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INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES, NEW MEDIA & SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT

University of Toronto, October 23-25, 2014
Proceedings
Editors: Hudson Moura, Ricardo Sternberg, Regina Cunha, Cecília Queiroz, and
Martin Zeilinger

ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 (Image copyright: Marina Camargo; used by permission) 

Interactive Narratives, New Media & Social Engagement 2014 
 

Table of Contents – 2 

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………….2–3
Contributors…………………………………………………………………………………………...4–7
Essays…………………………………………………………………………………………........8–152
Abbot, Daisy, The Glasgow School of Art. “Old Plays, New Narratives: Fan Production of New
Media Texts from Broadcast Theatre”……………………………………………………………..8–18
Alzamora, Geane and Lorena Tárcia, University of Minas Gerais. “Proposed Methodology for
Transmedia New Story Analysis: A Comparative Study of The Great British Float Project and
The Great British Property Scandal: Every Empty Counts (2012) in the UK”………………..19–27
Antunes, Rafael. Universidade Lusófona. “Blue Pencil: Experiences in Transmedia”.……28–36
Ciancia, Mariana, Francesca Piredda, & Simona Venditti, Politecnico di Milano. “Shaping &
Sharing Imagination: Designers and the Transformative Power of Stories”………………….37–46
Cooley, Heidi Rae, Duncan Buell, and Richard Walker, University of South Carolina. “From
Ghosts of the Horseshoe to Ward One: Critical Interactives for Inviting Social Engagement With
Instances of Historical Erasure (Columbia, South Carolina)”…………………………………..47–53
Fallon, Kris, University of California, Davis. “Streams of the Self: the Instagram Feed as
Narrative Autobiography”…………………………………………………………………………..54–60
González-Cuesta, Begoña, IE University. “I-Docs and New Narratives: Meaning Making in
Highrise”……………………………………………………….....................................................61–69
Hadler, Florian and Daniel Irrgang, University of Arts, Berlin. “Nonlinearity, Multilinearity,
Simultaneity: Notes on Epistemological Structures”…………………………………………….70–87
Jordão, Aida, York University. “Inês de Castro on YouTube: Re-gendered Narratives”…..88–94
Lenzner, Ben, University of Waikato. “Emerging Forms of Citizen Video Activism: Challenges in
Documentary Storytelling & Sustainability”……………………………………………………..95–100
Lim, Sandra, Ryerson University. “Xapiri: at the Juncture of History, Experience, and
Technology”……………………………………………………………………………………....101–106
Paakspuu, Kalli, York University. “Off the Wall with Shchedryk”………………………….107–112
Rodrigues, Alexandre Coronato, and Roselita Lopes de Almeida Freitas, ESPM.
“Collective Authorship in Real Time”…………………………………………………………..113–121
Sweeney, David, The Glasgow School of Art. “Crossing Boundaries”……………………122–127
Trindade, Isabella. York University. “In-Between: Between the Concrete and the Virtual,
Between the Physical and the Imaginary”…………………………………………………….128–136

Interactive Narratives, New Media & Social Engagement 2014 
 

Table of Contents – 3 

Wolfe, Kateland, Georgia State University. “What’s Missed When No One is Misunderstood?
Understanding Whose Agency is Increased Thanks to Interactivity”………………………137–144
Xu, Janice Hua, Holy Family University. “Telling the Stories of Left-Behind Children in China:
From Diary Collection to Digital Filmmaking”………………………….................................145–152

Geane Alzamora holds a PhD in Communication Studies and Semiotics at the Catholic University of São Paulo (PUC. Heidi Rae Cooley is an Associate Professor of Media Arts in the School of Visual Arts and .marinacamargo. São Paulo. Italy. He attended the SZFE-University of theatre and film arts. digital and participatory culture. 3D visualisation methodologies. Rafael is currently a PhD student at Universidade Lusófona. He has recently turned to research areas in digital humanities. Politecnico di Milano. Hungary. while maintaining a professional activity in the TV channel SIC. digital heritage. studying with Peter Kogler at ADBK (Akademie der Bildenden Künste. in Budapest. Her current research focuses on interactivity. He has written three books and more than fifty research papers in number theory. and interpretation in the arts and humanities. Munich). one of the first successful ventures into the use of FPGAs as a programmable “CPU” in what is now known as a reconfigurable computing machine. Born in 1969 in Lisbon. Daisy has experience on a range of interdisciplinary research projects combining digital technology with the arts and humanities. Spain. she received a grant from Fundação Iberê Camargo for a residency at Gasworks. Duncan A. Rafael Antunes. and lived in Germany in 2010-2011 with a DAAD grant for visual artists. 2004). Brazil). and computer architecture. a website. In her research process. in particular relating to interactive narratives. with the aim of understand how multichannel phenomena (crossmedia and transmedia) are changing the processes of production. performing arts. and collaborator in the National Institute for Science and Technology for the Web. distribution and consumption of narrative environments. a projection. Federal University in Porto Alegre. 2007).com Mariana Ciancia is PhD Student at the Design Department. While at IDA he was project manager for the Splash 2 reconfigurable computing project. New Media & Social Engagement 2014    Contributors – 4  Contributors: Daisy Abbott is an interdisciplinary researcher & research developer based in the Digital Design Studio at Glasgow School of Art. She is a professor in the Graduate Program in Social Communication/Department of Social Communication at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG. and interaction design. He as directed several short films and documentaries and transmedia projects. Film & Television Studies and an MSc in Information Technology. document and information retrieval. He and Dr. digital representations of ephemeral events. a typography. including critical interactives and text mining. http://www. Brazil). Her research activity deals with new media and participatory culture. a video. Marina Camargo’s work focuses on everyday life perception and how it can be subtly altered by dealing with its representation.Interactive Narratives. parallel algorithms. Cooley have been co-investigators on two NEH grants and one internal grant in digital humanities. and issues surrounding digital documentation. an installation. Brazil. preservation. or a collaborative project. He has a MA in film studies from the Universidade Lusófona. a postgraduate degree in Visual Culture (UB – University of Barcelona. Buell is a Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of South Carolina. Minas Gerais. a researcher at the Center for Convergence of New Media (CNPq/UFMG. National Research Council at UFMG). In 2012. Camargo has a Master’s Degree in Visual Arts (UFRGS. in London. both conceptual reference and material research are equally important to define whether the work will become a photograph. where he took several specialization courses. With an MA(Hons) in Theatre.

specializing. and a researcher in the project Archaeology/Variantology of the Media. She holds a PhD from the Centre for Drama. www.) teaches Media and Communication at the University of Arts in Berlin. Since 2002.flohadler. Florian Hadler (M. Finding Augusta: Habits of Mobility and Governance in the Digital Era. focusing on the aesthetic.Interactive Narratives. non-fiction film. Cooley served as Co-PI and facilitator for an NEH-funded Humanities Gaming Institute. will serve as a laboratory for exploring the book’s argument. She believes in the need to study the ethical and aesthetic implications of audiovisual representations of marginal realities and conflicts. Dr. ESPM. he combined his knowledge of photography. where he is coeditor of vol.de/personen/irrgang Aida Jordão is currently an instructor in the Theatre Department and the Portuguese Studies Program of York University. he teaches Graphic Production and Digital Production in Social Communication at ESPM Sao Paulo. design and computer working for several multimedia producers and in 1996 formed his company. Her current research is focused on images as a means of creating thought. Theatre and . 4 and 5 of Variantology – On Deep Time Relations of Arts. providing creative. storytelling and representation. Her research and teaching interests are centered on visual narratives. www. His research focuses on non-fiction visual culture across a range of platforms. print production. anthropological and ethical dimensions of contemporary screen works.com Daniel Irrgang (M. Video and Photography: multimedia production at the University Anhembi Morumbi. pursues his PhD at the University of Arts Berlin and the European Graduate School in Saas Fee. and in 2010 he graduated in Digital Media from the University of Southern Santa Catarina. art film.udk-berlin. In 2010. advertising. and photography services. since in 2012 in Film. she subsequently served as co-PI on an NEH Level 2 Digital Humanities Grant that funded the development of a serious game that explores early modern social history and as co-PI on an internal grant that funded the development of “Ghosts of the Horseshoe. Eine Einzelstimmung. and new audiovisual formats. and “Der nackte Kandidat. “AUGUSTA App. in the areas of contemporary cinema. he teaches computer graphics and multimedia at Miami Ad School. From the 1990s onward. Kris Fallon is the Mellon Visiting Assistant Professor in Digital Culture at UC Davis. cultural. Zur Semantik von Natur im Dschungelcamp. Graph 5. and works as a Digital Strategy Consultant for different clients. Begoña González-Cuesta has been working at IE University since 2000 and is currently the Dean of IE School of Communication.flusser-archive.org. 2014.” Alexandre Coronato Rodrigues.” the book’s digital supplement. chair for Media Theory at Berlin University of the Arts.A. New Media & Social Engagement 2014    Contributors – 5  Design at the University of South Carolina.gwk. In 1986. from still photography and film to data visualization. 2014. Alexandre Coronato performed works in computer programming in the private sector. a scientific assistant of Professor Dr Siegfried Zielinski.” in Arkadien oder Dschungelcamp. and are forthcoming in several edited anthologies. www. His essays on digital technology and documentary have recently appeared in Film Quarterly and Screen. Her book.) is the scientific supervisor of the Vilém Flusser Archive. Sciences and Technologies and of the German anthology of the series.A. considers how mobile technologies both instantiate norms for the governance of populations and constitute persons as expressive and socially connected subjects. Recent Publications include G – Geheimnis. Since 2011.

” and is also a graduate of the Acting program of the Drama Studio.K. As an artist. Sandra Lim research interests include the aesthetic experience and practice of documentary films. Ben Lenzner is a photographer. David Sweeney is a lecturer in the Glasgow School of Art's Forum for Critical Inquiry. he is completing his final year as a PhD candidate in Screen and Media Studies at the University of Waikato. Extensive experience in Radio and Television. “Inês de Castro in Theatre and Film: A Feminist Exhumation of the Dead Queen. Born and raised in New York City. One Feminism” in Revista de Estudos AngloPortugueses (18). in Media Studies and Media Production.B. Social Sciences and Social Justice in Education. Currently. post doctoral student in Digital Design Technology Intelligence and PUC of São Paulo. Francesca Piredda is assistant professor at the Design Department of Politecnico di Milano and teaches at the School of Design. She is a member of IMAGIS research group and of DESIS International Network. New Media & Social Engagement 2014    Contributors – 6  Performance Studies. Recent publications include the essays 'I Spy: Mike Leigh and . she teaches film and cultural studies at York University. Aida has worked worldwide creating original theatre. An award winning filmmaker. “World Without Water”. director and playwright includes popular theatre. educator and new media creator. C. Design and Moving Image in 2013. She currently lectures on Politics and Film at Ryerson University in Toronto.S. and the potential of artists’ documentary for urban analysis and critique. Spain. Kalli Paakspuu earned her doctorate from the University of Toronto in Humanities. Museography and Hypermedia at the Complutense University of Madrid. In 2005.. and “Playwriting in Canadian Popular Theatre: Developing Plays with Actors and Non-Actors” in Canadian Theatre Review (115). feminist plays and Theatre of the Oppressed. specialising in popular culture. He is equally at home bicycling through the island of Manhattan. At the Canadian Film Centre she was a co-creator of the interactive installation. filmmaker. and Cuba (Teatro Escambray). he was a recipient of the AIF Clinton Fellowship for Service in India. Publications include “(Re)Presenting Inês de Castro: Two Audiences. Two Languages. Roselita Lopes de Almeida Freitas.B. audiovisual language and new TVs. U. roaming the bustling streets of New Delhi. under the pseudonym ROSE FIGUEIREDO. she is a collaborator in Museum ID+C. notably in Toronto (Nightwood Theatre and the Company of Sirens). she teaches Image and Sound in Social Communication at ESPM Sao Paulo. He is a graduate of the Ryerson University MFA program in Documentary Media. where she work as a director. exhibited at the Cultural Olympiad in Vancouver in 2010. focusing on collaborative processes and transmedia strategies for brand communication and social innovation. TVOntario.C. from the University of Brighton in the UK. Bravo and other networks. Ph. theatre director.D. USP and Master of Science in Communication in Image and Sound at ECA/USP (2000). Portugal (Teatro O Bando). Since 2004.Interactive Narratives. University of Toronto with the thesis. Brazil. or climbing Mt. Laboratorio of digital culture. Her films have been broadcast on P. Her research deals with Communication Design. Originally from Canada. she completed a PhD in Art. he taught for many years at the International Center of Photography. storyteller. and educator. journalism department at ECA. Taranaki at dawn. writer. Her current projects include the documentary “1921 – The War Against Music” and the interactive documentary “Moment of Contact” based on her doctoral research. Aida’s theatre practice as an actor.

Her main research focus is based on the architecture and urban space as an extension of the importing and exporting of models and cultural exchanges in an interdisciplinary analysis. and television studies. National Research Council at UFMG) and collaborator in the Era Transmedia Group in Brazil. Her research interests include cultural studies. and currently she is teaching at Ryerson’s Faculty of Communication & Design (FCAD) in Toronto. & Society. He presented the paper ‘Comic Books in the Age of Digital Reproduction’ at BRAFFTV 2013.Interactive Narratives. Janice Hua Xu (Ph. professor of Online Journalism at the University Center of Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Isabella Trindade is a PhD Architect with professional experience in Brazil. Lorena Tárcia is a former journalist at Globo TV. She is interested in understanding how the compulsory need to understand each other in communication limits and strengthens agency in particular situations. France and Spain. and contributed chapters to several books on Chinese mass media. . and has given several presentations on interactive fiction and gamification in the classroom. in Barcelona. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) is Assistant Professor of Communication at Holy Family University. Culture. Her research activity deals with Digital Storytelling. 2013) and 'From Stories to Worlds: The Continuity of Marvel Superheroes' in the Summer 2013 issue of Intensities: The Journal of Cult Media. She has a short piece published in Communication Research Trends on interactive fiction and its intersection with Walter Ong scholarship. Author of several articles. New Media & Social Engagement 2014    Contributors – 7  Britpop' in Devised and Directed by Mike Leigh (Bloomsbury. Researcher at the Center for Convergence of New Media (CNPq/UFMG. Simona Venditti is currently PhD student in Communication Design at Politecnico di Milano. including some about the interfaces between movies and architecture. Brazil). Telematics and Informatics.. media globalization. Kateland Wolfe is a second-year PhD student in rhetoric and composition in the English department at Georgia State University.D. Minas Gerais. He is currently working on book chapters about the comic book writers Warren Ellis and Mark Millar. with doctoral internship at the Pompeu Fabra University. PHD student in Social Communication at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG. Pennsylvania. She has published in Journalism Studies. She has been teaching composition classes for the last three years. audiovisual language and participatory processes and practices for the engagement and empowerment of local communities. Media. She is a Professor and a researcher at Catholic University of Pernambuco in Brazil (on leave).

 NEW NARRATIVES: FAN PRODUCTION OF NEW  MEDIA TEXTS FROM BROADCAST THEATRE  Daisy Abbott. and Martin Zeilinger. Abstract: When a theatrical performance is digitally broadcast live to cinemas. Glasgow   d. or as a conversion from a theatrical form to a cinematic one. and extensions of. Regina Cunha. and then into interactive hypertexts and memes. the very nature of the cultural experience is changed. as well as post-Web 2. With their live broadcasts. the paper examines fan production of new media texts and how they both transmit and transform the source narrative via interpretation. How do the different transformations (technical and actively fan-produced) affect both the narrative and the cultural experience? How do new texts function as surrogates for. as well as new interactive narratives in their own right? This paper addresses these questions in the context of a specific theatrical event as it crossed the boundary from a live. One such production. Digital Design Studio. extracted clips and produced animated gifs. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. it is problematic to consider live broadcasts within a cinematic framework.uk   Suggested citation: Abbott. The Hub. and misinterpretation. the process of filming a play and its transmission via satellite to multiple cinemas is sometimes de- scribed in terms of a ‘stage to screen’ transformation. The transformation of theatre texts to cinemas to social media platforms raises exciting questions related to how fans interact with culture both as consumers and as producers of new media texts. the ‘official’ narrative. the limitations of temporal and spatial specificity are removed and the theatrical experience is simultaneously opened up to a wider audience and inherently altered. new narratives: fan production of new media texts from broadcast theatre. re-interpretation. whilst the technology of delivery of any cultural product most certainly affects the content. NT Live aims to emulate the ephemeral. which they captioned to reinterpret the play. Eds. starring an actor with a particularly enthusiastic online fan community. Daisy (2014).      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. Ricardo Sternberg. Pacific  Quay.ac.abbott@gsa. Coriolanus (Donmar Warehouse. . removed from their original context. Broadcast theatre as a transmedia narrative When a live event is filmed and broadcast to remote audiences.0 analyses of Internet behaviours. However. Hudson Moura. The Glasgow School of Art. was broadcast to cinemas by National Theatre Live. In the case of National Theatre Live (NT Live). Cecília Queiroz. where fans recorded it on digital devices. colocated experience first into cinema. “Old plays. Drawing on theories of fandom and participatory culture. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    OLD PLAYS. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). 2013-14). sharing them online.

flyers. that is. or plays by the same theatre company which are not being broadcast. 2014) and a combined screen advert/mobile app which encourages users to “play along with the big screen” on their phones to earn rewards (CineMe. who played Loki in Thor (2011). Three films from the Marvel cinematic universe were instrumental in the growing celebrity of actor Tom Hiddleston. The remediation of theatrical events into a contemporary “media ecology” (Shaviro. The advertising varies from screening to screening and is typically focused on future NT Live broadcasts. Like live broadcasts from the Metropolitan Opera (2014) before it. This publicity (intended to build an audience for the remote screening. to consider NT Live broadcasts as theatrical. and instead fit closely into the post-cinematic framework outlined by Steven Shaviro in his 2010 book. interviews. or even televisual would be to misunderstand the ways in which these structures create an extended narrative across many media. which takes place towards the end of the theatrical run) sits alongside the play’s epitext. and communities. without any sense of hierarchy between the different sources of the content (for example. roleplaying games and more. and behind-the-scenes articles. however it is acknowledged that the cultural experience is not a simulacrum of theatre. 2011). videogames.Interactive Narratives. cinematic.67). textual information about the play and the cast. still images of the play the audience is about to see. These broadcasts are neither theatrical nor cinematic. Furthermore. live footage of the audience in the actual theatre space. and Thor: The Dark World (2013). post-cinematic. British Museum. The contemporary masters of the transmedia narrative are Marvel. the play itself.g. and self-reflexive. The Avengers (2012). the surrounding context of the live screenings (with all the extra material screened alongside the play) and the epitext (for example pre-show teasers and discussions amongst communities) adds to the extension of this narrative far beyond the original play. 2010. platforms. The Marvel multiverse is a shared fiction comprising the mainstream Marvel universe alongside all its variations and parallels from Marvel media. the usual apparatus of the theatre industry including publicity and reviews from the performances that have already taken place. Shaviro notes the radical difference between indexical cinematic space that seeks to simply document a live event. television. most significantly comics and films. screenings can also include advertising for live broadcasts from museums (e. and a highly constructed “post-cinematic mediasphere” of a cultural product that spans several forms of delivery (p. however. live interviews. which compares the strategies of televised live sports events to the live broadcast of theatre. through a combination of print and digital media comprising posters. p. an NT Live screening (see Figure 1) conforms closely with the ‘Super Bowl Dramaturgy’   Abbott – 9  framework identified by Paterson and Stevens (2013). New Media & Social Engagement 2014      communal experience of theatre in the cinema. Post-Cinematic Affect. 2014). trailers. of course. The live screenings contain a mixture of advertising.. NT Live events are widely advertised before the screening. production photos. but also including toys.7) creates a new cultural product with a new narrative. Each new official narrative from Marvel is designed to take its place within the Marvel multiverse and contribute towards the overall transmedia narrative. and the live event is itself shaped by the process of broadcasting it. and. rehearsal photos. pre-recorded documentary. This model is inherently hypermedial. but an experience that is enhanced in some ways and inferior in others (NESTA. Therefore. Audience is used to convey a sense of place and liveness whilst liveness and authenticity are themselves complicated by attempts to capture them. pre-recorded documentary and live interviews placed alongside the onstage content). Hiddleston quickly became a firm fan favourite and examples of fan production featuring Loki .

135). despite evidence of the removal of some due to copyright claims by NT Live). by engaging with the people. Madison. Fan production can be considered in three main categories: summarising and interpreting the narrative. and remixed content from the films) are common in Marvel fan communities. presumably to dissuade accusations of ‘star casting. 2014) and the Donmar producers were keen to emphasise his (considerable) Shakespearean credentials. and using the live broadcast as inspiration for wholly original content. sharing and remixing official publicity which continued throughout December 2014 and January 2015. whilst the performances of the play in London inspired reviews and commentary (from fans who could attend) and jealousy (from those who could not). “Fans have always been early adopters of new media technologies: their fascination with fictional universes often inspires new forms of cultural production […] Fans are the most active segment of the media audience. New narratives Whilst some fan sharing of content from the live stream of Coriolanus appears to serve as a relatively simple surrogate for attending an official (but ephemeral) screening in a cinema (clips and links to the full live stream are prevalent on various social media sites. but rather insists on the right to become full participants” (2006. the majority of examples move beyond simple sharing into the realm of creative production. Paterson & Stevens. but also active consumers and producers of cultural content related to their favourite actors – no matter what the role. artwork. a large number of Hiddleston-as-Loki fans were attracted to Coriolanus precisely because of the actor’s involvement. this created a heightened sense of prestige and exclusivity for tickets to the ‘in the flesh’ event (cf. Fan production related to Coriolanus began before the play opened. fan production focused on reactions and reviews of the play itself. as stated by Jenkins. alongside (and relatively swiftly subsumed by) remixes of images and clips from the high quality live stream which had been shared illegally online. this play conformed to the pattern of televised sporting events in that.Interactive Narratives. p. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      (including fan fiction. sampling the original and separating elements of content into standalone cultural objects.   Abbott – 10  Immediately following the NT Live broadcast on 30th January 2014. buoyed by both official publicity and fan engagement. and this community of audience members are not only enthusiastic and social media savvy.98) and teasers from both fans and NT Live were instrumental in driving up demand for access to Coriolanus in any (and all) forms. When Hiddleston was cast as the title character in the Donmar Warehouse production of Shakespeare’s Coriolanus in 2013 (which was to be broadcast by NT Live) it was in the context of a large number of big-name stars playing Shakespearean characters on stage in London (cf. Active reading of a transmedia narrative “sustains a depth of experience that motivates more consumption” (Jenkins. memes. becomes himself public property. 2006. one that refuses to accept simply what they are given. anticipation of the NT Live broadcast grew. using the live stream as the basis of content. p. The level of demand is demonstrated by the insistence of fan requests for a DVD of the play to be released (not a product which currently forms part of the NT Live distribution model). and the largely unapologetic sharing of illegal copies of the live stream. The transmedia nature of this text itself contributes to the sense of fan entitlement to access and participation. p.158). During this time. despite widening access to the mediatised version to a much greater audience. 2013. . Marvel fans tend to be expert readers of transmedia narratives and.’ Nevertheless. Notably. ironically reflecting the theme present in Shakespeare’s text (and explicitly mentioned in the pre-play documentary which formed part of the screening) that Coriolanus.

standalone cultural objects.Interactive Narratives. separating visuals from the meaningful dialogue of the play. sampled and edited from the live stream. which emphasises or comments on a particular aspect of the narrative (cf. Some graphics programs have a limit on the number of frames that can be included. empathy. which tend to be . The dimensions of an animated gif are also limited by considerations of file size and the width of the content pane in the intended delivery platform. in itself. it is extremely rare for browsers to display the frames of an animated gif at a rate that matches the original video. see hard-on-for-hiddleston. familiar to many viewers from Sherlock and Harry Potter. respectively. for example YouTube videos comprising re-edits of the Coriolanus live stream that focus on one aspect of the story with a complementary pop song soundtrack (e. However. with the subtitles preserved by the fans). 2014a). Volumnia throws up her arms in anger and the caption spells out “ASFGHJKL!!!” As a representative of both the scene and a major overall theme of the narrative. the size of a file intended for online delivery via blog posts creates a functional limit for the number of frames that can be included for a reasonable download rate. and context in a subtle way that text or emoticons simply can't” (Rich & Hu. and even where this limit does not exist. related not to the meaning of the narrative but to the curatorial preferences of the poster (for one example. Broadwayluver222. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Summarizing and re-interpreting Coriolanus A summary of the play is provided by Tumblr user Daasgrrl (2014). it distills the narrative down to a concise but very accurate 23 lines of dialogue whilst also wryly commenting on the fan complaints that many reviews posted online were giving away the play’s ending – her summary begins with a warning: “Contains spoilers for a 400-year-old play. invites creative captioning to reinvent meaning (although some examples are sampled from a captioned version of the live stream. The technological characteristics of animated gifs create a particular aesthetic.   Abbott – 11  This playful series combines still images subtitled with direct quotes from the text of the play with animated gifs that reinterpret a central conflict into the language of social media – in the third panel. These can take the form of single moments. 2014) – a form popular with Loki fans. Firstly. Russo & Coppa. or a collection of different gifs. A MIT Media Lab research project called Mapping the Emotional Language of gifs provides the following definition: “An animated gif is a magical thing. often explicitly acknowledging and linking different fandoms (in addition to Hiddleston. Volumnia (see Figure 2). It contains the power to convey emotion. by far the most popular format for fan production from Coriolanus is the animated gif. 2014]). 2014).. Furthermore. this sequence is extremely effective in its translation of both narrative and emotional meaning across media platforms. 2012). Creating standalone cultural objects Other forms of fan production eschew the translation of meaning from the original narrative in favour of a fragmentation of the live stream into separate. A common result of these technological characteristics is the creation and sharing of animated gifs.g. the play also starred Mark Gatiss and Alfred Enoch. animated gifs are limited by the technological apparatus used to create and display them. each of which has its own extremely active fandom [Fauchelevant.” Numerous other fans post pseudo-reviews with very personal interpretations. One re-interpretation uses a series of gifs from single scene within the play to represent the overall theme of Coriolanus’ relationship with his mother. Secondly. they are silent. This. but only recently has it become the subject of serious study. This format has been a mainstay of social media for some time. Fan remix videos typically aim to use music to heighten the emotional (or comedic) impact of a re-edited sequence of visuals. Reinterpretations of the narrative also appear in non-textual forms.

Fink & Miller. cropped and edited to remove part of the body language context. amongst a variety of other media fan communities and their creative activity. presenting a series of slow motion elements that demand close attention and emphasise the visual aesthetic of the scene. Rather than a blogging platform. Tumblr focuses on short-form ‘microblogging. 2013). The scene in the play showed a wary Coriolanus slightly disbelieving of events and his awkwardness provokes humour from the audience. Original cultural content inspired by Coriolanus Coriolanus also inspires original content. This fragments the live stream at a micro level. Likes/Kudos. the kiss is generally presented and read in a much more ‘slashy’ context. Interestingly. Furthermore. arranged in sequence like the frames of a comic book (see Figure 3). Tumblr mechanisms for approval and sharing also appear more similar to fanfic sites such as http://archiveofourown.com/. Hiddleston’s Coriolanus is also heavily featured in original art posted on http://www. Examples show the live stream cut down to a clip that does not show Coriolanus’ reaction but includes the audience laughing (I_am_tony_stark 2014). Original art posted within the Hiddleston fandom on Tumblr focuses on the slash relationship. Captioned images and uncaptioned animated gifs of this moment were widely circulated on various social media platforms. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      small-sized images with under thirty frames. as demanded by the technological characteristics of sequential animated gifs) is sometimes incorporated into a single image itself (e. Tumblr and spreadability A large feature of fan production is the way it is shared and curated across social media. New meanings are derived from these works that were not present in the scene and a more overtly slash interpretation is deliberately promoted (even where other posts demonstrate that the producers are well aware of the original context for the kiss).org/. rather than to long-form blogging platforms or other popular social media. the majority of which is clearly created from official publicity photographs from the Donmar production. fan production on blog sites such as Tumblr tends to include multiple animated gifs within one post.. and posted with explicit titillated reaction gifs (Tom-nippleston 2014). fan-produced artifact. Reblog/Share). Sequences of a scene where Coriolanus washes his wounds are particularly common as derivative works sampled from the live stream of the broadcast. It is not unusual for fandoms to focus on gay relationships (‘slash’) in creative production as the treatment of the kiss between Coriolanus and his enemy Aufidius at the beginning of the second half of the broadcast demonstrates. of which over half were written or updated since the Donmar Warehouse production opened in December 2013. “The Kiss” (as it quickly became known across the fandom) was often misunderstood. without sound (Queen-and-   Abbott – 12  colfer 2014).’ and as such the technological framework foregrounds sharing (reblogging) and annotation over long-form original content (cf. compare hard-on-for-hiddleston.Interactive Narratives.deviantart. emphasising visual pleasure over narrative meaning. on an infinite loop.org/ (featuring Notes. 2014b & 2014c) (see Figure 4). shows nearly 400 fanfics about Coriolanus. or from still images from the NT Live live stream. As a separate. A popular fan fiction site.g. this comic book aesthetic (frames separated by white space. Sequences of this form are typically focused on Hiddleston’s face or body. Separated from its narrative context and used as a stand-alone cultural product. Tumblr is home to a particularly active Hiddleston fandom. often emphasising and developing the slash relationship between Coriolanus and Aufidius or mixing the fiction of the play with ficitonalised reality. which typically play slower than the original frame rate. This focus on sharing and curation is apparent in many of . http://archiveofourown.

misrepresent. spreading material literally and figuratively remakes it. by necessity. the attributes of a media text that might appeal to a community’s motivation for sharing material. Fan produced content. creates a cultural experience that resists stickiness and contributes to demand for both spreadable content and the right to participate in the production of new narratives. on-demand model in favour of an ephemeral.” (Jenkins. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      the accounts that explicitly display their fandoms in their usernames and descriptions.’ “Spreadability” refers to the technical resources that make it easier to circulate some kinds of content than others. whilst fan remixing of cultural content existed long before the digital age. However. widely distributed within a sense of shared fandom. and this process changes the perceptions of media consumption and production. and its delivery within a highly constructed surrounding context. As the above examples demonstrate. 2013. and NT Live itself. they are embedded within the media form itself.4) The concepts of spreadability and ‘stickiness’ can be usefully applied to fan production of cultural products derived from unauthorised sharing of a live theatre broadcast. The tensions between these models of distribution go far beyond issues of economics and piracy. and social media apparatus all affect the cultural products that they deliver. Henry Jenkins refers to this type of content as ‘spreadable. NT Live’s process of conversion of a theatre text into a hypermedial form. Microblogging. A theatre play is ‘sticky’ content in that it. with users acting as collectors and redistributors of fan-produced works. p. . and that this is not only the domain of fan producers. and the social networks that link people through the exchange of meaningful bytes. the economic structures that support or restrict circulation. which resists the free. on the other hand. shared and collected with trivial effort. p. available for free and ondemand. fan-produced works interpret. creating new narratives for new purposes. co-locates its audience in one time and place to consume that content.27). and re-create the authorised narrative of Coriolanus. Whilst NT Live broadcasts remove the necessity for the audience to be co-located in just one particular venue.Interactive Narratives.   Abbott – 13  As Jenkins notes (2013. and enhanced by the technological characteristics of its delivery platform. It is easily discovered. it is also clear that the very mechanisms of distribution also contribute to the reconstruction of narratives. is driven by strong engagement with the media text. and evocative of the wider social structures that make production and sharing pleasurable. as well as participating in creative production themselves. but the reframing of Coriolanus as a transmedia narrative began long before its appropriation by fans. The tension between the authorised ‘sticky’ model of Coriolanus and the unofficial ‘spreadable’ content is keenly felt in both the fan activities that wish for further access to high quality cultural products. they emulate the scarcity model of theatre and strongly retain an appointmentbased broadcast distribution method. animated gifs. communal cultural experience. develop.

  Figures Figure 1: Simplified structure of NT Live broadcast of Corolanus. . 30th January 2014.

2: series of edited images from Coriolanus (animated versions available from hiddleslokid. 2014)   Abbott – 15  .Interactive Narratives. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Fig.

Interactive Narratives. New Media & Social Engagement 2014        Abbott – 16  .

3: animated sequence showing fragmenting the live stream at micro-level (live stream by NT LIVE (2014). 2014c)   .Interactive Narratives. 4: single animated gif showing added frames (hard-on-for-hiddleston. image sequence by fromhiddleswithlove (2014)) Fig. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Abbott – 17  Fig.

