including to the fuelling of heating systems:

- Piping up to 2'' diameter: carbon steel (ASTM A-53 or API-SL), with over thickness to corrosion
of 1/8, socket weld connections.
- Pipes, diameters from 2" or larger: carbon steel (ASTM A53 or API-SL), with over thickness to
corrosion of 1/8, butt weld connections.
- Valves up to 2'' diameter: forged carbon steel (ASTM A105), with internal mechanism in AISI
410 stainless steel, ends to weld.
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- Valves diameters of 2" or larger: cast carbon steel (ASTM A-216), with internal mecanism in
AISI 410 stainless steel, ends with raised face flanges.
- Flanges: forged carbon steel, type "welding-neck", raised face.
- Gaskets: hydraulic type.

1. Acidic or alkaline water can be highly corrosive. In cases not very severe, can be used
the same materials mentioned above, with overthickness to corrosion (1/8). The internal
mechanism of valves should be made of Monel metal.
2. The condensate can contain some amount of CO2, which gives rise to the carbonic acid,
that is very corrosive, then, is also recommended to adopt an overthickness of 1/8

20) Salt water pipelines:

Piping for continuous services with salt water (for cooling purposes, for example), are always one
of the serious problems of maintenance, due to intense corrosion which are subject, aggravated
with the temperature and flow speeds too high or too low (or zero).
In addition, there is also the problem of proliferation of algae and other wet organisms that can
cause obstruction of the piping.
The following materials are recommended:

- Piping, diameters up to 4": PVC or galvanized steel (higher pressures). Special stainless steel.
- Monel metal or cupro-nickel may be employed. These materials are restricted due higher costs.
- Piping, diameters of 6" or larger: Carbon steel, internal coatings of concrete, plastics or rubber.
- Valves, up to 2 "diameter: Bronze with bronze also internal, threaded ends.
- Valves, diameters of 3" or larger: Cast iron flanged valves, with internal mechanism of bronze.
Should be used carefully, because of the galvanic corrosion between iron and bronze or cast
iron containing graphite corrosion, that can shorten the useful life of the valve.
When are used butt welding, the connections are always points of initiation of corrosion, unless
the coatings can be painted or protected after made the welds, only possible for diameters over
20". For continuous important services, iron-nickel alloys valves are recommended, with internals
in bronze, despite of the high costs.

Note: Stainless steels are subject to a serious pitting austenitic corrosion occurrence, then,
must not be employed in any service with saltwater. Direct contact between dissimilar metals
may lead to galvanic corrosion, each case should be studied carefully.
21) Steam Piping:

Steam is a little corrosive fluid and many materials can be used when temperature and
mechanical strength limits are acceptable. Steel pipes (any type) diameters 1 1/2'' to 2", butt
welding, for large diameters. Valves can be forged steel, welding ends, or and cast steel, flanged
ends or welding ends.

For very high steam pressures (above 600 psi), temperature limits should be lower than those
shown in standard tables, due to the large mechanical request in the material. According to
ASME B.31.1, the gate valves class 400 psi or above, must have an integral by-pass tube.

According to the same standard, 3 gate valves or larger, 600 psi or above, must be rising stem
types with external threads. Block valves up to 8 "diameter are usually globe valves, larger
diameters are gate valves. In any steam piping is very important the complete drainage of
condensate, via purgers.
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To assiist condensa
ate drainage
e is, sometim
mes, necessa
ary the insta
allation of pip
pes with a sm
on in flow direction, mainly on lines of saturated
d steam, whe
ere is greate
er the formattion of

Some designers
ut air supprressors on height
of steam piping,, always flanged, forge
ed steel
(carbon or alloy steels), type we
elding neck,, raised face
e or ring seals. Piping ac
ccessories must
socket welded,
up to
t 1 1/2'', and butt welde
ed for larger diameters, always of th
he same matterial of
the pipe
es. All steam
m pipes mustt be insulated

22) Hyd
drocarbon piping:

The sele
ection of ma
aterials for oiil services, d
depends, fun
ndamentally,, on tempera
ature and pre
of impurrities, especcially of sulfu
urous and c
chlorinated products.
Steel pipes (any type), diamete
ers 1 to 2" are sockket welding ttypes and la
arge diameters are
butt wellding. Valvess diameters 1 to 2", are usually steel forged
d and larger diameters are
a cast
steel with flanged ends.
All flanges must b
be forged stteel (carbon
n or alloy ste
eels), type w
neck, ra
aised face orr ring seals.

22.1) Piipe materialls - tempera

ature applic
cation (any diameter):

Note: For
F high temperatures is
s recommend
ded the use
e of alloy ste
eels pipes; 7% Cr-0.5% Mo-9%
Cr-1% Mo
M or stainle
ess steel ASTM 405.

PDHonline Course M451

22.2) Materials for valves temperature application (any diameter):

Temperatures up to 280C (~540F): carbon steel, internal in stainless steel ASTM 410.
Temperatures up to 350C (~660F): alloy steel 5% Cr 0.5% Mo, internal mechanism of
stainless steel ASTM 410 (for sulfur internals must be stainless steel ASTM 304 or 430).

22.3) Materials of gaskets for flanges temperature application:

Flanges 150 psi and 300 psi, up to 250C (~480F): hydraulic type, flat cardboard.
Flanges 150 psi and 300 psi, 400 psi and 600 psi, temperature above 250C (~480F):
stainless steel spiral joints with asbestos.
Flanges classes 900 psi or above: metallic ring joints in stainless steel.

1. Hydrocarbons with presence of chlorides, at temperatures below dew point, are highly
corrosive due to possibility of formation of diluted HCI.
2. It is recommended over thickness minimum of 1/8 for carbon steel pipes. The valves
must have the internal mechanisms in Monel metal.
3. All hydrocarbons are flammable or combustible, then, most of pipelines there are risks of
fire, sometimes in high degree. Materials of low melting point (non-ferrous metals,
plastics, etc.) cannot be applied, except in small auxiliary pipes and some buried pipes.
4. Pipelines for viscous oils have, in general, heating and thermal insulation, and all warm
oils piping should always be thermal insulated.

23) Pipelines for compressed air:

The compressed air is a fluid of low corrosion and the following materials can be recommended:

a) Low pressure piping (up to 100 psi - 7 kg/cm):

- Up to 4" diameter pipes: galvanized carbon steel (ASTM A-120), with threaded connections.
- Up to 4" diameter valves: Bronze, with internal mechanism of bronze, threaded ends.
- Valves, diameters of 3" or larger: cast iron, with internal mechanism of bronze, flat face flanges.

b) High pressure piping (more than 100 psi - 7 kg/cm up to 150 psi 10 kg/ cm):

-Pipes: galvanized carbon steel (ASTM A-53 or API-5L), 1/8 overthickness for corrosion, socket
welding for diameters up to 2" (butt welding for larger diameters).
- Valves: forged carbon steel, socket welding ends for diameters up to 2", cast carbon steel, with
raised face flanges for larger diameters, internal mechanism in ASTM 410 stainless steel.
- Flanges: raised face wrought carbon steel for temperatures up to 140F (60C) and pressures
up to 150 psi (10 kg/cm), joints in natural rubber; for higher pressures and temperature is
recommended to use hydraulic gaskets.
In all compressed air piping there is the problem of water drainage due the wet moisture that
condenses from the air cooling, or is formed when the flow system is interrupted. For this reason
water separators should be installed in all low points, before blocking valves at line ends. If
possible, the condensed water must run by gravity to the purgers.
When the air is required to be cleaned, for equipment preservation, should be installed filters to
retain dust, moisture and oil. Presence of oils and greases in compressed air lines are very
dangerous because it can lead to explosions caused by air compression or consequent heating.

