rarefraction effect on heat transfer and fluid flow

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rarefraction effect on heat transfer and fluid flow

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Topic A

1*

Hossein Afshar, Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi Nainian, Mehrzad Shams, Goodarz Ahmadi

Mollasadra Ave. Vanak Sq., Tehran, 19991-43344, Iran

2

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, K.N.Toosi University of Technology

Mollasadra Ave. Vanak Sq., Tehran, 19991-43344, Iran

3

Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, K.N.Toosi University of Technology

Mollasadra Ave. Vanak Sq., Tehran, 19991-43344, Iran

4

Proffesor, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department, Clarkson University

Potsdam NY, 13699, USA

* E-mail: ho_afshar@yahoo.com

Abstract

If the hydrodynamic diameter of a channel is comparable with the mean free path of the gas molecules moving

inside the channel, the fluid can no longer be considered to be in thermodynamic equilibrium and a variety of

non-continuum or rarefaction effects can occur. To avoid enormous complexity and extensive numerical cost

encountered in modeling of nonlinear Boltzmann equations, the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved considering

the concepts of slip flow regime and applying slip velocity boundary conditions at the solid walls.

In this study, a new slip boundary condition according to the kinetic theory of gases is introduced. Navier-Stokes and

energy equations for fluid flow in a microchannel in no-slip and slip flow regimes are solved. Temperature and

velocity profiles are evaluated and the effect of rarefaction parameters on heat transfer in the microchannel is

discussed.

I. Introduction

Kn =

equations of fluid-dynamics are valid in all rarefaction

regimes, the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations

becomes lacking with increasing rarefaction. In fact,

numerical integration of these equations relies also on

the computation of shear stress and heat flux. In

low-density regimes phenomenological equations of

Newton, Fourier and Fick are no longer valid.

Furthermore, as the density decreases, the

intermolecular collisions in the gas get too few for

maintaining the isotropy of the pressure tensor, the

conventional no-slip boundary condition can be no

longer applied and finally effects such as thermal and

pressure diffusion, usually not included in the

Navier-Stokes solvers, become more prominent.

In recent years, many researchers are interested in

small scale flows and many attempts are made in

minimization of scales and improvement of the

performance of instruments (Latif (2008), by increasing

the usage of small scale instruments, understanding

the behavior of such flows has become more important.

In micro-scale, rarefaction and interferences between

fluid and solid surface that causes the violation of no

slip boundary condition need to be accounted for in the

analysis.

In most macro-scale applications, the fluid flow in

channels is in turbulent flow regime but in micro-scale

and nano-scale applications, most fluid flows are in

laminar regime. The Knudsen number which is the

ratio of mean free path over flow characteristic length,

defines flow characteristics when the flow dimensions

approach the molecular mean free path. This non

Lc

(1)

diameter in a microchannel), and is the molecular

mean free path. Flow regime is defined according to

the value of Knudsen number.

Continuum Flow

Kn 10 3

10 3 Kn 10 1

10 1 Kn 10

Slip Flow

Transitional Flow

Kn > O(10)

In microchannels even though the fluid density whould

not rely on low-density regime, but because of the

value of length scale which would be in order of mean

free path, it could be in slip flow regime.

Morini et al. (2005) theoretically investigated the

conditions for experimentally evidencing rarefaction

effects on the pressure drop. It was demonstrated that

for a fixed geometry of the microchannel cross-section,

it is possible to calculate the minimum value of the

Knudsen number for which the rarefaction effects can

be observed experimentally. Hung and Ru (2006)

studied the heat transfer characteristics of fluid flow in

microchannel by the lattices-Boltzmann method. A

nine-velocity model and an internal energy distribution

model were used to obtain the mass, momentum and

temperature distributions in micro-channel flow.

Khadem et al. (2008) performed a two dimensional

numerical simulation for incompressible and

compressible fluid flow through microchannels in slip

flow regime.

-1-

nd

Topic A

application of microchannels. Webb (2005) introduced

microchannels as next generation devices for

electronic cooling.The heat flux in these cases can

reach to 100 w/cm2. Afshar et al. (2008 and 2009)

studied heat transfer and dispersion of nanoparticles in

a microchannel. They studied channel adsobtion

efficieny and slip effect on dispersion of nanoparticles.