On With the th Show. Television & th New Media 1527476413505002. (2013) From Shakespeare to the Super Bowl: Theatre and Global Liveness. 2014from http://www. 147-162 Donmar Warehouse and NT Live (2014) th Coriolanus. United States: Marvel Studios st Tom-nippleston (2014.com/post/77268553589/my-6-20am-review-of-donmars-coriolanus Fink.aspx Broadwayluver222 (2014. Retrieved 25th Aug. Retrieved 10 Sep.tumblr. (Live broadcast exhibition interpretation). Live in HD. (2014) GIFGIF: Mapping the Emotional Language of gifs (research project). K. th MIT Media Lab. C. Retrieved 9 Sep.tumblr.mit.com/watch?v=9f929VDhEl Q CineMe (2014). 26 Feb) It Takes an th Ocean Not to Break.com/post/7794 6508695 Shaviro. April).com/post/78212342553/co riolanus-a-summary Paterson. Retrieved 25th Aug.tumblr. 10 Feb).blogspot.com/post/75194510075/didyou-get-the-gist-of-how-im-feeling-dont Whedon.2012. (2010) Post Cinematic Affect. L. Retrieved 9 Sep.com/post/7622836234 8/shakespeare-knew   Taylor.. Retrieved 25th Aug. K.metopera. Retrieved 25th Aug. S.youtube.tumblr. (Live broadcast (30 January th 2014). Shakespeare knew. A.com/p/jz0wBBr_aq/ Jenkins. Just another th fangirl.tumblr. Fan/Remix Video.0431 Fromhiddleswithlove (2014.tumblr.1177/1527476413505002 th Rich. 31 Jan). (2013) Spreadable Media. 2014 from doi:10. H. Coriolanus(Tom Hiddleston)/Virgilia--Don't th Deserve You.me/ nd Abbott – 18  I_am_tony_stark (2014) Instagram post. M.co.aspx th Hiddleslokid (2014. J. 23rd April). 2014 from http://www. 2014 from http://fromhiddleswithlove. Retrieved 9 Sep.tumblr. 2014 from http://instagram.nesta. United States: Marvel Studios . Retrieved 10 Sep.com/post/78761667368/speakingof-homoerotism-mmm Fauchelevant. (Director) & Feige. My 6:20 am review of Donmar’s “Coriolanus”. 2014 from http://daasgrrl. 2014 from http://www.org/whats_on/exhibiti ons/vikings/vikings_live.com/post/79357744378 and (c) http://hard-on-forhiddleston. Hard-on-for-hiddleston (2014. K.uk/publications/nt-live Daasgrrl (2014. Retrieved 9 Sep.3983/twc. 2014 from https://www. K.cini. Retrieved th 10 Sep. Coriolanus--A Summary Retrieved 25th Aug. Vikings Live.media. F. 2014 from doi:10. Australasian Drama Studies. (special th issue) (9). 2014 from http://tomnippleston.Interactive Narratives. April). (2014. (2014. J. (Director) & Feige.com/post/80495156074 The Metropolitan Opera (2014). 2014 from (a) http://hard-on-forhiddleston. United States: Marvel Studios British Museum (2014).tumblr. 2014 from http://www. & Stevens.uk/2014/02/so apbox-moment-whats-in-famous-name. NT Live (Research report). Queen-and-colfer (2014. April). (2013). K. (62). & Coppa.L. (2012). H. Q.org. K. T. (Producer) (2012) The Avengers. (2006) Convergence Culture. 2011–2013. th Retrieved 9 Sep. ‘as live’ broadcast (11 March 2014)). 2014 from http://gifgif. Winchester: O Books.html NESTA (2011).org/metopera/broadcast/o n_air.tumblr. th Retrieved 8 Sep. 2014 from http://lark-rather-thandove. (Producer) (2011) Thor. Transformative Works and Cultures. Retrieved 9 Sep. Trans Media Moments: Tumblr. E. Retrieved 1st June. New York: New York University Press Jenkins. 2 March).. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      References Branagh. Do you get the th gist of how I’m feeling.com/post/77957288850 and (b) http://hard-on-forhiddleston. 2014 from http://hiddleslokid.britishmuseum. 4 Feb) Soapbox Moment: What's in a (Famous) Name? A Chorus to this History. and Miller. 2014 from http://thirtyeightplays. & Hu. London: New York University Press th Madison. Retrieved 10 Sep. 2014 from http://queen-andcolfer. (Director) & Feige.edu Russo. (Producer) (2013) Thor: The Dark World.

with their . in Brazil and The Great British Property Scandal: Every Empty Counts (2012). Brazil  geanealzamora@gmail. television. University Center of Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte. Brazil  lorenatarcia2@gmail. for example. Federal University of Minas Gerais. Although news organizations around the world have been spreading stories through different and complementary platforms and screens. Usually. would involve expansion of content and engagement of the audience. Carlos Scolari (2009). instead of repetition and propagation. Transmedia news reporting. The theoretical framework is provided by Henry Jenkins (2006). as occurred in the UK project.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. Newsrooms of media conglomerates such as Globo Networks. “Proposed methodology for transmedia news stories analysis: a comparative study of The Float Project (2009/10). the same story is simply distributed across multiple screens. Cecília Queiroz. Belo Horizonte. or radio media. ISBN: 978-09939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). Journalists were trained to work in print. From a monomediatic practice to a plurimediatic perspective Until the 1980s. The Great British Property Scandal: Every Empty Counts (2012) in the UK. Ricardo Sternberg. This article studies examples of possible applications of the transmedia concept to news report. Abstract: The study of transmedia in journalism is still evolving.com   Lorena Tárcia. all different media were constituted as independent production units. Geane and Lorena Tárcia (2014). Kevin Moloney (2011). New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. this does not necessarily constitute use of transmedia concepts. The study points to major investments in building potential transmedia news reports by Globo Networks and suggests the necessary involvement of other departments and institutions to achieve full engagement and social relevance. Renira Gambaratto (2013) Alzamora and Tárcia (2012) and proposes an evolving analytical model as a methodology for understanding transmedia applied to news features. were physically separated. in Brazil and comparing it to a potential model of engagement. Hudson Moura. Eds.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25.com   Suggested citation: Alzamora. and Martin Zeilinger. in our view. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    PROPOSED METHODOLOY FOR TRANSMEDIA NEWS STORY  ANALYSIS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GREAT BRITISH  FLOAT PROJECT AND THE GREAT BRITISH PROPERTY SCANDAL:  EVERY EMPTY COUNTS (2012) IN THE UK  Geane Alzamora. Regina Cunha. by examining The Float Project (Flutuador).

1997). and the migratory behaviour of media audiences who would go almost anywhere in search of the kind of entertainment experiences they want. In this period. Finally." scheduled to occur in 2000. However. The monomediatic practice was anchored in the transmissive logic that outlined the mass media at that time. Henry Jenkins launched the book Convergence Culture in the United States. […] media convergence refers to a situation in which multiple media systems coexist and where media content flows fluidly across them. but the researcher Ithiel de Sola Pool contributed to its popularization by launching. he toured the United States and raised millions of dollars in financial support for construction of the MIT Media Lab in 1985. in 1983. New technologies and communication policies contributed to the foundations of what we now know as media convergence. 27-28). this picture began to change. equipment and routines. The reports were produced independently in each medium. 2003). which describes the convergence of modes.. 1983. news. the book The Technologies of Freedom. Fidler. not a fixed relationship. routines. and text are all increasingly delivered electronically. languages and modes of production and distribution. convergence re- . 2006. remember Gordon (2003). Each vehicle was seen as a privileged center. It is not possible to clearly identify who first connected the word convergence to the communication technologies (Gordon.e. announced in 2000 (Gordon. which was initially called the cross-promotion or cross-media. understanding Convergence as […] a word that describes technological." "Computer Industry" and "Printing and Publishing Industry. industrial. in which he connected several parallel and interconnected phenomena. however. the cooperation between multiple media industries. each one had their agendas. and became common sense after the merger of AOL and Time Warner. From the 1980s. 2003. already referred to the overlapping of circles labeled as "Broadcast and Film Industry. constituent of a new economic. This logic seeks to integrate the production and circulation of information of media corporations in a plurimediatic perspective. The beginnings were sheepishly called programming or integration of weather tips from the TV in the newspapers. theatre. […] These mergers of electronic technology are bringing all modes of communications into one grand system” (Pool. circulation and storage of information produced on behalf of the media corporation. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      own teams. incorporating them to a new communication environment that includes new forms of circulation and the social media universe. Some common ideas referenced by the term include the flow of content across multiple platforms. the search for new structures of media financing that fall at the interstices between old and new media.Interactive Narratives. companies started to practice the convergence of content between TV and newspaper. pp. Convergence is understood here as an ongoing process or series of intersections between different media systems. the term most commonly used for this connection between companies was "synergy. industrial. even earlier. With his speech. Nicholas Negroponte of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). although there is no consensus on its meaning. p. cultural and behavioural functioning model of society and media companies. which configures other communicational logic. 282) For Bauer (2005). (Jenkins." In 2003. i. cultural and social changes in the ways media circulates within our culture.   Alzamora and Tárcia – 20  The popularization occurred with the arrival of the World Wide Web in the mid1990s. in 1979. which operated autonomously from the point of view of production. “Conversation. and more specifically the mid-1990s.

p. the plurimediatic perspective that we call transmedia journalism emerges. internet]. and consequently the fusion of formerly separate sectors" (BAUER. In his words. It also requires thinking like the audience already thinks. The creation of new devices is constant. The engagement.e." He justifies it by the fact of an event to be first reported by radio [and today. according to this author. requires flexibility and adaptability on the part of journalists. Nevertheless. would lead to the expansion of options for those seeking news.   Alzamora and Tárcia – 21  Convergence. Transmedia are aggregated to form this semantic galaxy. Based on the logic of convergence. In the world of entertainment and journalism. Access to a movie and its derivatives should be autonomous. The increasingly frequent habit of consuming several screens simultaneously. when he stated that “Each particular product is an access point to the franchise as a whole" (p. the confusion is even bigger. which is not always consistent with the actions of the companies when they use the convergence label. This author defends the possibility of a loose convergence or a deep convergence. Wouldn’t be enough to talk about journalism? In an attempt to organize their use. 62). Kolodzy (2006) considers that the concept carries the proposal to join forces for a better quality journalism. In relation to journalism. Alzamora and Tárcia (2012) depart from epistemological discussions about the defini- .. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      fers to "a mix of barriers and/or reduction of differences between firms or industries. these changes vary in time and space.Interactive Narratives. and work in line with the expectation of establishing and attending a dynamic flow of consumption of cultural products. Like Jenkins (2006).53). followed the next day by the newspaper and weekly magazine. it is a process linked to capitalist practice that turns out to be in many cases “an opportunity to maximize the accumulation of capital" (p. an elastic term with a wide variety of theoretical proposals. Transmedia storytelling is relatively recent and was used by Henry Jenkins (2003). We must highlight the fact that varied forms of access to information through multiple media is not something new. it is not necessary to consume all the products like games and comics. Jambeiro et al (2011) consider that in both cases. for the first time in the journal Technology Review in 2003. and the same works for the search of new business and monetization models. We believe that market and technologies are linked. 135). Kolodzy points to reception as a determining factor in the convergence process. It means to understand and experiment with new ways of production. journalism "was born transmedia. he says. the attempts to capture the scattered attention of the so-called prosumers are bringing important and effective changes in the media and journalistic environment that deserve attention. Terms like Multimedia Journalism. from a partial intersection to the complete elimination of differences. then by television. Scolari (2013). in multiple media and platforms. If all journalism is transmedia. Domínguez (2012) warns of the risk of putting new labels on old practices. Crossmedia. or not. says Kolodzy (2006). would be in phone calls and in letters sent to the newsrooms. to understand the context of the work. i. for example. 2005. distribution and circulation of news. argues that all journalism is transmedia. What is presented as differential is the need for the journalists and the productive system to seek the best ways to tell a story considering the characteristics of each media surpassing what we are calling monomedia practice. we must question the necessity and validity of the adjective. Transmedia Journalism There is growing conceptual confusion around the media and journalistic universes when we talk about media convergence. It is. This mix can occur at many levels. Intermedia.

a story can become viral to be shared by users or be explored in detail. which allows a better textual architecture" (p. real world and inspiration to action are consistent with a public service journalism. (Alzamora and Tárcia. Immersion in news would be provided through alternative forms of narration. thus to its wealth of content and narrative construction. in the context of television. Extrability. Journalist Margaret Looney (2012) proposes five tips for transmedia stories. radio and newspaper printed in an integrated process in which each medium contributes to their specific production of combined information. Keep content unique: rather than repeating the information on different platforms. For this author. Thus. 4. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      tions of discipline. 2. it is not possible to characterize it as specific to any environment alone.. Partner up: projects are often complex and require the involvement of other companies. but mainly displacement of the characteristics traditionally marked by media environments. 31) Moloney (2011) emphasizes the application of the Fundamental Principles of Transmedia Narrative named by Jenkins (2009) to journalism. interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary to rethink the relationship between media. represented in fiction by different characters and other angles of a history.] not just media complementarity. Always put the story first. p. 1: many creative tools may do more harm than help. multidisciplinary. Provide a seamless point of entry: make sure whichever platform you’re using gets readers to interact in a very simple way. The diversity of views. Thus. the point of view of the public. 3.e.12). Keep it cost-effective: there are expensive projects. In this case. That is. produced by Globo Television Network in 2009/2010 and The Great British Property Scandal project: Every Empty Counts (2012) by Channel 4. the news would have the characteristic of transmedia expansion. multimedia. there is no shift or change in the media framework. 31) In the same perspective. intermedia and transmedia universe of news. for whom "the essence of transmedia storytelling is in the field of longer news features. which invests in real actions for troubleshooting. i. for example. producers or professionals.. From these assumptions. officially or through social networks. p. the concept of transmedia presupposes [.Interactive Narratives. 1. It also allows for the possibility of the continuity or seriality to explore the characteristics of each medium   Alzamora and Tárcia – 22  and keep the audience's attention for a longer period. 5. for these authors The intermediatic prospect [. 2012. but it is possible to make transmedia cheaply... . The transmedia journalism constitute the interstices of the intermedia network. although this is an important feature of the process. The story is no..] must refer to forms of production and circulation of information that are established at the intersection and complementarity of different media environments. for example by introducing social media to extend the story. the information content is presented in a complementary way. These guiding principles of transmedia journalism evoke the perspective of media convergence. as well as the time of production of this genre. we will seek to analyse the series of articles called Float Project. Thus they constitute reticular areas of miscegenation between genres and formats of digital media connections. would be innate to the principles of journalism and include. (Alzamora and Tárcia. we agree with Porto and Flores (2012). increasingly. use different parts of a story to match a platform’s strength and maximize user experience. 2012.

entertain. Other issues and layers of understanding can and should be included in this proposal. our goal in this article is to outline an analytical model to be applied to potential transmedia news features. What are the screens and devices used by the target audience? d. television.Interactive Narratives. What are their limitations? f. Extensions and developments a. website. Are all platforms needed? 5. newsgame. In her paper. Who are the sponsors? What is the budget? c. What kind of story attracts this public? c. Jenkins (2009). considering analysis as a crucial aspect of the design process” (p. What distinguishes each platform? e. Sources and characters a. smartphone. How is public curiosity activated to desire more detailed information? c. This is made by posing a series of questions divided into ten topics. What is the principal media? Print. video. What other points of view can be aggregated to reach new audiences that otherwise would not be achieved? 6. How does each device contribute to the project? What is its function? d. As the story expands through the media. What technological devices are needed for the project? (TV. educate? 2. Does the story continue? In the same media? b. 1. Looney (2012) and Scolari (2012). Media platforms and languages a. Audiences a. consoles. seeking to methodologically contribute to the understanding of the concept of transmedia applied to journalism. What draws the audience to the project?   Alzamora and Tárcia – 23  e. photography. freemium. book. engage. Does the story have characters? How many? Are all present in the main story? Are they added later? c. plus the proposed structures analysis transmedia proposed by Gambarato (2013). how does it maintain its continuity? f. What kind of additional content can be generated? d. What is the project about? What is the central theme? b. How to keep the audience's attention for a longer period? . adapting it where necessary. web ? d. Who are the primary and secondary sources? What are the approaches used with these sources? b. Does project have a brand? Is it commercially exploited? 4. What are the audiences for the story? Who are the viewers / users / readers? b.89). computer graphics. Are there other similar projects? What results were obtained by them? 3. premium mix?) b. What languages are involved? (Audio. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Proposed methodology for transmedia news stories analysis As previously proposed. as proposed by Gambarato (2013). What is the ultimate goal of the project? To inform. What is the business model? (open platforms. We depart from previous contributions made by Moloney (2011). newspaper. radio. We present an initial model. tablet.Premises and purposes a. Does the story extend into further actions? e. Gambarato (2013) aims to outline ”essential features of the design process behind transmedia projects in order to support the analytic needs of transmedia designers and the applied research in the interest of the media industry. radio. application) b. We make an adaptation of this methodology to analyse our two cases. text. What is the main journalistic genre? What is the editorship? c. website) c. Sustainability and Marketing a.

Engagement a. Does the project seek engagement of other institutions? i. The program has been losing audience in recent years. Can viewers/users/readers incorporate elements of the news features in their lives? k. radio and the newspaper of Globo network also reported about the project. 2. allowing the audience to see on a map where the bottle would be retained. Does it generate alternative forms of storytelling? Which ones? f. The chosen professional was Dan Robson. In 2010. Rio de Janeiro and Brasilia. The editor had the idea to throw into the river one PET bottle with a GPS inside. They decided to build The Float device from scratch. The newscast ended 2012 with an average of 23. three major Brazilian cities. internet. most of the public is also aged between 18 and 49 years of age (76%).Interactive Narratives. The process of development involved operating systems and naval robotics components capable of ensuring security during filming and to send remote data collected from the river. Is the remix by the audience officially incorporated into the project? n. the focus of our analysis. 1. followed by 36 % of people over 50 years. was to inform. albeit in a disjointed manner and without prior planning. launched a series of news features entitled The Rivers of São Paulo to study the general conditions of the rivers and their environment. deployed in São Paulo. Is there a reward system for participation? The Float Project In 2009. The central theme was the pollution of rivers. What makes the story to spread virally? b. On the web. The Department of Journalism and the team from the Research and Development Engineering Department at Globo TV then teamed up to improve the original idea. a well-known adventurer who accompanied The Float for 500 km using a kayak (see Figure 1). Audiences In São Paulo. educate and engage people in the recovery of rivers. with the series of reports.   Alzamora and Tárcia – 24  The equipment was developed in partnership with the Institute for Technological Research of São Paulo. Rio de Janeiro and Brasilia. Soon the Tietê River became central theme due to its bad conditions and importance.000 households in Greater São Paulo). Although the TV was the main media. Is there the use of social networks? Is there a strategy for it? m. audience of the local channel SPTV is formed mostly by people aged 18-49 years (46%). Is there an ultimate goal for the project? How to measure it? l. Brazil. the Float Project was turned into a franchise.3 points (each point equals 60. Does the process include conversation with the audience? Are users answered? h. The journalistic genre was the news feature and the editorship was City/Environment. How does it motivate users to share the news features on their networks. The . Globo television channel. as recognition of its social relevance and technological innovation. The feasibility of this experiment was dropped after the first test. They also decided to send with the device a “guardian” to take care of the equipment and to monitor daily rates of oxygen in the water. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      7. reaching bigger audience? c. based in the city of São Paulo. The project received an award by the International Broadcasting Convention (IBC) in the special award category. Is there any form of immersion in the project? Are commercial products and actions connected to it? j. What can be gained by engaging the audience into the journalistic production process? d. What are the mechanisms of interaction? g. The purpose of the TV station. Premises and purposes The project dealt with the investigation of rivers in São Paulo.

although several news features can be found on the internet in blogs and other online sites even in the traditional competing media such as the newspaper Folha de S. tablets. The whole project was open to viewers for free on commercial television. it is necessary to consider the lack of a measurement to so-called social TV and the impact of the project on the various media involved. . It is necessary to consider that in 2009 there were not as many applications widely used in Brazil as there are today. however. 7. film reporters. Extensions and developments The project had broad ramifications and eventually became a sort of franchise. As a curiosity about the expansion of the project in Brasilia. but the final cost was about 125. There were no applications or newsgames related to it. photos. However. other additional content could have been generated with the use of social media.000. radio. Maybe if Globo had invested in this aspect. For this reason. but the range of spontaneous release did not reach significant levels and was not encouraged by Globo. as stated earlier in this article. In production. Distrito Federal and returned to São Paulo for another edition. did not change the hedging strategies. population living by the river and students were among the sources. To learn about the project. Engagement There was no viral dissemination of The Float Project. they increasingly restricted the news features to TV and website. 6. People posted photos on social networks. including safety technicians. possible technological devices were broadcast TV. Engineers. the hashtag used was #flutuador. Altogether. and smartphones and yet there has not been a distinct language for mobile media. More than one hundred professionals were involved. politicians. 4. newspapers. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Float Project added readers from newspapers and radio. It has already been implemented in Rio de Janeiro. It was released on 1 September 2009 and crossed more than 30 cities. However. like the paddlers who joined Dan Robson during the journey and people waiting along the river to see the float. mobile applications and newsgames. the GPS was highlighted because it allowed the real-time geolocation float all the way. Globo has promoted shows with singers and a special appearance of Globo reporters in the closure of the project in 2012. in spite of the great potential. rescue teams. An interesting strategy to turn the public's curiosity and get them to delve into the information were the lectures held in schools by Dan Robson and reporters. On Twitter. The station staff. helicopters and engineers. the results had appeared. was limited to interview the people who waited for the float by the river in several cities. Paulo. sanitarians. environmentalists. In terms of marketing. computers. we cannot estimate the total audience reached by The Float Project. External characters were also aggregated. However. It was not possible to see a clear transmedia strategy from the initial planning. however.   Alzamora and Tárcia – 25  5. The initial budget was 25. 3.Interactive Narratives. but the transmediality occurred naturally with the use of Twitter mainly by reporters and staff involved. Media platforms and languages The news features about the float widely used videos. the station in the new editions. infographics and web sites. Globo Television turned it into a franchise and the eco-athlete Dan Robson even launched his own glass brand based on his visibility during the project. 150 news features were produced during two months of the project in São Paulo waters. The traditional way of measuring audience by points cannot cover the entire spectrum of a transmedia story.000 dollars. Sustainability and Marketing The expedition lasted 32 days. since the number of news features was very large. Sources and characters There were multiple primary and secondary sources. Instead.

Channel 4.200 supporters in total   Alzamora and Tárcia – 26  • Over 7. as exemplified by Localore. Projects multiply and show new creative possibilities for journalistic production. and lobby government and local councils to have a low-cost loan fund for the owners of empty homes who were struggling to refurbish their properties. Economics Personified. What counts is the determination to try new ways of telling stories and. The project generated practical actions such as the removal of carcasses of cars that were floating in the river and which were discovered during the expedition. Globo won the international International Broadcasting Convention Award in recognition of social relevance and technological innovation of the Project. launched a series of special programs to investigate the British housing crisis and discuss alternative solutions. The goal was to engage people to report empty properties they knew of. engaging audiences. However. above all.000 petition signatures within a week of launching The Great British Property Scandal campaign • Over 118. the bulk of publications were made by Dan Robson. about 150 in 2009. What we want to point out in this article is the capacity of Channel 4 to engage the audience in its project using the Internet and mobile phones. The Great British Property Scandal: Every Empty Counts In 2011. but the freedom to create and experience. and History's Next Draft. which will affect further trials and innovations in this field. A transmedia story does not need to answer all the questions suggested in this methodological outline. academics and the market have embraced it and turned it into a buzzword.900 empty homes reported . This is something that Globo Television was not able to do. In Brazil. Final considerations We are still far from a definitive conceptualization of Transmedia Storytelling and even more distant from its setting and significance in the journalistic universe. it is necessary to consider the restrictive copyright policy by Globo Network. Eleven years after Jenkins (2003) forged the concept. . The news feature published had an average of a thousand views and rare comments. However. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      The engagement with students who visited the reporters during their work in the river and the visits to schools were an important way of involving the audience. a conducive environment for posting videos and comments. This was a result of the overexposure and excessive stories on the same theme.many of which have been brought back into use • £17 million allocated for new national lowcost loan funds • George Clarke. it was possible to find negative reactions on the social network Orkut. Those are important examples for further analysis and to continue expanding and testing this proposed methodology for analysis of transmedia news features. which determines the exclusion of their videos from that channel when posted by the audience. Not all projects involving multiple platforms will have the backing of big companies like Globo Television and Channel 4. The response to the campaign by the TV station was staggering: • 100. we live through a dramatic period of layoffs in newsrooms. was appointed Independent Empty Homes Advisor to the Government More information about the whole project can be found in their website. Furthermore. the most accessed by Brazilians at the time. keeping its project restricted to a transmissive perspective. Those are merely suggestive paths. encouraging audience participation via mobile application.Interactive Narratives. It is not about financial support. On YouTube. in the United Kingdom. who had the original idea and hosted the show.

E. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefied. Fonte: Henry Jenkins: http://henryjenkins. Oxford: Rowman&Littlefield Publishers.  . J. São Paulo: Susana Alexandria. Communications & Strategies . Kolodzy. 1. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Alzamora and Tárcia – 27  Figures Figure 1: The Float device and its guardian Dan Robson. pp. 5. (2006). 1(1). Ed. Unbundling policy in the United States players. Available http://www. R. (2012). Digital Journalism: emerging media and the changing horizons in journalism. 2013] Fidler. H. (1983). Kawamoto. Technology Review. Periodismo Transmedia.html [July. (1997).pbs. L. Convergência e transmídia: galáxias semânticas e narrativas emergentes em jornalismo. Ferreira. Jenkins. Dominguez. & Tárcia. Cultura da Convergência. Source: Globo TV References Alzamora.   Moloney. & Barros. Transmedia Storytelling. (2013). Five tips to transmedia storytelling. & Flores. Compolítica. 2013] Bauer. Catalunya. (2005). (2011). Media Shift. F. The revenge of the Origami Unicorn. Looney.. Gambarato. outcomes and effects. 22-35. Calif: Pine Forge Press. 4. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. (2012). (2012). (2013). J. A... C. Periodismo transmedia. Convergence Journalism: writing and reporting acorss the news media. Pool. The technologies of Freedom. H. Moving characters from books to films to videogames can make them stronger and more compelling. Principles of Mediamorphosis: understanding new media.org/2009/12/the_revenge_of _the_origami_uni. Transmedia para alem da ficção. K.org/mediashift/2013/01/5-tipsfor-transmedia-storytelling030/ [July. 80-100. 58-82. Gordon. Jenkins. pp.. (2011). 1. Transmedia Project Design: Theoretical and Analytical Considerations. J.Interactive Narratives. Acesso em 16 de June de 2013 Jambreiro. (2012). IBOPE. Scolari. Baltic Screen Media Review. Barcelona: Fráguas. H. Denver: University of Denver. 5. O. G. R. (U. Jenkins. Em K. Mídia expande atuação na medição de social TV. Belo Horizonte: Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte. I. C. Master Thesis. Thousand Oaks.) Revista de los Estudios de Ciencias de la Informacion e Comunicacion. R. (2003). Rio de Janeiro: Ibope. Porto. (2006). M. pp. D. O. Porting Transmedia Storytelling to Journalism. Brazilian Journalism Research. (2013). (2009). A convergencia como condicionante de regulação das comunicação. (2003). The meanings and implications of convergence.

more profitable. Rafael (2014). Lisbon. Technology and free markets have allowed unprecedented levels of customization. one of them being how can we fulfill audiences expectations in an ever more screenfragmented environment. The people to whom we wish to tell our stories have the technology to navigate the ocean and can choose to sail on by or stop and listen. cohesive and rewarding experience. We tell stories across multiple media because no single media satisfies our curiosity or our lifestyle. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). Hudson Moura. Portugal. and a school program. Regina Cunha.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. Introduction Technological developments brought about several transformations in the ways we communicate and tell stories. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    BLUE PENCIL: EXPERIENCES IN TRANSMEDIA  Rafael Antunes. an online game that challenges writing on freedom of the press.com     Suggested citation: Antunes. an online store. Abstract: This article aims at analyzing and discussing the proposed objectives and outcomes of a transmedia project that was run in partnership with CICANT/Universidade Lusófona. (Pratten. Portugal  rafacine7@gmail. 2011) . Eds. Telling stories across multiple media – transmedia storytelling – allows content that’s right-sized. to launch the debate of censorship in schools. and Martin Zeilinger. In this context.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. as part of an European Commissionfunded project named CIAKL – Cinema and Industry Alliance for Knowledge and Learning. Universidade Lusófona. the narrative extends into a short fiction film. Taking as its central theme the censorship in Portugal during the Estado Novo. which included intersections inside the narrative within the genres of entertainment and education. in Lisbon. Ricardo Sternberg. Cecília Queiroz. in partnership with the network of school libraries. The Blue Pencil project had as its main objective the development of a transmedia narrative that grouped different platforms and technologies. a site with archive material. “Blue pencil: Experiences in Transmedia. righttimed and right-placed to form a larger. We are surrounded by an unprecedented ocean of content. a documentary. personalization and responsiveness such that a policy of “one size fits all” is no longer expected or acceptable. challenges to the production of narratives vary. products and leisure opportunities. and the Portuguese media group Impresa.

. by José Pedro Castanheira. a selection of books with the respective censorship and connection to the Universidade Lusófona online store. and an online game that challenges the writing on sensitive issues related to censorship.life experience . The proposal develops a transmedia narrative that adds different platforms and technologies that have narrative and dramatic crossings. Another of the requirements was to create separate narratives that could be consumed individually without affecting the consistency and integrity of the narrative. and to a website with archive material. The material that could not be included in the movies even though it was related to the events narrated in the film and . (Jenkins 2007) From a central core consisting of a short fiction film based on real facts. but at the same time they contained elements that made narrative bridges with other platforms. The website was another of the platforms used to provide a context through documents and biographies. in which censorship that was included in a fiction film was related to the documentary through the stories of the interveners. What new kinds of narratives are emerging to meet the expectations and lifestyles of the audience? The transmedia approach is such a powerful storytelling technique because it enables the user to became involve in the material in a extremely deep way and sometimes in a manner that eerily simulates a real . New Media & Social Engagement 2014      In this context. We don’t want to leave this work on a theoretical analysis of the possibilities of transmedia narratives. a project can became far richer. The objective was to create two scripts. but to implement a project that would meet the initial premise. each medium makes it own   Antunes – 29  unique contribution to the unfolding of the story. the narrative spans to a documentary with personalities that were pursued by censorship. and vice versa. for which a protocol between the Universidade Lusófona and Impresa group was established for the concretization of the project. it puts up the challenge for the production of narratives that could meet the expectations and lifestyle of the audience. to complete the information conveyed in the movies. The screenplay of the film and the documentary were worked to create classical narratives.By spanning a number of media. The premise was to create an object of entertainment with educational crossings to make a historical contextualization of censorship during the Estado Novo in Portugal. making the narratives stronger and more coherent. artistic and commercial concepts. Based on the book O Que a Censura Cortou. For the development of the Blue Pencil project. This process proved to be very productive in introducing new fictional elements as they related to the script of the documentary. The process of creating and producing the project began with the planning and organization of information to build a coherent universe that creates streams of consumption across the various platforms of the project. Ideally. Transmedia storytelling represents a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience.. edited by Expresso. but also a historical approach to censorship in Portugal and aesthetic. The project aimed to develop not just a transmedia strategy. we worked on the screenplay of the film and the documentary in a way that retained a connection between them. a study was made for a transmedia narrative that had censorship as the central theme. (Miller 2008) The Blue Pencil project took place between October 2011 and December 2012. The necessity of having scripted narratives that contribute to the whole while being more than the sum of their parts opened doors for the audience to get involved in the project.Interactive Narratives. and multifaceted. more detail. and asks how well are media corporations prepared to respond to sophistication of narratives and changes of the behaviours of the audience.

together with censorship of them. • Presentation of the project group Impresa and Universidade Lusósfona for the school libraries. The site also has links to the online store. • Launch of the Facebook page. active. planning release dates is essential to the coherence of the project. This also resulted in a project with the school library network that took the theme of censorship to schools. trying to overcome an algorithm that censors certain keywords. we developed a contest where the best texts were selected and published in an eBook. • Debate on freedom of the press (Turin theatre). Each platform has its own release. and participatory audience. • Reach a committed. are available. and necessary to get the audience to follow the narrative through the various platforms.   Antunes – 30  Store Objectives of the project • Stimulate a consumer base that follows the narrative through the various platforms.Interactive Narratives. • Launch of puzzles on the Facebook page. • Launch of José Pedro Castanheira’s text Confidential Mario Bento in the digital version of Express magazine. with narrative hooks and links to lead consumers to the next contents on the same platform or on alternative platforms. encouraging students to reflect on censorship. Implementation The project is based on an exhibition agreement between the Universidade Lusófona and the Impresa group. • Theatre opening. • Launch of Kobo eBook • Project entered into festival circuit. the narratives are autonomous. Express. but refer to the same universe. • Encourage participation and content creation. • Best submitted articles published in Express magazine. • Launch of the site. • Display of teasers to promote television project (SIC . • Reach a wider audience that disseminated by various platforms. In a transmedia project. so that it maintains its coherence and can create flows between platforms. • Launch of the game and contest. • DVD. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      documentary went onto the website. we developed a game that allowed the audience to write text on the topic of media and censorship. • Releaseof the fiction movie on television (SIC). The project reached more than 600 schools and has received 104 works about censorship from various schools. photographic material was collected from the various phases of the project for this purpose. In transmedia storytelling. is . where all the books discussed in the film. • Release of books in the Online Store of Universidade Lusófona. • Prolong the life of the content. • Screening of the documentary on a cable channel (SIC Noticias). Online Universdade Lusófona. to allow the audience to find out more information about the events. With the aim of developing convergence between media and in order to propose a business model that creates synergies between businesses by attracting new investors and financiers for the project to enable the participation of the audience in the text. To attract participation in the game. During execution. Table 1 presents some of the narratives bridges designed to make the connection between platforms. SIC Noticias). all narrative and dramatic bridges need to be considered before execution of the project. The game provides the player the perception and requirement to write in a censorship regime.

As established during the planning of the project. with teasers that promoted all extensions of the Blue Pencil (film. providing documents that have been integrated in all extensions of the project.” Modern media companies are horizontally integrated – that is. producers and consumers.   Antunes – 31  The premiere was thought to be not only an event to present the project.2 share. where economic convergence was established. benefiting both the project design phase as well as the promotion and display. making a bridge for the documentary. for presentation of the documentary in various schools. Conclusion Among the key concepts for the realization of the Blue Pencil were the convergences that the project had established.2 percentage points more than usual for the same time display. with and increasing audience reached by the migration of the public. The project was designed to be viewed on multiple platforms. serving as a working model and study for future projects of this nature. through initiatives for the promotion and development of new multimedia content. José Pacheco Pereira on censorship and its mechanisms in Turin theatre. • Finding new financing and business models. Collaboration with ZON was also essential. The project has grown organically. (Jenkins 2007) The project emphasized the synergy achieved with the Impresa Group for consulting the files of Expresso magazine. to be distributed across multiple platforms. and reached 600 schools. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      • Increase the audience on platforms that have been losing competitiveness. leaving the university with their implementation for various platforms and Impresa with the display and promotion. website and game) universe with presented on various platforms. proving further convergence results. where each narrative was autonomous while contributing to the same universe. which aired on April 25th in SIC Notícias. behind TVI with a 21. annexed. which managed 1. For analysis of hearings. These results prove the convergence between the two platforms. they hold interests across a range of what were once distinct media industries. More significant was the result achieved by SIC Noticias. The project made synergies between companies. A media conglomerate has an incentive to spread its brand or expand its franchises across as many different media platforms as possible. with a debate organized following the screening. demonstrating that a product of fiction can compete with reality shows and talk shows that were displayed at the same time. • Distribution of effort and cost for several platforms. and having been reported on in various organs of national press. The film was exhibited on the open channel SIC on April 24th. we note that the movie displayed in SIC achieved a 15. who followed the narrative to another platform. • Create an experience that can be rewarding for advertisers. The Blue Pencil project demon- . but at the same time to mark the April 25th revolution of the carnations. aimed to introduce the theme of freedom of press. it was launched across multiple channels. helping with funding and providing a theatre for the premiere of the project on April 23rd. which served as the foundations for both narrative fiction and documentary to. with the screening of the documentary. surpassing the share of RTP with 3.7.Interactive Narratives. documentary. featuring Professor José Bragança de Miranda and Dr. having been attended by 350 people. drawing 104 participations of the schools. Transmedia storytelling reflects the economics of media consolidation or what industry observers call “synergy. The event achieved all the project’s goals. The school project with SIC Esperança.9 share. partners. The project will also fulfil your educational goal. There was also a significant increase in participation in the game on the website.

Interactive Narratives. reemerge on multiple platforms. opening pathways to a shared universe. through the agreement signed between the University and the Impresa group. the transmedia narrative is focused on linking complementary elements. 1926 Film Documentary Site Re-enactement of the seizure of the letter by Colonel Saraiva. Mário Soares and Francisco Balsemão speak about the episode of the letter that was lost for 39 years The letter of Mário Soares and the reply of Balsemão Francisco. but aimed to show that we can find new ways of funding and business models with content available on greater number of platforms and with longer exposure to advertisers. that transmedia narratives in different technologies and platforms do not compete with each other. The characters portrayed. through its practical results. 39 years after. The Blue Pencil project also succeeded in proving the importance of collaboration between businesses and the University. the narrative benefits from what the platform does best in terms of expression and communication. The power of transmedia storytelling lies in its cohesion. The Blue Pencil project is an academic. In these narratives. and that all media are present and well established in society. attracting new audiences for platforms that have been losing competitiveness. contributing to the study and research of new content that may offer solutions for media companies. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      strated. Tables Letter with a questionnaire for the Express newspaper about May 28. each of which is conveyed by the complementary platform that best enhances their expressive features. can be consulted Can be consulted the news that came out in the newspapers in 1926 with the implementation of the new regime and censorship Censorship of the raid the house of José Pacheco   Re-enactement censorship news of the raid on Expresso José Pacheco Pereira talks about the episode of the raid on his home by PIDE Online Store . the relationship between platforms and technologies is intensified through adding and creating a more rewarding experience for consumers. Antunes – 32  The University can develop proposals for contents that are then tested in various media. non-commercial purpose. and integration between various platforms. Thus. Technologies and traditional platforms can coexist with new platforms. On each platform. as well as parts of their history.