Compressed air tubings for instruments and automatic control valves are always applied with
stainless steel, copper, brass or plastic materials. The diameters of the tubes are always small
(up to 3/4") and very low pressures.

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24) Pipelines for high and low temperatures:

The limits of acceptable for various materials is shown in the table below:

Note: When applied austenitic stainless steels for service temperatures above 1022F (550C), it
is recommended to use the type "H" steels (304H, 316H, etc.).

At low temperatures the following table shows the limits for a variety of materials. Some metals
(as carbon steels) lose their ductility at low temperatures and are subject to sudden brittle



Limit of low temperature

Not killed carbon steel

Killed carbon steel
Fine-grain killed steel
Alloy steel 2 Ni
Alloy steel 3 1/2Ni
Copper, brass, bronze
Alloy steel 9 Ni, Stainless steels
Stainless steel


ASTM A-106
ASTM A-333 Gr. 6

32F (0C)
68F (20C)
113F (45C)
140F (60C)
212F (100C)
356F (180C)
382F (195C)
491F (255C)

ASTM/AISI 316, 317, 321

ASTM/AISI 310, 317

For carbon-steels and Ni alloy steels are required impact tests for verification of ductility,
to be applied in low temperatures, including materials for bolts and flanges; for
stainless austenitic steels, these tests are only required for casting materials.
Aluminum is a metal of low melting point and cannot be used in pipelines or in places
where demand safety against fire.

25) Gas pipelines:

Gases when dried, that is, when kept at temperatures above its dew point, generally are slightly
corrosive and the material employed should be at temperature limits. Pipelines for gas, refineries,
steel mills, petrochemical industries, etc., are constructed of carbon steel, alloy steel or stainless
steel, depending on the operating temperature.
Commonly is adopted carbon steel pipes with a refractory insulating coating, so that the internal
temperature of the metal is kept below the acceptable limit. For gases at temperatures below the
dew point, there may be severe corrosion due the formation of dilute acids, being often required
corrosion-resistant materials, or coatings of plastics, rubbers, concretes, etc.

When pipelines are used in temperature below the dew point, is recommended a complete drain
or fill with an inert gas. For buried distribution pipelines and low pressure gases, can be
employed bell and spigot cast iron tubes (for gases) or seamed carbon steel pipes. Precautions
must be taken for collecting condensed liquids, placing water separators in low points.
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26) Pipelines for hydrogen:

The presence of hydrogen, as pure gas in a mixture with other liquids or gases, causes the
brittleness of steels in high temperatures, with blistering (bullae) of carbon steels, in moderate
temperatures due the penetration of atomic hydrogen in the metal molecules.

The selection of materials is made by consultation of the so-called "Nelson curves", published as
standard API-RP 941 in "American Petroleum Institute", which show the fields of application of
carbon and alloy steels of different Cr-Mo and stainless steels, applied for temperature and
partial pressure of hydrogen.
The use of carbon steel is permitted until its temperature limit of practical use, since the partial
pressure of hydrogen (in case of mixtures containing hydrogen) is less than 100 psi (7 kg/cm); to
greater pressures, use of carbon steel is recommended up to 698F (370C).

In any condition, including ambient temperature, the carbon steels must be always fully killed
(ASTM A-106 Gr. B, C or A-672 Gr. B, 60, 70). All piping with presence of hydrogen at pressure
(or partial pressure) more than 150 psi (10 kg/cm), should be butt welded, avoiding screws and
socket weldings, recommended operating temperature less than 698F (370C).

For this reason, pipes with diameter less than 1" should not be used. The use of flanges must be
employed only where is absolutely necessary and should not be used threaded flanges, weld or

Flanges up to 400 psi, should be raised face and smooth finish (average roughness maximum
0.00012 inch (0.003 mm) for use with stainless steel joints, spiral types, filled with asbestos.
Flanges 600 psi or above must have stainless steel oval ring gaskets. Cannot be allowed any
threaded or welding connections. End pipe valve openings (drains, vents, etc.), must be closed
with blind flanges.

27) Pipelines for acids and alkali:

The materials recommended for services with three of the strongest mineral acids: sulphuric,
nitric and hydrochloric acids, are:
a) Sulphuric acid:

- Carbon steel: temperature, concentration above 85% and flow speed up to 3 ft/s (~1 m/s).
- Stainless steel type "Carpenter 20": concentration up to 90%, temperature up to 212F (100C).
- Monel Metal: concentration up to 60%.
- Plastic materials: concentration up to 70%, temperature up to 122F (50C).
- "Hastelloy C", glass and porcelain: any condition, temperature or concentration.

b) Hydrochloric acid:

- Bronze, copper, Monel metal: ambient temperature, concentration up to 10%.

- Plastics, rubbers: ambient temperature, concentration up to 50%.
- Cupro-nickel: room temperature, concentration up to 40%, and up to 212F (100C), ~10%.
- "Hastelloy B", "Chlorimet 2": concentration up to 50% at any temperature.
- Glass, porcelain: any condition, temperature or concentration.

c) Nitric acid:

- Stainless steel type 304L: concentration up to 95%.

- Aluminum: concentration above 95%, at room temperature.
- Plastics: concentration up to 40%, at temperatures up to 122F (50C).
- Glass, porcelain: any condition, temperature or concentration.
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Obs.: All recommendations are in function of temperature and concentration of acids. For high
acid concentrations, the application professional must be very careful with accidental acid dilution, that can occur as a result of the absorption of moisture from the air and will cause violent
corrosion in piping.
For service piping with alkali (caustic soda solutions, etc.), are distinguished three cases and
the selection of materials is dependent on the temperature.

- Temperatures up to 100F (~40C): Allowed employment of carbon steels, without limitations.

- Temperatures between 100F (40C) and 158F (70C): carbon steels, with a heat treatment of
stress relief in all welds, curved pipes or any other region subjected to some cold forming.
- Valves should be in Monel metal.
- Temperatures above 158F (70C): pipes and valves in copper, brass or Monel metal.
- Coatings for any concentration are: epoxy resin up to 176F (80C), ebonite up to 250F
(~120C), and the "Teflon" up to 480F (~250C).

For services that are recommended the plastic materials, diameters over 4" should be used steel
pipes with internal plastic coatings.The flanged connections should be with the plastic covering
the face of flanges, to ensure the continuity of the coating. For any diameter of pipe, the valves
are usually of the diaphragm type.

In any piping services with acids or alkalis, exist the possibility of the corrosion galvanic action
between dissimilar metals in contact, very intense, due to strong electrolytic means. Piping of
stainless steels or non-ferrous metals, should be employed with "loose" type carbon steel flanges
or ferrules of the same material of the pipe.

