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Whatever you are doing, put your

whole mind on it. If you are shooting, your mind should be only on the
target. Then you will never miss. If you are learning your lessons,
think only of the lesson. In India boys and girls are taught to do this."

Swami Vivekananda
1.What is meant by the statement relative density of gold is 19.3?
It means that gold is 19.3 times denser than an equal volume of water. Those objects
whose relative density is less than one will float in water and those greater than one will
sink.
2.Why is it difficult to hold a school bag having a strap made of a thin and strong string?
It is difficult to hold a school bag having a strap made of a thin and strong string because it apply the large
pressure on the shoulders due to very small contact surface area . we know that the pressure is inversely
proportional to the surface area on which the force acts. We feel uncomfortable.
3.What do you mean by buoyancy?
The tendency of a liquid to exert an upward force on an object placed in it is called
buoyancy.
4.Why does an object float or sink when placed on the surface of water?
An object floats or sinks when placed on the surface of water because of the buoyant force
acting on the object.

If the density of an object is less than the density of water it floats. This means that the up thrust of water
on an object is greater than the weight of the object.
If the density of an object is more than the density of water it sinks. This means that the up thrust of water
on an object is less than the weight of the object.
Therefore objects of density less than that of a liquid float on the liquid. The objects of density greater
than that of a liquid sink in the liquid.
5.Why the cutting edge of a knife should be as sharp as possible?
The cutting edge of a knife should as sharp to create greater pressure even for a very small applied force
for quick action.
6.You find your mass to be 42 kg on a weighing machine. Is your mass more or less than 42
kg?
More than 42 kg, the weighing machine reads slightly less value due to upthrust of air
acting on the body.
7.You have a bag of cotton and an iron bar, each indicating a mass of 100 kg when
measured on a weighing machine. In reality, one is heavier than other. Can you say which
one is heavier and why?
The cotton bag is heavier than iron bar. The cotton bag experiences larger upthrust than
the iron bar. So the cotton bag indicates a smaller mass for cotton bag than actual mass.

8.In what direction does the buoyant force on an object immersed in a liquid act?
Ans: The buoyant force acts on an object in the vertically upward direction through the center of gravity of
the displaced liquid.
9.Why does a block of plastic released under water come up to the surface of water?
A block of plastic released under water come up to the surface of water because the up thrust or the
buoyant force exerted by the water is greater than the downward gravitational force.
10.The volume of 50 gm of a substance is 20 cm 3. If the density of water is 1 g/cm 3, will the
substance float or sink?
Given the mass of the substance = 50 g

Volume of the substance = 20 cm3

Density of substance = Mass /Volume = (50 /20) g/cm 3 = 2.5 g/cm3


Since the density of the substance 2.5 g/cm3 is greater than the density of water (1 g/cm 3), so the
substance will sink in the water.
11.The volume of a 50 gm sealed packet is 350 cm 3. Will the packet float or sink in water if
the density of water is 1 g/cm3 ? What will be the mass of the water displaced by this packet
?
Mass of packet = 500 g

Volume of packet = 350 cm3

Density of packet = Mass Volume = (500 / 350) g/cm3 = 1.43 g/cm3


The sealed packet will sink in the water as its density 1.43 g/cm3 is more than that of water.
The volume of water that will be displaced by the packet = 350 cm 3

And mass of this displaced water = Volume x Density = 350 x 1 = 350 gm.

12.State Archimedes principle. Give any two applications of Archimedes principle?


Archimedes principle states that when a body is immersed partially or fully in a fluid, it experiences an
upward force that is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by it.
The two applications of Archimedes principle are given below:
(i) Floating of ships and submarines (ii) The lactometers to test purity of milk
13.How do a submarine sink and float on water?
A submarine can both sink and float on water because of the ballast tank .
To make a submarine sink into the water, these tanks are filled with water. This increases the weight of
the submarine and it sinks.
To make a submarine float on the water surface, these tanks are emptied by pumping out water from
them. This decreases the weight of the submarine and it floats
14.Why is iron heavier than cotton?
5 kg of cotton occupies more space than 5 kg of iron. The particles of iron are closely packed while that of
cotton are loosely packed. The amount of iron packed in a unit volume is more. This explains as to why
iron is heavier than the same volume of cotton.
Statement of Archimedes principle:
When a body is immersed partially or completely in a fluid (liquid or gas), it experiences an up thrust or
buoyant force which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.
Applications based on Archimedes principle are:
a. Designing of ships and submarines
b. Lactometers, which are used to determine the purity of a sample of milk
c. Hydrometers used for determining density of liquids