Martin and Boyd (2006) modeled the fluid flow in a

laminar boundary layer using a slip boundary condition.

It was shown that the slip condition changes the

boundary layer structure from a self-similar profile to a

two-dimensional structure.

One of the most important concerns in modelling

rarefied flow in a microchannel in slip flow regime is

how to apply slip boundary conditions for velocity and

temperature. Hettiarachchi et al. (2008) numerically

studied Three-dimensional laminar slip-flow and heat

transfer in rectangular microchannels having constant

temperature walls using the finite-volume method for

thermally and simultaneously developing flows. They

defined a modified convectiondiffusion coefficient at

the

wallfluid

interface

to

incorporate

the

temperature-jump boundary condition. Zhang et al.

(2009)

established

a

numerical

model

for

three-dimensional compressible gaseous slip flow in

microchannel. They modified gas viscosity based on

Knudsen number using Veijolas model due to the

increased rarefaction effects in microscale.

In this study an analytical method for velocity and

themperature boundary conditions in slip flow regime

according to rarefied gas dynamics will be presented.

come from out of the Knudsen layer, ur is the velocity of

reflected molecules and uw is the wall velocity.

2 T 2 T

Ts Tw =

(8)

T + 1 Pr n w

temperature of fluid molecules adjascent to the wall.

is the specific heat.

ei e r

(9)

ei e w

ei is the energy of incident molecules, er is the energy

of reflected molecules and ew is the energy of wall

molecules.

T =

III.Methodology

According to the definition of Knudsen number (eq.1), if

the characteristic length is comparable to the mean

free path of the molecules, assumption of equilibrium

will not be valid any more. The non-equilibrium

exchange in momentum and energy between

molecules is done in Knudsen layer which height is

about a mean free path of the molecules (Struchtrup et

al. (2007)) so the molecules move toward the wall form

out of the Knudsen layer where equilibrium conditions

are valid and then reflect. Distance between the

centers of molecules from the wall is equal to radius of

molecules, so slip occurs in a molecular radius from

the wall (figure 1).

ui , ei

II.Governing Equations

In two dimensional incompressible fluid flow, continuity

and momentum equations are as follows:

u v

+

=0

(2)

x y

u

2u 2u

u

p

u

+v

=

+ 2 + 2

x

y

x

y

x

v v

v

v

p

+v

=

+ 2 + 2

x

y

y

y

x

2

Knudsen Layer

us , es

Figure 1: Knudsen layer and slip surface near the

wall

(3)

molecules will be equal to the wall temperature, the

momentum flux for molecules adjascent to the wall is

1

s = n s mC s u s

(10)

4

ns is molecular number density, m is weight of

molecules and C is the mean thermal velocity which is

defined as:

8RT

(11)

C =

M

R is the gas constant and M is the molar weight of the

gas.

For molecules adjascent to the wall, half of them are

coming from out of the kndusen layer and half of them

are reflecting from the wall. So the momentum flux can

be written as:

1

1

1

n s mC s u s = ni mC i u i + n r mC r u r

(12)

4

4

4

Substituting ur from equation (7) and C from equation

(4)

Energy equation:

c p (u

T

T

2 T 2T

+v

)= k( 2 + 2 )

x

y

x

y

(5)

above equations should be solved according to proper

boundary conditions. For rarefied flows in slip flow

regime, slip boundary conditions should be applied.

2 v u

3 T

+

u s = u r u w =

(6)

n

4 T s w

v

coefficient. n and s are directions normal and tangebtial

to the boundary. us is the velocity of fluid molecules

adjascent to the wall.

u ur

v = i

(7)

ui u w

-2-

nd

Topic A

1

n s and EAC

2

equal to unity, a non-linear equation for velocity and

temperature slip is obtained.

1

Ts u s =

Ti u i + Tw (1 v )u i + Tw v u w

(13)

2

Equation (13) can be sloved by an itertive procedure to

obtain velocity and temperature slip instead of using

equations (6) and (8) as boundary conditions.

Reordering equation (8) leads to have temperature of

molecules adjacent to the wall.