28) Pipelines for sewerage and drainage:

Almost all sewage pipes are buried, for sanitary, industrial and rainwater sewers, exception made
only to short snippets in basement and underground building pipings. Most of these pipelines
work without pressure, as channels for liquid free flows; and must have a constant slope, as
strictly as possible.

The fluid flow in all sewer pipes is always aggressive. In industrial sewage pipes, liquids are very
corrosive of variable nature, regarding chemical composition, concentration, temperature,
corrosion conditions, etc.

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Rainwater sewer pipes are employed clay pipes, cement-asbestos, glazed cast iron or concrete,
all bell and spigot types. The choice between these materials depends on the diameter and the
mechanical strength required, in function of external overloads.
Sanitary sewerage lines are all almost built of glazed ceramic pipes; PVC or lead pipes are used
for small diameters, and for external overloads are commonly used the reinforced concrete
pipes, or cast iron pipes.

In special cases it may be necessary the use of cast iron pipes with internal coatings of plastics,
rubbers, etc. For pressurised industrial sewage the piping should be of carbon steel (with internal
coating against corrosion, if necessary), until the first maintenance manhole.

When liquids are acids or with acid drainage should not be used concrete pipes, asbestoscement or cement mortar as sealing material. Fluid processing industries have always a sewage
and waste fluids special piping net for emergency drainage. In these pipelines, the circulating
fluids are the same fluids being processed.

For this reason, sewage materials are the same as the process piping, in butt welded carbon
steel pipes in most cases, usually above the ground and low temperatures and pressures. The
emergency drainage is done with suction pumps within the system (pumpout), or the fluids are
expelled by its own system pressure (blow down).

29) Mounting, Operation and Maintenance:

a. Equipment piping:

Connecting pipes that need to be dismantled or removed periodically (pumps, compressors,

turbines, filters, etc.), must be installed with free spaces required for disassembly and removal, to
allow the operation of lifting equipment weights. For all the pumps, compressors, turbines,
machinery in general and other equipment in need of continuous presence or any operator, must
be left free the necessary space for the operator access.

b. Operation of valves, equipment and instruments:

All valves, instruments and equipment operation and maintenance, should have easy access
from the ground, structures, platforms, ladders, etc. Manual operation valves that are more than
6 ft above from the floor of operation, must have chain wheels, rod extension or extension lever.

The ideal height for the steering wheel of a valve is 3 ft above the floor, including the current
operation of the valves. For smaller, as 2" valves, is not possible the use of chains, then
extension rods should be used for operation.

Provide space and possibility of dismantling of equipment, valves, instruments, and accessories
that periodically require maintenance (lubrication, seal, etc.) or removal. We recommend a
minimum of 3 free space, between a flange and any column or structure, especially in
congested locations.

c. Position of welds and crossing pipes:

In pipes of 3" or more in diameter, it is not recommended two weldings less than 2" away from
one another, to lessen the effects of residual stresses of heat affected zones on material, result
of welds too close. For smaller diameter pipes should not have welds with less than 3/4" from
one another.

The output pipes of condensate accumulation vessels, working in general, with liquids at room
temperature and close to boiling, is necessary a good space to ensure the NPSH of the pump.
Pipe accessories should never be installed less than 0.5" of soil, including drains and traps in low
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points. All piping on high position, with traffic passing underneath, must allow space for the piping
that exits on the bottom of the vase.

The vertical distance between pipes in different directions, to allow crossing over each other, or
to enable the derivations, should be the minimum strictly necessary. This distance must be
properly increased, when there are pipes with external thermal insulation, or when there is a
forecast of future installation tube parallel of larger diameter.

d. Gas piping:

In piping for steam, air and other gases, all derivations should always be made at the top of the
pipe, to prevent the output of condensate liquids or other liquids. It is recommended to use
curves, because have lower pressure loss, less wear by corrosion and erosion, reduced risk of
leaks, and often also the lowest cost. The minimum radius of curvature of the center line of the
pipe is 3 to 5 times its diameter.

For stainless steel tubes, hot bending (tubes more than 2") can only be done by high frequency,
to avoid damage to the material. For carbon steels, non-ferrous metals and thermoplastic
materials, any process can be employed.

The ASME.B. 31 (Section 1 and 3) allows the use of curved tubes to any conditions of service
since the tolerances of roundness and thinning the walls are within the limits allowed, making
sure only restrictions in that the inside curves is corrugated.
e. Pumping of liquids:

Very large diameter pipes for liquids (30" or more), with high velocity, the inertia of the net mass
in movement can achieve critical values, requiring special care to decrease the effects of the
changing velocity, whirling and changes of direction.

For this reason the derivations are made with parts in "Y", the curves must be 45 to the direction
of flow, seeking to maintain constant liquid velocity, through accessories for reduction in points
where there is a variation of flow. In suction line of pumps, the fittings should be eccentric to
avoid the formation of air bubbles, positioned before the pump nozzle. In vertical tubes should be
concentric reductions.
Do not mount the valves with the stem facing down, because it would result in accumulation of
debris in the castle of the valve. Horizontal stem valves, besides being generally more difficult to
maneuver, the access passages can clog and cause accidents. The best position for the valves
is with the inclined stem, or sloping upward.

f. Piping drains:

In any piping there must always be a drain valve and all high points must also be a valve to the
purge inlet and air ("vents"). The valve may be of the gate type (for liquids in general), plug (for
gases), or sphere (for corrosive services).

For high-risk services (liquid hydrogen, or corrosive gases), and 900 psi pipes or above class, it
is recommended that the drains and vents are flanged and closed by a blind flange, without
valves. For liquefied gases under pressure, the drains must have double locks, with a bypass
passage between the two valves, to allow the closing, if the extreme valve is frozen as a result of
sudden decompression gas into the atmosphere.

For common liquids, the minimum diameter of drains and vents is 3/4", for piping up to 30". For
viscous liquids that leave solid deposits, the drains and vents should have larger diameter, up to
1 . In pipes where is necessary to use suction cups to prevent the formation of vacuum, those
valves shall be placed in high points associated with relief conditions.
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In places where it is necessary to secure a pipe blocking, i.e. a guarantee there is no passage of
fluid from one side to another, two block valves, separated by a short piece of pipe, must be
installed a drain valve. The drain valve should remain open when locking valves are closed.

g. Safety valves and relief valves:

To avoid high pressure due dilation of fluids in the process, must be installed relief valves
between two block valves, exposed to atmosphere, calibrated to open at a pressure higher than
the maximum pressure of operation that can occur on the line.

The discharge of a safety valve, commonly applied in gaseous systems, is often a dangerous
and strong jet of hot gases, flammable and toxic, it should be toward the atmosphere, to prevent
harm to persons or equipment, opens after the reaching pressure point. Should be positioned at
a minimum height of 60 ft from the ground, and at least the 10 ft above any platform.
For dangerous fluids, it is recommended that the unloading of safety valves is done for a closed
piping, leading the fluid up to a safe location. The drain lines should have a minimum load losses
not to cause back pressure in valves.