Proof of Archimedes Principe :


Consider a cylindrical body of cross-sectional area a submerged in a liquid of density r . Let the upper
face of the body is at a depth h1 below the surface of the liquid and the lower face is at a depth h2 below
the surface of the liquid. The pressure exerted by the liquid on the upper surface of the body is given by
p1 = h1dg .
Downward thrust on the upper surface of the body is ,
F1 = p1 a = h1 d g a
Pressure exerted by the liquid at the lower surface of the body,

P2 = h2 d g
Upward thrust on the lower surface of the body is,
F2 = P2 a = h2 d g a
The horizontal thrusts acting on the vertical sides of the body being equal and opposite from all the sides
cancels out.
Resultant upthrust or buoyant force acting on the body
F = F2 - F1 = h2 d g a - h1 d g a = (h2 - h1) d g a Since volume of the body, V = (h2 - h1)a
F = V dg
Thus, when a body is submerged in a liquid, it experiences an upward thrust equal to the weight of the
liquid displaced by the body.
Let we take two similar bricks lying on the ground, one in the lying position and another in the standing
position. The two bricks exert the same force on the ground because they have the same weight.
But the two bricks exert different pressures on the ground because their areas in contact with the ground
are different.
The brick in the lying position has a large area in contact with the ground. So, the force of the weight of
the brick falls on a large area of the ground and the force per unit area or pressure on the ground is
less.
The brick in the standing position has a small area in contact with the ground. So, the force of the weight
of the brick falls on a smaller area of the ground and the pressure on the ground is more.
A school bag has wide straps made of thick cloth
= The weight of bag may fall over a large area of the shoulder of the child producing less pressure on the
shoulder. And due to less pressure, it is more comfortable to carry the heavy school bag.
= On the other hand, if the school bag has a strap made of thin string, then the weight of school bag will
fall over a small area of the shoulder. This will produce a large pressure on the shoulder of the child and it
will become very painful to carry the heavy school bag.
A sharp knife cuts better than a blunt knife.
A sharp knife has a very thin edge to its blade. Due to its very thin edge, the force of our hand falls over a
very small area of the object producing a large pressure. And this large pressure cuts the object easily.
On the other hand, a blunt knife does not cut an object easily because due to its thicker edge, the force of
our hand falls over a larger area of the object and produces lesser pressure. This lesser pressure cuts the
object with difficulty.
The tip of a sewing needle is sharp so that due to its sharp tip, the needle may put the force on a very
small area of the cloth, producing a large pressure sufficient to pierce the cloth being stitched.
The pressure on ground is more when a man is walking than when he is standing.
When a man is walking, then at one time only his one foot is on the ground.
Due to this, the force of weight of man falls on a smaller area of the ground and produces more pressure
on the ground.
On the other hand, when the man is standing, then both his feet are on the ground.
Due to this the force of weight of the man falls on a larger area of the ground and produces lesser
pressure on the ground.
The depression is much more when a man stands on the cushion than when he lies down on it.
When a man stands on a cushion then only his two feet (having small area) are in contact with the
cushion. Due to this the weight of man falls on a small area of the cushion producing a large pressure.
This large pressure causes a big depression in the cushion.