8 1915.6)SICNot(3. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Antunes – 33  Pereira Books "Madam Me" and "New Portuguese Letters" Colonel Barros Lopes finds that his wife read forbidden books in his absence.Interactive Narratives.1.1 24:51 .8)Fox(3.Lápis Azul (Filme) Média Audiência Total Total TV RTP 1 RTP 2 5 Para a Meia-Noite 24-Abr-13 3.5 BBVip-Extra(25:03) SICMul(3.9 21. Mario Bento.3) 3.7 15.25:32 304.3)FoxCrime(2.900 5. imposing the punishment Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa describes the episode that made the regime punish the newspaper Expresso “Confidências de Book "New Mário Bento” Portuguese Interview of Mário Letters” Bento to José Pedro Castanheira from Expresso Table. Narrative bridges between platforms SIC . Maria Teresa Horta speaks about the process of seizure of books Considerations of Livro “Novas the Censors about Cartas the books can be Portuguesas” consulted Punishment proof of page of the newspaper Expresso Re-enactement of the telephone conversation between Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa and the director of the previous examination.500 Fonte: GfK   6.3 SHARE SIC TVI Subscrição TV Outros ChampionsLeague:Resumo(fim24:53) Holly(9.4 13.6 19.2 40.2) .

 New Media & Social Engagement 2014        Antunes – 34  .Interactive Narratives.

4 0.3 8.Média (000 telespect.) 25-Abr-13 20:00:00 20:56:48 0.2 16 39.Universo .1 148.6 0.9 3.1 0.Audipanel Descrição Lápis Azul (Documentário) (5ª Feira) Lápis Azul (Documentário) (R) (6ª Feira) Data Hora Início Hora Fim Share (%) Aud.1 144. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Antunes – 35  SIC Notícias .7 Diferenças Média Programa para PH 0.) Aud.6 0.2 24.6 Diferenças Média Programa para PH 1.1 6 -3.Total (000 telespect.1 4.8 Média PH DU (01 a 23 Abr-13) 2.2 0. Audiometric data acquired from GFK on the dates of the Blue Pencil project screening on the TV channels SIC and SIC Notícias   .5 0.1 11.Média (%) Aud.Interactive Narratives.3 30.2 26-Abr-13 3:00:03 3:56:52 Fonte:'GfK Additional Tables.8 Média PH DU (01 a 23 Abr-13) 0.7 31.

March 22.   Antunes – 36  . http://henryjenkins. Getting started in a transmedia storytelling. 2007. Robert.html. Miller.Interactive Narratives. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      References Jenkins. Pratten. 2008. 2011.org/2007/03/transmedia_stor ytelling_101.org. Digital Storytelling: A creator's guide to interactive entertainment. http://henryjenkins. Henry. Carolyn Handler.

      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. ultimately. transmedia practice as cultural paradigm able to involve audience into meaning-making processes. Eds. and communication strategies in order to activate a dialogue among communities. and Martin Zeilinger.it  Suggested citation: Ciancia. As a consequence. in which we tested listening and expressive tools. as tools for identity development. social media advocacy is used to build relationships between virtual and real communities.piredda@polimi. Francesca Piredda.   . narrative practice and relationships among people as driving force for innovation. Abstract: Changes in business and social environments have led society towards a complex landscape in which the relationship between mainstream media and participatory culture is completely changed. and Simona Venditti  Design Department. Italy  mariana. Ricardo Sternberg. The paper describes the cases of Imagine Milan (2009-2012) and Plug Social TV (2013ongoing). Piredda. Politecnico di Milano. coming from the advertising field. assuming storytelling activities. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. On the other hand.it.venditti@polimi. with a consequential blurring of boundaries between public and virtual space. we explored the use of stories in a collaborative process.it. Hudson Moura. Mariana. The aim of this paper is to describe our design approach. and Simona Venditti (2014). merging together tools and skills from different areas: communication design strategies as participative methods are linked to codesign actions. It is then necessary to adopt a disruptive approach to overcome the contemporary complexity. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    SHAPING AND SHARING IMAGINATION: DESIGNERS AND THE  TRANSFORMATIVE POWER OF STORIES  Mariana Ciancia. francesca. audiovisual language considered as a cultural interface for listening to reality. spreading the narrative worlds across different channels. Regina Cunha. branding strategies.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. Francesca. As audience media habits are changing. a digital vision of reality is rising and engagement practices are evolving. Cecília Queiroz.  simona. “Shaping and Sharing Imagination: Designers and the Transformative Power of Stories. there is the need for a new design methodology based on different skills working together. On the one hand.ciancia@polimi. there is the aim of experiencing audiovisual languages through different narrative formats.

. 2006a. 60). New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Introduction The contemporary mediascape (Appadurai. These groups of people not only make use of static content. [. 42). 1990) is witnessing the emergence of phenomena that foster the sharing of meaning-making processes between producers and audiences. Li. has become one of the key features of multichannel phenomena: crossmedia and transmedia systems break the fourth wall in order to make the audience entering the stage and take an active role in the story. Thanks also to technological innovation. 2013) in which media and languages that have broken their historical isolation. between design and philosophy. people are dealing with an interconnected social sphere in which they are “no longer dependent upon the particular forms of dialogue to which we have grown accustomed and new forms will have to be developed” (Burnett. 25-26) refers to members of the audience as creators. keeping reality separate from the fictional world. it is necessary to encourage processes of mutual understanding among widespread communities of interest and practice. A disruption of the fourth wall. In this scenario. which has become an important feature for how we envisage our future.Interactive Narratives. in order to shape the collective imagination. 2014). an initiative aimed at enhancing the dialogue between practice and theory. pp. which is spread across several devices and channels. anonymous individuals with a new role in this economy. people are putting together different   Ciancia et al – 38  messages. Paul Saffo (2010. reading becomes writing. allow a more dynamic use of stories. we have been witnessing a paradigm shift toward a networked culture (Jenkins. the conveying of stories across multiple media and the spreading of engagement practices are leading to a scenario in which “consumption becomes production. p. This dramatic convention is allowing the viewers to enjoy those narrative universes even though they don’t correspond to reality’s logic (suspension of disbelief). with a consequential blurring of boundaries between public and virtual space. Ford & Green. Due to the evolution of social interconnections through digital technologies. Nowadays communicative environments surround us and we can experience the breakage of the “fourth wall. Within the design community (both researchers and practitioners) the topic of storytelling in the realm of social innovation represents a hot debate: the DESIS Philosophy Talks (www. Krauskopf & Green. “[.” As a development in the communication field. in order “to spark the imagination of many” (Reboot Stories... 2011). is dedicating a series of seminars to this topic and a publication collecting those reflections is forthcoming. Therefore.org). the audience now has become aware of its key role in the contemporary mediascape both as consumer and producer.. spectator culture becomes participatory culture” (Jenkins.” the metaphorical barrier between audience and the action that unfolds on stage (or on screen). not the product of top–down design but rather of a multitude of local decisions made by autonomous agents negotiating their way through diverse cultural spaces” (Jenkins.] ordinary.desisphilosophytalks. The main questions raised are . which stem from everyday life. This context is making audiences more and more knowledgeable as well as eager for information. More than ever. 2008. used to allow the audience to develop metafiction reflections in the theatrical and cinematographic fields. p.] an economic actor who in one and the same act both creates and consumes. but also take possession and transform information through the negotiation of meanings. shaping society and influencing media habits. The main consequence of this is the spread of new content and the activation of new knowledge: “Content does not remain in fixed borders but rather it circulates in unpredicted and often unpredictable directions.

to communicate and to structure the surrounding reality. 1966). Evolution and remediation (Bolter & Grusin.). design could claim the role of a “futural epistemology” (Willis. 1969). Thanks to digital technologies that have enabled new ways of communicating and building relationships among people. memories and willingness. context. imagination. Stories through time have always unlocked the potential to create communities of shared interests. etc. story-making and storylistening are both a pleasure and a privilege”. In accordance with Ahmad & Thompson (2009. 2). able to support the audiences in the creation of new content and knowledge and in the construction of meanings through the practice of storytelling. to aggregate common beliefs. stories tap into and represent the collective psyche of our culture. “Storytelling relies on the combined human strengths of memory. Designers have a double role: as storylisteners they collect potential stories from testimonials and repertoires. The transformative power of stories Since the dawn of mankind. the way the audience can tell stories is changing thanks to developments in technology and media. as storytellers they organize information into an experience by providing a point of view. Each designer. Wensveen. stories allowed people to build and share the meaning of their common experiences. building trust. p. 2011) as it has the role to move from the existing situation to a preferred one (Simon. For the human being. Redström. of course. and cultivating iden-   Ciancia et al – 39  tity”: we believe in stories as agency for change. so the transformative power of stories in shaping and sharing the imagination of many can be as powerful as possible. 1) we think of “storytelling as a means to sharing knowledge. Binder. Zimmerman.Interactive Narratives. He should look at stories that are on the margins of the mainstream. Stories have allowed us to travel both back in time and in the future. to explore contexts and places. as designers. works in a particular context and brings his particular culture. Design is an intrinsically futureoriented practice (Koskinen. The main consequence is the spread of communication environments characterized by story worlds in which the collaboration of producers and audience is leading to a “social construction of reality” (Berger & Luckman. Nowadays. script. affecting audience’s identity. 1999) are creating new possibilities in media consumption. In this reality. aesthetic and behaviour (Ryan & Thon. has his particular background. we can envision how the things are or the way things . and communication. Whether drawn from representations of reality or shaped as fantasy worlds. 2014). tell the stories from the margins of the mainstream of society and help its potentialities to be fully expressed? Now more than ever. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      about making the best use of storytelling within the context of design for social innovation: can storytelling lead to the construction of a higher quality public domain? How can we exclude a manipulative character in the way we make use of storytelling? How can we. p. bringing them to take part to the social discourse. the circulation of stories and narratives through several channels and devices is engaging more people than ever. modifying the relationship between mainstream media (top-down) and participatory culture (bottom-up or grassroots). we believe that communication designers have a key role in leading the linking of actions and relationships. 2013) based on innovative dynamics of storytelling: real time versus past time versus future foresight. According to Davenport (2005. plot. allowing the audience to experience new forms of storytelling and languages. The forms and methodologies of storytelling allow us to sift through and make sense of happenings in our own lives and in the lives of others. By creating a story with all its components (actors.

and allow others to take part in our own vision. facebook. pp. then. In particular. We have been designing “experiences that are socially inclusive and which have the power to bring people together through common interests and goals” (Bernardo. Imagine Milan is an educational and research project started in 2009. The more designers represent ideas and proposals as rough and kaleidoscopic. imagery as a catalogue and as a cultural and trans-cultural archive of themes. since 2009. as products. scenarios regenerate imagery. As tools that designers have to collaborate with communities and among peers to establish pathways of change. investigating the use of stories in a   Ciancia et al – 40  collaborative process.com/user/imagislab. 116-117). orient the design culture and configure its dynamic character and its transformative power (Piredda. genres and formats) as tools for shaping imagination.Interactive Narratives. 2008). spreading the narrative worlds across different channels and sharing imagination.com/imagislabpolimi . from the production processes point of view. having ten groups of young designers exploring one neighbourhood each. which can trigger networks of expertise and knowledge towards representation and mediation. to dive into the potentialities of transmedia systems. focusing on the potentialities of audiovisual storytelling and its tools. Young designers collected and documented case studies and best practices through video interviews with citizens. Designers take charge of the role of configuring forecast making them actually arguable and ready to be put in practice. making them visible and highly imaginative at the same time. figures and common habits. 2014. To shape possible worlds is essential in order to manifest them and trigger imagination: it is a process of continuous interaction between images and their manifold interpretations that starts off a dialogue among stakeholders within the collaboration process. means to translate them into project proposals. To prefigure brand new facts. which involves professors. Below we are presenting the cases of Imagine Milan (2009-2012) and Plug Social TV (2013ongoing). stories set a common ground for discussion. engage and move people. Imagine Milan represents an experiment of the contribution that communication design can give to the dialogue about possible worlds and sustainable innovation. involving young designers (students) of the School of Design (Politecnico di Milano) and citizens of Milan city area. useful . researchers and students of the School of Design of Politecnico di Milano. craftsmen and companies. The first phase – Listening – has the aim of exploring the urban area. On one hand. They allow people to make tangible the way they experience the world. associations. The aim of this research is to experience audiovisual formats to promote dialogue and social innovation. meeting people and places. We have put into effect the idea of storytelling as a social experience (Bernardo. audiovisual formats are proving to be complex artifacts both as expressive languages and. on the other hand. 2014). Only imagination can activate new knowledge. Over the years we have been dealing with different topics (from sustainable mobility to social issues) and areas obtaining a kaleidoscopic portrait of the city as it is and envisioning how it could be if some good practices would become leaders of a sustainable transformation. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      could be. The experience so far conducted was located in different areas of the city of Milan. city users. through editing historical and contemporary iconographic repertoires. Shaping imagination: Imagine Milan youtube. The main idea is on the one hand to experiment the power of audiovisual storytelling (languages. on the other hand. the more they invite people to use their own imagination in order to position themselves and to plot their own way to action. feeds scenarios and future insights.

which were involved in participatory activities and workshops. its values and benefits through a typical advertising output: an audiovisual short format – advertising/commercials – (thirty seconds). These were conceived during a first phase of exploration of the local context and analysis of its inhabitants' perception. Each story universe was then re-elaborated and rearranged in .facebook. locations. By acquiring and recombining this catalogue of images. etc. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Ciancia et al – 41  to reconstruct the memory and social imagery of the place. podcasting and broadcasting on local television channels. designed and produced for Imagine Milan. games. In fact. The promos were distributed on urban screens (outdoor. Audiovisual genres. refer to the “archaic universe of doubles” (Morin. exhibitions. practices and artifacts in a participatory communication system. we worked with about fifty students and thirty members of the local community. Output is the Scenario that visualizes and enacts abstract concepts for activating negotiation tables and conversations among stakeholders. on line (YouTube). 1982): they contribute to an accurate portrait of reality or to a fictional construction of the world. We considered the urban context as a general topic. located in a suburban area of the city of Milan. The second phase – Envisioning – provides an epistemological and aesthetic contribution to envisioning a sustainable future. actions). values and lifestyles. as realistic and fantastic registers of representation. then. then. aesthetic and linguistic tools for translating and making knowledge explicit. Sharing imagination: Plug Social TV The third phase – Promoting – promotes a sustainable city life. considering stories as the driving force to support and amplify active communities' initiatives.   www. each of them is consistent with specific strategic goals. researchers. We should. and amplified by the transmedial world (contests. events. Output of this phase is the miniDOC: a brief audiovisual format (five minutes) able to tell the most important aspects emerging from the previous research and analysis work. design is able to define expectations and needs and to orient the individual choices. 2003). focusing on people's needs.Interactive Narratives. according to an epistemological model of sense making. as well as citizens’ associations and other local actors. characters. The communicative effectiveness of the videos. Considering the whole process. The project's participants were students of the School of Design of Politecnico di Milano and groups of people of a local community.). works on the synergy among different formats and genres. using new media and narratives as parts of a transmedia strategy for identity building and community engagement. which has its own technical. young designers and stakeholders were involved in public presentations and workshops at the Urban Center in Milan for discussing topics and pathways of collaboration towards possible solutions. Plug Social TV is the result of a participatory design process in which citizens and students worked collaboratively to tell different stories of the same neighbourhood. go beyond the use of video as a mirror of the community itself that provides testimonials: we should translate its imagery into a powerful and effective narrative world that comes from the local but claims to fit into a mainstream (White. in order to build more liveable neighbourhoods. the narrative universes were further developed in workshops and collaborative in field activities. set up by the students themselves. on metro and buses). Nine teams of students and citizens worked on the definition of different story universes (plots.com/plugsocialtv The project Plug Social TV started with the purpose of integrating audiovisual tools.

This potentiality is bound to the effective participation of citizens in the discussion: ‘social media platforms enable organizations to connect with people. create conversations [. share intimate stories.Interactive Narratives. 2). gives users the possibility to interact not only with textbased information. other formats are more fictional and it is necessary to have a deeper knowledge of the historical background of the local context. web series have their own plot.] and build ever-expanding communities of people who share common interests’ (Geneske. As final artifacts of the design process. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      order to create episodes for a web series. talk shows – we can consider them as formats). 2014). This makes us able to speak directly to local stakeholders and evaluate the impact of transmedia practices in the medium-and-long term. in order to get the connection between fiction and reality. the more people are effectively joined by common interests. we were able to integrate audiovisual storytelling with user engagement through Social Networks. Social Media have ‘the potential to transform the methods of dialoguing. which uses Facebook as the main platform for sharing and spreading audiovisual contents and that constitutes a place of dialogue and interaction   Ciancia et al – 42  between students. reality. but also with visual information. What kind of impact do these practices have from a social point of view? Does engagement bring changes in community’s perceptions and behaviours? Which stories and story-worlds work better to mirror local identity? How can stories lead to changes and transformations? .. who work collaboratively to turn into fiction their own personal experiences. decision-making.. characters and genre (noir. p. In this context. mystery. which is both product and creator of community identity. including partnerships with local actors and retailers. giving feedbacks about the social experience of seeing themselves as the main characters of a common story and sharing it with their personal audiences on social media. audio and video content (Zaglia. The use of social media. Through this kind of interaction we are able to get qualitative information about the engagement. along with quantitative data coming from the insights: in their comments. The nine web series are collected on Plug Social TV. the more they are actively participating in the discussion: we are dealing with a reiterative process in which technology does not create participation but it is able to support and amplify what is already present. Using a transmedia system. which represents the centre of the expanded experience. storylisteners and storytellers. but they are all connected to the local identity: there are formats which have real people as main characters and tell stories that are directly connected to their personal experiences. Through the use of narratives it is possible to highlight issues and opportunities of a community which recognizes itself in the story universe: students and citizens are both characters and producers. in order to create a story world. 2011. and relationship building in the community building [process]’ (Lachapelle. Social dialogue among different actors it is then activated by self--recognition processes in which the audience become the character of a story which contributes to build a mythology of everyday life: a narrative world that reifies the values of the community and simultaneously sets them as universal. users highlight the most meaningful matters. information sharing. Therefore. specifically Facebook as the main channel. A summary and a proposal We are activating projects at a hyperlocal level and we are collaborating with local communities. citizens and the community itself. a web TV based on digital channel and social media. with the aim of exploring the potentialities of transmedia systems beyond entertainment industry and mainstream productions. 2013).

but processes and practices that generated those stories can be considered as the most meaningful aspects for people outside the community. as a transmedia system.” In the case of Plug Social TV. are addressing the neighbourhood and city institutions as focus targets. this collaboration could lead to a low quality aesthetical standard of the final result: it is then necessary to support the audiovisual product with the documentation of the process. p. service providing. as audiovisual products. we should analyse the points of view through which the narrative world is developed. The Imagine Milan project has started a process of exploration of tools and audiovisual expressive forms. More than ever. 2011): the contemporary mediascape needs new approaches capable of facing changes in media habits. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      How do narratives interact with everyday life of individuals and communities? Narrative practices. the concept of engagement has become the battlefield between mainstream media and participatory culture. In fact. sponsorships. the shift toward the multichannel paradigm is establishing itself in the intersection between digital technologies and new production and distribution processes. Hence. and the audience that claim the right . crowdfunding and crowdsourcing initiatives.   Ciancia et al – 43  So. On the other hand. as collaborative actions between designers and communities. stakeholders’ engagement. can be considered as a model for managing activities and producing contents. Referring to Imagine Milan project. able to integrate the cultural humus and the personal experiences into interpretation paths that are addressing restricted and close communities of users: “Even the most robust visual language is useless without the ability to engage it in a living context” (Lupton & Cole Phillips. This documentation is intended as a meta-tale. the audiovisual artifacts for the Listening phase represent the very basic and fundamental act that designers practice in order to collect stories. 2012. and the perspectives through which people experience this world (Rampazzo Gambarato. it is possible to recognize two opposing forces: the corporations that imagine participation as something they can control. which is itself part of the transmedia system. a story within a story. towards an “audiovisual design thinking. They are capable of stimulating social conversation and horizontal feedback loops within the community itself: a self-reflective discourse that is based on visual translation and envisioning. which can communicate and value the social context in which the project takes place. The way the community understands its role in the narrative world differs from the strategic positioning: how do people relate to that world and its representation? Which fictional and social role do people interpret? The main consequence is that there are no single disciplines able to comprehend the complex nature of societies (Burnett. Furthermore. 2006b). communication design can provide an epistemological and aesthetic contribution to envision our future. As a cultural activator (Jenkins. 75). putting the project into practice requires a large productive effort that is possible to face thanks to the collaboration between design students and citizens. In this scenario. on the one hand. product placement. we can consider this project as a format made of practices and partnerships whose scalability at a higher level can put together social and economic values. are based on the act of listening. 10). Plug Social TV is able to set up the conditions for people engagement in meaningful experiences. the use of local resources as partnerships.Interactive Narratives. web series. We are seeking semifinished artifacts and systemic formats for translating complex insights and tales. Therefore. 2008. p. expectations and wishes from the community as tiny tales from everyday life.

. We identified Transmedia Practice (Dena. we adopt a disruptive approach. transmedia practice is used to construct narrative worlds. 2006b. people are facing a lack of mutual understanding. and project leader has a general strategic overview of the entire project. we explored the use of formats and media and we identified three audiovisual outputs that allow designers to observe and to listen to their surrounding reality. according to the concept of director-designer (Anceschi.. and to encourage citizens to take action and develop activities for their community (Jenkins et al. fudging the boundaries of four different fields: Branding and Communication Strategies. . 169). giving people of the neighbourhood a digital place where they can have discussions and give feedback. 2004).. allowing audiences to access content in a different way. We take professional roles. In the end. Within Plug Social TV experience. artifacts. technologies and engagement processes within a complex social sphere where “[. to envision new possible futures. For this reason. Audiovisual Storytelling. Both the Imagine Milan and the Plug Social TV projects are facing the developments related to audience. p. p. Audiovisual language is considered as a cultural interface (Manovich. 2006b. Transmedia Practice and Social Media Advocacy. Both the research experiences were characterized by the use of Brand and Communication Strategies. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      to participate in the meaning-making processes of culture (Jenkins. 138). spread through different media channels (analogical and/or digital). and it is necessary to find forms of communication able to catch the attention of the audience by directly engage with people. The Project manager is in charge of the management of the design process. The Creative director and content strategist represent the contemporary creative duo in which the first is leader of the visual design. The movie specialist uses audio-   Ciancia et al – 44  visual language to create compelling stories and develops empathic relations with the audience. by engaging with the audience in all the different steps of the design process. as tools for identity development. narrative practices and audience engagement as key elements. Social Media Advocacy is able to build relationships between virtual and real communities: we set up a system made of different web channels and social media in order to reinforce the online community. 2001) for listening to reality.] the social and cultural conditions for the creation and communication of ideas. 2013) in. knowledge and information have been transformed” (Burnett. and to promote stories. and the second is a new kind of copywriter able to shape and deliver content through a multichannel environment. p. responsibilities and tools from marketing and advertising domains and we use them to analyse the social environment with an actionresearch approach. and leading meaning-making towards becoming a collaborative and participatory process (Bakioğlu 2009. Thanks to the Imagine Milan research project. This is why we understand that putting an audiovisual artifact online is not enough. assuming storytelling activities. Bollini. Due to the rising number of multi-modal devices and the high number of messages conveyed across media channels. We develop in field activities and ask the students to work in teams made of five key roles. 2009) as a possible approach able to support the construction of a human landscape. working within the realm of transmedia allows us to concentrate on the three key features that structure this phenomenon: storytelling. The contemporary society finds itself at a very important turning point. On one hand there are tools. new media structures and audience (social) engagement. 2001. In synthesis.Interactive Narratives. coming from the advertising field. skills. 2011). 319). digital technologies and networks that broaden audience participation. media companies restrain this widespread creativity because they don't know how to engage with this new type of audience (Jenkins. on the other hand.

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  A plaque stands at the front gates of the University of South Carolina’s historic Horseshoe in Columbia. College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. RADICAL CONTROL 1873-77. Ricardo Sternberg. 1887-90. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. Commemorating the “ambitions and fortunes of the state [of South Carolina]. The plaque reads: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA CHARTERED 1801 AS THE S. School of Visual Arts and Design.buell@gmail. FAITHFUL INDEX TO THE AMBITIONS AND FORTUNES OF THE STATE. 1906. C. Regina Cunha. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). and R. with an eventual return to University of South Carolina. R. But what one . University of South Carolina. U. University of South Carolina  cooleyh@mailbox. 1865. C. Cecília Queiroz. ENTIRE STUDENT BODY VOLUNTEERED FOR CONFEDERATE SERVICE 1881. COLLEGE 1890-1905. Buell D. CHARTERED AS U. University of South Carolina     Suggested citation: Cooley. South Carolina). and Martin Zeilinger. U. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS 1880-82. C. Hudson Moura. Computer Science and Engineering. COLLEGE 1882-87. COLLEGE.sc.com   Richard Walker. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    FROM GHOSTS OF THE HORSESHOE TO WARD ONE: CRITICAL  INTERACTIVES FOR INVITING SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT WITH  INSTANCES OF HISTORICAL ERASURE (COLUMBIA. 1805. Computer Science and Engineering. SOUTH  CAROLINA)  Heidi Rae Cooley. South Carolina. SOLDIERS’ HOSPITAL 1862-65.. CLOSED 1877-80. University of South Carolina  duncan. S. H. OF S. It has enjoyed that location since being placed there by the Columbia Sesquicentennial Commission of 1938. OPENED JANUARY 10. OF S. C.” Likewise. S. “From Ghosts of the Horseshoe to Ward One: Critical Interactives for Inviting Social Engagement with Instances of Historical Erasure (Columbia. Reading closely. OF S. one might notice the institution’s not surprising antebellum political leanings: “Entire student body volunteered for confederate service 1881. one might consider the changes in the institution’s name: South Carolina College. Walker (2014). Eds.” the plaque serves as a reminder of the legacy of the collegiate institution and its connections to a larger history of nation and Southern values. C.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. C..edu   Duncan Buell.

an architecturally significant feature. In some instances.g. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      might gloss over – perhaps because of its ambiguity – is the mention of “Radical control 1873-77.   Cooley et al – 48  Historic Erasure I: Slavery and the Historic Horseshoe Ghosts of the Horseshoe (Ghosts) is a mobile interactive application that endeavors to bring into view on mobile networked touchscreens (iPad in the first versions) the largely unknown history of slavery that made materially possible the physical site that is the “heart” of the University of South Carolina: the historic Horseshoe. 1841-1860 (late antebellum institution).. Content pertaining to these three threads is called-up according to four time periods: 1801-1820 (early institution). by extension. And one might even pause to consider possible reasons for such events. and (3) the historic wall that delimits the Horseshoe grounds. or even necessitated that the university close for three years. Content points open onto audio.” To what does “radical control” refer? Who or what would have been considered “radical” – under what circumstances? And why the subsequent closure of the university? Of course. indicating that the interactant is near a content point. inspire a sense of responsibility for a past that remains unacknowledged – one that has ensured the existence and expansion of the physical campus of the University of South Carolina– Columbia.g.” and the immediately following statement. and most visitors to campus do not take the time to do so. we provide a theoretically informed discussion of how these projects elicit “empathic awareness” and. Ghosts deploys game mechanics (i. for example.. 1821-1840 (institutional growth and the building of the wall). in order to generate awareness of and questioning about what otherwise seems ordinary: a grassy space at the center of a university campus. Subsequently. “Closed 1877-80. one might draw the conclusion that there is a causal relation between the two events: that which was “radical” led to.Interactive Narratives. But arriving at any conclusion or simply positing hypotheses requires that one take the time to read the plaque’s text. Consequently. and his subse- . students and faculty – for the most part – have no knowledge of the plaque’s contents and meaning. the voice of “Henry” (a real figure. they neither formulate hypotheses nor draw conclusions. Ghosts organizes content into three distinct but overlapping themes: (1) architectural ghosts (e. Ghosts’ root screen interface is an 1884 Sanborn Fire Insurance map of the South Carolina College campus. un/named enslaved persons). and visual information pertinent to a particular building or. as well as Augmented Reality and GPS functionality. interactants listen to. (2) human ghosts (e. previously faint fingerprint icons populating the map interface grow increasingly more visible. and 1861-1880 (the institution during the Civil War and through the Reconstruction period). whose history is partly known) as he details his existence as a slave at South Carolina College – his purchase. in the case of the historic wall. A compass rose appears atop this map and indicates in real time the geo-locative position of the participant (or “interactant” hereafter). As the interactant traverses the Horseshoe grounds. The challenge for those who would present the entire history of the university becomes this: how to draw attention to the ghosts whose reference lurks in the text of the sesquicentennial plaque? How best to make visible the unacknowledged history of enslaved labor that made possible the site now known as the historic Horseshoe? What other instances of historic erasure give foundation to the university landscape? Ghosts of the Horseshoe and Ward One are critical interactive applications that offer two distinct yet complementary examples for how questions such as the ones just posed might be addressed on site and in real time. razed outbuildings). textual.e. ludic methods). his capture. they may not even “see” it. In what follows.. we offer an account of each application and its context. his escape. In fact.

she is invited to take photos of instances of deterioration. etc. Ghosts features a Citizen Archeology function that allows interactants to document instances of deterioration. 1835-36) that encloses the historic Horseshoe is suffering from general deterioration and weathering.. (Of course. inform the interactant of kinds of deterioration. C. disrepair. as one nears the sesquicentennial plaque (discussed above). an historic photograph of an outbuilding (i. its relation to the University of South Carolina. OPENED JANUARY 10. C. The site being commemorated is the result of enslaved labor.) Should an interactant venture beyond the Horseshoe campus proper. C. For example.” “boy”). In keeping with the Ghosts logic. splintering bricks.g. unacknowledged. 1887-90. FIRST MAJORITY AFRICANAMERICAN PUBLIC COLLEGE 1873-77. and remained resegregated until 1963.. and contribute those images to a backend database that will parse all incoming images for easy assessment by West and Gruner. The wall (ca.e. Ghosts signals that new content is available via the Augmented Reality functionality. slave quarters) appears in the landscape where it would have existed (had it not been torn down) overtop the device’s real time camera view. COLLEGE. Moreover. invasive foliage.” “First majority African-American public college. OF S.. C. U. it uses juxtaposition to underscore convenient omissions or revisionist interpretations of a history that remains unfamiliar. While these exclusions might very well be interpreted as in- . etc. In other instances. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS 1880-82. Now modified. As an interactant moves along the Horseshoe perimeter. When one raises the touchscreen device and focuses the camera on the physical plaque. 1906. “washerwoman. it was closed and reopened as a completely different institution. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      quent sale. Ghosts of the Horseshoe endeavors to encourage a shift in attitude with respect to the historic Horseshoe. COLLEGE 1890-1905.” and “Closed. U. in order to support the preservation efforts of West and Gruner.” We acknowledge that its approach is subtle. S. fingerprint icons direct interactants to points of concern. when activated. ENSLAVED LABOR RESPONSIBLE FOR CONSTRUCTION ON AND MAINTENANCE OF CAMPUS 1801-1965. 1805. Now such icons. “Anna”) or by category (e. eye-screws. etc. it is worth noting that the sibling outbuilding still stands –unidentified – at the left flank of what is now the President’s House. OF S. There is no mention of the institution’s confederate affiliations or that it reopened in 1880 as an all white agricultural college. she will encounter opportunities to learn about historic preservation. and defacement. and the institu-   Cooley et al – 49  tional and socio-cultural politics that are responsible for what exists as a surprisingly intact “landscape of slavery. FAITHFUL INDEX TO THE AMBITIONS AND FORTUNES OF THE STATE. COLLEGE 1882-87.Interactive Narratives. poor repointing. And in other instances. damage. University Archivist Elizabeth West and University Architect Derek Gruner together have secured funds to preserve the historic wall – which was originally built to confine students to the campus grounds.g. it became the first majority African-American public college in the US during Reconstruction. whose identity might be indicated by a name (e.. S. the text states: “Enslaved labor. an overlay appears onscreen and supplants the plaque in real time. she is invited to focus more concertedly on minute details of the wall’s structural status: crumbling mortar. CLOSED 1877-80. Now the interactant reads: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA CHARTERED 1801 AS THE S. C. we avoid direct accusation.. interactants confront digitized historical documents indicating the cost of “hiring” an enslaved person. Ghosts is not interested in leveraging claims against the past or the current institution that enjoys what the past has made possible. Instead. That is.” The enumeration of historical occurrences works suggestively.

USC expanded its campus. They maintained the facilities and grounds. . businesses. well-established white citizens – proved disinclined to maintain their rentals. And in the late 1950s. Historic Erasure 2: Urban Renewal and Ward One The University of South Carolina did not reintegrate until 1963. and Greek Village. 1963 Henrie D. and schools and businesses closed down. they worked as custodial staff. Ward One grew into a bustling. SC. Collectively. But established Ward One families began to relocate to more upscale areas of town and the state – even the country. earning a B. Indianapolis. 11. Where once homes.Interactive Narratives. And while plaques mark where. these neighborhoods comprised a voting district known as Ward One. Robert Anderson and James Solomon became the first AfricanAmerican students to enroll at the university in the 20th century. Heyward. foundational – to USC’s identity as a public institution. and the Great   Cooley et al – 50  Depression. University of Chicago. churches – like Union Baptist and Jones Memorial – relocated across town. Ward One residents had developed their own culture and built their own institutions. homes were bulldozed. purchasing the newly available land – a practice that has analogs nationwide. a baseball field.edu/about/our_history/).S. about one square mile in area. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      stances of counter-erasure. and Gervais streets. Ward One is not the only community to suffer the consequences of policies that resulted in the eviction and displacement of African American families. in 1965. The university’s website describes this moment of political significance in the following way: “On Sept. they sold their homes. Huger. for example. A single compound sentence celebrates the fact of integration and the successful completion of a degree by an African American student: a tidy but perfunctory account that glosses over an eighty-six year history of prohibited access based on race. late 1940s-1970s). one now sees USC’s Koger Center. schools. predominantly African American business and residential area. the downtown community boasted churches. Across the United States mid-century (ca. they prepared and served meals to students and faculty. emptying trash and sweeping floors. and churches stood. In the wake of demolition. The Columbia Housing Authority. Incoming inhabitants could not afford to own. schools. Having faced the daunting challenges of racial segregation. In Columbia. the Celia Dial Saxon School used to stand. including. Indiana University – Purdue University. Ward One emerged in the late nineteenth century. University of Michigan – East Lansing. These initiatives functioned to identify areas of impoverishment for subsequent demolition and rebuilding. And perhaps not drawing attention to this history of exclusion seems somehow reasonable. Stanford. Monteith became the first African-American graduate. in biochemistry” (http://www. this meant a drastic overhaul of the area around USC: alleys and streets disappeared. officially designated Ward One to be a “blighted” area. they serve to emphasize the ways in which race and racial politics are fundamental – indeed. Strom Thurmond Fitness and Wellness Center. cities pursued projects of urban renewal and revitalization. And a majority of these employees lived in neighborhoods around the campus. businesses. so they rented. under the direction of housing commissioner Joseph E. for example.sc. New property owners – in most cases. Winter. Monteith. By the early twentieth century. and civic organizations. But the very same years of segregation saw African Americans employed by the university. African American residents owned property and held prominent positions in the community. few passersby pause long enough to read about the historical relevance of the sites so-marked. and University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill. Situated between the boundaries of present-day Pickens. two world wars.

the project makes visible an oft-ignored history that is national in scope. which will follow an initial set of individual itineraries (e. in its first instantiation. we are developing a mobile application and a complementary interactive website that invite participants to consider both the local and national policies and politics that fueled urban renewal in Columbia. Called Ward One.   Cooley et al – 51  The Ward One mobile application. the project focuses on how matters of race have functioned to reconfigure the institutional landscape of USC (from its inception as South Carolina College in 1801). and federal efforts succeeded in eradicating “blighted” areas. But in tandem. At the same time.. where the warehouse sits.com/colleges/university-ofsouth-carolina-columbia/). serves as the point of departure for the app.” We argue that the most produc- . reconciliation and understanding are unlikely to result from “preaching. Mattie Anderson-Roberson’s childhood home stood. and other archival materials that serve as evidence of the historic place and its demolition. with tensions still high. It features Ward One community representatives.364. features the historic Palmetto Compress building. Jones. they might very well inspire in others an “empathic awareness” of how race matters to a “sense” of responsibility for a past whose politics still bears on the present.625. and Social Engagement The state of South Carolina boasts a population of 4. at least in the South if not the entire United States. We cannot change the past. Incorporating audio-visual media. who offer narratives of forced relocation and efforts to protest such acts of “progress. as a suite of interactive applications. as well as the site’s initial appropriation by the City of Columbia and the Columbia Housing Authority and its subsequent acquisition and transformation by the University of South Carolina. p. she will follow Deacon Jones through alleys where he played chess. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      In response to such glaring omissions of history. By contrast. The interactive website frames these local stories in the context of national urban renewal and tenement reform initiatives. Mattie Anderson-Roberson and Deacon Arthur F. the project suggests how other similar landscapes in the US likewise “benefited” from federally sanctioned redevelopment – or revitalization – efforts that displaced black communities. In this way. photographs. which lives on in the stories shared by and ongoing efforts of people who remember a time when they called Ward One home. state. Moreover. an early 20th century (ca. The corners of Blossom and Huger. Toward Empathic Awareness.” These reflections and memories of those who refuse to forget offer a counter-narrative of cultural renewal. it places these local stories in the larger context of mid-twentieth century “reconstruction” that was enabled by discourses of “poverty” and “slum life” and the “bourgeois imagination” (Mullins and Jones. Interactants will see where once stood Ms.g. By raising questions about how local.Interactive Narratives. approximately 28% of which is African American (2010). Using the affordances of both touchscreen and desktop interfaces. And. the state’s flagship research university has a student body of only 11% African American/Black (http://www.forbes. 2011. 1917) cotton warehouse that recently escaped plans for demolition that will be renovated and will house a museum that the Ward One Organization will curate. as determined by Ms. Critical Interaction. Ward One mobilizes local news footage. 34) that rationalized such discourses and the legal instrument of eminent domain by which private property was appropriated. SC and elsewhere in the country. former residents who are active in the Ward One community organization). that is. the app will follow these former Ward One inhabitants as they traverse the former Ward One terrain. because race is still the primary divisive issue. Ward One endeavors to harness the spirit of the Ward One community. Neither Ghosts nor Ward One will change these statistics in any direct or immediate way.