30) Sampling, pressure gauges, thermometers and orifice plates:

Samples and other points where could be leakage of fluid, should stay within 3 ft above the
platform level of operation, the operator's perspective, particularly with hazardous fluids. The
pressure gauges (and vacuometers) are installed with a derivation type "T" or welded sleeve on
main pipe with a valve and a drain valve or air purge valve could be a 3-way type to do both

Thermometers should be installed on welded pipe gloves, with a tubular extension, called "the
pit", for protection of the bulb that is inside the pipe. Outline pipe (by-pass type) must be
executed with regulating valve and block valves, before and after, so that the equipment can be
taken out of operation without having to stop the entire system.

Before and after the measuring orifice plates, venturis and other flow measurement devices,
should always be left a length of straight pipe, according to the "Orifice Metering of Natural Gas"
of the American Gas Association". Orifice plates should not be placed on vertical flow pipes.
The orifice plates must be installed between flanges special, called "pipe flanges" containing, in
the body of the flange, a small threaded outlet to the pipe of pressure measurement, class 300
psi and above.

In all processing areas, where are the pumps, compressors and other equipment connected to
pipes or valves, must have hose couplings for water, steam and compressed air, 3 ft above
the platform operation, as a "service station", to assist the maintenance, cleaning and the
extinction of fire.
31) Underground pipelines:
Within an industrial plant are rare underground pipes.
Usually only the underground sewer lines (rainwater,
industrial health, etc.), which almost always work by
gravity and the distribution of potable water and
compressed air. It is usual buried fire pipelines, to avoid
the possibility of collisions and other accidents.
Outside the boundaries of an industrial plant, in cities,
roads, streets and fields, all pipelines are underground for
reasons of safety, appearance and economy and not to
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interfere with the movement of people and vehicles.

Underground pipes is thrown directly into the soil, without brackets or foundations, as there is no
reason for setting the tubes in parallel beams on both directions. The pipes in open terrain, in
general, have the shortest path between the extreme points, compatible with local conditions.
Underground pipes have not changes to give flexibility for the following reasons:
a. the majority of pipes is not exposed to the sun, the expansion are negligible, being easily
absorbed by moving the pipes on the ground. Even when the pipe works with a little warm, the
free movement of the tubes in the ground is, in general, capable of absorbing the dilatations.
b. in case of larger expansions, which cannot be absorbed, expansion joints or connections that
allow small axial movements are used the "Dresser", "Victaulic" joints, or certain types of
Underground pipes which are subject to corrosion by soil should receive a protective coating or
an external treatment. Should be used concrete blocks and anchor points in derivations to
prevent a possible deviation due the effect of internal pressure.
Steel pipes with insulation below ground level must be installed within channels, except cast iron
pipes, glazed, concrete, plastics and other non-metallic materials. The channels must be
constructed in such a way to be possible easy draining. Sewerage pipes sewage pipes work
allways as channels, that is, by gravity, with free surface.
Sewage pipes that carry a certain amount of solids must have, at certain points, settling boxes
called "visiting boxes", where the solid material is deposited. The visiting boxes must have a
removable cover for cleaning and a certain depth below, for the accumulation of solids. The
dimensions of the boxes will be the greater the larger the diameter of the tubes.
The removable covers are almost always made of cast iron, even for the big boxes. When there
is the presence of flammable gases, explosives or toxic, the visiting boxes must have:
- Lids, closing tightly.
- Breathing pipe, leading the gas up to safe location.
- Septum inside the box, forming a water seal, to prevent the passage of dangerous gases.
- Sanitary sewer pipes in the same system, is also frequently used.
All derivations in sewage pipes should be made 45, in the direction of flow. For small extensions
use tees or crosspieces of 45. Pluvial systems, which liquids are collected on the ground, use
collection boxes with cast iron lids, which also serve as funnel.
When there is the presence of flammable gases, explosives or toxic, the collection boxes must
have water sealings on the surface. Industrial sewage and sanitary sewer systems are always
independent and designed not to permit contamination.The industrial and sanitary sewage
effluent should, in general, receive some treatment before being cast out.
32) Pipe brackets:
Pipe brackets (pipe-supports) are devices intended to
withstand the weights and other stresses exerted by pipes or
tubes, transmitting these efforts directly to the soil, surrounding
structures, equipment or even, other pipes.
There is a wide variety of different models and types of pipe
brackets. According to the main function engaged, the holders
can be classified into:

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1. Supp
ports intende
ed for sustain
n weights: piipe-hangers, spring bracckets (spring
2. Supp
ports intende
ed for limiting
g the movem
ments of pipes (restraintts): anchors,, guides, sto
ops and
upwind legs (bracing).
3. Supp
ports that abssorb vibratio
ons, buffers ((dampers): most
devicess support more than one
e of the
above fu
unctions, as almost all supports
limit movementts and also maintain
the weights.
The pipe
e bracket typ
pes are:
1. suppo
ort pipes, va
alves, accesssories, therm
mal insulation, people, platforms, strructures etc.;
2. forces
s of friction from
e movementss between pipe
and stru
3. therm
mal dilatation
ns due conse
equential changes;
4. dynam
mic loads du
ue hammer blows,
circullating fluid accelerationss, vibrations, wind action
n, etc.
All these
e loads musst be evaluatted in order to calculate
e the forces transmitted to the groun
nd or to
In most casses, the weig
the struc
ctures and foundations.
ght of water (hydrostaticc test) or the weight
of the flu
uid, when higher than water.
Large diameter pipe
es for gases can lead to excessive oversizing
off the supportts. It is impo
ortant to
figure out, that all equipment co
onnected to the network
k of pipeliness (vessels, ta
anks, pumpss, etc.),
must ha
ave their own
n bases or brackets,
en when dea
aling with sm
mall equipme
33) Mob
bile supportts:
These brackets
n be supporrted or hung
g to transmit weights do
own or up, not allowing vertical
m of movem
ment. Suppo
orters called "trunnions"" are very u
used for cu
urves. This system
allows to
o increase th
he spacing of
o main bracckets to perm
mit thicker pipes.
Supportting bracketss must be a
at least 4 tim
mes the diam
meter of
the larrgest suppo
orted tube. It is im
mportant that the
diate suppo
orts, when h
hung, are not too much rigid,
due the relative mottion of any o
one of the pip
So it is e
entirely disc
couraged the
e use of clam
mps or otherr similar
es securing the bracke
ets. For a single
ng of a
vertical pipe there is need of a great num
mber of bracckets to
avoid vibrations and
d lateral defle
To supp
port light tubes (until 1 1/2"), horizon
ntally and ve
it is freq
quent the use
e of a wide vvariety of acccessories: clamps,
collars, suspensions, in galvan
nized steel or
o plastic materials
with inte
egral clampin
ng bolts, dire
ect in concre
ete or mason

33) Anc
Anchorss are supporters for horrizontal pipe
es. Great ex
pipelines should be
e subdivided
d into partia
al snippets, through
diate anchors and everry stretch be
etween two anchors
have an
n independe
ent expansio
on curve. T
The purpose
e of this
subdivission is to avoid
dilations which would
requirre large
expansion curves, often impossible to acccommodate
e within
the avaiilable space of the passa
age of pipess.
For example, the en
nd point of an
a excerpt w
with 200 m ((~650 ft)
long, ha
ave a dilatio
on of approxximately 30 cm (~1.0 ft),
f for a
ce in temperrature of only 150C (~3