On the other hand, when the same man is lying on the cushion, then his whole body (having large area) is
in contact with the cushion. In this case the weight of man falls on a much larger area of the cushion
producing much smaller pressure. And this smaller pressure produces a very little depression in the
cushion.
The tractors have broad tyres so that there is less pressure on the ground and the tyres do not sink into
comparatively soft ground in the fields.
A wide steel belt is provided over the wheels of army tanks so that they exert less pressure on the ground
and do not sink into it.
Wooden sleepers (or concrete sleepers) are kept below the railway line so that there is less pressure of
the train on the ground and railway line may not sink into the ground.
The snow shoes have large, flat soles so that there is less pressure on the soft snow and this stops the
wearer from sinking into it.
It is easier to walk on soft sand if we have flat shoes rather than shoes with small heels (or pencil heels).
This is because a flat shoe has a greater area in contact with the soft sand due to which there is less
pressure on the soft ground. Due to this the flat shoes do not sink much in soft sand and it is easy to walk
on it.
On the other hand, a small heel (or sharp heel) has a small area is contact with the soft sand and so
exerts a greater pressure on the soft sand. Due to this greater pressure, the small heels tend to sink deep
into soft sand making it difficult for the wearer to walk on soft sand.
The foundations of buildings and dams are laid on a larger area of ground so that the weight of the
building or dam (to be constructed) produces less pressure on ground and the building or dam may not
sink into the ground.
Atmospheric pressure
The pressure at any place due to the atmosphere is called atmospheric pressure. Its value varies from
place to place and also with the time.
Atmospheric pressure at the earths surface near the sea level is around 1.01x105 Pa. This value is
known as 1atmosphere of pressure (1atmosphere = 760mm of Hg).

1. Units of pressure are :(a) N/m2

(b) m2/N

(c) Nm2

(d) Nm

2. Units of Relative Density are :(a) Kg/m3

(b) Unit less

(c) Depends on the density of the substance


(d) Depend on the density of water
3. Pressure at a point in the liquid is
(a) Same in all directions

(b) Greater in the upward direction

(c) Grater in the downward direction (d) None of the Above


4. If the area of an object is less then the pressure acting on that object will be

(a) Less
(c) Independent of area

(b) More
(d) None of the above

5. If cross sectional area of an object is more than the pressure applied by the external force
is :(a) Less

(b) More

(c) Remains same

(d) None of the above.

6. Mass per unit volume of a substance is called


(a)Density

(b)Relative density

(c)specific gravity

(d)None

7. A buoyant force of 200 g wt. acts on a body dipped completely in water. If the apparent weight
of body is 100 g wt., then its actual weight is
(a)200 g wt.

(b)100 g wt.

(c)300 g wt.

(d)None of these

8. If the weight of the floating body is equal to the buoyant force then body
(a)Sinks

(b)Rises

(c)Floats

(d) First floats and then sinks

9. When a body is placed in a liquid, the buoyant force experienced by it is equal to the
(a)weight of liquid displaced (b)Density of the body
(c)volume of body

(d)Density of liquid

10. A body immersed in a liquid will rise to the surface if the buoyant force acting on it is
(a)greater than its actual weight
(c)equal to its actual weight

(b)less than its actual weight


(d)equal to Zero

11. When a body is submerged in a liquid, its weight


(a)Remains same

(b)Increases

(c)Decreases

(d)Reduces to zero

12. A body weighing 200 g wt. is dipped in water. Its weight in water as indicated by the spring
balance is 150 g wt. The buoyant force acting on the body is
(a)200 g wt

(b)1000 g wt

(c)50 g wt

(d)250 g wt

13. A body is floating in upright position in water. Then force of gravity and buoyant force acting
on the body are

(a) In the same direction long the same line


(b) In opposite direction but along the same line
(c) At right angle to each other.
(d) In opposite to direction and from couple which turns and only anti-clockwise.
14. A body floats in vertical position, when its centre of buoyancy is
(a) Below C.G. of the body (b) Above the C.G. of the body
(c) At some place where the C.G. of the body lies

(d) None of these.