2 T 2 Ti Ts

Ts T w =

(14)

T + 1 Pr

Ts is the temperature of gas molecules adjacent to the

wall, Ti is the temperature of gas molecules a distance

of mean free path (Knudesn layer thickness) from the

wall. So Ts can be written explicitly in terms of

temperature of incoming molecules and wall

temperature.

2 (2 T )Ti + Pr T ( + 1)TW

Ts =

(15)

( + 1) T Pr + 2 (2 T )

Combining equations (13) and (15) lead to temperature

and velocity slip in term of wall and flow in equilibrium

conditions.

These relations can be used instead of conventional

boundary conditions that use gradients, and can

accelerate the numerical convergence.

Note that in equation (15), the second grid point in

numerical simulation should be placed in a distance of

mean free path from the wall.

If temperature effect on tangential velocity slip whould

be neglected, then velocity profile in the microchannel

due to analytical solution can be written as equation

(16).

2

2 v

H 2 dp y y

Kn

u( y) =

+2

(16)

2 dx H H

v

the Knudsen number increases, the maximum velocity

at the centre of the microchannel decreases whilst the

tangential slip-velocity at the wall increases. The net

effect of these changes is to produce a velocity profile

which becomes more uniform with increasing Knudsen

number. Another interesting feature of the flow

redistribution is the fact that the velocity remains

invariant with respect to Knudsen number at two

locations across the microchannel. It can readily be

shown that for flow in the microchannel position of this

feature occurs at

y 1

1

=

(17)

H 2 2 3

It should be noted that equation (16) and (17) are valid

for traditional first order slip boundary condition without

consideration of temperature effects.

temperature of 500K is imposed to upper and lower

walls. Tangential momentum accommodation and

energy accommodation coefficients are set to unity.

Velocity and temperature distribution in the

respectively.

As the temperature is constant in upper and lower

microchannel (Kn=.01)

region in the channel entrance and in the rest of

microchannel, the temperature is constant.

Also

temperature and velocity slip can be seen in figures (3)

and (4).

microchannel in slip flow regime (Kn=.01)

Kn=0

Kn=0.01

IV.Results

Slip flow in a short microchannel with 4 micrometers

height and 100 micrometers long (Figure 2) is

investigated.

Air flow enters the microchannel uniformly with velocity

of 0.3 m/s, Temperature of 300K and in the exit; it is

-3-

nd

Topic A

figure (7). Air flow temperature in the enterance is 300K

and upper and lower walls are at constant temperature of

500K. As shown in figure (7), air temperature inceases as it

flows in the channel and after x/L greater than 4/70,

temperature becomes uniform equal to 500K.

Temperature distribution in different sections of the

microchannel for Knudsen number equal to 0.01 is shown in

figure (8).

Kn=0

Kn=0.01

x/L=1/70

x/L=3/70

x/L=2/70

flow regimes is shown in figure (5).

Velocity profile in a channel section (x/L=3/70) for slip

and no-slip flow regimes is shown in figure (6).

Temperature effect on slip velocity is obvious in figures

(5) and (6). As it is supposed, slip velocity profile is

flater than no-slip profile.

Figure (6) shows that two positions in the microchannel

that velocity remains invariant with respect to Knudsen

number are not the positions that are referd to in

equation (17). So it can be concluded that as

temperature effect is often neglected in equation (6)

and so in derivation of equation (17), they can not be

introduced as proper statements in slip flow regime.

Comparison of figures (5) and (6) shows that constant

velocity positions versus Knudsen number move

toward the center of the microchannel as the flow

passes the entrance region and becomes fully

developed.

different sections of the microchannel

(Kn=0.01)

the microchannel. Comparing figures (7) and (8) show

that the temperature in the center of the microchannel

decreases due to slip. It means that thermal slip

increases the thermal entrance region (figure 4) and

fluid passes a distance more than no-slip flow to have

zero temperature gradient.