PDHonline Course M451

It should be noted also that the weight and the friction in the brackets, the piping tend to buckle
sideways when dilate. In practice, it is advisable to make the subdivision of excerpts so that they
do not have expansion movements of more than 10 cm (~4 in).
Isolation in pipes are subject to vibrations of large amplitude, frequency and small anchors can
be employed for the purpose of preventing the propagation of vibrations. It is sometimes
necessary to put anchors behind safety valves, to absorb the reaction of valve opening, primarily
for high pressures and high flow rates.
Dampers used for this purpose, are generally equal to hydraulic shock absorbers manufactured
for road and rail vehicles. The tube is connected to the subject to vibration damper by using an
adjustable rod and damper is rigidly attached to a fixed structure.
34) Gantry structure and piping alignment:
The porch (pipe rack) can be of steel, reinforced concrete cast on site, or precast concrete.
Steel structures, which are the most employed in industrial installations, have as main
advantages the lightness and slenderness of the pieces and the facility modifications and
Steel structures are not fire-proof, and should therefore
receive a special coating on places where are necessary the
fire-proof. When employed concrete structures and steel
structures with concrete, is necessary to avoid direct contact
of hot pipes, that could cause cracks in the concrete.
The gantry structures (or pipe racks) are often built to receive
several groups of parallel pipes at different elevations, linked
to each other by longitudinal beams, parallel to the diagonal
piping, and windward parts. The longitudinal beams have the
following purposes:
- Absorb horizontal forces (friction reactions and dilatations);
- Support pipes, perpendicular to the main piping;
- Support transversal forces of small diameter piping, crossing the structures.
Whatever the structure employed for piping support is very important, the structure has to be
rigid enough, due the effect of the efforts provided by the piping. The use of any existing
structure must always be observed the following:
1. check that active efforts are consistent with the structure in question;
2. download the weights on the foundation blocks, columns, or the rafters next to columns, to
reduce the bending moments;
3. avoid twisting and bending-sides on rafters and avoid crunches in thin parts due the side wind.
4. avoid as far as possible, the transmission of heat and vibration to the structure.
One of the most important tasks of the piping installer, is
the proper alignment. If done correctly, the welding will be
much easier and the piping system shall be easily
executed. If the alignment is not appropriate, the welding
will be difficult and the piping system can not work
properly. Many templates are useful to help the alignment.
The Tube Turns manufactures three types of welding
rings to make the alignment easier and to provide a correct
opening for welding. There are variations in alignment
methods in industries, in general, adapted to each type of piping welders.
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35) Flow
wcharts are schematic drawings,
The flow
without scale, whic
ch shows the
piping network in a given area with
uipment to
vessels, pumps and other equ
which the
k is conneccted. The
main pu
urpose is to show the process
on of a systtem, not inttended for
cturing, cons
struction or assembly.
Usually be made two
general types of
a) Proccess Flowccharts (proccess flowsheet): The proc
cess flowch
harts are
y the team
isometriic drawings prepared by
of proccess, in the
e initial phase of a
project. These draw
wings must be figured
as follow

IImportant bo
oiler equipm
ment (tanks, vessels, rea
actors, towerrs, furnaces, heat excha
with in
ndicators of basic chara
a-cteristics such as type
e, overall dim
mensions, prressure
a tempera
ature of operra-tion, number of trays, thermal loa
ads, etc.

IImportant machines
umps, comprressors, ejectors, etc.), with an indiication of the
e basic
succh as flow, pressure
d temperaturre of operation, etc.

Main pipes, with indication of fluid and flow direction,

locck valves, adjustment,
and re
elief, main in
nstruments (indicated
byy its conventtions).

b) Mecchanical flow
wcharts or detailing (e
engineering flow-sheetss): These d
draw-ings arre also
ed by the team of pro
ocess, in la
ater stage of
o the proje
ect, with th
he collabora
ation of
nical design team.
The bassic drawings are:

All equipmen
nt, with theirr identificatio
on and basicc features, in
ncluding sma
all and simplle equip
s, separatorrs, etc.), sincce they have
e some functtion in the syystem.

All machines
s, with their identificatio
on and basic
c features, e
even though
h small and simple.
A elements
s must be sh
hown individually, one by
y one, throu
ugh its identification and design
s, even when several eq
quipment are
e equal to ea
ach other.

IIt should be
e indicated also any se
ervice requirrements in respect to the
location of the
as, equipment which must sta
ay in differen
nt elevationss (with indica
ation of
t differenc
ce of elevatio

All pipes, inccluding seco

ondary and auxiliary,
witth indication of the diameter, flow dirrection,
f identifica
ation, as well as, special requiremen
nts or conditions of service, if any.

All valves placed in the respective rows

and with indication
n of the gene
eral type (blocking,
control, safe
ety, etc.) by means of co
onventions. Also should
d contain all special
ps, filters, racckets, figures "8", etc.) n
necessary fo
or the processs.

All instruments (I.S.A orr ANSI conventions) with

h indication of type, ID, size, arrang
etcc., including
g orifice flan
nges, and th
he compressed air line
es for comm
mand of
es with the re
espective lin

PDHonline Course M451

Many designers make arrangement of a third type of flowchart, called "piping and instrumentation flowchart" (piping & instrumentation or P & I flow-sheet), which is an
intermediary be-tween the two types.

36) Piping Info:

1. All pipes are to be made of a long hole surrounded by metal or plastic, centered around the
hole. All pipes are to be hollow throughout the entire length - do not use holes whose length is
different from the pipe.
2. The ID (Inside Diameter) of all pipe must not exceed the OD (Outside Diameter) - otherwise
the hole will be on the outside. All pipes are to be supplied with nothing in the hole, so that water,
steam or other stuff can be put inside at a later date. All pipes should be supplied without rust;
this can be more readily applied at the job site.
3. All pipes over 500ft (150 m) in length should have the words "LONG PIPE" clearly painted on
each side at the end, so that the contractor knows it's a long pipe. Pipe over 2 miles (3.2 km) in
length must also have the words "LONG PIPE" painted in the middle, so the contractor will not
have to walk the entire length of the pipe to determine whether or not it is a long pipe or a short
4. All pipe over 6ft (1.83 m) in diameter must have the words "LARGE PIPE" painted on it, so
the contractor will not mistake it for small pipe. Flanges must be used on all pipe. Flanges must
have holes for bolts, quite separate from the big hole in the middle.
5. When ordering 90 or 45 elbows, be sure to specify left-hand or right-hand, otherwise you
will end up going the wrong way. Be sure to specify to your vendor whether you want level, uphill
or Downhill pipe. If you use downhill pipes for going uphill, the water will flow the wrong way.
6. All couplings should have either right-hand or left-hand threads, but do not mix the threads;
otherwise as the coupling is being screwed on one pipe, it is being unscrewed from the other. All
pipes shorter than 1/8 in (3 mm) are very uneconomical in use, requiring many joints. They are
generally known as washers.
7. Joints in pipes for piping water must be water tight. Those in pipes for compressed air
however, need only be air tight. Lengths of pipes may be welded or soldered together. This
method is not recommended for concrete or earthen pipes.
See, below, the ASTM International specifications requirements list of steel pipes and tubes, for
boiler and super heater, general service, refinery services, heat exchanger and condenser,
mechanical and structural tubing.
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37) General ApplicationSteel Pipes:

A53/A53M-99b - Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded

and Seamless
A74-98 - Specification for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings
A106-99e1 Specific. for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A126-95e1 Specific. for Grey Iron Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Pipe Fittings
A134-96 Specific. for Pipe, Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded (Sizes NPS 16 and Over)
A135-97c - Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe
A139-96e1 Specific. for Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded Steel Pipe (NPS 4 and Over)
A182/A182M-99 - Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged
Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service
A252-98 - Specification for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Piles
A312/A312M-00 Specific. for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes
A333/A333M-99 Spec. for Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low-Temperature Service
A335/A335M-99 Spec.for Seamless Ferritic Alloy-Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A338-84 (1998) - Specification for Malleable Iron Flanges, Pipe Fittings, and Valve Parts for
Railroad, Marine, and Other Heavy Duty Service at Temperatures Up to 650F
A358/A358M-98 - Specification for Electric-Fusion-Welded Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Alloy
Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A369/A369M-92 - Specification for Carbon and Ferritic Alloy Steel Forged and Bored Pipe
for High-Temperature Service
A376/A376M-98 - Specification for Seamless Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Temperature
Central-Station Service
A377-99 - Index of Specifications for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe
A409/A409M-95ae1 - Specification for Welded Large Diameter Austenitic Steel Pipe for
Corrosive or High-Temperature Service
A426-92 (1997) - Specification for Centrifugally Cast Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for HighTemperature Service
A451-93 (1997) - Specification for Centrifugally Cast Austenitic Steel Pipe for HighTemperature Service
A523-96 - Specification for Plain End Seamless and Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe
for High-Pressure Pipe-Type Cable Circuits
A524 - A524-96 - Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and Lower
A530/A530M-99 - Specification for General Requirements for Specialized Carbon and Alloy
Steel Pipe
A648-95e1 - Specification for Steel Wire, Hard Drawn for Pre-stressing Concrete Pipe
A674-95 - Practice for Polyethylene for Ductile Iron Pipe for Water or Other Liquids
A691-98 - Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for HighPressure Service at High Temperatures
A694/A694M-00 - Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pipe Flanges,
Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High-Pressure Transmission Service
A716-99 - Specification for Ductile Iron Culvert Pipe
A733-99 - Specification for Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel and Austenitic Stainless
Steel Pipe Nipples
A742/A742M-98 - Specification for Steel Sheet, Metallic Coated and Polymer Pre-coated for
Corrugated Steel Pipe
A746-99 - Specification for Ductile Iron Gravity Sewer Pipe
A760/A760M-99 Spec. for Corrugated Steel Pipe, Metallic-Coated for Sewers and Drains
A761/A761M-98 - Specification for Corrugated Steel Structural Plate, Zinc-Coated, for FieldBolted Pipe, Pipe-Arches, and Arches
A762/A762M-98 Spec. for Corrugated Steel Pipe, Polymer Precoated Sewers and Drains
A790/A790M-99 Specific.for Seamless and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
A796/A796M-99 - Practice for Structural Design of Corrugated Steel Pipe, Pipe-Arches, and
Arches for Storm and Sanitary Sewers and Other Buried Applications
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A798/A798M-97a - Practice for Installing Factory-Made Corrugated Steel Pipe for Sewers
and Other Applications
A807/A807M-97 - Practice for Installing Corrugated Steel Structural Plate Pipe for Sewers
and Other Applications
A810-94 - Specification for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Pipe Winding Mesh
A813/A813M-95e2 Specific. for Single- or Double-Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
A814/A814M-96 (1998) Specific. for Cold-Worked Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
A849-99 - Specification for Post-Applied Coatings, Pavings, and Linings for Corrugated
Steel Sewer and Drainage Pipe
A861-94e1 - Specification for High-Silicon Iron Pipe and Fittings
A862/A862M-98 - Practice for Application of Asphalt Coatings to Corrugated Steel Sewer
and Drainage Pipe
A865-97 - Specification for Threaded Couplings, Steel, Black or Zinc-Coated (Galvanized)
Welded or Seamless, for Use in Steel Pipe Joints
A872-91 (1997) - Specification for Centrifugally Cast Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
for Corrosive Environments
A885/A885M-96 - Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc and Aramid Fiber Composite Coated
for Corrugated Steel Sewer, Culvert, and Underdrain Pipe
A888-98e1 - Specification for Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and
Storm Drain, Waste, and Vent Piping Applications
A926-97 - Test Method for Comparing the Abrasion Resistance of Coating Materials for
Corrugated Metal Pipe
A928/A928M-98 - Specification for Ferritic/Austenitic (Duplex) Stainless Steel Pipe Electric
Fusion Welded with Addition of Filler Metal
A929/A929M-97 - Specification for Steel Sheet, Metallic-Coated by the Hot-Dip Process for
Corrugated Steel Pipe
A930-99 - Practice for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of Corrugated Metal Pipe Used for Culverts,
Storm Sewers, and Other Buried Conduits
A943/A943M-95e1 Specific. for Spray-Formed Seamless Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes
A949/A949M-95e1 - Specification for Spray-Formed Seamless Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless
Steel Pipe
A954-96 - Specification for Austenitic Chromium-Nickel-Silicon Alloy Steel Seamless and
Welded Pipe
A972/A972M-99 - Specification for Fusion Bonded Epoxy-Coated Pipe Piles
A978/A978M-97 Spec. for Composite Ribbed Steel Pipe, Precoated and Polyethylene
Lined for Gravity Flow Sanitary Sewers, Storm Sewers, and Other Special Applications
A984/A984M-00 Spec. for Steel Line Pipe, Black, Plain-End, Electric-Resistance-Welded
A998/A998M-98 - Practice for Structural Design of Reinforcements for Fittings in FactoryMade Corrugated Steel Pipe for Sewers and Other Applications
A999/A999M-98 - Specification for General Requirements for Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe
A1005/A1005M-00 - Specification for Steel Line Pipe, Black, Plain End, Longitudinal and
Helical Seam, Double Submerged-Arc Welded
A1006/A1006M-00 - Specification for Steel Line Pipe, Black, Plain End, Laser Beam Welded
37.1) Superheater, Boiler and Miscellaneous Steel Tubes:
A178/A178M-95 - Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel and Carbon-

Manganese Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes

A179/A179M-90a (1996) e1 - Specification for Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel

Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes

A192/A192M-91 (1996) e1 - Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes for High-

Pressure Service
A209/A209M-98 - Specification for Seamless Carbon-Molybdenum Alloy-Steel Boiler and

Superheater Tubes
A210/A210M-96 Spec. for Seamless Medium-Carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes
A213/A213M-99a - Specification for Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler,

Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes

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A249 - A249/A249M-98e1 - Specification for Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler, Superheater,

Heat-Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes

A250/A250M-95 - Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Ferritic Alloy-Steel Boiler

and Superheater Tubes

A254-97 - Specification for Copper-Brazed Steel Tubing
A268/A268M-96 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless

Steel Tubing for General Service

A269-98 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for

General Service
A270-98ae1 Specific. for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Sanitary Tubing
A334/A334M-99 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Carbon and Alloy-Steel Tubes for