It is worth reminding ourselves that race and reconciliation are – 150 years after the end of the Civil War. P. Casper. Archaeologies of Race and Urban Poverty: The . 16). H. New York and London: NYU Press. Mullins. to make her aware that the buildings and Wall are perhaps all that remains of their lives and work. Ghosts and Ward One attempt to show that “bodies are not merely texts or performances but flesh and bone. 2009. with all the emotive power of imagery. contracted for and treated entirely as a commodity. On the other hand. Bulletin of Science. It endeavors to make all of us aware of the human cost of decisions – federal and local – whose result seems only to be modern buildings. 2009. suffering and illness. D. The community itself is still present. indeed whose bodies. with the university as the benefactor expanding (for the most part. we find ourselves not with a paucity of information about the individuals who will populate the interactive narrative but with a surplus. Monica J. we acknowledge the role played here by the new medium. 60 years after Brown v. A. References Buell. We have attempted with Ghosts to engage the interactant with the reality that these enslaved persons were persons. A. and recuperate” those people whose stories. a Mobile Application: Fostering a New Habit of Thinking about the History of University of South Carolina's Historic Horseshoe. The official historical record is one of urban renewal to eliminate blight.. Board of Education. as Monica J. R. R. by extension. histories and entanglements. p. (2009). (2012). Cooley. Finally. audio. These are interactive presentations of history. Ghosts of the Horseshoe. It is time to acknowledge that “The act … of focusing on [those whose voices have been muted] in a critical way … is an ethical responsibility” (Casper and Moore. C. have fallen victim to historical erasure (Casper and Moore. only recently) into the land area made available by the displacement of that community. across campuscommunity divides. (2014). more than forty years later. 15). the task is made easier by the fact that former residents are involved in the development of Ward One. Ward One endeavors to elicit an empathic awareness in its interactants in order to cultivate reconciliation along and across the   Cooley et al – 52  color line and. p. 486-493. p. Critical Interactives: Improving public understanding of public policy.Interactive Narratives. The records that survive of the enslaved persons who made the bricks and built the buildings and Wall of the USC Horseshoe are predominantly records of labor. and Lisa Jean Moore. In this regard. Technology. R. in the instance of the historic Horseshoe. capabilities and desires. Cooley. bodies are material and not just materialized” (Casper and Moore. and 50 years after the Civil Rights Bill – still enormously troubling issues for the United States. The task is made harder by the need to select a small number of narratives to be presented from the very large number that could be presented. Missing Bodies: The Politics of Visibility... Their stories can be told in the first person. and Society. to “reveal. Our task here is to re-create in the new medium the stories and the sense of community that is still felt by the former residents. 2009. and L. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      tive means to secure social engagement can be by means that are subtle and evocative. we endeavor. Casper and Lisa Jean Moore assert. Jones. Annual Review of Cultural Heritage Informatics. resituate. Moving from Ghosts to Ward One. by the mobile platform that permits both Ghosts and Ward One to present the history to the interactants. 32. 193-212. 15). life and death – in short. 1. and D. and the sense of being present on the location where the history took place. Their sense of community can be felt in the give and take of their discussions among each other. and H. (2011). Buell. and that the we should be reminded of the (almost) intentional erasure in the record of their presence on campus.

Interactive Narratives. and the Color Line. Weyeneth. 1801-1865: The Foundations of the University of South Carolina.   Cooley et al – 53  . Slavery at South Carolina College. 33-50..edu/digital/slaveryscc/ [September 15. URL: http://library. et al.1.sc. Engagement. Historical Archaeology 45. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Politics of Slumming. (2012). 2014]. R.

It offers a reading of the ubiquitous contemporary form of self-portraiture. Abstract: This article offers a working draft of a larger qualitative analysis of the popular smartphone application Instagram. and Martin Zeilinger. no more or less common than a variety of landscapes. an overwhelming indication of a lack of a sense of self (Wollaston. Eds. the selfie. it has somehow become the ‘face’ of online sociality and subjectivity. Generationally. Cecília Queiroz. “With smartphone in hand. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    STREAMS OF THE SELF: THE INSTAGRAM FEED AS NARRATIVE  AUTOBIOGRAPHY  Kris Fallon.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. these various views of the world reveal an emplaced mode of image-driven autobiography. It is also a symptom of mental illness and risk for sui- cide. The selfie chronicles a counter-Copernican revolution…everything once again revolves around us. has become an object of scorn.” (Guengerich. a closer look at the various feeds and streams in which the selfie appears reveals that it is one genre amongst many. locating its origin in the longer evolution of digital photography into a form of social media.edu   Suggested citation: Fallon. an emblem so to speak of our wider social tendency to get lost in ourselves. And yet. The simple act of taking one’s own picture and distributing it via social media to varying spheres of the public is apparently symptomatic of any number of social and individual ills. Kris (2014). we can now share with others how our narcissism looks to us. coddled and with plenty of self-esteem (Perman. 2013). few are perhaps more loathed than the selfie. a portrait of the promise and peril of our online existence. the ME-ME-ME generation). 2013). UC Davis  kfallon@ucdavis. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). Regina Cunha. Taken together. they seem to be the cultural mark of the so-called me-generation (or more accurately. Hudson Moura. Though its function as a basic self-portrait and signifier for our various social profiles appears straightforward.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. and other modes of photographic observation. 2014) Of the myriad of cultural objects generated by the rise of ubiquitous digital media. The comedian Jena . posing with one’s arm stretched in front of oneself. “Streams of the Self: The Instagram Feed as Narrative Autobiography. the crop of digital native millenials who grew up overly supported by protective parents. It has been deemed the paragon of social narcissism. still-lifes. Even the act of taking the selfie. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. one far more complex and nuanced than a straightforward meme would appear to be. Ricardo Sternberg.

these are but one type of a wider constellation of objects that constitute the field of new media. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Kingsley ironically voiced this revulsion by creating a ‘no-selfie-zone’ in Central Park and handing out fake tickets to hapless violators as park ranger (Thomas. that we might classify as a form of interactive media. but the emergence of the camera phone is instrumental to the selfie’s evolution into a form of interactive narrative. Far from   Fallon – 55  appearing frozen or captivated by one’s appearance. a transcript of a conversation conducted in media form. part of what the history of digital photography demonstrates is the need to . it invites a level of inter-action between participants. the anger and condemnation generated by the selfie is perhaps understandable. As a sub-cultural trend that has reached the mainstream. Moreover. then at least as it might be photographed. but also because. 2012).Interactive Narratives. I would like to offer instead that the selfie comprises one part of a dynamic. Lev Manovich stipulates that new media are not. and indeed the narrative threads that emerge within and between images as they form a larger stream or feed. among other things. Manovich’s dismissal of interactivity offers a useful starting point for considering the selfie as interactive narrative because it simultaneously demonstrates the need to consider the selfie within a longer tradition of autobiographical photography. 70– 75). he reserves the term interactive new media for those works which directly solicit user intervention in order to function. not a closing off of the self. as we will see. These interactions with the world and others seem to obviate the apparent self-centeredness and narcissism that at first glance motivates the gesture of staring at one’s image in a screen and recording that image for the world to see. On the other hand. 68–70). the series of media traces left behind by social interaction constitute a form of interactive media. a book perhaps more influential for stimulating debate than settling it. More specifically. inviting one to view the world. For him. 2014). pp. if not photographically. In his influential Language of New Media. Indeed. The impulse to share the selfie with the world is a gesture of broadcasting the self for the world to see. exclusive quality initiated by new media nor is it a quality universal to all new media. he significantly underplays the productive power of interactivity as a myth that emerges when digital photography becomes a widespread form of Social Media through apps like Instagram (another of Manovich’s ‘myths’ about new media. all media are interactive in that the user is always an active participant in the meaning-making process. On the one hand. The selfie is a poster child for the sort of insularity that Sherry Turkle describes in Alone Together (Turkle. 2001. While Manovich can of course be forgiven for not predicting the rise of social media. if not entirely justified. Interactivity is neither a new. The selfie of course preexisted the camera phone. pp. Indeed. Calling it “The Myth of Interactivity. They are an easy answer to the perennial rhetorical question “You know what’s wrong with the world today?” Their strong connection with mobile technology and social networking further implicates them in wider concerns about the fetishization of gadgets and the ill-effects of living through one’s screen. as image capture becomes a common cultural practice it alters the relationship between the self and the world. the audience and the subject. isolating the selfie ignores the broader spectrum of images that we capture in and alongside of them.” Manovich rejects the term on the grounds that it is both too general and too specific. selfies provide a convenient scapegoat for a conservative free-floating social scorn that identifies various signifiers as indications of a wider cultural decline. In a general sense. And finally. the connection between the selfie and the level of self-centeredness that a diagnosis of narcissism would imply is paradoxical. unfolding interactive narrative socially authored by the self and the wider world. however. interactive (2001.

in a process that mimics the species/environment relationship in biological evolution. While the break between analog and digital photography generated a great deal of scholarly and popular discussion about the ‘nature’ of photography and the fate of indexicality. The move to market photography to a mass public. while their handheld descendent.Interactive Narratives. (“The Selfie in the Age of Digital Recursion. of still photography as the vehicle for this particular form of self/media interaction. individuals and specific forms of technology. the move toward “mobile screenic devices” troubles the easy distinction between amateur/professional (now everyone can ‘publish’ their work) and alters standards of aesthetics and subject matter.d. As Patricia Zimmerman has demonstrated. Looking back at these early mobile devices and the social practices they engender. Apple has claimed that it makes the world’s number one camera. most directly with the polaroid. 32). 2004a. argues that users of early cameraphones and other handheld devices participate in a form of “selfevidencing”. Indeed. one is reminded.” While this produced an accumulation of autobiographical fragments to emerge. 2004b.g. the push within social media to allow for mass content   Fallon – 56  sharing relies of course on the ability of the masses to create and distribute content easily and cheaply. the smartphone. Tools like the Brownie. incessantly capturing fragmentary and ephemeral images of experiences and objects in their environments “tactile vision. The historical evolution of the technology for photographing the self recursively shapes the evolution of the self that is photographed. and vice versa. Adam Levin’s thoughtful discussion of the selfie unearths a great deal of the predigital history of the form. Since the emergence of the iPhone in 2008. selfies and the [digital] ecologies they inhabit” exhibits a type of interactivity between culture. tracing it back through early self-portraits and linking it. 2005) Cooley’s account of early mobile imaging. the recursive relationship between “selves. 1995. published presciently in a pre-iPhone era. and other bygone practices offer a look back at forms that were perhaps more primitive but also more radical in their approach than many . solved the first part of this equation. digital and toward a more focused consideration of the spheres and practices that emerge and fade as quickly as the trend of the selfie likely will. As Heidi Rae Cooley points out. and Kodak and Polaroid have both gone into bankruptcy. or perhaps the appropriateness. (Cooley. not to mention the industry behind it. Photography has always demanded and documented certain performative behaviors of its subjects (e. Cooley’s descriptions of PDAs.) For Levin. the break between the digital camera and the cameraphone is equally dramatic. makes it an important precursor to the emergence of user generated content over the last decade. of the speed at which technologies change.. Still photography was in many ways the first mass market form of mass media. solved the second. however. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      move beyond general categories and theories of analog vs. the emergence of Kodak’s roll film in the 1880s and its $1 Brownie camera at the turn of the century pushed photography from a specialized technology practiced by professionals to a widespread group of amateur hobbyists that we would now refer to as ‘users’ (Zimmermann. these collections operated according a database driven logic rather than a narrative logic of linear cause and effect. While Levin’s discussion unearths the media ecology in which the selfie evolves and thrives. it overlooks the importance. and eventually the Polaroid. and the recursive social behaviors that alter alongside them. for him. It is difficult to overstate the impact of social media and mobile technology on photographic practice. moblogs.” n. p. the pose) which in turn alter social norms about how to not only behave in front of a camera but how to behave in general as well. in modern terms democratizing or consumerizing the technology.

Flickr collections might offer a collective perspective on an event or subject.Interactive Narratives. postiPhone moment. and its ‘instant’ appearance on other social media timelines bind it more . multi-authored media text. open user-generated database of content. The fragmentary. the move from stand alone photoblogs to a site based on the contributions and interactions of its users produces a norming effect where an identifiable group aesthetic emerges (Murray. Instagram. the selfie. This enabled categories and collections to emerge across users. as we currently think of it. This creates an interactive text in that all authors are simultaneously audience members (and vice versa). While the Flickr aesthetic may bear little resemblance to the traditional studio or snapshot aesthetics that emerged in the analog film era. share and comment on one another’s photos. edit and upload with a prowess only dreamed of by their predecessors. Flickr approached them as parts of a massive. 2008. allowing novel combinations and collections of images to emerge. 159–160). mainstream practice. 2008. Instead of treating user uploads as private material that it was storing and managing the way a web-based email account is handled. the core of Instagram is the image stream and the strong connection between any image and an individual’s profile wherever it might eventually end up. creating a multi-perspective. 2011. Like a search on Google images. They are more Wikipedia than Op-Ed page in the views they offer. Flickr was built as a community driven site from the beginning. 155. p. The collective nature of sites like Flickr creates a space in which the individual is put under erasure by the weight of the group. But as Susan Murray points. This approach opened up new perspectives while closing down others. 155). Nonetheless this feels counter to the general thrust of the site. Instagram’s emphasis on the photo stream. The emergence of social media platforms for sharing images. but it works against any type of linear progression or individual narrative. catalogic approach that Cooley described found a perfect compliment in Flickr’s bottom-up system of organization through user generated tags. it is nonetheless appears to be a   Fallon – 57  move away from the diverse experimentation of the earliest mobile approaches. first on the computer and then through the smartphone. was born. While previous sites like Ofoto and Snapfish had enabled users to upload digital and analog images into albums for printing or sharing via email. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      contemporary standards. but they aren’t any one person’s perspective. With the introduction of the front facing camera on the iPhone 4 and other competing devices on the Android platform. turned these early freewheeling experiments into a more standardized. conceived of and launched in a post-Facebook. While current devices may capture. the resultant images and the streams they populate appear to be moving in a retrograde fashion toward more traditional aesthetics and a more rigidly linear forms. creating what can be considered a nascent form of interactive autobiography in the process. Instagram emerged on the mobile iOS platform as a way for users to quickly edit photos shot on their iPhones and share them to other social networks like Twitter and Facebook. In contrast to Flickr’s disparate autobiographical fragments. Flickr emerged in the early days of social networking as a platform for users to upload. Unlike Flickr and other photosharing sites intended to be the final destination for images that had traveled from camera to computer to website. on the other hand. pp. flips the group/individual hierarchy. Rather than a large pool of curated images tagged by users according to specific subjects. what Jose Van Dijck refers to as a form of “connective memory” (Dijck. Murray points out that isolating an individual user’s profile reveals an “autobiography or diary by layering an ever changing or growing stream of photos on their page” (Murray. 411). p.

While Nathan Hochman and Lev Manovich recently pointed out the inherent fuzziness in Instagram’s presentation of this timeline (e. Rather than acting as a cover to shield one’s identity. This would seem to put memes at odds with the strong identity connection that I am claiming Instagram engenders.Interactive Narratives. as Kriss Ravetto-Biagioli has pointed out. 2010). It is significant that these tools for the most part limit themselves to altering qualities like color. 2013). this record offers a type of timelapse portrait of one’s activity. adapt their own in direct or indirect response to it. Instagram memes. these frequent updates also add to the permanent size of the individual photostream. Indeed. 2013). The interplay between the feed and the stream is where the reciprocal give and take of Instagram enables the type of interactive exchange at work on Flickr. as it were. a self-tagging system borrowed from Twitter. one expects the images to be manipulated. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      firmly with a traditional notion of individual identity. But the ability to alter these images nonetheless places them into a more expressive register than analog and even more traditional digital photography. Rather than hiding the alterations. The push to “feed   Fallon – 58  one’s followers” gives the images the same ephemeral. This push toward greater visibility on the site further enhances the autobiographical potential of the timeline. Arranged in the default grid view. disposable feel that many have noted is so at odds with the processes of freezing time associated with analog photography (Murray. are the polar opposite. But in Instagram. 2008). Participation in memes like #bestofsummer are opportunities to distinguish one’s individuality even as they signify participation in an ephemeral collective. The app invites users to apply filters and crop the image before sending as one of the procedural steps for posting. memes associated with the group Anonymous are intended to destabilize established categories of individuality. One actively and consistently populates one’s stream (an individual user’s contributions) in order to remain an active presence in the feed of one’s followers (the flow of images comprised of contributions by the group one follows). collectivity and recognizable identity (RavettoBiagioli. Users see the work of others. exposure. an effect only exacerbated by the inclusion and widespread use of the app’s filter function. and post images seen in turn by others. The result over time is that many of the images begin to take on a homogenized aesthetic.g. One can even imagine that an account comprised exclusively of selfies literally works as a sort of timelapse progression of aging. amorphous collection of practices that have no single author. it remains nonetheless bound to a fixed temporal progression (Hochman & Manovich. memes are a transitory. Instagram emphasizes the ‘me’ in meme. Outside of the #hashtag. giving additional depth to the record of one’s activities and experiences. And while the #hashtag loosely resembles Flickr’s more robust tagging feature. The manipulative effect of using Photoshop editing tools in contexts such as photojournalism and fashion to alter what the camera recorded continues to be a source of anxiety amongst the viewers and creators of these images (Ritchin. temporal linearity and serial progression. trending hashtags are often used to raise one’s profile or collect additional followers. filters loudly proclaim their presence through the excessive nature of their appearance. there are no timestamps). While the focus is always on a permanent sense of ‘now’ the by-product is a more complete documentary record of one’s output arranged from past to present. As spontaneous trends which emerge and either catch on or fade away. And yet. tone and framing rather than the less overt forms of . there is no way to sort or search images on Instagram other than the default timeline of the photostream or one’s feed. of which the selfie trend is a prime example. it operates on the logic of the meme which it was intended to capitalize on and facilitate.

memories. but it can offer us alternative perspectives and ways of being that may differ very much from our own.com/content/3/2/133. but increases its capacity to capture the desires and moods of its author. The autobiographical impulse and mobile imaging: Toward a theory of autobiometry. 5. Instagram is part of the moment that produced the selfie. (2011). Its most active high profile users are often professional photographers who use the platform as an outlet away from. H. The ubiquity of image making spawned by the camera-phone has enabled social media to function to some extent as ‘socialized media’: inviting alternative.ac. 2002). In Workshop Pervasive Image Capture and Sharing: New Social Practices and Implications for Technology at Ubicomp (Vol. Once again we find the same mix of authenticity and commodification at work that has run throughout the history of photography. “Identify”-ing a New Way of Seeing: Amateurs. Journal of Visual Culture. References Cooley. R.1177/1750698010385215 .ht. This type of push-pull between community and commodity (or. 3(2).org/pics/PICS/autobiographical_impuls e_and_mobile_imaging.” The net effect of the interface and the tools that Instagram provides is that someone’s stream can reveal an interesting. It would of course be foolish to generalize about the nature of this portrait or place too much weight on the documentary evidence it is capable of providing. (2004b).pdf Dijck. etc. pp. Moblogs and Practices in Mobile Imaging. image driven forms of social interaction even as it profits large corporations through the free labor of its citizens. H. Retrieved from http://vcu. R. J. (2004a). By inviting us to share our selves. blemish removal. community as commodity) has always haunted photography.keio. The filtering process introduces an affective.sfc. 133–155. It’s all about the fit: The hand. Filtered images do not claim “this is how it looked” but rather “how I wanted to it look” or “how I felt it looked.Interactive Narratives. if idiosyncratic portrait of the person. marketed throughout much of the 20th century as a way to preserve   Fallon – 59  memories and those ‘Kodak moments’. Cooley. (2005). with the world. thereby curating a feed that chronicles personal relationships and individual experiences. Flickr and the culture of connectivity: Sharing views. doi:10. For others. R. or an avenue into.short Cooley. a potent combination that Instagram has apparently not escaped. what Amelia Jones argued was a “technology of embodiment” in more traditional self-portrait photography (Jones. their paid work.jp/~tailor/ubicomp/mirr or/ubicomp2005web/Ubicomp%202005/www. the mobile screenic device and tactile vision. photographically. photography offers a complex historical lineage as it moves onto new platforms powerfully capable of both extremes.sp asojevic. experiences. H. 65–79. 21(1). the things they like or what society tells them they should be like. This decreases its documentary value as an un-altered record of what existed before the camera. Looking through these portraits may tell us who the person is or who they want to be. 4(4).sagepub. Retrieved from http://www. Instagram is merely a way to push lightly edited individual or group photos to Facebook. At once a tool of artistic expression and state surveillance and control. In such cases the feed offers us an impression of their aesthetic sensibility. Memory Studies. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      alteration like cutting and pasting. van. Spectator. 401–415. 11–14). A cynical reading of filtering one’s appearance and experiences for an amorphous audience of others would argue that these tools simply allow users to imperfectly replicate the look and feel of advertising images or parrot the surface appeal of celebrity culture. A more generous reading might argue that these tools open up the process to a broader set of practitioners. expressive dimension to the image. allowing them to engage in a creative play of identity and self-expression.

rochester.uk/sciencetech/article2401017/Selfies-damaging-leave-youngpeople-vulnerable-abuse-claimspsychologist.com/local/galenguengerich-selfie-culture-promotes-a-degradedworldview/2014/01/31/cb444130-8942-11e3916e-e01534b1e132_story.Interactive Narratives.co. Signs.issue-4 Manovich. (2013). (2013). (2013. August 24). 27(4). 2014. After Photography. Ritchin. from http://www. Indiana University Press. N. S. (2012). Journal of Visual Culture. Anonymous Social as Political. Selfies are “damaging”.). August 19).2002. Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other (First Trade Paper Edition edition. Leonardo Electronic Almanac. W. First Monday. (2002).d.edu/portfolio/the-selfie-inthe-age-of-digital-recursion/ Thomas. The “Eternal Return”: Self‐ Portrait Photography as a Technology of Embodiment. doi:10. 2014. (2014. 7(2).html Hochman. New York: Basic Books. E. August 23). New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Guengerich. (2013. L.com/story/money/business /2013/08/24/millenials-time-magazinegeneration-y/2678441/ Ravetto-Biagioli. The Language of New Media. & Manovich. New York. V. 2014. doi:10. Retrieved September 18. 2014. (2010). A.: MIT Press.huffingtonpost. (2014. Reel Families: A Social History of Amateur Film. R. doi:10.5210/fm. 19(4). P. Photo-Sharing. Zooming into an Instagram City: Reading the local through social media.lib. (n. Retrieved from http://www. from http://ivc. L. (2001). Galen Guengerich: “Selfie” culture promotes a degraded worldview. The Selfie in the Age of Digital Recursion. 947–978.27. 18(7).1086/signs.washingtonpost. (2008). Murray. London: W. .v18i7. G.   Fallon – 60  from http://www..1177/1470412908091935 Perman. 147– 163. S. Are Millennials really the “Me” generation? Retrieved September 18.com/2014/08/19/selfi e-free-zone-prank-jenakingsley_n_5689176. Cambridge Mass.).4711 Jones.html Turkle. Retrieved September 5.html Zimmermann. The Washington Post. from http://www. January 31). Wollaston. Digital Images. and Our Shifting Notions of Everyday Aesthetics.usatoday. (1995). Retrieved September 5. C. 179–195. F. We Just Wish This Selfie-Free Zone Existed IRL. Norton & Company.dailymail. K.

mobile productions. I will develop a textual analysis on part of the project. “I-Docs and New Narratives: Meaning Making in Highrise. Begoña (2014).nfb. and strong interaction and engagement from the side of the viewer. World in the Towers. The project is ambitious: Cizek’s vision is “to see how the documentary process can drive and participate in social innovation rather than just to document it. by focusing on its ways of meaningmaking and the specific narrative implications of the relationship between meaning and form. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    I‐DOCS AND NEW NARRATIVES: MEANING MAKING IN  HIGHRISE  Begoña González‐Cuesta.gonzalez@ie.” (http://highrise. maintaining the traditional basis of narratives while also adding other elements that enrich and deepen storytelling innovation.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. and to help re-invent what it means to be an urban species in the 21st century. especially on the ways in which individuals and societies represent themselves on these screens. Madrid  begona. I will analyze Highrise. This is a complex project produced by the National Film Board of Canada. IE University. and documentaries The “call for papers” of this conference brings into focus the need to reflect on interactive narratives and digital media. Abstract: Digital media make it possible to move from a conventional storytelling medium to other avenues that allow open stories to be told. installations and films. thus changing its nature as a narrative.ca) Digital media. and the ways these representations deal with their identities at a creative. live presentations.        INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. the interactive documentary Out My Window. Ricardo Sternberg. it is important to analyze how the characteristics of digital storytelling work together in order to create meaning through new narratives. Interactivity and participation change the way in which a story is told and received. Regina Cunha. Cecília Queiroz. two elements of our communication ecosystem converge: the growing interest in non-fiction digital narratives from both crea- . by Katerina Cizek. In order to delve deeper into this field. The Towers in the World. Recent documentary projects show how new ways of telling stories involve new ways of relating meaning and form. Eds. audiovisual narratives. These days. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). Therefore. interactive documentaries. many-media collaborative documentary experiment that has generated many projects. a multi-year. social and political level in a globalized context. IE School of Communication. Hudson Moura. multiple platforms. including mixed media. and Martin Zeilinger.edu     Suggested citation: González-Cuesta. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference.

it seems. 138) Highrise and Out My Window: a brief description Along these lines. Some of the questions that arise in this context include the following: What is the process and what are the consequences of meaning-making in digital narratives? Does it have to do with a different way of relating meaning and form? Is it connected to the use of multiple platforms? In what ways? Does it allow a strong interaction and engagement from the side of the viewer? Is interactivity changing the way a story is told and received. but new elements are added into the mix.” (p. […] Documentary has always had an experimental dimension with first filmmakers and now digital documentary makers adopting and adapting emerging technologies and generating new documentary forms. The challenge therefore lies in playing with those layers to create a richer meaning. and doing it by creating audiovisual works in which . digital media are giving us great opportunities to rethink the notion of narrative. 1) Innovation is one of the key words related to this kind of documentary. use of multiple media. such us interactivity. (Nash. 2014. Highrise. allows creators to develop innovative ways to represent reality – innovations that in some cases have to do with a deeper and richer approach to the topics. new ways of capturing the social-historical. the transmedia dimension in some cases. explain. in participatory interactive documentaries meaning is shared and layered: there is the meaning of the individual clips (not controlled by the interactive documentary author). the digital media ecosystem. persuade and advocate. Sandra Gaudenzi (2014) says: While in linear documentaries meaning was created by framing shots and editing them together. In most of the cases of digital media narrations. I decided to analyze a very interesting project. I consider this work extremely stimulating for the following reasons: it explores new ways of telling stories in an interactive. report. practitioners are. This new environment. But it is also an impulse that is constantly seeking new   González‐Cuesta – 62  avenues. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      tors and consumers and the enormous impact digital media has on the way stories are told and received. etc. while avoiding the trap of internal contradictions. it deepens into the life at the margins. by Katerina Cizek. Digital media make it possible to move from a conventional storytelling medium to other avenues that allow open stories to be told. thinking about some dimensions of reality. it is important not to forget that the bases of documentary creation remain and are still present in new projects.Interactive Narratives. still driven to preserve. as expressed here: The documentary impulse has a long history. Moving more specifically into interactive documentaries or web documentaries. digital and collaborative way. while jumps between videos). the traditional basis of storytelling remains. but taking different shapes. and all this is done by exploring new ways of searching for meaning. p. the meaning of the interface (normally conceived by the author) and the meaning of the browsing (the narrative route and associations generated by the user. & Summerhayes. And it is especially significant in the way meaning is created in interactive documentaries. exploring how human life in these spaces is richer than some stereotypes could suggest. Hight. maintaining the basics of narratives while also including other aspects that enrich and deepen storytelling innovation. therefore changing its nature as a narrative? Does it generate a different notion of authorship? What are the consequences in terms of meaning-making? In brief. show. or ‘treating’ actuality and new ways of connecting with an audience.