15. In case of a body placed in liquid if the buoyant force is equal to its acutal weight, then its
apparent weight
(a) Is equal to the actual weight
(c) Is greater than its actual weight

(b) Is equal to buoyant force


(d) Is equal to zero

16. A block of ice is floating on water contained in a beaker. When all the ice melts, the level of
water
(a)rises

(b)falls

(c)remains unchanged (d)None


17. A boat floating in a tank is carrying passengers. If the passengers drink water, the water level
of the tank
(a) rises

(b) falls

(c) remains unchanged


(d) depends upon the atmospheric pressure
1. Give reason why, a block of plastic when released under water comes up to the
surface of water.
Ans: It is because of buoyancy force
2. Define density. What is the SI unit of density?
Ans: Mass per unit volume of a substance is called density.
The SI unit of density is kg/m3 or gm/cm3
3. Name and define SI unit of pressure.
Ans: Pascal or n/m2
1 Pascal is the pressure act when 1 N force acts perpendicular on unit area.
4. What do you understand by the term buoyancy?
Ans: Tendency of fluid to exert an upward force when a body is immersed in to it is
called buoyancy
5. Why does a mug full of water feel lighter inside water?
Ans: a mug full of water feels lighter inside water because of buoyancy force
6. A perpendicular force of 50 N acting on a surface generates a pressure of 250 Pa.
Calculate the area of cross-section of the surface on which pressure is acting.
Ans: p = F/A A = F/p 50 N/250 Pa = 0.2 m2

7. What is a lactometer used for?


Ans: lactometer used for finding purity of milk
8. State the unit of density and relative density in SI system.
Ans: The unit of density is kg/m3
There is no unit of relative as it is ratio of same physical quantity.
9. State Archimedes principle.
Ans: When a body is immersed partially or completely in a fluid (liquid or gas), it
experiences an up thrust or buoyant force which is equal to the weight of the fluid
displaced by the body.
10. What is meant by buoyant force?
Ans: if a body is immersed partially or completely in a fluid, it experiences an up thrust
called buoyant force.
11. A cork floats while the nail sinks in water. Give reason.
Ans: Weight of cork is less than buoyant force acting on it so it floats Where as : Weight
of the nail is more than buoyant force acting on it so it sink
12. What is the principle of floatation?
Ans: A body floats is a liquid if weight of the liquid displaced by the immersed portion of
the body is equal to the weight of the body.
13. A body of mass 400 g has a volume of 300 cm 3. Will body sink in water or not?
[Density of water = 1000 kgm3]
Ans: density of body =m/v= 400/300=1.3gm/cm3 which is greater than density of water
1gm/cm3
Hence, Body will sink in water.
14. When we stand on loose sand, our feet go deep into the sand. But when we lie
down on the sand our body does not go that deep in the sand. Why?
Ans: when we lie down on the sand our body exert same force on large are that reduce
pressure and our body does not go that deep in the sand.
15. Why is it easy to walk on sand with flat shoes, then with high heel shoes?
Ans: flat shoes exert force on large surface area and less force act on sand this make
easy to walk on sand.

1. An object is made to fall from different heights 20 cm, 40 cm and 60


cm on wet sand.
(a) What do you observe on the sand?
Ans. (a) These ojects create depressions in the wet sand. The largest depression is created by the
object falling from largest height i.e. 60 cm and the smallest depression by the object
falling from lowest height i.e., 20 cm.

2. A solid object of mass 50 g and volume 100 cm3 is put in water. Will
the object float or sink? Give reasons for your answer.
3. Name the instrument used to determine the density of liquid in
which balance and graduated cylinder are not required. Why this
instrument is made heavy near the bottom?

Ans: The instrument used to determine the density of liquids is hydrometer. It consists of a uniform test
tube. The base of the tube is made heavier by taking few lead shots in it so that the tube remains vertical
while floating in water or a given liquid.

4. A sphere of mass 5 kg and volume 2.2 104 m3 is completely


immersed in water. Find the buoyant force exerted by water on the
sphere. Density of water = 1000 kgm3. (Given: g =9.8m/s2)
Ans. Here, volume of sphere = Volume of water displaced = 2.2 104 m3
( sphere is completely immersed in water)
Mass of the water displaced = Volume Density = 2.2 104m3 1000 kg m3 = 2.2 101 kg
Thus, buoyant force exerted by water = weight of water displaced = mg
= 2.2 101 kg 9.8 m/s2 = 21.56 101 N = 2.156 N