Low-Temperature Service
A423/A423M-95 - Specification for Seamless and Electric-Welded Low-Alloy Steel Tubes
A450/A450M-96a - Specification for General Requirements for Carbon, Ferritic Alloy, and

Austenitic Alloy Steel Tubes

A608-91a (1998) - Specification for Centrifugally Cast Iron-Chromium-Nickel High-Alloy

Tubing for Pressure Application at High Temperatures

A618-99 - Specification for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless High-Strength Low-Alloy

Structural Tubing
A632-98 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing (Small-

Diameter) for General Service

A688/A688M-98 Specific. for Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes
A771/A771M-95 - Specification for Seamless Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steel

Tubing for Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor Core Components

A778-98 - Specification for Welded, Unanneled Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubular Products
A789/A789M-00 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel

Tubing for General Service

A803/A803M-98 - Specification for Welded Ferritic Stainless Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes
A822-90 (1995) e1 - Specification for Seamless Cold-Drawn Carbon Steel Tubing for

Hydraulic System Service

A826/A826M-95 - Specification for Seamless Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steel Duct

Tubes for Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor Core Components

A847-99a - Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless High Strength, Low Alloy

Structural Tubing with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance

A908-91 (1998) - Specification for Stainless Steel Needle Tubing
A953-96 - Specification for Austenitic Chromium-Nickel-Silicon Alloy Steel Seamless and

Welded Tubing.
37.2) Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes:
A179/A179M-90a (1996) e1 - Specification for Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel

Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes

A213/A213M-99a - Specification for Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler,

Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes

A214/A214M-96 - Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel Heat-

Exchanger and Condenser Tubes

A249/A249M-98e1 - Specification for Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat-

Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes

A498-98 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Carbon, Ferritic, and Austenitic Alloy

Steel Heat-Exchanger Tubes with Integral Fins

A851-96 - Specification for High-Frequency Induction Welded, Unannealed, Austenitic Steel

Condenser Tubes.
37.3) Structural Tubing:
A500-99 - Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural

Tubing in Rounds and Shapes

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A501-99 Specific. for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing
A847-99a - Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless High Strength, Low Alloy

Structural Tubing with Improved Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance

A618-99 - Specification for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless High-Strength Low-Alloy

Structural Tubing
37.4) Mechanical Tubing:

A511-96 - Specification for Seamless Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing

A512-96 - Specification for Cold-Drawn Buttweld Carbon Steel Mechanical Tubing
A513-98 Spec. for Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechan. Tubing
A519-96 - Specification for Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
A554-98e1 - Specification for Welded Stainless Steel Mechanical Tubing -

37.5) Welded Fittings:

A234/A234M-99 - Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel

for Moderate and High Temperature Service

A403/A403M-99a Specific. for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
A420/A420M-99 Spec. for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for

Low-Temperature Service
A758/A758M-98 Spec. for Wrought-Carbon Steel Butt-Welding Piping Fittings with

Improved Notch Toughness

A774/A774M-98 Spec. for As-Welded Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Fittings for

General Corrosive Service at Low and Moderate Temperatures

38) ASME B31.1 Power Piping & ASME B31.3 Process Piping:
Many professionals are confused about the difference between ASME B31.1 and ASME B31.3.
a) The ASME B31.1 Code defines procedures for power piping. It is intended to cover the fuel
gas and oil systems, electric power generating stations, geothermal heating systems, central
heating systems and cooling plants.
b) The ASME B31.3 Code defines procedures for process piping. It is intended to cover
petroleum refineries, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, semiconductor and cryogenic plants and
related processing plants and terminals.
The following items are excluded from coverage:

Pressure equipment covered by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code;
Building heating and distribution steam piping designed for 15 psig [100 kPa (gage)] or
less, or hot-water heating systems designed for 30 psig [200 kPa (gage)] or less;
Piping for hydraulic or pneumatic tools and their components downstream of the first
block or stop valve off the system distribution header; and
Piping for marine or other installations under federal control.

The ASME B31.1 is also not intended to be applied to the following items, which were listed as
exclusions in the 1998 edition:

Roof, floor drains, plumbing, sewers, sprinklers and other fire protection systems;
Building services piping with property limits or industrial facilities, within the scope of
ASME B31.9, due to pressure and/or temperature limitations;
Fuel gas piping inside industrial and institutional buildings, within the scope of ANSI
Z223.1, National Fuel Gas Code;
Pulverized fuel piping, which is within the scope of NFPA 8503.
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The following Codes are used for the design, construction and inspection of piping systems.
38.1) ASME B31 - Piping Codes:
B31.1 Power Piping: Piping typically found in electric power generating stations in industrial and
institutional plants, geothermal heating systems, central and district heating and cooling plants.
B31.3 Process Piping: Piping typically found in petroleum refineries, chemical, pharmaceutical,
textile, semiconductor and cryogenic plants and related processing plants and terminals.
B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids: Piping
transporting products which are predominately quid between plants and terminals and within
terminals, pumping, regulating, and metering stations.
B31.5 Refrigeration Piping: Piping for refrigerants and secondary coolants.
B31.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems: Piping transporting products
which are predominately gas between sources and terminals including compressor, regulating
and metering stations, gas gathering pipelines.
B31.9 Building Services Piping: Piping typically found in industrial, institutional, commercial
and public buildings and in multi-unit residences which does not require the range of sizes,
pressures and temperatures covered in B311.1
B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems: Piping transporting aqueous slurries between
plants and terminals within terminals, pumping and regulating stations.
38.2) ASME B16 - Dimensional Codes:
B16.1 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
B16.3 Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 150 and 300
B16.4 Cast Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250
B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
B16.9 Factory Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings
B16.10 Face to Face and End to End Dimensions of Valves
B16.11 Forged Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded
B16.12 Cast Iron Threaded Drainage Fittings
B16.14 Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings and Locknuts with Pipe Threads
B16.15 Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings Class 125 and 250
B16.18 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
B16.20 Ring Joint Gaskets and Grooves for Steel Pipe Flanges
B16.21 Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
B16.22 Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
B16.23 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings DWV
B16.24 Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Class 150, 300, 400,600, 900,
1500 and 2500 B16.25 Buttwelding Ends
B16.26 Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes
B16.28 Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows and Returns
B16.29 Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings DWV
B16.32 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Fittings for Sovent Drainage Systems
B16.33 Manually Metallic Gas Valves for Use in Gas Piping systems Up to 125 psig (1/2 to 2)
B16.34 Valves Flanged, Threaded and Welding End
B16.36 Orifice Flanges
B16.37 Hydrostatic Testing of Control Valves
B16.38 Large Metallic Valves for Gas Distribution (Manually, NPS 2 to 12, 125 psig maximum)
B16.39 Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions, Classes 1150, 250 and 300
B16.40 Manually OperatedThermoplastic Gs Shutoffs and Valves in Gas Distribution Systems
B16.42 Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Class 150 and 300
B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges (NPS 26 through NPS 60)
38.3) ASME B36 - Piping Component Standards:
B36.10 Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
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B36.19 Stainless Steel Pipe Other ASME or ANSI