Interactive Narratives, New Media & Social Engagement 2014 
 
 
the most radical relationship between content
and form is essential.
I will start by describing this work and its
context. Highrise is a documentary project directed by Katerina Cizek, at the National Film
Board of Canada. In fact it’s a multi-year,
many-media
collaborative
documentary
experiment that has generated many projects,
including mixed media, interactive documentaries, mobile productions, live presentations,
installations and films. All these experimental
projects are available on a common website:
http://highrise.nfb.ca. Each sub-project has a
meaning of its own and can be experienced
independently from the others, but all together
they form a rich, diverse, complex, and
orchestrated approach to vertical living in the
contemporary world. All of them approach a
common topic: what is human life like in
residential highrise buildings.
Highrise was launched in 2009 and now
includes
the
following
projects:
The
Thousandth Tower, Out My Window, One
Millionth Tower, A Short History of the
Highrise (in partnership with The New York
Times), and the director’s blog.
I will focus my analysis on the web
documentary Out My Window, produced in
2010. It also took the form of an interactive
exhibition. The previous and first project, The
Thousandth Tower, was focused on the city of
Toronto. In this second project, Cizek wanted
to explore vertical living around the world. She
didn’t want to approach the life in big cities,
famous for their highrise buildings such as
New York, Tokyo or Paris, but decided to look
into the medium cities and their suburbs. Using social media, she found 13 subjects in
different countries in the world, interested in
sharing their experiences and lives through
this digital documentary. The work was shot in
Chicago, Toronto, Montreal, Havana, Sao
Paulo, Amsterdam, Prague, Istanbul, Beirut,
Bangalore, Phnom Penh, Tainan, and
Johannesburg.
Out My Window received the inaugural
IDFA DocLab Award for Digital Storytelling. In

 

González‐Cuesta – 63 

April 2011, it was awarded with the International Digital Emmy Award in the category of
digital program: non-fiction. In April 2011, the
web documentary was nominated for a Webby
Award for Best Use of Photography in the
Websites category. On May 10, 2011, Out My
Window received the New Media Award at the
One World Media Awards.
This is a snapshot of the main interface
of Out My Window (see Figure 1). The work is
described on the website as follows:
One Highrise. Every view a different city.
This is Out My Window – one of the
world’s
first
interactive
3600
documentaries – about exploring the
state of our urban planet told by people
who look out on the world from highrise
windows.
It’s a journey around the globe
through the most commonly built form of
the last century: the concrete-slab
residential tower. Meet remarkable highrise residents who harness the human
spirit – and the power of community – to
resurrect meaning amid the ruins of
modernism.
With more than 90 minutes of material to explore, Out My Window features
49 stories from 13 cities, told in 13 languages, accompanied by a leading-edge
music
playlist.
(OMW
Website,
http://interactive.nfb.ca/#/outmywindow)
Representation, meaning making and
marginal realities
The most relevant questions raised by Highrise have to do with the concept of representation and its consequences on meaning
making, in this case about marginal realities.
The project raises some questions that directly
touch one of the most relevant aspects of our
contemporary cultures.
I will develop now some ideas about
what audiovisual works can do in today’s media ecosystem to understand human life by
representing in a particular way marginal realities with the goal of thinking about them and
having a real impact on individuals and socie-

Interactive Narratives, New Media & Social Engagement 2014 
 
 
ties. Afterwards I will go into some details of
Cizek’s conception of documentary, relating
these general ideas to the reflections and
objectives she has expressed as being the
basis of her creative endeavor.
A crucial issue nowadays is the role of
images in the construction of our worldview. In
this paper I am taking into consideration a
topic that has to be confronted, both from the
academic and from the creative world. In order
to build our present and our future as citizens
involved in the creation of our culture, we need
to think about reality as something that we
"imagine" in the most radical sense of the
word: reality as something that somehow is
built when images about it are created. And I
think we have to make a joint reflection
between academics and creators, putting together and crossing these two possible approaches to the complex and fascinating fact
of generating images of reality in order to think
about it.
The audiovisual media are increasingly
influencing our contemporary society; this is
one of the key ideas that lies at the heart of
the reflection raised by this conference. Language allows us to know and understand the
world, creating culture; and the language of
the 21st century is audiovisual, digital and
multimedia. The way we communicate, think,
and build our representations of reality involves the creation of audiovisual and digital
works. It is therefore essential to know in
depth the language and the culture that is
generated, to learn how to read and write
these images.
In a changing and complex world such
as ours, it is necessary to know how to think,
analyze,
address
reality
in
multiple
dimensions, and understand and manage the
languages, including visual language. Going
deeper into the visual language, our
understanding of reality will grow and, therefore, our skills for analysis, interaction, flexibility, creativity, aesthetic awareness, engagement, and critical thinking will be developed.
We are not just in possession of some new

 

González‐Cuesta – 64 

tools, but those tools are generating new
languages, new messages, new ways to receive those messages, and new forms of influence.
In this context, a discussion about the
consistency of these visual representations of
reality is necessary. We face the longstanding dichotomy: are images a means for
knowledge or a sham that anesthetizes our
senses? We have to approach critically the
forms of representation of reality. Obviously,
we are far from believing that realism is like
that image of the "mirror that strolls along the
way." We know about the need of "building
visual elements" so that realism becomes
significant. Thus, it appears necessary to stop
and think about the images and focus on the
images that “think.”
It is necessary to reflect on the ways of
developing deep thoughts in contemporary art.
Jean-Luc Godard coined – and often used to
refer to the cinema – the expression "a form
that thinks." Any form of art can be a device
that serves as the means for thought. I am
suggesting an approach to contemporary
poetics in different areas of creation, conceived as ways in which thought is materialized, therefore considering artistic work as an
epistemological and hermeneutic way to create meaning. The best contemporary art is set
up as a place for re-creation of the sense of
reality, as a gateway to the real in depth.
Our analytic perspective therefore focuses on studying the audiovisual creations in
which the search for meaning is in their heart.
In this regard, it is crucial to note that the
reflective audiovisual thinks through its own
materials; it doesn’t illustrates with images a
previously constructed thought. The audiovisual thought generates a reflective process in
the images and the sounds; the hermeneutical
dimension lies in the heart of the work
(González Cuesta, 2006).
To consider the image as a window to
the world, as a place of transparency, would
be an extremely naïve conception. From the

Interactive Narratives, New Media & Social Engagement 2014 
 
 
parameters of contemporary thought, we consider more appropriate an approach to the image from a certain opacity: the image is not a
space of safe transition to a reality which is
given us to see, and no more. We have to
stop in front of the image and, looking closely,
we will find its meanings, with an in-depth
approach to the real. I refer to this in regard to
a reflection by Josep Maria Català on "the
complex image," the image conceived as a
space in which reality is revealed phenomenologically and hermeneutically deepens its
meaning – an image that builds knowledge,
that leaves behind the "epistemology of reflection" to address the "epistemology of inquiry:"
The ‘complex image’ breaks the mimetic
link that images traditionally had with
reality and replaces it with a hermeneutical link: instead of an epistemology of
reflection, an epistemology of inquiry is
proposed. Images no longer passively
reflect the real, but go after it […] It
doesn’t mean that images are a simple
tool to build the real, but indicates that
reality, in order to be really significant
must be uncovered and that the complex
visualization is an effective way to do it.
(Català, 2005: 642-643)
It is, therefore, necessary to analyze
creative thinking in the audiovisual work. The
real image that seeks to be a creative-thinking
image does not merely reflect reality as if it
were a mirror image. As Català says, to show
something is not necessarily to help to understand that reality. In order to make meaning
out of the images, something has to be done:
It is not about producing a copy of reality, neither about showing what remains
after the surrender of copying it, but to
reveal through the visible a hidden
dimension of reality: in the paintings of
Bacon, the world is reborn through
forms. (Català, 2005: 37)
One of the most important debates today is about the role of images in the
construction of our world. In a context in which

 

González‐Cuesta – 65 

the saturation of images is growing, we can
reach the paradoxical situation in which images don’t let us see, don’t let us look into
what we need to know. In the era of proliferation of television channels, mobile phones and
screens to access any image, in the world of
YouTube, of security cameras that record
everything, of the desire to transform into banal images any facet of existence, of teenagers recording the beatings they give to their
school mates to have a moment of "glory" on
the Internet, of the time when we seem to get
used to seeing landscapes of desolation and
broken bodies by violence – it is necessary to
consider this issue. The most complex dimensions of reality are often left without a
representation that addresses its complexity.
Such images, rather than making meaning about reality, are denying visibility to
deeper realities. We should reflect on the
ethics of the missing images. Against this, the
creative images can be effective tools to foster
a dialogue on these realities, beyond the
monologue generated by the mass media;
creative realities can critically challenge the
hegemonic and dominant images.
Nowadays, new modes of realism in image creation are emerging, involving new
ways of engaging with reality. Following the
issues raised by Ángel Quintana (2003), beyond the easy and sentimental speeches, beyond the "shy realism" that works only on the
mimetic dimension of images, some works
address a "strong realism" or "critical realism,”
the construction of an ethical perspective on
the issues in need of it.
In short, I consider necessary the study
of contemporary image-thoughts that work on
margins. It is about knowing how to formally
construct these image-thoughts and why to
generate reflections on those marginal situations. It is important to address one of the
great debates in our culture: the role of images as a cultural construction. Sometimes
the more complex layers of reality are left outof-frame, relegated as nonexistent by the media. It is more and more necessary to reflect

Interactive Narratives, New Media & Social Engagement 2014 
 
 
on the representation of margins. We need to
think about what realities are left aside by the
hegemonic representations, what marginal
realities are addressed by the image-thoughts
and how they are constructed to provide support for reflection, and finally how imagethought is a way of critically challenging the
status quo. There’s a need to consider the
ethics and poetics of the representations of
the conflicts generated in the margins of reality.
The margins, the borders, the thresholds, the limits have to be addressed. The
framework of the concept of “border” or “limit”
in our analysis rests on a philosophical
foundation, a theoretical basis that I consider
extremely firm yet disturbing: the philosophy of
the limit of the great Spanish philosopher
Eugenio Trías, especially and essentially his
conception of humans as beings that live on
the border, and his understanding of creation
as a symbolic space where the richer ways of
living takes place on the frontier. Particularly
relevant is his work Los límites del mundo,
(1985, Barcelona: Destino).
Reflections about representation, meaning
making and marginal realities regarding
Out My Window
I already said that the most relevant questions
raised by Highrise have to do with the concept
of representation and its consequences on
meaning making, in this case about marginal
realities. And it is also important to underline
the idea that this project touches some of the
most relevant aspects of our contemporary
cultures: representation, search for meaning,
margins.
The main interface of Out My Window
could work as a perfect metaphor of the ideas
I have been developing so far. By approaching
a two-dimensional representation of a building, we can go further and enter into a whole
and diverse life that is behind. The interface
works as the threshold through which reality in
its complexity can be reached. “On the outside, they all look the same. But inside these

 

González‐Cuesta – 66 

towers of concrete and glass, people create
community, art and meaning” (OMW website).
This is how it works if we think about this
project from our perspective, the users’ point
of view. But, at the same time, and maybe
more importantly, by designing this interface
Cizek is placing the focus on the other side:
the eyes of the inhabitants of those spaces.
Their homes “are represented” and they look
at the world from those spaces. “What do people see out their own windows? I didn’t want to
just look into people’s homes; I wanted to
work with residents to see their experiences
from their point-of-view. Their windows onto
the world” (OMW website). The interactive dimension of this work, helps to mirror the different points of view when approaching how life
is at the highrise buildings around the world.
An important source for understanding
the reach and depth of this project can be
found in the texts created by Cizek and presented on the website of Highrise, and more
specifically on the website of Out My Window.
The explanations developed by Cizek on the
website, reveal the broad scope of the theory
of documentary implied in Out My Window.
Some of the general ideas I expressed about
contemporary audiovisual creation relate to
the reflections and objectives expressed by
Cizek as being the basis of her creative enterprise.
“The idea was simple: to build a virtual
highrise, with each floor housing a different
global city. But the process behind the idea
was a fusion of many conversations I had
been having with our technological, creative
and editorial teams,” says Cizek on the website about the interface design. And the way to
express this idea touches upon another relevant aspect of this work: the intention of
having conversations with different groups in
order to develop a deep reflection about this
reality. Conversations were held at many
different levels and collectives: conversations
with the people living in the highrise buildings,
academic conversations, conversations about

133). She is the facilitator. My naïve understanding of suburbs – a retreat for the middle classes – was a simplistic. our eyes have to turn to look into those marginal spaces. 174-178). 2014. Cizek maintains the idea of coordinating the construction of this text. envisioning the representation of reality as a way to understand and change the world. and as such she maintains the authorship of navigation. both culturally. because they are not that marginal for understanding contemporary societies. the edges of our cities. When I asked Katerina Cizek her views on UGC she replied ‘I am not interested in UGC. and that’s where the most exciting. (Gaudenzi 2014. In this case the focus of attention is placed on a growing model of living: “It’s a new species of urban. outdated stereotype. By doing that. p. What she opens to collaboration is the voice given to the subject.Interactive Narratives. 223) In the description of this work. economically. pp. representation moves from be- . Cizek’s vision is “to see how the documentary process can drive and participate in social innovation rather than just to document   González‐Cuesta – 67  it. yet are often invisible to the drive-byeye. (OMW website) I pointed out how crucial for making a thoughtful representation it is to work together on the formal and content aspects of a project. of orchestrating the conversation. and thus is also at the core of the ethical dilemma inherent to documentary practice (Cizek 2005. She accepts subject-producers. it is subject generated. The participatory aspect lies at the core of this work. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      documentary. The urban peripheries both horizontal and vertical are places overflowing with humanity. problematic. but it is in line with the best documentary tradition. Yet we really have no clue about how these places work. p.” (Hight. the best way to find the meaning of human life and the sense of living in community amid today’s confusion is to approach real stories of people living their lives in an actual search for meaning. at the same time.” The goal is ambitious. The world’s cities are actually growing fastest at their edges. as Sandra Gaudenzi explains after interviewing Cizek: The material is not even user generated. Many different options can be taken regarding authorship in interactive documentaries. to the closed mind. which she considers as a type of content. At the fringes. politically. and because some of the most interesting things are happening there: […] in order to understand urbanization – and that means to understand the planet because we are now living on an urban planet – we need to understand the peripheries. (CollabDocs) One of the main objectives of the project is to challenge our perceptions of urban experience. p141) There is an ethical perspective in understanding participation and authorship in this way. in other words. In this case. but actively interpreting it for an audience (Oldham 1992. The margins. The suburbs” (OMW website). at all levels. complicated things are happening. It seems that for her. Cizek explains: It also made me rethink where urban ‘culture and politics’ reside. we can find the following statement: “Meet remarkable highrise residents who harness the human spirit – and the power of community – to resurrect meaning amid the ruins of modernism” (OMW website). and conversations with the new media world. is not simply about representing a reality. I want to maintain an authorial role’. And for Cizek. And it is explicitly mentioned on the website that this phenomenon is overlooked by politicians and the media. And. As Craig Hight says about interactive documentaries: “Editing. and to help re-invent what it means to be an urban species in the 21st century.

and the search for spiritual meaning. Leaving room for interpretation. It is not about the financial capital in the downtown core. Many seams. the private. for the unspoken. migration. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      ing a mirror of reality to being a light that makes clearer and deeper what we are looking into. of experience. the stories accumulate into epic narratives about globalization. poverty. environmentalism. and sew it together for yourself as you listen. the personal. We would create collages. Small tales that. and for the search for meaning amid the concrete.Interactive Narratives. gently. In that respect. I will reproduce here this sentence by Katerina Cizek that perfectly summarizes the spirit of Out My Window: To be human in this century is – more than ever before – to be urban. overlappings. It was important to find the best way to tell how life is in the highrise buildings around the world: The fragmented. Together. But only if you search between the seams. doublings. the unsaid. reclamation. (OMW website). Cizek’s statement. (OMW website)   González‐Cuesta – 68  .” is especially meaningful. Snippets. It is to our peripheries that we must look for the neglected pressing needs of the most vulnerable. for the inspiration to change. “Out My Window is a documentary that finds its form from the content and vice versa. […]. non-linear stories of Out My Window reflect the way we tell our stories. for stark economic injustices. as they add up. To conclude. create a collage of meaning. Pieces. subtly. And yet we have such meagre understanding of what that really signifies.

 Kate.Interactive Narratives.com/interviews‐ resources/kat‐cizek‐on‐highrise/ (last visit 9/15  2014). Barcelona:  Destino. Josep M.) (2014). pp. New Documentary Ecologies  (Emerging Platforms.    References    http://highrise.  Hight. La imagen compleja. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      González‐Cuesta – 69  Figures    Figure 1: A snapshot of the main interface of Out My Window. “Strategies of Participation: The  who. “El cine como forma  que piensa: La Morte Rouge de Víctor Erice”. Eugenio (1985). Ángel (2003). (2005).  .  Palgrave Macmillan.  González‐Cuesta. Craig and Summerhayes. Hightt. Share: Cultural Software and  User‐Generated Documentary Practice” in Nass.  Nass.) (2014). Catherine  (eds. Barcelona: El  Acantilado. Craig. Practices and Discourses).  http://collabdocs.ca  Catala. Begoña. Catherine  (eds. Fábulas de lo visible. What and When of Collaborative  Documentaries” in Nass. Edit. Craig and Summerhayes.  Barcelona: Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona. Hightt.    Quintana. New  Documentary Ecologies (Emerging Platforms. Palgrave Macmillan.  Trias.  Kate. Catherine (eds.nfb. Hightt. El cine  como creador de realidades. Sandra. (2006).  CollabDocs interview to Katerina Cizek.) (2014). “Shoot. Craig and  Summerhayes. Kate. Cuadernos de investigación. Practices and Discourses).  Practices and Discourses).  187‐214. New Documentary Ecologies      (Emerging Platforms. Los límites del mundo.  Palgrave Macmillan.  Oppidum.  Gaudenzi.wordpress. nº 2.

By looking at the current history of narrative clusters and representational structures. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). Simultaneity: Notes on Epistemological Structures. 2014 | University of  ronto |IS N: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    NONLINEARITY.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  to r 23‐25. Flusser and his publisher created a digital version of his book Die Schrift on floppy disk (1987). In this epistemological shift. enabling the reader to jump between chapters or to rewrite the text. MULTILINEARITY. Nonlinearity is discussed by Vilém Flusser in the context of “technical images. “Nonlinearity. Florian and Daniel Irrgang (2014). transcending linearity through topographical ways of reading.udk‐berlin. .de   Daniel Irrgang. Berlin  flohadler@udk‐berlin.’ Introduction Linearity used to be an apriority of narratives. Eds. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. Abstract: This paper addresses three paradigms in epistemological structures that could serve as preliminary classifications enabling a systematic approach to past and current media phenomena such as hypertext. Hudson Moura. who uses diagrammatics to blur the lines between the reader and the author. University of Arts. Each of these epistemological structures offers a different idea about receiving and creating knowledge. Berlin  irrgang@medienhaus. paving the way for narrative and media strategies that are more and more determined by a ‘reader’ becoming a ‘user’ and a ‘text’ becoming a ‘service. Ricardo Sternberg. Multilinearity. one can easily recognize the im- portance of linearity as an epistemological concept of perception.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. Current examples can be found in arts and narratives such as Chris Ware’s comics. the information is instantaneously organized according to the user’s needs.”
 In his own approach to go beyond linear text. and Martin Zeilinger.de     Suggested citation: Hadler. diagrams and ubiquitous computing. information and communication. SIMULTANEITY: NOTES ON  EPISTEMOLOGICAL STRUCTURES  Florian Hadler.
 Multilinearity is a concept that is revived within the diagrammatology discourse. and draws heavily on Heideggerian concepts such as readiness-tohand and background. Cecília Queiroz. either as negative or positive precondition for any form of text. University of Arts. But the reference point of linearity loses its epistemological impact regarding the instantaneous. Regina Cunha. immediate display of data as seen in apps and services that deploy dashboards and cockpit-like interfaces. Simultaneity as a technological attribute is essential to current ubiquitous and pervasive technologies and services.

These euphoric. and its broader implications for society (e. 2011). Flusser identifies a fundamental shift of these existential preconditions in the rise of the “technical images” at the beginning of the 20th century. Zielinski 2002.g. process. the linear structure of writing “shapes” the human way of thinking. much like this occurred previously with non. Examples. the discourses on informatization and global computer networks – evolving since the 1970s – are particularly interesting.. In fact. In a historical approach similar to Marshall McLuhan‘s media-historical investigations. structure. But in contrast to McLuhan. society. to become linear processes. since it combines these aspects in a non-trivial interrelation. Weigel.g. & Shneiderman. a tradition reaching back to scholastic hermeneutics (cf. These discourses do not only involve technological and sociological topics. 1985).Interactive Narratives. etc. but also epistemological and philosophical implications with reference to structure and representation of knowledge beyond discursive textual forms. Flusser identifies a interdependence between human cognition. reasoning. and communicate knowledge in ways not determined by a “linearity” of writing. The Czech cultural philosopher developed a media theory exploring the implications of evolving telematics and computer generated visualization (Flusser. 1985. and technological (especially medial) inventions.. In contrast to traditional images. Nonlinearity When it comes to the concept of nonlinearity in contexts of representational/medial and epistemological structures. It does so not only due to its preservation of information. Vilém Flusser‘s late work is particularly interesting. However. these images are generated by a technical apparatus such as the photo camera. just as McLuhan. the linear structure of the concept of time might be the most significant effect. it is symptomatic for the emergence of groundbreaking new (media) technologies that they inspire hopes about   Hadler and Irrgang – 71  their potential for changing society. attempts to develop a taxonomia universalis. they can provide inspiring ideas for a possible future of how we share and develop our knowledge. It is a period in which the way of development and its possibilities are not yet determined (cf. such as hypertext (Nelson 1984 [1974]).and multilinear narrative strategies. Lyotard. 1987). Card. Flusser. among others. linearity as the reference point for the perception of content has been transcended.g. The advantage of such speculations is that they take place in an early adoption period of these technologies before they become standardized by economic/strategic requirements. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      With big data and real time analysis. 1983). books) due to telematics – a neologism (telecommunication & informatics) coined by Simon Nora and Alain Minc (1978) in their governmental study L'informatisation de la société – led to a renaissance of concepts on how to collect. Among influential writings of these times discussing new forms of knowledge structures. and with the arrival of simultaneity in everyday life. information visualization (e. 2003. declared the end of writing as the dominant discursive and medial form... Similarly to McLuhan. Nevertheless. Mackinlay. the liberation of knowledge from its printed boundaries (e. the computer. arguing. 2009. rather. partly utopian discourses might in some aspects appear naive to today’s reader. Even though concepts of alternative representations for displaying and gaining knowledge have a far longer tradition in the history of science: approaches to transcending “linear“ written text can be identified already in early modern or even medieval times. are taxonomic diagrams. But the . Flusser emphasizes the impact of linearity of written text: the invention of the alphabet enabled historical thinking beyond myth and modern science in its discursive form (Flusser. Schmidt-Biggemann. 1979). 1999). or more advanced. Siegel.

further. and the possibility to actively change parts of the text by the reader – or user. technical images do not represent objects – they “project” concepts. 1989a). which were supposed to   Hadler and Irrgang – 72  be transformed into video images (Flusser. by a digital version of his book Die Schrift (Flusser. In contrast. and finally. This is more like an active accessing of the cross-connections among the available elements of information. experimenting with “scientific fiction” in collaboration with the French artist Louis Bec. The floppy disk version of Die Schrift does not only provide its text in a digital form. and thereby create something new. rather than representing existing things (for Flusser. thinking. writing is currently transcended by operating. Thanks to a collaboration between the Vilém Flusser Archive at the Berlin University of the Arts and the University of Freiburg’s Department of Computer Science. Flusser tried to transcend these linear boundaries by. without dialogic possibilities. In Flusser’s analyses. where thinking “in probabilities” instead of linear causalities is required (Flusser. In the case of telematics. a thinking associated with images becomes possible. the hypertext was built in collaboration with Flusser. However. The team at ITAS was influenced by Flusser’s Die Schrift (cf. full text search.org). Based on his lecture “Schreiben für Publizieren” [writing for publishing] (cf. distributed on two 5. developed in the context of a research project on electronic books at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) at the beginning of the 90s. 1985). but a projected concept determined by conditions of the photographic apparatus and decisions made by the photographer). This has radical effects on our forma mentis: linearity is going to be replaced by new ways of thinking. It is the reader himself . 1989b). Flusser. Flusser discusses a new kind of reader who is actively linking information – without referring to the term “hypertext”: The future reader sits in front of the screen to call up the stored information. the electronic book can be experienced online as an emulation (www. but also enables direct navigation to selected chapters. He developed this idea as a utopian concept of “telematic society” (Flusser. beyond discourses of cause and effect. According to an interview about his last publications (Flusser.flusser-archive.Interactive Narratives. Here. Instead. was a man of letters. 1985). 1989c). by publishing a collection of essays as pre-texts. for creating them together with other people. but at the time it was an exciting way to experience a book – and to bypass its linear structure. also a photography is not a representation. mass media is an effect of the linear condition: a sender is discursively sending Information to receivers. first of all. Flusser found himself in a paradoxical position. 1987). An author who did not even use a computer to write his texts. reflecting the chaotic reality of the world we live in. Another project Flusser was involved in is the “Flusser Hypertext“. According to Flusser. additional information. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      epistemological implications are more important than the technical conditions. 1989d).25” floppy disks – which is particularly interesting since it could be described as an ebook before the ebook. artifacts such as the telephone or networked computers enable dialogues between individuals. Flusser. This is no longer a passive taking in (pecking) of information fragments along a prewritten line. This Flusserian paradigm change is significantly supported by shifts in media landscape. and communicating through technical images. Flusser saw a possibility for exchanging technical images. Wingert. in a chapter on computer-based reading. For Flusser. who claimed the end of writing. He. The interface (see Figures 1 to 4) does not look spectacular compared with today’s standards. who created speculative images (cf. They “make concrete” abstract models. 1996).

Interactive Narratives. Thanks to the abovementioned collaboration. but as soon as the visuals are not perceivable with just one look. The hypertext is built as a “T-structure”: the “horizontal” level contains Flusser’s lecture. the transcribed text. But also in cases of more complex hypertexts. The pages are organized in reference to classical file cards (see Figure 5).“  .  […] Sie erlauben den ‚Lesern‘ von Hypertexten eine freie  Navigation in komplexen Netzwerken. utilizing the concept of overlapping windows (cf.” built on Apple’s authoring system HyperCard. The user can navigate through the horizontal level by clicking the numbered tabs. At any time. and even if other media is involved (cf. 153) The researchers at ITAS used Flusser’s lecture as content for the “Flusser Hypertext Prototype 2. (Flusser.org. The structure and interface of this hypertext are particularly interesting. 6). Nevertheless. the                                                          1 „Ein nicht‐lineares Medium zwischen Buch und Wissensbank. http://bw-fla. In the following years. This is why we would like to suggest the term multilinearity – with all its implications – instead of nonlinearity when it comes to analyzing hypertext and similar phenomenons. and space for annotations. a linear dimension is unveiled by the exploring user while he “threads” its content to a line. the notions of hypertext and nonlinearity became deeply interweaved. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      who actually produces the intended information from the stored information elements. the researchers tried to provide an overview in order to counteract the “lost-in-hyperspace” effect. the number of the squares indicates the number of levels. It contains the audio recordings of the lecture.de). Looking at pictures.flusser-archive. the Flusser Hypertext is available online as an emulation (www. which relies heavily on visuality. “hypermedia”). Multilinearity As it turns out. 1993). as an artifact of these times it provides enlightening insights into the optimistic attitude towards this seemingly “nonlinear” new medium.com). p. the “vertical” levels the additional. the user is able to return to this “apollonic” view – the rational. simultaneously listening to the audio recordings. see also xanadu.   Hadler and Irrgang – 73  The Flusser Hypertext could not be completed. Browsing to the vertical levels is possible by clicking the small squares attached to every linked word. 1991. We will come back to this apollinic promise of the topological in the context of discussing diagrams. Rayward.uni-freiburg. This very fact is reflected in the notion of multilinearity. But even though the Flusser Hypertext’s structure is determined by a logic of file cards – the groundbreaking paper technology for arranging information (cf. further information Flusser implied during his lecture (including images). and reached only prototype stage. p. giving the impression of loosely joined information bits. the hypertext unveils its linear structures as soon as it is used: the horizontal and vertical “T-structure” of the Flusser Hypertext makes it easy to identify this linearity. as the critical number of overlapping windows indicates). Kay. 2011. nonlinearity is defined as “free navigation in complex networks”1 (Kuhlen. controlled perspective (Nietzsche) – to regain orientation (even though the orientation has its limits. even nonlinear representational structures tend to be linear after all. one does not follow a predefined linearity. relating to the “desktop metaphor” in order to provide orientation by referencing the physical world. Through the element’s topological arrangement. 1984 [1974]. 1975). This attitude was still influenced by Theodor Holm Nelson’s original hypertext concept dating back to the 70s (Nelson. The German standard book Hypertext by Rainer Kuhlen (1991) describes its subject as “a nonlinear medium between book and knowledge database” – here. The main menu (see Figure 6) is unusual: the hypertext’s sections are displayed as a map. deeper information.

Interactive Narratives, New Media & Social Engagement 2014 
 
 
gaze becomes linear, tracing view-lines on the
picture, creating connections, following axes
and perspectives, even gazes from figures
portrayed.
These mechanisms can be seen in
current examples we already touched upon,
like the hypertext, but they also predate the
electronic age considerably. They apply
especially to visual storytelling, from earliest
examples of cave inscriptions to panel paintings and picture stories such as comic strips.
Most of these arrange their pictorial elements
in a linear order, but this order cannot be
sustained throughout the reading. It is instead
dissolved into multilinear dimensions, enabling
the reader to switch back and forth, looking at
both the overall layout and the single
elements, following one’s own path throughout
the narrative, lingering through space and time
of the text or story. This practice becomes
eminent especially in diagrams that are
depicting circumstances both at once and in
detail.
Studies on diagrammatic aspects have
become popular in the humanities. In the context of the rising interest on images as
subjects of research (trying to overcome the
scriptocentrism of the linguistic turn), diagrams
– strange hybrids between text and image –
promise an “operational iconicity” (Stjernfelt,
2007; Krämer, 2009): they unveil an invisible
structure of their signified object (cf. Peirce,
1998). By manipulating the diagram, this
structural iconicity enables a speculative
experimentation with possible formations of
the represented object. When it comes to
intelligible objects (models, theories, etc.), a
diagram is more than a representation; it
constitutes its object by making it visible – a
recursive hermeneutic operation (see Figure
7).
One significant precondition of this
iconicity is
the diagram’s
topological
appearance.
Even
though
sentential
representation systems (writing, mathematical
notations, etc.) also have a topological, albeit
rather linear structure (written on a page, dis-

 

Hadler and Irrgang – 74 

played on a screen, etc.), the positioning and
orientation of diagram elements have specific
meanings: elements above might signify
greater importance, element groups might
signify similarity, and so on. This topological
apriority – enabling an apollinic overview –
can be an advantage of diagrams compared
to sentential representations (cf. Russel,
1988).
A similar interest in the diagrammatic
comes from cognitive science. Although the
referentiality of diagrams is also an important
aspect, these studies focus particularly on the
topological structure. One general assumption
is that visuo-spatial characteristics, enabling
spatial indexing (drawing conclusions from the
positioning of elements; cf. Larkin & Simon,
1987), can be more effective compared to
sentential representations when it comes to
fast information retrieval (cf. Cheng, Lowe, &
Scaife, 2001).
But even though this “simultaneity of the
overview” (Krämer, 2002, p. 117) is an essential aspect, the process of “reading” a diagram
takes place as temporal sequence (Cheng,
Lowe, & Scaife, 2001): after acquiring an overview and finding the element searched, one
needs to – multilinearly – trace its relations to
other elements in order to derive information
from the diagram.
Thereby, the often-claimed opposition of
sentential and diagrammatic representations
dissolves: writing, for instance, includes diagrammatic aspects, like its arrangement on a
surface (Krämer, 2009); diagrams, for instance, show linear structures as soon as they
are used. Hence, “the diagrammatic” and “the
sentential,” or the linear, appear to be rather
two poles of a scale within which
representational artifacts can be arranged
(Cheng, Lowe, & Scaife, 2001). It becomes
clear that diagrams are not per se “better”
than sentential representations; and neither is
multilinearity compared to linearity. In fact, it
depends on what cognitive effects should be
achieved (Larkin & Simon, 1987). Sentential
structures might be more appropriate, e. g., for

Interactive Narratives, New Media & Social Engagement 2014 
 
 
narrative formats where a storyline flow is important. And the simultaneity of diagrams
might be more helpful for fast information. But
in the end, it is a combination of both.
A certainly outstanding application of
multilinearity to narrative storytelling can be
seen in the works of Chris Ware, a Chicagobased comic author who is using a
diagrammatic approach to expand both time
and space, enabling the reader to develop the
narrative autonomously. In his most famous
Book, Jimmy Corrigan, the smartest Kid on
Earth, he uses several diagrams, the biggest
one being a foldout map from the interior of
the dust jacket. This map shows the storylines
of the protagonist, Jimmy, but also includes a
lot of information that is not included in the
book, such as the immigration of Jimmy’s
paternal great-great-grandfather and the
capture, transportation, and sale of Jimmy’s
stepsister Amy’s ancestors as slaves. This
diagram opens up a much larger stage and
historical perspective, contextualizing Jimmy’s
life within a long historical sequence of tragic
and lonely characters. It offers a perspective
that is usually reserved for third-person
narrators and enables much more immersion
and depth than a linear representation could
offer (see Figure 8).
In order to understand what is happening here, the reader needs to gather some
background information, and on top of that be
able to decipher this form of storytelling.
These skills are the topic of another diagram
on the first page of the book, where Ware
ironically tackles this “new pictorial language.”
According to Ware, this particular diagrammatic grammar is “good for showing
stuff” while “leaving out big words” (Ware
2000). The starting point of this diagram is one
single frame that is then dissolved into
different layers, explaining the mechanics and
conventions at use. So while offering an
explanation, it requires at the same time a
reader already conversant with its idiom of
symbols (see Figure 9).

 

Hadler and Irrgang – 75 

The diagram reveals the close relationship between comics and information design
by using a flat, simplified cartooning style,
where characters and objects resemble pictographs or ideograms (Cates 2010). The process of signification in this case is less a
matter of resembling the thing they represent,
and increasingly a matter of symbolic conventions. Cates points out that this “stylistic transparency” (Cates 2010, p. 98) approaches the
semiotic directness of language, and that both
comics and diagrams share iconic drawings
as their “natural vocabulary.” He argues that
“the diagrammatic potential of comics allows
the pictorial space of the page to pull away
from strict, camera-like storytelling into the
pictorial equivalent of synopsis, analysis, or
explanation” (Cates 2010, p. 100). These
modes of representation follow multilinear,
circular and recursive directions, which are
constantly produced by the reader and therefore provide multilinear narratives while relying
on icon-like symbols. Ware states that he aims
for drawings so simple that “when you see
them you can’t make yourself not read them”
(Raeburn 2004, p. 20). This instantaneous
recognition is the condition for the
simultaneous reading, for the instant sensemaking that is used for the interfaces of
contemporary apps and services.
Simultaneity
Simultaneity is not only the basic paradigm of
current tracking apps and services such as the
numerous self-quantification tools or web
analytics dashboards and metrics, but is the
precondition of general human-machine
interaction on a much broader scale. If one
expands the definition of narratives and of
media strategies towards connecting, supplying, and rendering information, then we can
look at current paradigms that dominate our
contemporary experience with information,
shifting from a linearity-based epistemology
towards an instantaneous simultaneity. But
what are the preconditions and predecessors
of this simultaneity, of this instant sensemaking?

Interactive Narratives, New Media & Social Engagement 2014 
 
 
With technological object cultures
becoming unreadable, even imperceptible, we
see an avoidance of the subject as an agent
of sense-making. Bot-based communication
has surpassed human generated traffic on the
Internet in 2013 (incapsula.com/blog/bottraffic-report-2013.html),
and
networked
computation no longer relies on the human
based, hermeneutic signification that was so
central for the epoch of scripture. The network
is literally and metaphorically at the core of the
information, the communication and the text,
connecting and reading, writing and recording
without the need for human interference. This
is well reflected in the paradigm formulated by
Winograd and Flores in 1986, paraphrased by
Hookway: “the user is ‘driving,’ not ‘commanding’” (Hookway 2014, p. 147). The best user
experience is rendered when the user is not
aware of himself as being the user of a program, but experiences himself as the one
performing a task without noticing the
mediation.
The digital technology in place has lost
its mechanical transparency, but kept its ability
to exert instant control. Hookway traces the
genealogy of these current interface
paradigms back to wartime aviation and pilot
plane systems developed during WWII and
thereafter: “Flight is and always has been a
mediated activity; even before the airplane
cockpit was identified as a distinct spatial
enclosure, the central problem of flight was
one of establishing the mediations that would
allow for the production of control” (Hookway
2014, p. 37). This production of control becomes particularly important when visibility is
impaired, and it is crucial to provide instant
essential information and feedback to the pilot.
And in order to be instantly readable, the interface uses diagrammatic representations as
simple as iconic drawings. The Kinalog
Display System, which was put to use in 1959,
indicated pitch and roll as relation of the wings
to an artificial horizon with a simple
diagrammatic relationship in order to create a

 

Hadler and Irrgang – 76 

maximum of compatibility between pilot and
cockpit (see Figure 10).
This paradigm of User Experience now
draws from the simulation of natural
interaction, from multimodal input and output
such as voice, gesture or touch, from instant
feedback, in order to achieve the greatest
compatibility between user and machine,
between reader and text. The Embodiment of
the cockpit transformed into Heideggerian
concepts such as readiness-to-hand and
presence-to-hand, with
the tacit and
subconscious control of the automobile as the
model for interface design (Winograd and
Fernando, 1986; see Figure 11).
In order to establish this unobtrusive
information and control, technology needed to
dissolve into the environment and become
invisible itself. The most effective, ubiquitous,
and pervasive computing therefore is seamlessly integrated into the ambience. The
theoretical underpinning of this development
again draws from Heideggerian concepts, formulated in 1991 by Mark Weiser, who is
considered to have coined the term
“ubiquitous computing“ and “calm technology“
as a chief scientist at Xerox Parc in the 1980s.
He and his co-authors write that the most profound technologies are the ones that
disappear, that integrate seamlessly into the
everyday life and are no longer distinguishable
from it. Whereas this idea remained more or
less speculation in the 1980s, it rapidly became reality with the development of sensors,
APIs and the so’called “Internet of Things,”
which is still in its very early stages. But one
can already see that technology becomes
background (Hintergrund), becomes a second,
artificial nature. With the rise of touch as the
main mode of input, the interaction becomes
instantaneous, natural and intuitive. And with
the adaption of cockpit-like interfaces, with the
usage of icons and small diagrams, of dashboards and live visualization of data,
technology even remains unobtrusive when it
is visible. The representation of one’s health,
of one’s sleep cycle, one’s athletic achieve-

which can be found at the core of webperformance analysis and optimization such as SEO (Search Engine Optimization) as well as the quantified self apps and services such as health trackers. status.Interactive Narratives. Iconic and diagrammatic representation enables a quick and intuitive understanding of the quantified data. the media itself becomes invisible. from temperature to ‘likes’ and engagement on social media. Simultaneity applies to the tools and tactics we have seen in the non. but is gathered from all kinds of sources. simultaneous visibility of the invisible.and multilinear strategies: speculative experimentation creates the represented object by making it visible with a recursive hermeneutic operation. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      ments and so forth with the numerous apps and services integrated into mobile devices is actually displaying data that has been invisible until now. page impressions and sales objectives. becomes backgroundable and dissolves into the environment. but data that deliver motives for actions and decisions. but needs additional consideration of the instant character of interaction that is required by the user. producing an apollinic overview and effective exertion of control. Real time data is no longer obtained from the mechanical devices it used to rely on in the cockpit of the pilot. But simultaneity adds another feature: it not only allows but demands instant interaction. Simultaneous media can no longer be understood with the concepts of linearity or multilinearity. By manufacturing this instant. as it no longer provides a text that requires just passive reading. tracking tools and other metrics. from sensors. body weight and sleep cycles to click-through-rates. activities from heart rate. quantifiying and measuring performance.   Hadler and Irrgang – 77  .

floppy disk edition.  Figures Figure 1: Welcome screen of Vilém Flusser. Hat Schreiben Zukunft?. Andreas Müller-Pohle. Die Schrift. . Copyright: European Photography. Figure 2: Main menu.