5. What happens when :(a) Buoyant Force exerted by the fluid is less
than the weight of the body?
(b) Buoyant Force exerted by the fluid is equal to the weight of the
body?
6. What is Relative Density? The relative density of a substance is
greater than 1,
w hat does it signify?
7. If relative density of aluminum is 2.7 and density of water is 1000
kg/m3. What is the density of aluminum in SI unit?
Ans. Relative density of aluminium = Density of aluminium/Density of water
Density of aluminium = Relative density of aluminium Density of water
= 2.7 1000 kg /m3 = 2700 kg/m3

8. The volume of a solid block is 300 cm3, find the mass of water
displaced when it is immersed in water? (Density of water is 1 g/cm 3)
9. (a) A floating boat displaces water weighing 6000 N.
(i) What is the buoyant force on the boat? (ii) What is the weight of
boat?
(b) What happens to the buoyant force as more and more volume of a
solid object is immersed in a liquid?
10. (a) Define relative density.
(b) Relative density of gold is 19.3. The density of water is 10.3 kg/m3.
What is the density of gold in S.I. units?
Questions : Loaded test-tube placed in pure milk sinks to a certain mark (M). Now some water is mixed
with the milk. Will the test tube sink more or less? Explain. [2011 (T-II)]
Ans. As density of milk is greater than density of water, so when some water is mixed with milk,
then amount of buoyant force is decreased at some extent. Consequently test tube will sink
more.

1. The force acting on an object perpendicular to the surface is called


a. Pressure c. thrust
b. Weight d. weight

2. SI Unit of pressure is
a. Newton c. Pascal
b. Dyne d. m/s
3. The upward force exerted by the liquid displaced by the body when it is
placed inside the liquid is called
a. Buoyant force c. Gravitational force
b. Centripetal force d. Force of gravitation

Remember:
(i)

The liquid at rest exerts equal pressure in all direction s at a point inside the liquid.

(ii) Total pressure at a depth h below the liquid surface = P + hrg where P = atmospheric
pressure.
(i ii) Liquid pressure is independent of shape of the liquid surface, but depends upon the
height of liquid
column.

Archimedes principle is applicable to objects in fluids, i.e. liquids as well as gases.


Gases (like air) exert an upward force (or buoyant force) on the objects placed in them but in most cases
it is so small that we usually ignore it. It is the buoyant force due to displaced air which makes a balloon
rise in air.
The relative density of a substance expresses the heaviness (or density) of the substance in
comparison to water e.g. the relative density of iron is 7.8, which means iron is 7.8 times as heavy as an
equal volume of water.

The relative density of water is 1. If the relative density of a substance is more than 1, then it will
be heavier than water and hence it will sink in water.

On the other hand, if the relative density of a substance is less than 1, then it will be lighter than
water and hence float in water. e.g. Ice has a density of about 900 kg/m3 and water has a density
1000kg/m3.

Thus an ice cube has a relative density of 0.9 so it floats in water. The relative density of iron
is7.8, so an iron nail sinks in water.

Relativedensityalsodeterminestheproportionofafloatingbodythatwillbesubmergedinafluid.Ifthebodyistwo
thirdsasdenseasthefluid,thentwothirdsofitsvolumewillbesubmerged,displacingintheprocessavolumeof
fluidwhoseweightisequaltotheentireweightofthebody.Inthecaseofasubmergedbody,theapparentweightof
thebodyisequaltoitsweightinairlesstheweightofanequalvolumeoffluid.
Q1.Calculatethemassofabodywhosevolumeis2m3anddensity0.52g/cm3.(ans.1040kg)
Q2.Adininghallhasdimensions50m15m3.5m.Calculatethemassofairinthehall.Given,densityofair
=1.30kg/m3.(ans.3412.5kg)
Q3.Athreadofmercuryof10.2gisinatubeofuniformcrosssection0.1cm3.Calculatethelengthofthread.The
densityofmercuryis13.6g/cm3.(ans.7.5cm)