Temperature distribution in different sections of the

microchannel for Knudsen number equal to 0.1 is shown in

figure (9).

x/L=1/70

x/L=1/70

x/L=2/70

x/L=2/7

x/L=3/70

x/L=3/70

in different sections of the microchannel

different sections of the microchannel

-4-

nd

Topic A

(2009)

Afshar H., Shams M., Nainian S.M.M, Ahmadi G., Two phase

Analysis of Heat Transfer and Dispersion of Nano Particles in

a Microchannel, Proceedings of 2008 ASME Summer Heat

Transfer Conference, August 10-14, Jacksonville, Florida

USA, (2008)

Hakak Khadem M., Shams M., and Hossainpour S., Direct

simulation of roughness effects on rarefied and compressible

flow at slip flow regime, International Communications in

Heat and Mass Transfer, 36, 88-95, (2009)

Hettiarachchi H.D.M., Golubovic M., Worek W. M.,

Minkowycz W.J. , Three-dimensional laminar slip-flow and

heat transfer in a rectangular microchannel with constant wall

temperature, International Journal of Heat and Mass

Transfer, 51, 50885096,( (2008)

Hung W. Ch., Ru Y., A numerical study for slip flow heat

transfer, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 173,

12461264, (2006)

Latif M. J., Effect of Rarefaction, Dissipation, and

Accommodation Coefficients on Heat Transfer in

Microcylindrical Couette Flow, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol.

130, (2008)

Martin M.J., Boyd L.D., Momentum and Heat Transfer in a

Laminar Boundary Layer with Slip Flow, JOURNAL OF

THERMOPHYSICS AND HEAT TRANSFER, 20, 4,

OctoberDecember, (2006)

Morini G. L., Lorenzini M., Spiga M., "A criterion for

experimental validation of slip-flow models for incompressible

rarefied gases through microchannels", Microfluid Nanofluid,

1, 190196, (2005)

Struchtrup H., Thatcher T. and Torrilhon M., Couette flow

solution for regularized 13 moment equations, Rarefied Gas

Dynamics: 25-th International Symposium, Novosibirsk,

(2007)

Webb R., Next generation devices for electronic cooling with

heat rejection to the air, Journal of Heat Transfer, 127, (2005)

Zhang T.T., Jia L., Wang Z.C., Li C.W., Slip flow

characteristics of compressible gaseous in microchannels,

Energy Conversion and Management 50, 16761681, (2009)

Comparing figures (7), (8) and (9) show that by

increasing the Knudsen number, mean temperature in

channel sections decreases. It can be concluded that

by increasing the Knudsen number, the rate of

microchannel heat transfer decreases.

V.Conclusions

New relations which are introduced as boundary

conditions for slip flow regime can be applied easily in

numerical and analytical solutions in comparison to

conventional relations.

Velocity is found explicitly in terms of temperature slip,

so it accelerates the convergence in numerical

simulations.

In derivation of above mentioned slip boundary

conditions, equations and relations of kinetic theory of

gases are used which are not limited to Knusden

numbers between 0.001 and 0.1. So it can be

concluded that these boundary conditions are more

general.

Nomenclature

Kn

Lc

u

v

Cp

v

us

ui

ur

uw

Ts

ei

er

ew

s

ns

m

C

R

M

L

H

: Knudsen number

: Mean free path of the molecules

: Characteristic length

: Fluid velocity in x direction

: Fluid velocity in y direction

: Dynamic viscosity

: Fluid Temperatue

: Fluid density

: Fluid specific heat

: Tangential momentum accommodation

coefficient

: Velocity of fluid molecules adjascent to the

wall

: Tangential velocity of incident molecules

which come from out of the Knudsen layer

: Velocity of reflected molecules from the wall

: Velocity of the wall

: Energy accommodation coefficient

: Temperature of fluid molecules adjascent to

the wall

: Specific heat

: Energy of incident molecules

: Energy of reflected molecules

: Energy of wall molecules

: Momentum flux of molecules adjacent to

the wall

: Molecular number density

: Weight of molecules

: Mean thermal velocity

: Gas constant

: Molar weight of the gas

: Length of the microchannel

: Height of the microchannel

References

Afshar H., Shams M., Nainian S.M.M, Ahmadi G.,

Microchannel Heat Transfer and Dispersion of Nanoparticles

in Slip Flow Regime with Constant Heat Flux, International

-5-

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