 New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Figure 3: Field for full text search. Figure 4: Full text view and content menu.Interactive Narratives.   Hadler and Irrgang – 79  .

Interactive Narratives. Copyright: ITAS. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Hadler and Irrgang – 80  Figure 5: Content card of the Flusser Hypertext (running on Mac OS9). Karlsruhe Institute of Technologie. including “horizontal” links (tabs) and vertical links (small squares attached to words of the text).   . Apple Inc. Figure 6: Flusser Hypertext main menu – a map with overlapping windows.

(Cambridge University Library. dar. MS 121.Interactive Narratives. The sketch’s branches explore a possible “structure” of the evolution of some species and the extinction of others. fol. 36. Notebook B. An attempt to grasp such a spatial and temporal highly abstract concept like evolution. also known as “Darwin’s corral”.)   . Reproduced by kind permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Hadler and Irrgang – 81  Figure 7: Charles Darwin’s “3rd diagram” (1837).

This Map not only conceals certain details within the story and life of the protagonist. such as his hidden comic collection and some glimpses inside the life of his grandfather.Interactive Narratives. 8: Chris Ware’s Diagram on the interior of the dust-jacket from Jimmy Corrigan. The Smartest Kid on Earth. displaying both the immigration.and slave-routes from the 18th and 19th century. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Hadler and Irrgang – 82  Fig. but also suggests a much deeper historical background of the story. Copyright: Chris Ware/Pantheon   .

9: Chris Ware’s Diagram on “graphic language”. that not only explains each single line shown in the mainframe. locates the drawing style between realistic representation and language and shows how sound and time are constructed within the panel. but also – among other things – situates the moment in the history of the cosmos. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Hadler and Irrgang – 83  Fig.Interactive Narratives. Copyright: Chris Ware/Pantheon   .

Interactive Narratives. Image taken from the patent „Advanced flight control instrumentation and control system US 2960906 A“. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Hadler and Irrgang – 84  Fig.   . which is essential for impaired visibility. conveying the orientation or attitude of the aircraft with respect to the earth. 10: The Kinalog Display System provides a state of augmentation to the pilot.

Readings in Information Visualization. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Hadler and Irrgang – 85  Fig.. Kuhlmann. Blackwell (ed. Drawing is a   way of Thinking. B. D. Thinking with diagrams (pp.. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. M. Comics and the Grammar of Diagrams.Interactive Narratives. Cates. 79-94).-H.. Jock D. Ball (eds. „Graphical Objects that respond to Touch or Motion Input. Isaac. (2001). Mike.). 11: This drawing is taken from a recently registered patent from Apple Inc. Peter C. & Shneiderman. Stuart K. & London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Lowe. Cognitive Science Approaches To Understanding Diagrammatic Representations.839. Cheng. US Patent No. & Scaife.. Ric K. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. Dordrecht. . The Comics of Chris Ware. Mackinlay.: 8. Using Vision to Think. In: M. (2010). and describes the simulation of physical characteristics for files and data. Files can be „poured“ like liquid from one device to the other. Boston. Ben.). In: A. (1999).150 B2“ References Card.

On Deep Time Relations of Arts. Schmidt-Biggemann. Vagueness. Göttingen: European Photography. Culture and Society. Eine Modellgeschichte humanistischer und barocker Wissenschaft. Paris: Éditions de Minuit. Alain. Kay. 2 (1895– 1913). Branden. Berlin: Oldenbourg Akademieverlag. 65-99. Cognitive Science. In: Theory. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. Topica universalis.1989. L’informatisation de la société : rapport à M. Michigan: self-published. English tranlation: see Flusser 2002. Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words. Tabula: Figuren der Ordnung um 1600. Eine Abhandlung samt Befund des Institut Scientifique de Recherche Paranaturaliste. (2009). & Simon. (1991). (2011). English translation: (2012). 26 (2-3). Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer. (1983). Bertrand. Larkin. Alan.). RFID: Human Agency and Meaning in Information-Intensive Environments. Vampyroteuthis infernalis. 28 (3). Cambridge / London: MIT Press. (2009). and Semiotics. Zielinski & E. Von der 'Grammatologie' zu einer 'Diagrammatologie'? Reflexionen über erkennendes 'Sehen‘. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. Sciences and Technologies in the Arabic-Islamic World and Beyond (pp. (1975). Moscow: VINITI. Ein nichtlineares Medium zwischen Buch und Wissensbank.   Lyotard. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. English translation see Flusser 1987. David. Raeburn. 1919–26 (pp. English translation: (1984). In J. Scrambling T-R-U-T-H – Rotating Letters as a Material Form of Thought. Transcript available at Vilém Flusser Archive. Louis. Kuhlen. Siegel. Hypertext. London & Boston: Unwin Hyman. Steffen.03. Boyd. Angenommen. (1989a).08. Variantology 4. G. (1979). (1987). Simon. Bielefeld: Transcript. broadcasted on SFB. (2010). Interviewed by Angelika Stepken. The Early History of Smalltalk. (2007). Slater (ed. 21. 147-154). Fürlus (ed. An Investigation on the Borderlines of Phenomenology. Göttingen: Immatrix Publications. The Work of Paul Otlet for Documentation and International Organisation. Paris: La Documentation française. Schreiben für Publizieren. Rainer. Jill H. Vilém. Vol. (1989b). Wilhelm. A Treatise. Peirce. (1993).1989. Nora. (1985). Does it have a future?. (2014). Daniel. 9: Essays on Language. Writing. Vilém. with a Report by the Institut Scientifique de Recherche Paranaturaliste. (2009). (1978). Zur Kritik der ikonischen Vernunft (pp. Edited by the Peirce Edition Project. Vilém. Theodor H. Logik des Bildlichen. New Haven: Yale University Press Rayward. ACM SIGPLAN Notices. Ins Universum der technischen Bilder. Ontology. Interface. Mersch (Hg. Diagrammatology. Göttingen: Immatrix Publications. Manuscript for a lecture hold at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology on 02.). W. (1984). Into the Universe of Technical Images. Die Schrift. Frederik. Russel. Sybille. (1989d). Vilém. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. The Postmodern Condition. In M.Interactive Narratives. Eine Szenenfolge. Jean-François. Cologne: Walther König. 69-95. Heßler & D. Katherine N. Vilém. Flusser. Mind and Matter. 11. Hamburg: Felix Meiner. Hookway. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. (2004). le Président de la République.). 94-122). . A. The Universe of Information. Nelson. Herbert. Chris Ware. 47 – 72. Monographics. & Minc. Vilém. Operative Bildlichkeit. 215-266).25” floppy disks]. Stjernfelt. Flusser. English tranlation: (2011). Krämer. Hat schreiben Zukunft? [Also available as digital book on two 5. Flusser. Vilém & Bec. (1989c). (1988). Flusser. Hayles. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Hadler and Irrgang – 86  Flusser. Link. document number 2640. Göttingen: Immatrix Publications. Charles S. The Essential Peirce: Selected Philosophical Writings Vol. Computer Lib: You can and must understand computers now / Dream Machines [1974]. Vilém Flusser Archive. La Condition postmoderne : rapport sur le savoir. The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell. Flusser. In S. (1987). Flusser. Vampyroteuthis Infernalis. (1998).

Literatur im Informationszeitalter (pp. 2014]. Fernando. 185-218). The Origins of Ubiquitous Computing Research at PARC in the late 1980s. Gold. Terry and Flores. Minnesota: Univocal Publishing. Zielinski.educ.   Hadler and Irrgang – 87  . Ware. Zielinski. John S. 693 – 696. (1996). (2011). & New York: Campus. Kittler (ed. Deep Time of the Media – Towards an Archaeology of Hearing and Seeing by Technical Means. Reinbek: Rowohlt. (2000). Bernd. Rich & Brown.pt/hyper/resources/sweigel [September 1.ul. Cambridge MA & London: MIT Press. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Dordrecht. Weiser. [… After the Media. Understanding Computers and Cognition: A New Foundation for Design. & New York: Springer. (2003). (1999).. Kann man Hypertexte lesen?. Nachrichten vom ausgehenden zwanzigsten Jahrhundert. Siegfried. Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing. Winograd.). [.fc. Genealogy – On the iconography and rhetorics of an epistemological topos. Archäologie der Medien. English translation: (2006). Heidelberg. nach den Medien]. (2002). (1986). News from the Slow-Fading Twentieth Century. Wingert. Sigrid. Berlin: Merve. English translation: (2013). Zur Tiefenzeit des technischen Hörens und Sehens. New York: Pantheon. URL: www. London. Matejovski & F. Mark.. Chris. Weigel. Siegfried. In D.Interactive Narratives. IBM Systems Journal 38. Jimmy Corrigan: The smartest Kid on Earth. Frankfurt/M.

José Leitão de Barros’s Inês de Castro (1944-5) and José Carlos de Oliveira’s Inês de Portugal (1997). in twentieth and twenty-first century cinema and video must necessarily be complicated by a feminist reading that produces pluralistic meanings to challenge the dominant masculine linear form and narrative. Kristeva tional Inesian feature films. Aida (2014). . taking varying degrees of poetic license with their sources. and saudade. and saudade. I consider a selection of YouTube videos made by Portuguese and Brazilian students that tell the familiar love story in a unique way. In new media.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. are rooted in masculinist discourses originating in their respective source material and the                                                                                         and Irigaray) and has developed through the postmodern period to include a non-binary analysis of class and race. Through a feminist lens. masculine/feminine. Responding to homework assignments in Portuguese history or literature courses. primary and secondary school students engage with the love story and create new narratives – plays. York University   a. Women’s exile. Plays. Ricardo Sternberg. Cecília Queiroz. the moving images that currently vie with iconic figurations of the legendary colo de garça are YouTube videos about the love of Inês and Pedro.jordao@mail. innocence. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). love. “Inês de Castro on YouTube: Re-gendered Narratives. pp 62-76. Luce Irigaray’s concept of “feminine language” in (1977). animation. novels. as well as gender.utoronto. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    INÊS DE CASTRO ON YOUTUBE: RE‐GENDERED NARRATIVES  Aida Jordão. I analyse the mediated embodiment of Inês de Castro and interrogate the inflexible and hierarchical binary dualisms of man/woman. Portugal’s tragic medieval Dead Queen and iconic symbol of beauty. the medieval period and the medieval woman. see. Abstract: Since the fourteenth century. and videos – that attract thousands of viewers. Ideology and consciousness. Regina Cunha. Some are original and irreverent while others simply glorify dead poets. The representation of Inês de Castro. artists have told the tragic story of the Galician noblewoman who was assassinated for political reasons and became Queen of Portugal after her death.ca  Suggested citation: Jordão. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. and figures prominently in the lusophone cultural imaginary.1 The na-                                                          1 This feminist strategy is founded on the theoretical ideas of French feminism of the 1970’s (Cixous. love. Hudson Moura. I. no. Eds.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. when Inês de Castro was laid to rest in her magnificent tomb in the Monastery of Alcobaça. and Martin Zeilinger. poetry and feature films offer representations of the Dead Queen that range from tragic and defiant to sentimental and trite. In this paper. Inês embodies beauty. for example. innocence. and public/private to posit a fluid conception of historical adaptation and the gendered representation of iconic figures.

Compare. Sessões Plenárias. for alternative readings see Serafím Moralejo (1991). Pedro and D. they live together and have children. in Actas do IV Congresso da Associação Hispânica de Literatura Medieval. In both films Inês has some narrative and formal agency but. when Pedro becomes King he kills Inês’s assassins by ripping out their hearts and then exhumes Inês’s body and makes her his Queen 2 – but nonetheless revision the events and the protagonists in accordance with political and socio-cultural demands of their times. for example. however. The first film. Lisboa: Edições Cosmos. 38. 2014]. 6. visualizes the heroine as innocent and remorseful. and you have almost double the number of viewers of the feature film. Afonso IV assassinates Inês because her brothers are powerful war-mongers who influence Pedro and threaten the peace with Castille. They are historical reconstitutions that include aspects of the popular Inesian legend – for example. Reinar después de morir. On the internet.youtube. 21. and arias from Bizet’s Carmen as background music. produced under a national propaganda program and a treaty of friendship with Spain is based on a contemporary novel 3 that demonizes Inês as a carnal temptress. Inês comes to Portugal as the lady-in-waiting of Constança.youtube. Pedro y D Inés. it is in death that she is ultimately empowered. Vol. an emerging cultural product where Inês appears as a moving image for popular consumption that vies with the feature films as the iconic cinematic representation of the Dead Queen: YouTube student videos about the love of Inês and Pedro. Afonso Lopes (1939-40). forever hovering as metaphysical entities of the national project.com/watch?v=TLzYX4ZmEwY&featu re=fvsr [Aug. Although the image and sound quality is often very poor. Inês de Castro. there were over ten blog and YouTube postings of the story of Inês and Pedro as it is imagined by students in Brazil and Portugal. Her tomb stands today as a testament to her Queenly status and the inscription on Pedro’s tomb. In the past year alone. Both films end in the Monastery of Alcobaça. A paixão de Pedro o Cru. I believe this is the area where the moving image and the visualization of Inês de Castro is having the most impact. creating filmed playlets or short films.com/watch?v=W2_fHIFltBQ [Aug. I. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      canonized history of the eternal love of Pedro I of Portugal and Inês. URL: http://www.797. 21. El ‘Texto’ Alcobacense sobre los a amores de D. however. Lisboa: Bertrand.901. which is a modest estimate of school plays and films that have been posted to YouTube.Interactive Narratives.   Jordão – 89  present in the cultural imaginary.6 Multiply the last figure by ten. after Constança’s death. the Crown Prince Pedro’s betrothed.5 and those for a student film with shaky camerawork. Even acknowledging that this is a very informal poll based only on the number of viewings (ignoring the length of time they have been posted) and that viewings could be a                                                          5 URL: http://www. setting unknown but likely in Portugal. legitimate and Portuguese. The second feature is based on the chronicles of medieval Kings in which Inês’s fate at the hands of powerful men is condemned. 3 Vieira. the filmmaker creates a lively and passionate Inês with sexual initiative. 2014]. “Até ao fim do mundo” (“Until the end of the world”) 4 suggests they are waiting to be re-united. the number of viewings for the 1997 feature film Inês de Portugal. There is. . primary and secondary school students engage with the love story. forever                                                          2 Inês was made Queen by law but in fictional accounts her corpse is crowned and her hand kissed by the royal subjects. This aspect of the legend was first staged in Luís Vélez de Guevara’s seventeenth century tragedy. we find an abundance of Inesian videos with a great variety of figurations of the Dead Queen. problematically. 4 This is the popular interpretation of the phrase that is carved on the tomb. 6 D. Responding to homework assignments in Portuguese history or literature courses. teenagers in ragtag costumes and wigs. in the nave where the tombs are found and visually declare that this is the site where Inês reigns supreme as Queen of Portugal. the cinematic narrative. but it is Pedro and Inês who fall in love.

made by Amanda Fideles with a group of students from the Colégio Adventista of Cidade Ademar.D” (“My Version . Her monologue is in a colloquial Portuguese. In this paper. and thanks her dog for not barking while she filmed.youtube. 11 They have adapted the story from Canto III of Luís de Camões’s Os Lusíadas but have set it in São Paulo. transgressing the medieval gender role to which she has been assigned                                                          7 URL: http://www. By incarnating Inês. URL: http://www.8 who is resurrected to tell her story to the ladies of the court to prove her innocence. I will start with three Brazilian videos that are both original and irreverent. making no attempt at historical reconstitution. 10 One wonders if the study of intertextuality in her course includes Resende’s ballad. in a public internet forum. A poor migrant woman. this girl echoes Resende’s poet who glorifies Inês’s death. Inês. directed by Grandela tells a similarly class-based tale founded on Inesian lore: The son of an industrial magnate falls in love with a female factory worker. 8 In “Trovas que Garcia de Resende fez à morte de D. 12 A Portuguese-Spanish short film. p. fall in love. 2014]. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      one-second visit to the page.youtube. and if this monologue is a very loose adaptation of the same. and. Inês de Castro” published in 1516. Finally though. as Cristina Segura Graiño suggests.com/watch?v=pFU2lo0qhuA [Aug. Inês de Castro (2000). 21.   Jordão – 90  and becoming a “bad” woman (1993.10 The second Brazilian student video is set in the present. Pedro’s legitimate wife.12 she and the son. This young woman also laments that “o povo me odiava” (“the people hated me”) once again placing Inês. this teenager at once resurrects the misogynist commonplace that honours the private woman while maligning the public one. YouTube. at times dismissive – and sarcastic when Constança. Constança dies in childbirth and Pedro tells                                                          9 Ferreira penned the first Portuguese tragedy. and defends the love she and Pedro shared as innocent.Interactive Narratives. is mentioned – commenting on the events in a distanced way. declaring that if she hadn’t been killed there would be no story to tell. Pedro. Bruno Mars’s “Talkin’ to the Moon” plays as Inês and Pedro drop their tray and newspaper respectively and realize they are in love. The first features a teenage girl sitting in her room speaking directly to the camera in close-up. and her private love for Pedro. “Não creio que tenhamos cometido nenhum erro” (“I don’t think we did anything wrong”). overtly calling it “Inês de Castro e D. her innocent remark about having done nothing wrong demonstrates Inês’s unexpected transition from the private to the public realm and its dire consequences. This Brazilian girl’s Inês laments her illegitimate status even though her father was “um nobre galego cheio de grana” (“a filthy rich Galician nobleman”). Século 21” (“21st Century”). who is married to Constança.” acknowledges her friends. 9 “the people” clamour for Inês’s death and she is sacrificed for the good of the Kingdom. I consider a selection of YouTube videos made by Brazilian and Portuguese students that each tell the familiar story in a unique way. Nonetheless. As in Resende’s and António Ferreira’s influential Inesian texts. the medieval period and the medieval woman. she has the same objective as Garcia de Resende’s high medieval Dona Inês. and in the first person as Inês.com/watch?v=xjK4LmnZY3o [Aug. . the shareholders intervene and endanger the couple (ICAM catalogue. ends up working for a rich banking family. the estimate is impressive and justifies a brief analysis of the various representations of Inês on Internet sites. by posting a video of herself in a private place. challenges this very dictum. taking varying degrees of poetic license with their sources.7 She titles the video “A Minha Versão . 54). who has lived in the favela since coming to the city. with the tale of Inês and Pedro as its subject. 11 Cidade Ademar is a suburb of São Paulo. 1999/2000). in the public domain. Pedro. 2014]. her bedroom. and.D”) and in the caption states that it is an assignment in “Intertextual Relations in Portuguese Literature. Castro. and adopting an offhand tone. And although she is wearing glasses and a t-shirt. 21.

youtube. Knights and Ladies. they dress as boys and play the conventional heavies of ’hood films) to do the job of killing Inês and her                                                          13 It is intriguing that both the extradiegetic songs are by Hawaiian singers. both he and Inês skip like children and dance exuberantly to the pop song “In a Perfect World” by Filipina singer Toni Gonzaga. No longer a noblewoman. places a flower behind her ear. Bruno Mars was born in Hawaii of Filipino parents. The masculinist posturing that follows is only challenged by the sex of the goons he employs: they are girls but sufficiently masculinized (i. played by tough ’hood girls. Although this particular version of the story is set in the twenty-first century. Pedro’s revenge and Inês’s entombment is told in intertitles with the poignant cover of “Somewhere Over the Rainbow” by the late Israel Kamakawiwo'ole playing the ukulele. King Afonso. discards it as she also discards her service instruments. see. but only in this one are Inês and Pedro played by black actors. The third example of a video by Brazilian students narrates the story as in medieval times. The goons.13 The cast. and sets his goons on Inês. the setting is a working class neighbourhood of low-rise buildings and adjoining fields. 21. etc. I’m not the jealous type!”). 2014]. and the politics of empowerment. flings her bag away in mock abandon. Inês’s portrayal as a mother in the last scene further genders the interaction but does not erase the class-based matrix of domination through which the episode is streamed. and the race difference between Inês and Constança. he asks what Pedro will get for it. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      his father Afonso he wants to marry Inês. engaged in the manly ritual of reading the newspaper. não tem problema. religion and sexuality (2003. When Afonso learns of Pedro’s intent to marry Inês. He. 16 It is interesting that two of these Brazilian videos feature music by singers with Philippine roots. All three of these Brazilian videos are extremely playful and present a great contrast to the student videos made in Portugal. xi). for example. it is a good example of the ‘historical’ story. class and gender as per the integrative feminism of the third wave.   Jordão – 91  children. one is reminded of Sharon Farmer and Carol B. but the characters are in modern summer clothes with girls who play male characters wearing blazers and make-up as facial hair. Patricia Hills Collins (2009) Black feminist thought: Knowledge. Pasternak’s study of the fluidity and multiplicity of gendered identities in the Middle Ages and how they intersect with social status. The story continues to its inevitable end with the singular variation that Pedro avenges Inês’s death by killing his father. as in all the Brazilian student videos. which are earnest in their attempts to reconstruct medieval language. p. a truly postcolonial approach. She giggles coyly. consciousness. In this re-telling of the story. . yet another postcolonial aspect of this student project. setting and behaviour.e. with Princes and Princesses.15 Pedro is played by a young girl and another girl who plays Inês shows a hyper femininity perhaps to emphasize the sex difference. “Aquela empregada?” (“That maid?”). But Pedro does not indulge in macho posturing. The result is a scenario of authentic castles and cathedrals (which Portugal has in abun-                                                          15 Posted in May 2012. is multi-racial. Inês serves Constança and the family and it is while she is literally serving Pedro a drink that he falls in love with her. foregrounding the materiality of their union. by ETEC Ângelo Cavalheiro. Pedro and Inês are white.Interactive Narratives. she is holding a baby and has a young daughter who begs for mercy. The rest of the story. Afonso is` enraged. eu não tenho ciumes!” (“It’s not a problem. New York. URL: http://www.com/watch?v=aRpe9Z296eY [Aug. London: Routledge. 14 Issues of oppression based on race. “Ó Pedro.16 An intercut slide of a castle reminds us we are in medieval times and when Pedro tells Inês he’s married she says laughingly. Afonso and Constança are black. The matrices of domination14 explored by the authors as a site for the construction of gender are illustrated here with the class difference between Inês and Pedro. stab Inês and slash her daughter’s throat.

There is a nod to contemporary love with a final shot of Inês and Pedro in modern dress sitting on a bench overlooking Coimbra and rock-jazz singer Pedro Abrunhosa’s “Beijo” playing over the credits. directs and performs herself. Again. is pedantic and slow-moving. though. It is a museumification of the tale of Inês. again. URL: http://www.608 views.Interactive Narratives. the figuration of Inês is fluid: she is represented physically as brunette. Coimbra with commentary by two students on a rooftop basketball court has had about 15. This small sample of student videos demonstrates two tendencies. though.   Jordão – 92  which shows some flexibility in casting. Another Portuguese video with almost 6. URL: http://www.com/watch?v=qQOEz7PfVs&feature=related and 5.youtube. so stiff and uncomfortable that their non-gesturality defies an identification of feminine/masculine traits. . as I observed. 21. Dom Afonso calls her demonic. stand in front of images of gorgeous medieval architecture and speak a formal medieval Portuguese but fail to stir the emotions. she uses the intertextuality demanded by her school course to create an original autobiography that she literally incorporates.com/watch?v=Huf3PckHVUM&featur e=plcp [Aug. In contrast. is the teacher reading                                                          19 1. URL http://www.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=J WM6_KynOwM&NR=1 [Aug. She is an Inês who writes. in one.. unfamiliar attire and medieval texts. 21. As for Inês’s agency in these videos.youtube. the students again attempt medieval costumes and language.B. URL: http://www. 21. Nonetheless. the Portuguese videos give agency to the voice of authority which. the teenage girl’s monologue demonstrates full control of her situation. show an egalitarian approach to the characters where both the protagonists are subjects. This. There is also a rap song by the students on the school’s YouTube page19 which indicates how they want to tell the story: five female students. is not part of the main video which remains a flat.com/watch?v=9aOSM-2siZc [Aug.855 views. black and white. The degree of femininity displayed by the character is stressed in the video where Pedro is also played by a female and Inês is hyper feminine to compensate.youtube. a twopart video by Escola E. and are mutually active as letter writers when forced apart. because Pedro is played by a girl or sports a medieval hairstyle. The Inês and Pedro played by the girls who giggle and skip together.. also skips and dances in an unmasculine manner. Another common feminizing trait is the long hair of the heroine. 2014]. In the Portuguese videos the students stand statically with their arms at their sides. 2014]. still. But this alleged adaptation of María Pilar Queralt del Hierro’s novel Inês de Castro and Ferreira’s Castro.youtube. They are reverent of the material but fail to engage meaningfully with the eternal love proclaimed in the narratives. and a black male student raps verses that sum up the Camonian episode. but wooden acting as the students struggle with the hallowed spaces. however.948 views.000 viewings.774 views. 2014]. unimpassioned representation of Inesian lore. 2.                                                          17 8. the acting is stiff and ineffectual but the cast is multi-racial. blonde or black and her personality ranges from silly to self-blaming to dignified.000 viewings is by the Escola Básica José Afonso de Alhos Vedros and it is filmed on location in the Mosteiro dos Jerónimos in Lisbon.” in a masquerade of femininity. 18 One enthusiastic viewer praises the youth’s interest in Portuguese history but questions whether the costumes are not more similar to those of Russian princesses.3 of Ceira. 18 5. How different this is from the Brazilian girl who embraces adultery because she’s not the jealous type! The students are dressed in rich velvets and satins. his hair is also long. keep the beat with a chorus that urges Inês and Pedro to declare their passion. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      dance) and period costumes. First. “he.17 The story follows Leitão de Barros’s film plot with Pedro mistaking Inês for Constança in their first meeting and Inês blaming herself as a sinner and traitor and sending Pedro off to his lawful wife.

and                                                          20 URL: http://www. all of the participants are objectified here.   Jordão – 93  entertain a fluid conception of historical truth. didactic narratives while the Brazilian students are fresh and creative with their versions of the story. What slice of the life do film biographers choose to tell? Which events are treated. It is almost certain that the Portuguese students’ models for their video creations are the cultural products of a Portuguese nationalist discourse which reconstructs historical episodes. Reconstituting. signals the desire to maintain national borders. inspired the following turgid comment. how do these affect the overall subject? . the first scene of the two-part video by the students from Coimbra is modelled on the Leitão de Barros film. the hundreds of viewers reached by a YouTube posting.Interactive Narratives. consider the postcolonial world they also inhabit. figure the female protagonist as subject. with the dearth of information about the historical Inês de Castro. presumably. public/private. in another. 6) These concerns apply as much to a professional director’s as to a student videographer’s vision of Inês de Castro and problematize how the cinematic image replaces other imagined renderings of the historical figure. like Leitão de Barros’s Inês de Castro.. Second. Dá consolo e alento ver que nem tudo está mau no reino de Portugal! Continuamos a ter gente nova a aprender e a GOSTAR das estórias da nossa história! Enquanto este lume arder temos esperança! (It is consoling and encouraging to see that not all is bad in the kingdom of Portugal! We continue to have young people learning and LIKING the stories of our history! While this flame burns we have hope!)20 The reference to Portugal as a kingdom. In both cases. the Portuguese youth are loath to challenge the master narrative of history and produce dry. not reconstructing.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=J WM6_KynOwM&NR=1 [Aug. however. which deleted? Does the film chronology mirror or depart from the life’s time line? Are fictional scenes added? If so. masculine/feminine. 2014]. and the pride in youth the hope that they will guarantee this. The video shot in the Mosteiro dos Jerónimos.youtube. 21.. for the “pleasure” of feminist viewers. and the dozens of others posted on YouTube. though ironic. when they are steeped in the pedagogy of a national project which reproduces the master narrative and promotes inflexible and hierarchical binary dualisms of man/woman. It is the objective of a feminist analysis to discover . This is challenging. history becomes the instrument of the national project. circumvent previous historical fictions or emulate a canonized history. they “depart from the life’s time line” and often include scenes that. The Portuguese students would do well to view the work of their Brazilian colleagues. Ford and Deborah C. with its millennial anxieties. The nationalistic objective that drives the Portuguese students’ Inesian video projects is evident in their reticence to place the story in another time and place from that in which history occurred and reflect the national feature films made about Inês and Pedro (as noted above). p. How far is too far from established truth? What responsibility does an auteur have to the life held up for viewer’s pleasure? (2009. etc. Their research questions are. Mitchell’s Royal Portraits in Hollywood: Filming the Lives of Queens details society’s preoccupation with queens’ lives on film and the filmic representation of the historical sovereign. made at the height of fascist nation-building. the canonized literary text which they have memorized. Elizabeth A. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      out the ensuing acts and scenes. indoctrinating the participants and. The videos analysed here. and José Carlos de Oliveira’s Inês de Portugal.

Introdução. Afonso Lopes Vieira. Farmer. 21. 2014]. Inês. Spain. A história de Pedro e Inês.   . editor José Camões. Mitchells (2009). Os lusíadas. Os Lusíadas – Inês de Castro. António [ms circa 1556. Trovas que Garcia de Resende fez à morte de D. Heitor Lourenço (Pedro). D. URL: http://www. Escola Básica José Afonso de Alhos Vedros. and Carol Braun Pasternak.youtube. Inesian Cinema: Inês de Castro (1944/45). Gender and difference in the middle ages. Colégio Adventista of Cidade Ademar. Cancioneiro geral de Garcia de Resende. 21. Cristina Homem de Mello (Inês).youtube. Dir. Costa Marques. URL: http://www. Manuela Carona. and Deborah C. Folios 221b-222b In Poesia de Garcia de Resende. 53-62. João Villaret.. Jordão – 94  Screenplay. Screenplay.youtube. revista. Perf. Ferreira. eds (2003). Portuguese version José Leitão de Barros. 2. notas e a glossário de F. URL: http://www. Celia del Moral. 2014]. 2014]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Granada:Universidad de Granada. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      these instances and view/read Inês as a female character with agency and a fluid identity that eschews limited binary oppositions. 21. Garcia de [1516] (1999). Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. VHS.youtube. Erico Braga.com/watch?v=xjK4LmnZY3 o [Aug. As the story of the Dead Queen proliferates on YouTube – there is even a Lego version of Os Lusíadas that features a Lego Inês in a Lego tomb21 – it is crucial to analyse her representation through a feminist lens and re-gender the character. Amanda Fideles. Elizabeth A. Inês de Castro e D. Portugal/Faro Producciones Cinematográficas. Inês de Castro. Ford. References Camões. Inés de Castro.com/watch?v=aRpe9Z296e Y [Aug. Screenplay João Aguiar. 2014]. José Carlos de Oliveira. URL: https://www. URL: http://www. Queralt del Hierro.com/watch?v=Huf3PckHVU M&feature=plcp [Aug. pub.com/watch?v=bNf5uSa6ZKI [Aug. Século 21. 21.D. 21. Spanish version Ricardo del Mazo. ETEC Ângelo Cavalheiro. Árabes. Royal portraits in Hollywood: Filming the lives of Queens. Inês de Castro. Pedro. Pedro and D. Garcia Viñolas. Filmes Lumiar. António Vilar (Pedro). Escola E. judías y cristianas: Mujeres en la Europa medieval. Segura Graiño. Perf. Mujeres públicas/malas mujeres. Ed. Cristina (1993).B. Sharon.Interactive Narratives.youtube. Resende. URL: http://www. 2014]. María Dolores Pradera.youtube.youtube. 2014]. URL: http://www.com/watch?v=TLzYX4ZmE wY&feature=fvsr [Aug. 4 ed. Coimbra: Atlântida. Castro.com/watch?v=qQOEz7PfVs&feature=related http://www. María Pilar (2003). José Leitão de Barros. Lisboa: Edicões Expresso. Imagemreal. Inesian Videography (student videos on YouTube analysed in this paper): A Minha Versão . José María Alonso Pesquera. Mujeres honradas/mujeres privadas. Barcelona: Ediciones Martínez Roca. VHS. Luís de [1572] (2003). 2014].com/watch?v=pFU2lo0qhu A [Aug.                                                          21 Os Lusíadas–Versão Lego–Apresentação. Ruy de Carvalho. Portugal. Encenação D. Dir. Pedro e D.youtube. Alicia Palacios (Inês).com/watch?feature=endscr een&v=JWM6_KynOwM&NR=1 [Aug. Lisboa: Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses. Inês de Portugal (1997). anon.3 Ceira. 21. 21. 1587 and 1598] (1974).

my PhD research has examined very specific emerging video practices rooted in social activism in a number of global settings. I was lost on the outskirts of the city of Lucknow in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. This paper examines and critiques specific elements that these particular forms of video activism confront in their own unique global possibility spaces. 2012). Essential to the new and often undefined waves of digital documentary birthed in scattered alcoves of social activism and human rights movements are the relationships between the components of these assemblages. I’ve got you know. Conducted over three years. Moreover. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. Eds.” he told me. Hudson Moura. Ben (2014). Regina Cunha. in Crispus Attucks Playground on the edge of Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn. Cecília Queiroz.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. Yet routinely it is the technological advances of the 21st century that receive the most revered credit for shifts within citizen based video activism. as traditional methods of video distribution and video recording continue to change even further through online platforms and mobile technology. Abstract: Gilles Deleuze’s early reflections on assemblage identify the idea of the diagram or possibility space as a framework to suggest the ways in which the assembling of technology and human practices merge to create distinctive and innovative new assemblages. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    EMERGING FORMS OF CITIZEN VIDEO ACTIVISM: CHALLENGES  IN DOCUMENTARY STORYTELLING & SUSTAINABILITY  Ben Lenzner. Ricardo Sternberg. “it’s like open source journalism … I don’t have one editor. interview with author. “My stuff that exists is a collaboration. and Martin Zeilinger. Nine months later. I had interviewed a number of Video Volunteers’ Community Correspondents . Particularly influential are the facilitating agents spearheading the means to digital video literacy that allow these narratives to be shared. University of Waikato  ben.lenzner@gmail. My fieldwork has sought out citizen media makers in order to discuss how these practitioners have approached their nascent video activism with the goal of identifying properties that might allow these surfacing video practices to become sustainable over time.com   Suggested citation: Lenzner.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. trying to attend a workshop conducted by the NonGovernmental Organization (NGO) Video Volunteers. June 27. “Emerging Forms of Citizen Video Activism: Challenges in Documentary Storytelling & Sustainability. I met Tim Pool (who at the time was a prominent live streamer) to chat about the evolution of his video practice. ISBN: 9780993952005 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). how might we begin to identify emerging forms of citizen based video activism and documentary media? In June 2012. three million” (Tim Pool. in March of 2013.

whose practice was sparked in the Autumn of 2011 by curiosity. The multiple crossroads where current digital video practices and technologies merge are exciting and inspiring spaces to examine how these practices are constructed. using the live streaming application. My research uses the lens of assemblage theory to engage with the ways in which individual agency and communities of practice experiment with digital video   Lenzner – 96  technologies in very nascent. Furthermore. Pool initially documented the protests in the same way as we all might do. which seeks to publish one short YouTube video a day (though they regularly surpass this goal). In Lucknow. Pool had two responses to this video. I’ve sat down and talked with a wide range of documentary media makers engaging with recent digital video technologies in the United States. if at all. language and connectivity (to name a few) play roles in the shaping of digital documentary media practices? The creative practitioners that are participants in my PhD research are not documentary media makers in the traditional sense. interview with author. 2012) who was filming this footage and why wasn’t this footage being exposed to a larger audience? Inspired and intrigued. March 3. he eventually stumbled upon one short clip of a police officer boasting that “My little nightstick is going to get a workout tonight” (Heaf. 2013). New Media & Social Engagement 2014      throughout the country who document local issues happening in their districts and villages and slums for the Video Volunteers’ India Unheard program. and how do assemblages sustain themselves? Where do practices that we may recognize as documentary emerge from and might they re-inform how we see and perhaps even define documentary? Moreover. human rights and social justice movements. “After making India Unheard videos. He wanted to know (Heaf. A reporter didn’t seem to fit the flow of events and his viewers on Ustream were expressing through a live chat function .” he told me. Pool bought a ticket from Virginia to New York that very same afternoon. who played the role of an on-camera reporter. who have embraced accessible video technologies to often document activism. Ustream. “This way people can get acquainted and associated with us. inquisitive individuals from many walks of life. I chatted with the Allahabad based community correspondent. What is happening right now is that the media or any other medium of such communication to give information to people is limited on a local level” (Ajeet Bahadur. Pool began to stream live broadcasts along the lines of a traditional news report. sometimes called local changemaker. How do these creative sparks form? Can they be deliberate. Ajeet Bahadur. repeating the cycle. Nor are they often well known. as he clicked through countless YouTube videos of Occupy Wall Street protestors knocked around by the police. in such a digitally connected world. how would their creative practices thrive. we both know it and can share it. what if Ajeet Bahadur had the opportunity to craft stories in New York City or Tim Pool found himself on a road that leads to New Delhi. One of my goals has been to achieve a better understanding of the possibilities for creative practices. 2012). relate to documentary practices in the traditional sense. Why are certain practices emerging in specific areas? How do constraints in technology. They tend to be regular folk. Arriving in Manhattan. recording with his smart phone and saving the footage to the memory card. Soon.Interactive Narratives. then recording again. change or fade due to the constraints or limitations of their new assemblage? Let us start with Tim Pool. In the last two years. his collaborator at the time was Henry James Ferry. I’ve begun to ponder how these practices might. Yet Pool soon came to realize that the action of the protests often sprouted spontaneously. what happens is that what is happening here and what is happening in Kashmir. emerging and often changing possibility spaces. India and New Zealand.