Q4.Acubicalblockofwaterisdippedcompletelyinwater.Eachedgeoftheblockis1cminlength.Findthe
buoyantforceactingontheblock.(ans.102N)
Q5.Abodyofmass2.0kganddensity8000kg/m3iscompletelydippedinaliquidofdensity800kg/m3.Findthe
forceofbuoyancyonit.(ans.2N)
Q6.Apieceofironofdensity7.8103kg/m3andvolume100cm3istotallyimmersedinwater.Calculate(a)the
weightoftheironpieceinair(b)theupthrustand(c)apparentweightinwater.(ans.(a)7.8N(b)1N(c)6.8N)
Q7.Asolidbodyofmass150gandvolume250cm3isputinwater.Willthebodyfloatorsink.
Q8.Asolidofdensity5000kg/m3weights0.5kginair.Itiscompletelyimmersedinwaterofdensity1000kg/m3.
(a)Calculatetheapparentweightofsolidinwater.(ans.0.4kg)
(b)Whatwillbeitsapparentweightifwaterisreplacedbyaliquidofdensity8000kg/m3?(ans.0)
Q9.Themassofablockmadeofcertainmaterialis13.5kganditsvolumeis15103m3.Willtheblockfloator
sinkinwater.Givereasonforyouranswer.

Q10.(a)Whendoesabodysinksinafluid?
(b)Whydoesaballoonfilledwithhydrogengasriseupagainstgravity?
Q11.(a)Whichhasgreaterdensity:1kgofironor2kgofiron?
(b)Ifahollowsphereandasolidspherearebothmadeofthesameamountofiron,whichspherehasgreateraverage
density?

Q12..Abodyweighs10Ninairand8Nwhenfullyimmersedinwater.Howmuchisthebuoyantforceactingon
thebody?
Q13.Wheredoesasolidweighmoreinairorinaliquid?

Q14.Whatistherelationshipbetweenthebuoyantforceonanobjectandtheliquiddisplacedbyit?
Q15.Therelativedensityofmercuryis13.6.Whatdoesthisstatementmean?
Q16.Thedensityofturpentineoilis840kg/m3.Whatwillbeitsrelativedensity?
Q17.Explainwhybigboulderscanbemovedeasilybyfloods.

Q18.Whyisiteasiertowalkonsoftsandwithaflatshoethanapencilheeledshoe?
Q19.Whydoyoufeellighterwhenyouswim?
Q20.Whyisabucketofwaterlighterwheninwaterthanwhenitistakenoutofwater?

Q21.Whyitiseasiertoswiminseawatertaninriverwater?

9. Why does a buffalo float on the river but not the man?
10. Why does ice float on the water?
11. Why does a ship made up of iron floats but the iron sinks?
12. How do submarines float or sink as desired?
13. Why does a mug full of water appear lighter inside the water?
14. A dead body floats in water with its head immersed in water. Explain?
15. In what direction does the buoyant force on an object, due to liquid act?
16. Why does a block of plastic piece left under water cone to the surface of water?
17. Write the condition under which the body would float on a liquid?
hrust The force acting on a body perpendicular to its surface is called thrust.
The S.I. unit of thrust is Newton (N).
e.g. For fixing a poster on a bulletin board one has to press drawing pins with the thumb.
When pressing a drawing pin, force is applied on the surface area of its head.
The force is directed perpendicular to the surface of the board. This force is called thrust.
Pressure The thrust per unit area is called pressure.
Pressure = Thrust/ Area
The S.I. unit of pressure is Newton per square metre (N/m2) which is also called pascal (Pa).
Many times a bigger unit of pressure called kilopascal (kPa) is used.
The pressure depends on two factors:
(a). Force applied
(b). Area over which force acts.
The same force can produce different pressures depending on the area over which it acts
e.g. when a force acts over a large area of an object, it produces a small pressure.
But if the same force acts over a small area of the object, it produces a large pressure.
Let we take two similar bricks lying on the ground, one in the lying position and another in the standing
position. The two bricks exert the same force on the ground because they have the same weight.
But the two bricks exert different pressures on the ground because their areas in contact with the ground
are different.
The brick in the lying position has a large area in contact with the ground. So, the force of the weight of
the brick falls on a large area of the ground and the force per unit area or pressure on the ground is
less.
The brick in the standing position has a small area in contact with the ground. So, the force of the weight
of the brick falls on a smaller area of the ground and the pressure on the ground is more.
A school bag has wide straps made of thick cloth
= The weight of bag may fall over a large area of the shoulder of the child producing less pressure on the
shoulder. And due to less pressure, it is more comfortable to carry the heavy school bag.
= On the other hand, if the school bag has a strap made of thin string, then the weight of school bag will
fall over a small area of the shoulder. This will produce a large pressure on the shoulder of the child and it
will become very painful to carry the heavy school bag.
A sharp knife cuts better than a blunt knife.