B73.1 Horizontal, End Suction Centrifugal Pumps B73.2 Vertical In-line Centrifugal Pumps
B133.2 Basic Gas Turbine
38.4) NEPA (National Electrical Protection Association):
NFC - NFPA Codes National Fire Code / National Fire Protection Association
NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities, Piping for medical and laboratory gas systems.
38.5) CSA (Canadian Standards Association):
CSA Z662 - 94 Oil & Gas Pipeline Systems This standard supercedes these standards:
CAN/CSA Z183 Oil Pipeline Systems
CAN/CSA Z184 Gas Pipeline Systems
CAN/CSA Z187 Offshore Pipelines
B 51 Boilers and Pressure Vessels
B 53 Identification of Piping Systems
B 52 Mechanical Refrigeration Code
B 63 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe
B 137.3 Rigid Poly-Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe
B 137.4 Polyethylene Piping Systems for Gas Service
W 48.1 Mild Steel Covered Arc-Welding Electrodes
W 48.3 Low-Alloy Steel Arc-Welding Electrodes
Z 245.1 Steel Line Pipe
Z 245.11 Steel Fittings
Z 245.12 Steel Flanges
Z 245.15 Steel Valves
Z 245.20 External Fusion Bond Epoxy Coating for Steel Pipe
Z 245.21 External Polyethylene Coating for Pipe
Z 276 LNG - Production, Storage and Handling
38.6) MSS (Manufacturers Standardization Society):
SP-6 Standard Finishes for Contact Faces Pipe Flanges and End Flanges of Valves and Fittings
SP-25 Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Union SP-44 Steel Pipeline Flanges
SP-53 Quality for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Piping
SP-54 Quality for Steel Castings and for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping
SP-55 Quality for Steel Castings and for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping
SP-58 Pipe Hangers and Supports - Material, Design and Manufacture
SP-61 Pressure Testing of Steel Valves
SP-69 Pipe Hangers and Supports - Selection and Application
SP-75 High Test Wrought Butt Welding Fittings
SP-82 Valve Pressure Testing Methods
SP-89 Pipe Hangers and Supports - Fabrication and Installation Practices
38.7) API (American Petroleum Institute):
The API standards are focused on oil production, refinery and product distribution services.
Equipment specified to these standards are typically more robust than general industrial
Spec. 5L Line Pipe Spec.
6D Pipeline Valves Spec. 6FA Fire Test for Valves
Spec. 12D Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids
Spec. 12F Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids
Spec. 12J Oil and Gas Separators
Spec. 12K Indirect Type Oil Field Heaters
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Std. 594 Wafer and Wafer-Lug Check Valves

Std. 598 Valve Inspection and Testing
Std. 599 Metal Plug Valves - Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends
Std. 600 Steel Gate Valves-Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends
Std. 602 Compact Steel Gate Valves-Flanged Threaded, Welding, and Extended-Body Ends
Std. 603 Class 150, Cast, Corrosion-Resistant, Flanged-End Gate Valves
Std. 607 Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves
Std. 608 Metal Ball Valves-Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends
Std. 609 Lug-and Wafer-Type Butterfly Valves
Std. 610 Centrifugal Pumps For Petroleum, Heavy Duty Chemical and Gas Industry Services
Std. 611 General Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Services
Std. 612 Special Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Services
Std. 613 Special Purpose Gear Units for Refinery Services
Std. 614 Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing and Control Oil Systems for Special Purpose Application
Std. 615 Sound Control of Mechanical Equipment for Refinery Services
Std. 616 Gas Turbines for Refinery Services
Std. 617 Centrifugal Compressors for General Refinery Services
Std. 618 Reciprocating Compressors for General Refinery Services
Std. 619 Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors for General Refinery Services
Std. 620 Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks
Std. 630 Tube and Header Dimensions for Fired Heaters for Refinery Service
Std. 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
Std. 660 Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service
Std. 661 Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service
Std. 670 Vibrations, Axial Position, and Bearing-Temperature Monitoring Systems
Std. 671 Special Purpose Couplings for Refinery Service
Std. 674 Positive Displacement Pumps-Reciprocating
Std. 675 Positive Displacement Pumps-Controlled Volume
Std. 676 Positive Displacement Pumps-Rotary
Std. 677 General Purpose Gear Units for Refineries Services
Std. 678 Accelerometer-Base Vibration Monitoring System
Std. 1104 Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities
Std. 2000 Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks - Non-Refrigerated and
RP 530 Calculation for Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries
RP 560 Fired Heater for General Refinery Services
RP 682 Shaft Sealing System for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps
RP 1110 Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum Pipelines
Publ. 941 Steel for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperature and Pressures in Petroleum
Refineries and Petrochemical Plants
Publ. 2009 Safe Welding and Cutting Practices in Refineries
Publ. 2015 Safe Entry and Cleaning of Petroleum Storage Tanks
38.8) ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials):
A 36 Specification for Structural Steel
A 53 Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot Dipped, Zinc Coated Welded and Seamless
A 105 Specification for Forgings, Carbon Steel, for Piping Components
A 106 Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High Temperature Service
A 181 Specification for Forgings, Carbon Steel for General Purpose Piping
A 182 Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves
and Parts for High Temperature Service
A 193 Spec. for Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High Temperature Service
A 194 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure
and High Temperature Service
A 234 Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and
Elevated Temperatures
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A 333 Specification for Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low Temperature Service
A 350 Specification for Forgings, Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Requiring Notch Toughness
Testing for Piping Components
A 352 Specification for Steel Castings, Ferritic and Martensitic for Pressure Containing Parts
Suitable for Low Temperature Service
A 420 Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low
Temperature Service
A 694 Specification for Forgings, carbon and Alloy Steel for Pipe Flanges, Fittings, Valves and
Parts for High Pressure Transmission Service
A 707 Specification for Flanges, Forged, Carbon and Alloy Steel for Low Temperature Service
38.9) DIN (Deutsch Industrie Normen):
DIN 1629 Seamless circular tubes of non-alloy steel with special quality requirements.TDC.
DIN 1630 Seamless circular tubes of non-alloy steel with very high quality requirements. TDC.
DIN 2448 Seamless tubes. Dimensions.
DIN 17200 Steels for quenching and tempering. TDC.
DIN 17204 Seamless circular tubes of steel for quenching and tempering. TDC.
DIN 17210 Case hardening steels. TDC.
BS 6323 Specification for seamless and welded steel tubes for automobile, mechanical and
general engineering purposes. Part 1: General requirements. Part 3: Specific requirements for
hot finished seamless steel tubes.
39) Codes of Practice:
ANSI K61.1 Safety Requirements for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia;
NFPA 58 Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases;
DOT Regulations of the Department of Transportation Governing the Transportation of
Hazardous Materials in Tank Motor Vehicles;
MSS Standard Practice SP 25 Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and
TEMA Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.
40) References:
ASME B31.1 - Power Piping
ASME-B31.3 - Process Piping
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings at:;
American Petroleum Institute at:;
Engineering Tool Box at:;
Pipe Flow Calculations at:;
Piping and Pipeline Engineering: Design, Construction, Maintenance,
Integrity, and Repair, George A.Antak
Plastics and Composites: Mechanical Properties and Engineering Applications, Edward Miller
Mechanical Fastening, Joining, and Assembly, James A.Speck
Couplings and Joints: Design, Selection and Application, Jon R.Mancuso

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