Yet to foresee how practices might evolve can be hard to predict. “Journalists are the enemy. In early 2012. Wi-Fi. the unsettled formation of citizen media assemblages straddles an undefined space that dances between journalism. he couldn’t keep up with the group because they were running full speed. Alexander Arbuckle was a NYU journalism student who happened to be working on a school photojournalism project documenting the point of view of police officers patrolling the Occupy movement. websites for dissemination and an emerging possibility space. knowingly and unknowingly. 2012). interview with author. June 27. http://blogs. it was announced that the first Occupy Wall Street trial in an arrest case. p. June 27. Tim Pool’s work and his tools. the infrastructure was there – a smart phone. 2014). And the second time we went out. “there is no way to tell in advance in what way a given entity may affect or be affected by innumerable other entities. blogs. June 27. 10). 10). reportage and documentary. It’s difficult to say how Pool’s practice might develop going forward or where components of his work may surface.1 As Pool (interview with author. Might as well be on CNN. 10) states. 2014) . whether they are technologies. that powerful interests aren’t allowed to decide what the past is … You’ve got police officers who lie under oath and they did and that aren’t held accountable for it. 2012) explained. a 3G network. Pool’s practice matured monumentally and his reporting received worldwide attention as it was distributed through other more established assemblages. p. He was charged with disorderly conduct. Pool’s lightweight digital tools (specifically his smart phone – a Samsung Galaxy II) gave him flexibility absent in traditional media. Pool recognized the evolving possibilities and realized that his journalism had to shadow the emerging protests around him. one of Pool’s live streams was used as evidence within the legal system. he was unyielding in his criticism of mainstream media. Assemblages. You know.” he told me towards the end of our conversation (Tim Pool. creative practices or another configuration. the truth. 2006.” which essentially explains how the properties of a certain entity interrelate and connect with another entity (DeLanda. Seemingly. He could be on the front lines. p.Interactive Narratives. “that just presents the same old same old.                                                          1 Note: At the time. if you’re just going to watch some guy talk” (Tim Pool. As Pool explained to me. 2012). As Pool reflected. documenting the arrests and police brutality that traditional news makers couldn’t access with their large. “the first was me filming him (James Ferry). New Media & Social Engagement 2014      that they didn’t care to see a reporter in the frame. interview with author. June 27. was. 2012). a collaborative media enterprise between Univision and the Disney-ABC Television Group (Steel.” Today.com/runninscared/2012/05 /in_the_first_oc. interview with author.” enabling and exercising their “capacities to interact. Thus the way in which Pool’s practice formed indicates Manuel DeLanda’s descriptions of “mechanisms of emergence” (DeLanda. form out of a diagram that consists of a multiple set of possibilities. so I just took off and took over” (Tim Pool. allowed for “the possibility of complex interactions between component parts. Pool is director of media innovation at Fusion. The technology he was working with offered new possibilities to a video practice that he seemingly created spontaneously – assembling components from available resources within a diagram. But at least now we know for sure. In a mat-   Lenzner – 97  ter of days. In May.php (accessed September 20.villagevoice. social structures. When I spoke to Pool. that’s kind of the point. The diagram was present for the journalistic niche carved by Pool’s video practice. 2006. bulky cameras and reporters dressed in suits. So. As DeLanda (2006. resulted in an acquittal because they used my footage as evidence. a mobile streaming app.

Jessica Mayberry explained to me in January 2013. Yet from its inception. Video Volunteers scraped that program and since then has run a new model called – India Unheard. etc). 2013). explained how she hid in her friend’s first floor apartment overlooking the location of now razed homes and had clandestinely recorded forced evictions. 23. January. What would that look like?” (Jessica Mayberry. based in the Indian state of Goa. As Sayyed insisted. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Since 2006. years in the organization. Each correspondent accesses a computer. February. But it was really about creating local media. the organization Video Volunteers. the organization saw a fifty percent turnout of villagers attending screenings and there was strong community involvement. the goal of Video Volunteers has been to get video tools into the hands of individuals so that they might be able to tell stories that are meaningful to their communities and that also may work to create impact   Lenzner – 98  and fuel change. put me in prison. It wasn’t video for education. just giving people a voice. the type of video made. where it is eventually edited. Non-governmental organizations often use video as a means to publicize their work or raise funds or get out the word about different issues or actions. The evolution of Video Volunteers presents an intriguing case study of an organization deliberately trying to encourage the formation of well-thought out assemblages that support human rights video practices. As well. Video Volunteers started with Community Video Units. “if the police saw me. it was exhausting for each group. With the goal to have a network of community correspondents in each of India’s 650 or so districts. And so in 2009. Yet it wasn’t sustainable. burns it to a CD and sends the CD along with notes/storyboard via postal mail to Goa. downloads their footage. conducting screenings in the twenty-five or so communities where the news magazine had sourced and produced stories. As Video Volunteers codirector. interview with author. Consequently. 6. India Unheard identifies young activists who are employed part time or not at all and they train them in video making and storytelling for two weeks and supply each new correspondent with a Flip Cam. for their communities and for local and regional authorities that often have the power to address the issues that these community correspondents document. On average. yet are continually challenged by a variety of constraints specific to the diagram they work within. a community correspondent from the Vikrohli Parksite Slum in Mumbai. The screenings were expensive and there was little possibility of revenue generation. “It wasn’t video for health. Video Volunteers began with community video and the voice of the people as its central objective. on the other side of the globe. their assemblages are fragile and Video Volunteers often reassesses their strategy in the hopes of generating sustainable assemblages that support and propel the work of their community correspondents. They would have taken my camera and not returned it” (Zulekha Sayyed. whose task was to create next month’s thirty-minute video news magazine while traveling from village to village conducting screenings. take the KONY 2012 video or Greenpeace for example and all its precursors and successors. Initially. which is how so many projects have been done. it recalled similar challenges that Pool and other practitioners discussed during the course of my fieldwork. they would have put me in lock up. Each team would go on a month long road trip. interview with author. These were small regional teams of local people who would produce half hour video news magazines on different issues.Interactive Narratives. put on both YouTube and the India Unheard web- . these community correspondents shoot a story or two each month (for each story they publish they are paid on a sliding scale based on the quality of work. Generally. has trained community based activists to produce original video content for the Web. Thus when Zulekha Sayyed. 2013).

In the beginning I worked without it. This system is not precisely low-tech. Cisco. the speed of both mobile networks and Internet access is not conducive for online transfers of video footage. They play a major role in the evolving media practices of Video Volunteers and their affordability allows for each correspondent to be given a camera. thus forcing correspondents to diligently craft a narrative for post-production. And then it failed because technology. Although constraints are abundant for community correspondents. Since Tim Pool uploads footage with ease. As well. Either they run away with their computer and thus I don’t get to meet them. I had friends … and I used other people’s computers. If the Flip video camera. March 3. the organization itself sometimes struggles to get equipment for their correspondents. Some of the community correspondents I spent time with came from extremely difficult backgrounds and the fifteen hundred rupees they would make on an India Unheard video might be the majority of their income for the month. but that’s not going to be the case in India. with the goal to upload one story to the Internet each day. Video Volunteers’ editing capacity is already stretched thin and soon they hope to support regional video editors of which currently there is only one. most stories take at least a month. often longer. Now people are really scared of me. With the death of the Flip camera. January 23. As Ajeet Bahadur (interview with author. As Jessica Mayberry. the various infrastructure and economic limitations on the possibility space of the diagram in which a correspondent creates video reports often restricts the speed of what DeLanda might describe as capacities to connect.Interactive Narratives. it was possible that the assemblage Video Volunteers had helped to craft might fade away. these limitations are not always negative. yes in America everybody is going to have a fancy five hundred dollar cell phone. though it is quite a distance from Pool’s real-time video broadcasting practice. Pool’s practice almost basks in the possibility   Lenzner – 99  space that is New York City and thrives upon the cohesion of that potential. the assemblage could be forced . he is almost encouraged to deviate from the crafting of a narrative. the technology company who owned the Flip HD line of camcorders decided to discontinue the product. Yet as an organization. I spoilt a lot of computers. for example. The predicament was fragile and tenuous and needed deliberate reinforcing and careful management in order to proceed and thrive. a crucial component of the diagram evaporated. the majority had to travel to a cyber café or borrow a friend’s computer to transfer files and prepare their reports. The Flip HD video cameras. or if I get to use their computer then they sit with me while I work. Pool doesn’t wonder how he is going to get his next smart phone. Because of this combination of digital technology and snail mail. the Video Volunteers codirector told me (interview with author. that being the primary market decided that well nobody needs a hundred dollar video camera when you’ve got it on your phone without realizing that not every. In India. Right now I need a computer. Yet the organization took a chance. you know. to shoot. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      site and often screened informally at home in the community as well. are a vital tool and crucial to the NGO’s work. In contrast. 2013) jokingly reflected. Although only a couple of the correspondents I spoke with owned a computer. he ponders which smart phone he’s going to get next. driven by western ideas of tech. directly reached out to Cisco and secured hundreds of Flip cameras that had been manufactured but weren’t going to go to sale because of the discontinuation of the product. However these limitations are also incredibly frustrating. Yet in April 2011. 2013). send. edit and publish to the Web. Directly.

This effort by Video Volunteers allowed for India Unheard not only to sustain but also to grow. Heaf. person to person. that makes a practice sustainable.php [September 20. (2012. 2014]. A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity. Many of the components that contribute to how assemblages form are intangible. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      to change. I asked her about other media that might have been present that day.Interactive Narratives.gqmagazine. When I sat down with Zulekha Sayyed. So I shoot it but I call. or more importantly meaningful? Or maybe the significance of individual agency within these creative assemblages simply becomes the act of being present – recording and bearing witness – sharing an existence and documenting a reality?   Lenzner – 100  References Bahadur. URL: http://www. In The First Occupy Wall Street Protest Trial. (2013. lack of awareness of the possibility space and scarce exposure to multiple methods of digital storytelling. no they are not coming. no. 6. February. Jessica. TV 9. NY: Continuum. all play roles in the formation of assemblages that these practitioners creatively energize. 2013). New York and India. (2013. (2013. URL: http://blogs. so there is major problems. Interview with Author. sorry we can’t. “Last video I made. Comment / Politics: Breaking News. (2012. Fusion Set to Name Director of Media Innovation. B7. January 23). The Village Voice. breath to breath. New York.” Perhaps it is the unseen impact. Pool. May 16). October 19). DeLanda. I called them. September 8).” she passionately exclaimed (interview with author. Tim. they clearly told.com/runninscared/2012 /05/in_the_first_oc.villagevoice. The New York Times. there is a TV 9 news channel. Ajeet. but the work on the ground. GQ Magazine (UK) October 2012. forced eviction. Nick. Zulekha. not the number of hits on YouTube or the speed at which footage can be uploaded. Technology is a tool.co. June 27). the community correspondent who hid in a friend’s home in order to record forced evictions in her slum. Interview with Author. including that of agency and the factors that shape and hinder agency. Febuary 2013). distinct power structures. 2014]. (2014. (2006). Sayyed. Pinto. Acquittal. Interview with Author. Cultural constraints. p. Jonathan. Mayberry. we are not allowed to go against the builder’s. Steel. Interview with Author. Emily. (2012. the exploration as to why creative sparks happen and an examination of how certain practices become sustainable that is the focus of my continuing research in New Zealand. .uk/comment/articles/201210/19/tim-pool-occupy-wall-street-interview [September 20. Manuel. who might be using it and why. It is the relationships between possibilities. “No. Yet within different locations a digital video camera might have exceedingly ever-shifting repercussions in the way it is being used. March 3).

Experience. Gisela Mota. As this paper will also suggest. “Xapiri: at the Juncture of History. For . AND  TECHNOLOGY  Sandra Lim. Seated in the somewhat cavernous and intimate environment of Toronto’s Carleton Cinemas. their bodies and voices” (Puente Communication Agency. the film entailed something more than a conventional form of ethnographic representation. Cecília Queiroz. with the intention of presenting. through a reconfiguration of the viewer’s relationship to the cinematic frame. a sensory and embodied experience of the culture. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). and Martin Zeilinger. Eds. 2013). Ricardo Sternberg.com   Suggested citation: Lim. and Technology.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. and the idea of space within the screen. Hudson Moura. EXPERIENCE. aspiring to a relational experience of Yanomami ritual and culture. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. and Bruce Albert. Ryerson University  ardnasmil@gmail. In this documentary. Screening at last year’s Brazilian Film and Television Festival (BRAFFTV). Laymert Garcia dos Santos. Through the collaborative efforts of the filmmakers Leandro Lima. This paper concludes by briefly considering how Xapiri as a work of experimental documentary might also be considered as a work of expanded documentary. Stella Senra. the experimental documentary Xapiri (2012) offered a lush audio-visual presentation of the indigenous Yanomami people. Abstract: The digital documentary film Xapiri (2012) is a film that takes as its subject matter the indigenous Yanomami people who inhabit the Amazonian rainforest regions on the borders of Brazil and Argentina. who inhabit the Amazonian rainforest regions on the borders of Brazil and Argentina. since these are the means by which the filmmakers reconstitute the Yanomami for the viewer. on one level. suggesting that Xapiri extends the gesture of Expanded Cinema’s critical and formal drive to shatter the embedded structures of power of conventional cinema’s cinematic apparatus to documentary film. Regina Cunha. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    XAPIRI: AT THE JUNCTURE OF HISTORY. Sandra (2014). the subject of Yanomami Shamanism was explored. the filmmakers set out to explore Yanomami Shamanism. one couldn’t help but feel that within the first few minutes of viewing Xapiri. with the intention of presenting: “…two different notions of image: those of the Yanomami and ours … allowing different cultures to visualize and feel the way in which the shamans “embody” the spirits. in relation to the historical form of Expanded Cinema of the sixties and seventies. the formal and technical aspects of sound and image relations in this film are further important aspects to consider.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives.

According to Chion.Interactive Narratives. In viewing and experiencing Xapiri. (This would seem to be the way in which the spectator embodies a sound-imagescape through the incorporation of sound outside of “screenspace”) (Chion. 1994. Rather. these sounds tend to permeate the space within and outside of the screen. For example. They require the image to become activated spatially. Chion also observes that one of the most striking characteristics of sound in relation to moving images is the psychological perception of how images “magnetize sound in space. While Chion’s observations for sound and image are mainly observed in relation to . around and beyond the film frame. both in terms of one’s spatial location and in relation to the screen. sounds gain a spatial character in relation to the images on screen. there were also occasional moments of becoming aware of one’s own consciousness. Such is the case in hearing a ringing telephone in “offscreen” space. and this classification is constantly subject to revision. and fill spaces like that of the spreading molecules of a gas into air and space. there was an overriding sense of the film as an immersive and unfolding audio-visual experience in the blacked-out box of the theatre environment. sounds “…dispose themselves in relation to the frame and its content…we classify sounds in relation to what we see in the image. The French sound theorist Michel Chion relates something of this paradoxical quality. based on the images we see on screen (thus dislocating our spatial reference point). if we look away from the screen and hear the sounds of a film without the image. pp. there was also a sense of being nearby. in constant relation to the images and objects on screen. but at the same time being that of an outsider. in viewing the film. This is the case for both monaural and Dolby digital surround sound. Yet sounds can also be contained within the screen. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      example. the other big paradox of sound in relation to the image is that while the cinematic frame always encloses the images of a film.” or in pairing a sound with a corollary   Lim – 102  object seen on screen (fixing our subjective and spatial point of view in paring a sound with an image). the sounds become depthless. In other words. According to Chion. As a result. 1994. and part expanded cinematic environment. With no authorial commentary. sounds can be “acousmatic. as if sharing the filmmaker’s perspective.” in that we might not see where a sound originates. 6691). part documentary. pp. the sounds inherent to the world of the Yanomami seemed to filter within. of being a cinematic voyeur trying to make sense of what was being seen and heard. as is the case with “visualized sounds. language and culture. and the effect of this upon spectatorship and point of view. of sound and image relations in films. or “wander at the surface and on the edges as offscreen…” (potentially pulling our spatial viewpoint and subjective eye in more than one direction). or the visible scientific involvement of a documentarian to explain Yanomami culture. sounds can be perceived as “synchronous and onscreen”. blending into the darkened theatre with the audience nearby. this panoply of sound and image promoted an unfixing or destabilization of one’s point of view. 66-91). Part observational. yet this is actually how we perceive the source of sounds to be. not entirely privileged to the meaning of Yanomami Shamanistic ritual. or even in very close proximity to the Yanomami. As Chion observes. Sounds can also be “ambient” or “territory-sound. depending on changes in what we see” (Chion. as well as in terms of the subjective eye. sounds and textures that seemed to exceed one’s cognition. the same frame does not always bind sounds to the image. there was often a sense of being on the outside looking in on the Yanomami.” In this respect. At other times. or that of encountering images. For example.” consisting of the local sounds that are characteristic of a given environment. sound doesn’t actually emanate from points of origin within the screen.

The forest is perceived more in terms of transparency. beginning with the opening sequences and our introduction to the Yanomami landscape. We have this sensation until depth.Interactive Narratives. while the human figures disappear before our eyes. and as a result. in terms of a spatial viewpoint and subjective eye. this way of relationally positioning the spectator’s “point of view” substantiates the idea that knowledge of another culture is situational. they seem equally plausible for understanding the sound and image relations of documentary and non-fiction films. Importantly. nevertheless trailing at a distance behind the figures. the screen is divided into brilliantly colored and simultaneously upper and lower zones of cerulean blue and burnt orange. space and sky are verified through the visualized sounds of black cawing birds in the upper parts of the blue image. which constitute a kind of material environment that the Yanomami inhabit. along with the acousmatic sounds of the singing voices. sounds and images are usually sourced from reality and then artfully processed and edited alongside the image track. A relational positioning of our subjective and spatial eye is evident throughout Xapiri. which permeate beyond and encircle the forest within the frame. and in sequences where we are presented with the Yanomami Shamans preparing their bodies for the Shamanistic ritual. In fact. Eventually. and specifically how we construct knowledge of another culture. As a result. The transparent figures begin to centralize within the image. and seem to move into it’s depths. whereby a spatial point of view becomes established. Each element is almost indistinguishable from the next. we are next introduced to the sonic element of a child’s powerful yet breathy voice. As Xapiri opens. constantly evolving. From these opening images and sounds. 198-199). singing solo. In these sequences. never complete (Kaplan. and then more children singing in accompaniment with the ambient sounds of birds and a forest environment. rather than depth. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Lim – 103  fiction films. such as the Yanomami. we are not privileged with a concrete image of the Yanomami as we   . and therefore. which depicts a forest. like a glass surface through which layers of leaves and foliage are interwoven with barely perceptible traces of human figures. pp. since in either case. This paper proposes that the sound and image relations evident in Xapiri constantly require the spectator to adjust his/her perspective. but at the same time rather depthless in terms of the lower part of the image. textures and colors. resulting in a form of Expanded Documentary. rather. our spatial point of view locates itself around the outer edges of the screen. the effect of which is that the barely perceptible human figures evade our visual and subjective grasp. and this is evident throughout various points of the film including: in the opening scenes of the film. and the glass surface seems to dissipate. Our sense ist that each zone is expansive as the sky. the children’s voices are replaced by adult singing voice. A relational positioning of our point of view is also evident through the scenes of the Shamanistic hallucinogenic ritual as it unfolds. transposing Chion’s observations and theory of Audio-Vision to the problem of documentary and ethnographic representation presents the problem of how our perception of sounds in relation to images may affect the way in which we view and experience documentary films. through documentary spectatorship. to begin to consider and embody the sounds. might expect. and shift our perspective from that of outside the screen to inside screen space. we enter the forest. With the figures’ exit. from an outer perspective. 1997. our spatial point of view is drawn into the screen. but are asked. The conclusion of this paper gives some consideration to the idea that Xapiri extends the concerns of the historical avant-garde form of Expanded Cinema and French Structuralist apparatus theory of the sixties and seventies to documentary film spectatorship.

While the images continually move back and forth. The transition is both an auditory and visual experience. For example. a harsh and forceful sound of spitting and blowing including the environmental sounds in which it is made. several young women sit at a table monitoring a shortwave radio – the visualized sound and voices from which place our spatial viewpoint within their periphery. who sings and accompanies our view of the preparations. as we hear loud multiple voices chanting and singing back and forth. yet is paradoxically unsubstantiated by the static voice emanating from the radio. While the Yanomami men are making preparations in one area of the longhouse. to view and hear what he/she sees. Here. we are brought into the lived and domestic spaces of the Yanomami. From a sense of being locked in place. the sounds accompanying the images both locate and dislocate our spatial perspective. and there is a sense that we have changed our spatial perspective and moved in a bit closer. but unacknowledged and therefore keeping us in the periphery of their space. through the singing voice of a Yanomami man. leaving the voice singing in off-screen space. as the images are transposed into sets of superimposed images. where the men. who seems to nudge us forward from the outside in. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      As the film progresses. holding a small plant-like paint pod in one hand. It’s a secret look. the forest and the textures of the space. which positions our spatial and subjective viewpoint in terms of being on the outside looking in on the Yanomami. women in the periphery. holding our spatial point of view in. We perceive the hallucinogenic drugs take their effect on the Yanomami shamans. as well as being placed alongside the filmmaker. unbeknownst to her. There is also a sense that our own point of view is in some way being pressed in close to see such details. the ambient sounds of the longhouse blends with a gentle rain falling just out of view. and take a similar position. That is. takes on a different tone. and our perspective shifts. either through their force or subtly. and the viewer in the act of looking. women and children engage in preparations for a ritual ceremony. of being a cinematic voyeur trying to make sense of what is   Lim – 104  being seen and heard. which catches the camera. This is clear in the way that the camera privileges specificity. the filmmaker. the audio track imposes and asserts its presence from outside the frame. in terms of being abstract and concrete. In effect. where we must also follow. our perspective is suddenly reversed several minutes later in the film. somewhere in off-screen space at the edge of the screen. The accompanying frenetic images seem to unthread and come apart at the seams. connects with an explosion of white star-like lights and colors . from that of being on the edges of a society looking in. In this instance. to looking with and/or through the filmmaker’s subjective eye. until the gaze of a small child clinging to one of the women peeks out from underneath her arm and looks into the camera acknowledging our presence. disallowing our subjective eye any foothold. We hear the rain. with the ambient sounds of rain and forest just behind our back. as the singing and chanting also takes on the ambient sounds of the Yanomami environment. which interpretively stagger and displace our sense of the concrete.Interactive Narratives. we are brought to another area of this space. with a different sound texture. hears and experiences. Perhaps the most auditory and visually challenging portion of the film occurs when the film transitions into the hallucinogenic ceremony. while he dips and paints different parts of his body with the other. first of all. the voices of children. On the one hand. the relations of images and ambient sounds during the preparation scenes come together to create a richly interwoven tapestry. which places our subjective and spatial viewpoint clearly on the outside looking in. This occurs when the voice of the Yanomami. close enough to hear the shallow voices emanating from the radio. tracing the smallest of acts such as an extreme close-up view of a young Yanomami man.

I believe Xapiri offers another way to expand the viewpoint of the viewer. As the filmmakers of Xapiri have indicated. 2013. or part of the emergence of Structural Film. this paper also set out to offer that Xapiri’s formal relations of sound and image expand both subjective and spatial viewpoints for the spectator. However. one of their primary intentions in making the documentary through an experimental and sensory approach was to connect with a broad range of viewers. 45). with its interrogation of the mechanics of the   Lim – 105  apparatus. as far as the camera and filmmaker filming the event. This results in throwing both our spatial and subjective point of view back into an awareness of being in the theater watching the film. the screen. 2009). The subsequent profusion of image and sound relations that follow in depicting the hallucinogenic effects of the Shamanistic ritual have an almost overriding effect. Xapiri therefore also constructs a more objective point of view from which to question how Yanomami culture and Shamanistic ritual might be encountered and experienced in another place and another time through different means. p. enacted through the means of digital technology. through an expansion and distillation of the spectator’s visual viewpoint. rather than an inter-subjective experience. (1994). Moments such as these bring to mind the realization that the hallucinogenic effect of the drugs are an audio-visual interpretation. the polemics and theory of British Structural Materialist Film (and the subset of expanded cinema) also had much in common with French Cine Structuralism and apparatus theory. the British art historian Chrissie Iles defines expanded cinema historically as a form that “…emerged at a specific moment in the history of cinema. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      on-screen to spectacular effect. In this respect. the physical properties of film and the politics of presentation and audience” (Iles. Whether acknowledged or not. 2009). the subject-object boundary/divide. which was deemed to favour not only a controlled film spectator. The ongoing practice of Expanded Cinema art from early cinema panoramas to the present. For example.). each called for more democratic forms of film spectatorship through the dissolution of the idea of the dominant cinema’s fixed viewpoint. through such means as expanded screens. closely tied to. While it is difficult to determine from this position how effectively Xapiri connects with an audience on a sensory level. and how such relations articulate the viewer’s spatial and subjective point of view to abolish the bifurcation of subject and object relations. or allowing for viewers to get up out of their seats and interact with the projected image. since Xapiri also functions as a form of documentary. New York: Columbia University Press . but also a film spectator who unequally controls and masters the objects/people on screen (Lim. Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen. or even in incorporating opportunities for sensory experiences into the cinema itself (Iles. Yet we still remain exterior to the images.Interactive Narratives. which seem to exceed one’s cognition. to also offer a relational and more equitable view of another culture. In C. as Iles has observed. and specific to apparatus theory. and democratize the film experience – this being through a consideration of the relations of sound and image. has sought to democratize the cinematic experience for the viewer. experimental tradition of Expanded cinema and its concern for democratizing the film experience. it also provides a muchneeded example of how to accomplish this form of expansion through an encounter with social space. this position does allow for connecting Xapiri to the art historical. M. perceiving them more in terms of surface and textures. In this respect. and the filmmaker and editor through postproduction effects bring this into objective reality. The Audiovisual Scene. References Chion. Gorbman (Ed. Moreover. in relation to the screen.

(2013). 9th Edition.html   Lim – 106  . (2009). Lim. United Kingdom. E. Inside Out: Expanded Cinema and It's Relationship to the Gallery in the 1970's. 2014. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Iles. "Speaking Nearby": Trinh T. from http://www.brafftv. Retrieved from http://eprints. Brighton. http://www. Film. Interpreting Urban Space and the Everyday Through Video Practice.com/en/films/2013/xapiri. Retrieved September 20. Official Site of Brazilian Film & Television Festival Toronto. New York & London: Routledge. C. E. London.uk/expanded/Narrative/Tat e_Doc_Session_2_-CI.ac. 2014. (2013).uk/12347/ Available from The University of Brighton Repository Puente Communication Agency. Paper presented at the Activating the Space of Reception Documentation. and the Imperial Gaze.D.Interactive Narratives.rewind. S. The Tate Modern. Doctoral Thesis). A.ac.html Kaplan. Minh-ha's Reassemblage and Shoot for the Contents Looking for the Other: Femininism. The University of Brighton.brighton. (Ph. (1997).

Cecília Queiroz. Abstract: This paper examines how music and juxtapositions can ground a story in a longer history where the potential of images and cutting points become a dialectics of point. “Off the Wall with Shchedryk. and Martin Zeilinger. Each wall of the Quartier des Spectacles was to project a video that cited one of . Kalli (2014). ISBN: 978-09939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). Ricardo Sternberg. counterpoint. tablets. and fusing frames from Eisenstein’s and Dovzhenko’s early films with citations from McLaren grounded our story into Ukraine’s longer history (see Figure 1). both shot in Ukraine. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. the founder of the National Film Board of Canada’s animation studio – an international competition and initiative of the National Film Board of Canada in coproduction with the Quartier des Spectacles Partnership. If realness is a standard by which we judge any performance. and fusion in a revisitation of archetypal images and as a co-authorship of reception. Alexander Dovzhenko‘s Earth (1930) and Norman McLaren’s experimental film Synchromy (1971). his creative canvasses would be the Web browser. and a visual dialogue evolved through a remediation of scenes from Sergei Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin (1925) and Alexander Dovzhenko‘s Earth (1930). 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    OFF THE WALL WITH SHCHEDRYK  Kalli Paakspuu. A visual dialogue evolves in the film Shchedryk (2014) through a remediation of scenes from Sergei Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin (1925). Foregrounding the wounding aspect as visual images is about ‘bad pleasure’ (O’Brien & Julien 2005). 387). Our design team identified McLaren Wall-to-Wall as an opportunity to develop an audience for our theatrical documentary 1921 The War Against Music. A Call for Projects for architectural videos stated. York University  paakspuu@yorku. what makes it effective is its ability to compel beliefs and embody and reiterate norms (Butler. The film Shchedryk is a contemplation of wartroubled Ukraine through composer Mykola Leontovych’s arrangement of a traditional a cappella chant. People who do not have recourse to the dominant culture are through recipient-co-authorship able to replay things in more sophisticated ways.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives.ca  Suggested citation: Paakspuu. Regina Cunha. airports. “If Norman McLaren were alive today. Judith Butler’s idea of the performative and of subjects re-performing an injury (Butler 1993) can be introduced to the multi-screen experience. Eds. This was McLaren Wall-toWall – a centenary celebration of the birth of Norman McLaren. These innovators of soviet montage theory were activists of social movements. Hudson Moura. Jazz artist Paul Hoffert improvised a performance of Leontovych’s Shchedryk for our documentary.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. public spaces and architectural surfaces” (3).