A sharp knife has a very thin edge to its blade. Due to its very thin edge, the force of our hand falls over a
very small area of the object producing a large pressure. And this large pressure cuts the object easily.
On the other hand, a blunt knife does not cut an object easily because due to its thicker edge, the force of
our hand falls over a larger area of the object and produces lesser pressure. This lesser pressure cuts the
object with difficulty.
The tip of a sewing needle is sharp so that due to its sharp tip, the needle may put the force on a very
small area of the cloth, producing a large pressure sufficient to pierce the cloth being stitched.
The pressure on ground is more when a man is walking than when he is standing.
When a man is walking, then at one time only his one foot is on the ground.
Due to this, the force of weight of man falls on a smaller area of the ground and produces more pressure
on the ground.
On the other hand, when the man is standing, then both his feet are on the ground.
Due to this the force of weight of the man falls on a larger area of the ground and produces lesser
pressure on the ground.
The depression is much more when a man stands on the cushion than when he lies down on it.
When a man stands on a cushion then only his two feet (having small area) are in contact with the
cushion. Due to this the weight of man falls on a small area of the cushion producing a large pressure.
This large pressure causes a big depression in the cushion.
On the other hand, when the same man is lying on the cushion, then his whole body (having large area) is
in contact with the cushion. In this case the weight of man falls on a much larger area of the cushion
producing much smaller pressure. And this smaller pressure produces a very little depression in the
cushion.
The tractors have broad tyres so that there is less pressure on the ground and the tyres do not sink into
comparatively soft ground in the fields.
A wide steel belt is provided over the wheels of army tanks so that they exert less pressure on the ground
and do not sink into it.
Wooden sleepers (or concrete sleepers) are kept below the railway line so that there is less pressure of
the train on the ground and railway line may not sink into the ground.
The snow shoes have large, flat soles so that there is less pressure on the soft snow and this stops the
wearer from sinking into it.
It is easier to walk on soft sand if we have flat shoes rather than shoes with small heels (or pencil heels).
This is because a flat shoe has a greater area in contact with the soft sand due to which there is less
pressure on the soft ground. Due to this the flat shoes do not sink much in soft sand and it is easy to walk
on it.
On the other hand, a small heel (or sharp heel) has a small area is contact with the soft sand and so
exerts a greater pressure on the soft sand. Due to this greater pressure, the small heels tend to sink deep
into soft sand making it difficult for the wearer to walk on soft sand.
The foundations of buildings and dams are laid on a larger area of ground so that the weight of the
building or dam (to be constructed) produces less pressure on ground and the building or dam may not
sink into the ground.

Qn A piece of stone is tied at one end of a rubber string and holding from other end, it is allowed to
immerse partially then fully into water. What difference if any, you will observe, and why ?
.Qn An object of 40N weight when immersed in water losses 10N weight. Will the object float or sink why?

Nails and pins have pointed tips. Give reasons?


2. State Archimedes principle.
A thrust of 200N exerts a pressure of 10Pa on a body. Calculate the area on which the pressure is
exerted?
3 MARKS QUESTIONS
1. An object of mass 80g has a volume of 20cm3. Will the object float on the water? Why? What will
be the mass of water displaced by the object?
2. Give reasons:
a)Balloons filled with hydrogen rise to the ceiling.
b)Tractors have wide tyres.
c)A mug full of water appears light as long as it is under water in the bucket than when it is outside
water.
Qn How much will a body of weight 35N weigh in water if it displaces 1 litre of water ?(g = 9.8m/s2)
Qn . a) A body is floating on the surface of a liquid. With the help of a diagram
show the two forces acting on it that are responsible for its floatation.
State the relationship between these two forces in this case?
b)What is relative density? If an object is immersed wholly in a liquid causing up thrust equal to the
weight of the body then what will be the relation between the relative densities of liquid and the
object?