An exterior wall or gallery space moves the cinematic experience beyond the normative. wherein disjunctive and creative relationships exist around “time. Eisenstein’s and Dovzhenko’s scenes as part of the Shchedryk song bring an expanded dialogue to their work that resonates with today and the contemporary war in a context of McLaren’s playful experimentation. such as Synchromy. fusion. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      McLaren’s films. 387). When slippage occurs between the continuity and rupture of expectations. This clinical synopsis conceals the transgressive cinema that McLaren actually practiced. their work would be projected on the facades of The Place de la Paix. the UQAM Bell Tower and UQAM’s Centre de Design. but by their juxtaposition. respectively. Sometimes the cutting is dialectical: point. The postmodern question is then turned over to the recipient. a dialogue with the work of McLaren” (p. Dovzhenko’s lyrical and poetic film depicted the life of rural farmers in a sympathetic portrait of Kulaks wanting to keep their land after Joseph Stalin’s 1929 effort to “eliminate rural capitalism” and “smash the Kulaks. what makes it effective is its ability to compel beliefs and embody and reiterate norms (Butler.Interactive Narratives. Ron Graner as writer and Peter Gugeler as editor envisioned a McLaren-inspired visual language for Hoffert’s performance. 50) as a speaking from a positionality and not for it.” “memory” and the lived effects of globalization (O’Brien & Julien. though “the bloodshed on the Odessa Steps is often referred to as if it really happened” (Ebert 1998). Norman McLaren thus obtains absolute synchronism” (7). Foregrounding the wounding aspect as visual images is about ‘bad pleasure’ (O’Brien & Julien 2005). A “visual citation” of Synchromy was a requisite at the Place de la Paix location. as people who do not have the recourse to dominant culture through recipient-co-authorship are able to replay things in more sophisticated ways. As a rearticulation of the wounding project of   Paakspuu – 108  dominant imagery. undermined its axioms. Cutting between the fearful faces of the unarmed citizens and the faceless troops in uniform. Cégep du Vieux Montréal. and questioned the nature of film as art and as medium (Kluszczynski 2007). Spheres (1969). counterpoint. The finalists would be spiritual heirs to McLaren. His famous Odessa Steps sequence from Battleship Potemkin is one of the most memorable scenes in the history of film montage. p. Judith Butler’s idea of the performative and of subjects re-performing an injury (Butler 1993) can be introduced to the multi-screen experience. conceptual and political transitions are made possible. “to create a dual perspective. he created an argument for the people against the czarist state” (Ebert 1998). used as a framing device for Synchromy. and the competition required artists to use visual content from their chosen McLaren film. who participates in a critical evaluation of film as co-author recipient. from April 11 – June 1. The synopsis from the Call for Projects described Synchromy thus: “A rigorous experience of synchronism between sound and image: cards with synthetic sounds are photographed on the soundtrack. If realness is a standard by which we judge any performance.000 prize. Our collaborative design team with myself as director. Humming the tune from the film would be an interaction that could spontaneously erupt away from the exhibition site – and it would give an interpretation of the “wounding” – wit- . The massacre on the steps by the descending Tsar’s soldiers and the mounted and charging Cossacks is actually a fiction. 4) and share a $40. Eisenstein “argued that film has its greatest impact not by the smooth unrolling of images. p. 2014. narrative expectations towards questions of spectatorship and the autonomy of the viewer in different relations of parallel montage and surround sound. Synchromy (1971).” Eisenstein wrote the revolutionary propaganda film to test his montage theory. Begone Dull Care (1949) and Neighbours (1952). which invariably questioned the accepted conditions of art. transcended existing limitations.

which was important to know. imagination. Every time a film is subjected to the recipient’s perception. and in relation to each other. We studied the dimensions of the building surface of Montreal’s Hotel Zero1 building. including both the physical brain and its process of memory.   Paakspuu – 109  With four of McLaren’s films cited in various Montreal locations. looping. A story produced by a group of improvising actors is not determined from the top down. which had several purposes: 1) we could be re-immersed in the time and place through actual people of the time. understand. 2) there was a particular address of activism made to the public by filmmakers Sergei Eisenstein and Alexander Dovzhenko. 3) as the 1920s was a time of upheaval and nationalist movements. There were very few composers collecting or arranging Ukrainian folk music. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      nessed outside the editing room by passerbys humming the tune where the film Shchedryk was created. dreams and capacity to generate visions in a closed eye. 1921 The War Against Music. Digital technology enables different ways of looking at the moving image. and Leontovych made songs from the communities where he taught music a career focus. a Jewish Reform Zionist whose unpublished manuscripts were buried in occupied France. A dialectic occurs when there is an ongoing relationship with looping. Our theatrical story would be a revisitation of the earlier Ukrainian history through film frames of Ukraine’s early 20th Century years. and incorporated these physical aspects into the editing design of Shchedryk and our proposal. Both of these composers were mostly unknown to Western audiences. 471). 7). p. We considered the impact of looping a repetitive sound track in the geographical location over an extended time. American experimental filmmaker Stan Brakhage theorized that there were three spheres participating in a film event: 1) the phenomenological external world. 2) the optical-biological and mechanical-apparatus. and will also be seen in the conventional theatre and in our crowd-funding on-line experiences. introducing performance actions and spectacles that lead to the erosion of obligatory frames and boundaries of films. and 3) the psychical universe. The Place de la Paix (or Peace Park) is located on Montreal’s famous Saint-Laurent Boulevard. The square “blends granite and nature harmoniously. its brick structure and placement of windows. an Orthodox Christian Ukrainian Nationalist who arranged Shchedryk. optic interface connecting them. the particular syntheses of the individual. with the exception of Leontovych’s Shchedryk. surround sound and the distinctive and creative relationship that a recipient develops and explores around “time” and “memory” are unique to multiscreen setups and interrogate and inhabit their multitemporal environments. and Mykola Leontovych (18771921). the external world and the hybrid. it emerges from the interactions among the members of the group. Parallel montage. a . whose beautiful music inspired their peoples: David Nowakowsky (18481921). “This unification. which includes embodied memory through the sensual and somatic. Shchedryk could have multiple lives. and enables a transgression of time that can occur in and between frames. side by side. It will eventually be incorporated into the intro sequence of our documentary. 1995).Interactive Narratives. which features two Ukrainian composers. the decentring of the cinematic experience is transformed into an interactive multimedia art. Narratives are the stories that emerge as products of our interactions and goals as we navigate an experience. categorize and share experience (Galyean. symbolizing both the urban bustle of Montreal and the city’s appetite for the great outdoors” (p. might then be said to become the perceptive and creative experience of each viewer” (Kluszczynski 2007. Emergent narratives are constructed throughout our daily activities to help us remember. Deconstructive methods are projecting film on more than one screen simultaneously.

blues and yellows. The N. Our own recorded music had been the motivating factor for entering the competition. on the premise that we would cite visual sequences of it. an 1886 international agreement governing copyright that recognized author copyright in other signatory countries. color and shifting lines. with its bright psychedelic colors that improvised on each other and flowed in a musical round of marching tones of sound. Eisenstein and Dovzhenko in a culture jam with an a capella song. Hoffert’s filmed performance will be book-ended with a digitally manipulated performance of his piano recording of Shchedryk in a dialogue between the public. Utilizing digital manipulation techniques. and he pioneered techniques of drawing and engraving on film. Our proposal didn’t become a finalist for McLaren Wall to Wall. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      re-evaluation from a decades-later perspective could bring another evaluation to the film arts. It was a song that worked with McLaren’s original film. His early works had an immense influence on experimental methods of the sixties and seventies. painting directly on celluloid. The hands on the piano turn upside down. Hoffert’s performance is manipulated visually and transformed into the bright color range of Synchromy’s reds. and music produced in countries that were not members of the Berne Union unrestricted for use in Russian and Ukrainian film and television. Leontovych was assassinated in 1921 for his role in the nationalism movement in Ukraine. The song Shchedryk itself had been viral from its beginnings as a Ukrainian folk chant welcoming spring to its transformation in the West as Carol of the Bells – a Yuletide favourite featured in popular Hollywood films like Home Alone (1990). multimedia performance. and the use of found footage.Interactive Narratives. Norman McLaren believed cinema was in an experimental stage as an art form. but we could not use the original synthesized music. cross dissolves. conceptual art. their multiple perspectives afforded a unique visual treatment to our creative team. We proposed:   Paakspuu – 110  In Ukraine the song Shchedryk was arranged by composer Mykola Leontovych as a New Year’s carol that sings of the wealth to come in the spring. in an interplay with this music. multiply with the rhythm of Synchromy in the spirit of McLaren’s improvisation. which became a republic after the independence war in 1917-1921. gave us the entire film of Synchromy in a high resolution digital form. This made copyright unprotecable in. the environment. and the experimental arts. The reason this song became known by the name of Carol of the Bells is because neither Ukraine nor Russia were signators of the Berne Convention. Place de la Paix’s wall will flicker with 1920s filmed portraits of the ongoing struggle of Ukrainians to maintain their culture through the tyrannies of the Russian Czar.F. optical printing. filmed portraits of 1920’s Ukrainians from Eisenstein’s Odessa Steps and Ukrainian Alexander Dovzhenko’s films. stop motion. greens. The film Shchedryk will be a dual homage to McLaren and to the Ukrainian peoples’ call for a promised prosperity. A close up of jazz musician Paul Hoffert’s hands playing Shchedryk is intercut with McLaren’s Synchromy. and in a homage to Norman McLaren. pixilation. Shchedryck cites Norman McLaren’s Synchromy in its juxtaposition of color. synthesized sound. tone and visual rhythm.B. A company from Spain got the grand prize for their interpretation of . and innovative montage techniques. such as structural filmmaking. and 4) in incorporating the experimentation and innovativeness of McLaren. the Bolsheviks and the present-day political forces in efforts lasting centuries.

Interactive Narratives. Returning to McLaren’s experimental form and revisiting earlier film masters of the public domain can bring a certain consciousness to Ukraine’s present civil war – of which the portraits from Dovzhenko and Eisenstein’s films speak eloquently. which becomes a lens on the present day politics and war for which a historical continuity cannot be ignored. our editor Peter Gugeler manipulated the visuals and piano improv of the two films featuring Ukrainian performers. Battleship Potemkin. We also cut a version without any of McLaren’s footage. p. which were clearly critical of a dominant political systems. In the spirit of McLaren’s experimentation. We selected portraits from Eisenstein and Dovzhenko’s famous films. Sept. Hoffert’s piano performance of Leontovych’s song stirs it up with the haunting visual of Eisenstein’s blood splattered nurse. where a transgression of time is within the reach of our imagination. Eisenstein’s most famous film. Our design team . 2014. 27. 1. Our design of Shchedryk anticipated a multiframe experience with the irregularities of windows on a brick surface as a screen. was lauded in Europe as a prime example of the propaganda film. 2014. See http://mclarenwalltowall. The film Shchedryk features several cinematic narratives through the multiple frames that weave through Synchromy’s architectural composition. as its                                                          1 The Grand Prize winner was Christo Guelov of Spain. Citing the early film innovators is an archaeological perspective that transforms the past itself through new interpretations and shifts away from those perspectives previously privileged. Our original recording of Shchedryk provided a narrative and story structure manipulated with Synchromy. it is a product of changing philosophical and methodological approaches. The classical composer was murdered in his sleep by an overnight guest at his father’s home in 1921. Leontovych’s classical music was suppressed for being too influential in the Ukrainian nationalism movement. and Shchedryk was exhibited in a loop of experimental films in a gallery at the Muskoka Independent Film Festival from August 28-31 and in competition at the Jasper Short Film and Media Festival. 1921 The War Against Music. Olympia (1938) and Triumph of the Will (1935).com/en/works/colorrythmetic   Paakspuu – 111  criticism of the czar advocated socialism in the Soviet state. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Synchromy and no other Canadian 1 projects were finalists. designed as a first step in the development of the theatrical documentary 1921 The War Against Music. the film Shchedryck is a culture jam in innovative film arts. Hitler’s propagandist Leni Riefenstahl emulated Eisenstein’s films to glorify the Third Reich in her films. If history is “a manifestation of our perception and understanding of the past through the present. David Nowakowsky and Mykola Leontovych. the nurse’s portrait is followed by images of composer Leontovych splattered with blood. 469). Utilizing digital manipulation techniques. which was featured in a palace gallery at the Venice International Experimental Cinema and Performance Festival on Sept. However. we did get the rights to use the McLaren footage for the film festival runs. which will feature original classical music recordings of two banned composers. The multiple portrait frames within the film frame are projections like windows originally conceived to be bent and distorted on the uneven hotel building’s surface with its own windows. these pulsate with the centuries-long struggle of Ukrainians to maintain their culture. The performativity of their actors in the Ukrainian locations of their films embody a way of being in a historical community and as a screen performance. where jazz artist Hoffert’s hands perform in a panopoly of multiple images with distortions that dissolve in the sequences from Synchromy. Digital technology enables a different looking and listening of moving image arts. cultural strategies and deconstructive and reconstructive strategies” (Kluszczynski 2007. In a second version of the film. Interestingly.

The Battleship Potemkin. An interactive concept of authorship through the use of multiple frames expands the dialogue into personal memory tropes and questions of historical veracity. New York. 12.. NY: Routledge. Leonardo. McLaren Wall-to-Wall: Architectural Video Projection in Montreal’s Quartier des Spectacles. MIT Media Lab.D. URL: http://mclarenwalltowall. Circe. URL: http://www. Roger Ebert.Multiple screens. Ryszard W.com/reviews/great-moviethe-battleship-potemkin-1925 [Sept. Isaac. directed by Kalli Paakspuu. 19.5 (The MIT Press). 2014]. Figure 1: Frame from Shechedryk. Narrative guidance of interactivity. 2014] Galyean. Ebert. pp. Roger. Vol. [Sept. Suturing the aesthetic and the political-.mclarenwalltowall.com/en/normanmclaren. (1995). multiple realities: An interview with Isaac Julien. 2. Kluszczynski. Aine & Julien. #1. Ph. Winter. 2011). References Butler. Call for Projects. 469-474 McLaren. Emergent narrative in interactive media. Project Muse. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      met our film public with McLaren-inspired aesthetics of experimental animation and its deconstructive and transformational potential. (1993). 2014]. Vol 40. (2005). #114. (2007).   Walsh. Judith. with viewers maintaining a certain autonomy in co-authorship. thesis. URL: http://www.Interactive Narratives.com Reviews. Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of "Sex".pdf [Sept. MIT. Richard.com/pdf/McLarenCALL_FOR_PROJECTS. 2. (Jan. No. . Norman. The curatorial context of the gallery space where the film was looped in a programme of experimental films offered a particular audi- Paakspuu – 112  ence address.rogerebert. T. O’Brien. Re-writing the history of media art: From personal cinema to artistic collaboration.

 ESPM. Brasil  ale. Alexandre Coronato and Roselita Lopes de Almeida Freitas (2014). which it uses to create new forms of artistic expression through their expressive capacities and the fresh ideas brought by those innovations. Therefore. Ricardo Sternberg. the films produced in this way are mainly based on the construction of abstract narratives that privilege synesthesia as an instrument that produces meanings. and the film itself does not have a direct and objective explanation. and relates directly to the evolution of our knowledge. We also present a project of a system that enables the creation of collective audiovisual narratives in which the recording and the editing occur in real time with a single semiotic intention. Brasil  rosefigueiredo@espm.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. which emerged in the beginning of 21st century. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND).coronato@gmail.br   Suggested citation: Rodrigues. Regina Cunha. São Paulo. Abstract: The audiovisual has always been associated with technological developments. Introduction The ability to produce narratives is the basis of our ability to convey knowledge through time. With the emer- . In other words. or making known. in front of the public. meaning is not made explicit. Cecília Queiroz. The word Livecinema designates the execution of a live audiovisual piece in which the editing happens in real time. is a good example of the impact of technological innovations on the construction of new paradigms for audiovisual production. ESPM. resulting in an objective narrative built from the sum of the perceptions of many individuals who function as the co-authors of the narrative. In this paper. the sequence of images on the screen causes different reactions in the spectators. instead offering an open narrative without a specific story. São Paulo. The etymology of the word narrative has its origin in the Latin word narrare and means counting. depending on the sensations decoded by each individual and his or her cultural and aesthetical repertoire. we show the result of research on the experiences utilizing real time cinema and collective construction of the narrative. which indicates a direct relationship between narratives and the production of knowledge. Livecinema.com   Roselita Lopes de Almeida Freitas. reporting. 2014 | University of  ronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    COLLECTIVE AUTHORSHIP IN REAL TIME  Alexandre Coronato Rodrigues. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. and Martin Zeilinger. “Collective Authorship in Real Time. Eds. However. making unquestionable the relevance of the study of intellectual and cognitive processes involved in building stories. Hudson Moura.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  tober 23‐25.

making unquestionable the relevance of the study of intellectual and cognitive processes involved in building stories. It is also one of the fundamental ways in which we build communities" (Murray. the main elements in the construction of narrative were introduced in ancient Greek with Plato and Aristotle. physical space. According to Jan Christoph Meister. and diegesis. the narrative is always present. transmit and perpetuate our shared knowledge. a new context for producing content is presented. or making known. a construction that The etymology of the word narrative has its origin in the Latin word narrare and means counting. and the possibilities for real-time interaction created by network connections linked to the convergence of media in digital environments inaugurated new paradigms that raised new issues including copyright as well as conceptual problems regarding the produced content as well as its relationship with spectators. these narratives often are enjoyed in common by people of different and even opposite cultures: the narrative mocks the good and bad literature: international. Janet Murray emphasizes the importance of narrative in the preface to the Brazilian edition of her book Hamlet on the Holodeck: the Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. which indicates a direct relationship between narratives and the production of knowledge. 9). pp. we all understand the word ‘narrative’ to mean the telling of a true or fictional story. philosophers and scholars alike studied narratives seeking to identify their constitutive elements and the relationships between these elements in the narrative construction process. 2003. Concept of narrative Narratology – narrative as science Empirically.. The Poetics of Aristotle presented a second criterion that remains fundamental to our understanding of narrative: the distinction between all events that occur in a depicted world and the plot or mythos of the narrated fact. because it is through narratives that we construct. 103-104) Like the philosopher Roland Barthes. in all societies. reporting. a researcher at the University of Hamburg. collective. With the emergence of digital media. since very early on. The former distinguished two main ways of narrating: mimesis. collaborative production. transhistorical. journalistic. there was never any people anywhere without narrative. all classes and all human groups have their narratives. etc. the possibilities of human communication and interaction widened with new possibilities for individual. automatic and interactive semiotic construction in the form of narratives. like life. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      gence of digital technology for the transmission and manipulation of information. (Barthes. The importance of narrative meant that. Our research presented here is the beginning of a search for new ways to build narratives that emerged with new technologies. "narrative is one of our primary cognitive mechanisms to understand the world. – became available. and physical quantities such as time. which modifies concepts established before those new possibilities for the production of cultural content – whether it be artistic. in which she states. transcultural. Rodrigues and Freitas – 114  . which comprises all statements attributable to the author.   .. scientific. 2001. but you can see that this word also carries the depth of man's cultural history. p.Interactive Narratives. The introduction of interactivity. But it is in the field of artistic productions that we find the most fascinating laboratory for developing new forms of expression. a direct imitation of speech in the form of dialogues and monologues of the characters. [T]he narrative is present at all times. the narrative begins with the history of humanity. in all places.

The members of the structuralist movement were interested in identifying and defining the universal aspects of narrative. and which assigned a typology of functions to the characters of narratives (such as lead against secondary. nouns to characters. moves towards an understanding of the cognitive and epistemological functions of narrative. However." which represents the semiotic infrastructure of all systems of signification. with articles written by Roland Barthes. Genette. the cognitive one. Jan Christoph Meister presents a historical overview of the evolution of ideas and concepts about the stories and the names of principal researchers who were dedicated to creating this conceptual body. we find the first theorists in the budding field of narratology." published by the Interdisciplinary Center for Narratology. narratology. This "grammar" included the logical sequence of virtual action. connecting these elements through modal operators. In the 18th century. which seeks to apply narratological concepts in the study of genres and other media going beyond narratives based on texts and words. The term narratology was first used by Todorov in his book Grammaire du Décaméron. in its applicability to various means of communication. Greimas. an important approach for the development of artificial intelligence (AI) in the quest for simulation of this human ability to narrate. and Todorov. principles and practices of narrative production was configured as a science. Algirdas Julien Greimas proposed a model of deep level of meaning called "semiotic square. Tzvetan Todorov promoted the linguistic analogy. This new method was first published in 1966 in a special issue of Communications Magazine. equating actions to verbs. from the text itself and the speech that is formed with the words to the structural properties of narrative as a mean of creating representations and meanings.   Rodrigues and Freitas – 115  In his book An Introduction to the Analysis of Narrative (1966). In the 19th century. and "satellite events" as optional events that serve to beautify the basic plot. Meister (2003) identifies three trends in contemporary narratology: the contextual one. emitter against receiver). and the transgender one. University of Hamburg. including Christian Friedrich von Blanckenburg. for example those imagined in the mind of a character. it was not until the 20th century and the emergence of French structuralism that the study of logic. narrative begins to be studied in the context of classification as form and interpretation. and not merely the logical sequence of actions that compose the scene. adversary against savior.Interactive Narratives. In Grammaire du Décaméron (1969). and their attributes to adjectives. In his article "Narratology. with the formation of a coherent methodological body to create a theory of narrative. Umberto Eco. Computational narratology Computational narratology applies to computing and information processing based on the construction of computational algorithms able to create narrative texts. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      presents a subset of events selected and arranged according to aesthetic considerations. Using the concepts of narratology to dissect narrative structures in the form of formal modules of simulative representation in computer systems. Roland Barthes proposed a functional scheme of narrative events that distinguishes "core events" as those required to ensure the coherence of the story. which seeks to relate the narrative to specific cultural contexts with a focus on the content of the narration. entitled "L'analyse structurale du récit". . based on the search for models of human understanding of narratives. computational narratology seeks ways to simulate texts produced by humans. More recently. in which he advocates a shift in focus in the study of narrative.

argues in his paper "Will Robots Ever Have a Literature?" on the current situation of computational narratology that humans and machines are in the same epistemological status regarding the production of literature. the smaller the limitation imposed on the story structure. To transmit to a computer this whole body of knowledge. those that are considered most useful for producing a good narrative. because it requires large computational processing capacity due to the large volume of information. Understanding is the system's ability to summarize the story and answer questions about the events of the narrative (Rauch. aesthetic awareness and understanding. which are tasks involved in understanding and constructing meanings by humans. which limits the ability of computer systems to fully extract the inferred meanings in a story's plot. 173). Such inferences cannot be mentioned explicitly in the text of the story. The aesthetic consciousness is a function of the system with the ability to choose. we note that this is the evolutionary process that machines suffer. as humans. as occurred in the structuralist phase of narratology. in role-playing videogames (RPGs).g. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      This task seems difficult. But   Rodrigues and Freitas – 116  the inferential challenges involved in imputing motives to characters and in understanding the narrative are of such volume that they become impossible to carry out by current computer systems. irony and lexical associations like idioms. widely used. If we understand evolution as a sequence of levels of increasingly complex organization that directly represent levels of competence. however. Its direct connection with studies on AI is applicable to automatic interpretation of texts and the construction of automatic systems that produce stories. The researcher Jerry R. 1989. Computational narratology also produces important narratological concepts of plot fine-tuning as well as creating long plotlines based on smaller plot units (Lehnert 1981). culture and the ability to relate and make inferences. The greater the creativity.. as is the communication of the nuances of language necessary for the understanding of history as humor. between possible plot structures. which causes major limitation of these systems. a task that should also be reviewed and modified during processing. such as knowledge. Story understanding systems (e. where levels of complexities of the systems can be seen as new organizational levels that directly affect the ability to perform tasks. machines being understood as the combination of hardware and software to process information. are also evolving our understanding of the world and of ourselves from simpler models of representation of reality to increasingly complex and comprehensive models that extend our . for example. in a succession of events that involves the motivations behind the actions of the characters and their emotional consequences. and thereafter to produce computational representations of story generation capable of producing more complex and interesting texts. which may be trivial for humans. is a very difficult task. according to the author. Hobbs. because humans use a lot of knowledge to interpret stories. We can identify two challenges for modern computational narratology: the search for a methodological division covering the interdisciplinarity involved in studies of cognition to construct more accurate analysis of the narratives. Since we. p. Wilensky 1978) collide with this limitation. would be measured by the active role of the system during the construction of history and the variety of possible alternatives as system output. Creativity.Interactive Narratives. since inferring the goals of characters involves a great deal of search on the basis of repertoires. The researcher Marie-Laure Ryan suggests three criteria for the evolution of storygenerating programs towards the production of more elaborate narratives: creativity. it is necessary to infer the causes of events and the goals of the characters involved in the plot. To understand a story.

we have a large volume of incoming information about the characters. 1977). the differences between the stories produced were more relevant. These variations directly influence the quality of the texts produced by each program. With this. this algorithm created stories about King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. 4) MINSTREL: developed by Scott R. but with a substantial increase in the characteristics of the characters. and the goals of the author.Interactive Narratives. The program built a story based on a two-phase process: planning and then solving the problems reusing knowledge from previous stories. since the higher the amount of input data and the more restricted the possibilities of outputs. 1973). it generated simple stories about the life of woodland creatures. Here. 1981). 3) Author: created by Natalie Dehn (Dehn. this algorithm produced only a specific type of story. Turner (Turner. despite producing a particular kind of story. when receiving a particular input. The texts generated were short. 1993). This software gener-   Rodrigues and Freitas – 117  ated stories of murder in an environment given as input along with details of the story’s characters. due to the appearance of commercial applications. The algorithms listed below vary in the type of stories they produce and the quantities and types of input data they need. as well as the introduction of a goal to be achieved by the character. 2) TaleSpin: developed by James Meehan (Meehan. As it was based on a well-defined set of rules. the creation of an algorithm without prior knowledge of the inputs and characteristics of what is expected as output seems to be an impossible task. It received. as a starting point a known universe. because we cannot clearly define the data an author uses to begin the process of creation. The program received as input a moral that was used as a starting point for building the story. and the differences between the stories produced were very small. Understanding algorithm as a set of instructions which. The plot was then developed toward the resolution of this goal through a complex model of possible relationships between the characters. We can perhaps say it's just a matter of evolutionary time until machines and algorithms effectively generate creative narratives stuffed of meaning. . but more recently there has been a significant increase in the number of systems developed for this purpose. intelligence and honesty. The problem consists in creating systems and algorithms capable of performing a nondefined task. and the role of each character in the story. about half a page. the more defined is the task to be performed and therefore the more consistent is the output produced by the algorithm. including their emotional connections and predisposition to violence and sex. Algorithms to generate stories Algorithms capable of producing stories have been researched for over 50 years. 1) Novel: one of the first algorithms for generating stories was developed by Sheldon Klein (Klein et al. This uncertainty is also seen in the human process of constructing a narrative or story. machines exist in a direct analogy to this evolutionary process. this program tried to simulate the mind of a human author based on the assumption that the worlds of a story are developed by the authors to justify actions already chosen for inclusion in the story. We define as story the coherent chain of events and actions that form the plot without taking into account any aesthetic parameters. such as kindness. influence and interact with the world. what perhaps explains why computer systems still fail to reproduce the human capacity to create and tell stories in diverse ways. produce one result as output. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      capabilities to act. situations to which the author wishes to take these characters. Dehn's algorithm builds the story crossing these goals defined by the author for each character.

uniting picture and sound in a physiological and visceral way in which meaning is made through the body and through the physical sensation produced by the sound overlapping with what the viewer sees. produced live and in real time. this program was designed to generate short stories about the first inhabitants of Mexico. The term Livecinema was used early in the history of cinema to designate a silent film session that had live music being played. allowing the production of texts with literary quality. 6) BRUTUS: developed by Selmer Bringsjord and David A. As an example of this. Ferrucci (Bringsjord & Ferrucci. where the sum of diverse views on a particular subject suggests a closer relationship with the reality of the event narrated. Metaremix – DUO N-1.com/29854022). appropriating from digital technologies of information processing to add chance and improvisation as part of the work. 1999). . taking into account emotional connections between the characters and trying to reproduce the creative process of the production of narratives. it wrote short stories of betrayal based on a pre-defined logical model of betrayal. and performing a large number of inferences. which are updates that incorporate the possibilities of digital media to past experiences. 1999). and American vaudevilles. we began to experiment with new forms for audiovisual production. It is an extension of Sergei Eisenstein's cinema of attractions. remixCidade: Rio – Grupo Mesa de Luz. we have experiments that attempt the collective generation of objective and committed narratives with a specific meaning or sense. Earlier in this century. An example of this is the emergence of Livecinema earlier in this century as a catalyzer of ideas of the early nineteenth century multimedia theater with audiovisual remixes made by VJs of the 1990s and 2000s. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      5) Mexica: created by Rafael Pérez y Pérez (Pérez y Pérez.Interactive Narratives. In this project. Ponto: a video game without winner and – HOL STORM – luizduVa and Manuel Pessôa. the sessions took place in a variety theater. as Arlindo Machado says in The Beginnings of Cinema: 1895-1926. It was based on an algorithm that evaluated the story as it was produced. At the other end of the spectrum of collective audiovisual productions.com). The commitment to linear and objective narrative that tells a story like a Hollywood movie or a book is not important. it is the manipulation of images and sounds performed in real time in front of   Rodrigues and Freitas – 118  the audience. A good example is EchoChamber (echochamberproject. and the film itself does not have a direct and objective meaning. in which the sequence of images on the screen causes various meanings in viewers according to the sensations produced and decoded by each viewer and their cultural and aesthetic repertoire. drink and dance. where you could eat. because. like the British music halls. In this way. we intend to go one step further in the production of collective content by adding the idea of narrative production to Livecinema. In other words. composing an open narrative without a specific story. taking into account a lot of knowledge of grammar and literature. the senses are not explicit. appropriating from these to create new forms of artistic expression with the use of their languages and through new ideas and worldviews that these innovations bring. Livecinema perpetuates this tradition because it broadens the experiences of multimedia performances. the French coffeeconcerts. we present a video with excerpts from four works that were part of the 2011 IV Livecinema Exhibition (http://vimeo. Livecinema is based on abstract narratives. Nowadays. Collective narratives Audiovisual arts have always been associated with technological developments. the term Livecinema refers to the execution of a live audiovisual work. which so far is based mainly on the construction of abstract narratives that privilege synesthesia as an instrument to produce meanings.

e. It is. pp 200-201) The definition of narrative is complex and still undetermined. i. (Manovitch. to cover up the fact that we have not yet developed a language to describe these new strange objects. in the world of new media. It is usually paired with another over-used word — interactive. and its "contents" should be a series of connected events caused or experienced by actors. a hyper-narrative as defined by Lev Manovich in his book The Language of New Media. An interactive narrative (which can be also called ‘hyper-narrative’ in an analogy with hypertext) can then be understood as the sum of multiple trajectories through a database. Obviously. among many other possible trajectories. is assumed to be constitute "interactive narrative. The EchoChamber Project explores investigative and collaborative film through new media technologies as well as a repository of original video interviews with journalists and scholars. it also should contain three distinct levels consisting of the text.com).e. not all cultural objects are narratives." or "material" change in the definition of narrative does not mean that an arbitrary sequence of database records is a narrative. which aims to produce documentaries and therefore objective narratives and films with defined subjects. defines as follows: it should contain both an actor and a narrator. which has a unique intention. and the fabula. but in a simplified way we can define three types of narratives: linear ." But to just create these trajectories is of course not sufficient. it is the "YouTube" of an independent filmmaker combined with "Wikipedia" for serious journalism. which becomes the sum of the trajectories chosen by each participant. The prototype proposed in this project seeks for an intermediary path between the two extremes of audiovisual narratives. which cultural theorist Mieke Bal. echochamberproject.. Thus. the story. traditional linear narrative can be seen as a particular case of a hyper-narrative. However. a cultural object has to satisfy a number of criteria. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      made by Kent Bye. It is a project that details the limitations of American journalism and at the same time incorporates innovative solutions through collaborative media production. Just as a traditional cultural object can now be seen as a particular case of a new media object (i.Interactive Narratives. the word narrative is often used as an all-inclusive term. captured in real time. but constructed in a poetic form and preserving the freedom of metaphorical meaning-generation for the participants who will make the film. in a collective process. a number of database records linked together so that more than one trajectory is possible. the author also has to control the semantics of the elements and the logic of their connection so that the resulting object will meet the criteria of narrative as outlined above. This "technical. Radical innovation is necessary in order to discover sustainable business models for investigative journalism. The EchoChamber Project explores the two main trends in online video by working with Collective Intelligence through Citizen Participation (Kent Bye. thus. a new media object which only has one interface). proposing the construction of a collective narrative in real time. with the difference that the database is reality itself. a particular choice made within a hyper-narrative.. A   Rodrigues and Freitas – 119  traditional linear narrative is one. the author of a standard textbook on narrative theory. as well as new ways to keep the influence and attention of the public with reliable content. Summing up. To qualify as a narrative. 2007.

It's a system being modified through the analysis of the results. but in a nonlinear and abstract way. and does not impose strict limits to the choice of content by the agent author/filmmaker. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      narratives. where there is a general sense. only with the direction given by the subject / title. The film. the narrative agents can also communicate with each other in order to drive the narrative construction. and adjusting its parameters to modify the end result is the film itself. therefore.Interactive Narratives. differing from the last one by the semiotic intent with the general meaning of the message or theme set. or a message. in which players from around the world can participate in the action taking place part in a physical space. each module to capture images has a tablet with Internet access that allows the agent to watch in real time the film that is being produced. where the sequence of scenes or events have no direct link with the earlier scenes and there is no compromise with a specific meaning or a story to be told. as it has a signic intention but does not bind or stifle the choice of scenes. The relative position of the players is tracked by satellites.uk/bt/work_cysmn. The system shall consist of modules to capture images operated by people. These capturing/recording stations would be similar to those used by the project Blast Theory (blasttheory. partly on a virtual map of the city where the game is played. because through feedback between the collecting agents the capture of the images begins to compose the scenes of a film. where scenes or facts are chained to build a story with a definite sense. abstract narratives. poetic narratives. that must be built from metaphors. Thus. and ideas generated by the debate with the other agents. The production of a poetic narrative seems well suited to the project proposal. The information is sent to handheld computers that help you find the opponents. creating the narrative sense determined by a previously chosen topic. this system of producing narratives of collective authorship has the characteristics of a complex system because the end result is the sum of the intentions of each collector agent. making decisions together.html). and exchanging ideas with other agents/collectors/authors/filmmakers. does not determine the content of the next scene of the movie. The definition of a theme and the communication between authors/filmmakers of the videos are essential to provide a narrative intention and to build this narrative.co. creating the semiotic relationship between each scene in real time through the choices made by each collector of images from what has already been produced. which is essential for the functioning of the system. These images will be transmitted in real time to a server that is running a software such as Isadora. The decision on a scene to be captured   Rodrigues and Freitas – 120  is influenced by the narrative that has been constructed in the previous scenes. The poetic narrative allows us to convey ideas related to a topic. modified and influenced by the outcome that is seen and commented by people who are building a movie in real time. and what matters is the sensory experience generated in the viewer. which receives the transmission of video clips captured . and also a button so that the signal of your camera can be projected after the signal of another camera finishes. We can consider this kind of narrative as an intermediate between linear and abstract narratives. or authors/filmmakers agents. we will use tablets with 4G connection and a camera for the image capturing. without a script. is created scene-by-scene by the agents and the people who act and appear in the scenes. Through the tablet. equipped with IP cameras that transmit the signal captured by each agent to the projection room. Besides the cameras. guaranteeing freedom of choice to the author/filmmaker. directing and choosing the scenes. Technology To build the ideal system.

  Pérez Y Pérez. Hamlet no holodeck: o futuro da narrativa no ciberespaço. David . Gerald. Turner. (2003). Vancouver. An Introduction to the Analysis of Narrative. Robert W. a Storytelling Machine. São Paulo: Agência Observatório. Canada. Tale-Spin. A Narratological Approach. Wilensky. (2001). Raunch. (2002). Klein. The Language of New Media. MEXICA: A Computer Model of Creativity in Writing. Tzvetan. Carr. São Paulo: Itaú Cultural: Unesp. by each station and then project them on a screen in the order they arrive at a destination folder. (1978). The Hague: Mouton. University of British Columbia. (1973). Roland . Los Altos. Logique du récit. Understanding Goalbased Stories. PhD Dissertation. Barthes. Artificial Intelligence and Literary Creativity Inside the Mind of brutus. New Literary History 6. . Prince. (1997). Automatic novel writing: A status report. Actors and Figures. Claude. Gerald. James R. Drinan (ed). Forster. J. Natalie. MA. Herman. Greimas. Oswald.: Lawrence Erlbaum. Lev .Interactive Narratives. Scott R. Computer Science Department. (2003). (1993). London: Penguin. (1977). Proceedings of the Seventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. (1973). Story Logic: Problems and Possibilities of Narrative. Thomas G. Technical Report 186. Mieke. The Case of English Renaissance Drama. (1975). Rafael. Edward M. EUA: The MIT Press. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P. (2005). A aventura semiológica. N. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P. Computing Action. Cambridge. Selmer. Grammaire du Décaméron. References Meister. The Hague: Mouton. The communication between the collecting agents occurs through tablets with Skype. Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. Morphology of the Folktale. (1977). The Poetics of Plot. Barthes. Dicionário Enciclopédico das Ciências da Linguagem. Toronto: U of Toronto Press. CA: Kaufmann. Minstrel: a computer model of creativity and storytelling. Propp. Story Generation after TaleSpin. Berlin: de Gruyter. The University of Sussex. (1999). On Meaning: Selected Writings in Semiotic Theory. The semiotic bridge. Imengard. The same signal is streamed over the network. Berlim: Monton. Chatman. Ducrot. Ithaca: Cornell UP. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P. Yale University Computer Science Research Report. Bloomington: Indiana UP. Narratology. Seymour. Ferrucci. São Paulo: Editora Perspectiva. A. (1973). University of California at Los Angeles. David A. Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film.J. Bal. Actants. Arlindo. Pavel. (1969). Todorov. A. Dehn. An Introduction. Roland. The University of Wisconsin. Manovich. Madison. A Grammar of Stories. (1997). PhD Dissertation. Tzvetan . MIT. (1987). Aspects of the Novel. Bremond. (1999). (1978). Todorov. (1985). Murray. Sheldon. (1981). Os Primórdios do Cinema: 1895-1926. Jan Christoph. (1989). Paris: Seuil. et al. Hillsdale. (1958). Algirdas Julien. Meehan. Janet H. Los Angeles. Vladimir. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Rodrigues and Freitas – 121  Machado. (2002). allowing decisions to be made about the content of the narrative being produced. so the collecting agents can watch the movie at the same time. G. an interactive program that writes stories. Proceedings of the Fifth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. São Paulo: Martins Fontes. Bringsjord.

Such additional content can be compared to the “bonus” material found on DVD and Blu-Ray releases. The footage may allow the audience privileged access not traditionally available in theatre. and Martin Zeilinger. Ricardo Sternberg. we may ask 1) Is their behaviour also a performance. The Red Shoes (1948) and The Tales of Hoffman (1951).ac. This includes not only backstage footage and interviews as part of the broadcasts themselves. Regina Cunha. Eds. public and private. real and fictional. which raises some provocative questions about the nature of performance and audience expectation in the digital age. The paper concludes that NT Live's broadcasting of behind-the-scenes content. what is its value to the audience? In this paper. “maximal visibility. but as the cast and crew are aware that they are being filmed backstage. rather than using them simply as a form of mediation. however.” But I also suggest that NT Live should incorporate cinematic techniques directly into their productions. particularly with its “Encore” presentations in which recordings of theatrical performances are broadcast in cinemas – and in which audience expectation is for.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. but also “additional videos. surveillance and spectatorship posited by Michel Foucault and Jean Baudrillard. In doing so I draw on the work of the literary theorist Wolfgang Iser. have been blurred to the point of erasure – just as NT Live itself has erased the differences between cinema and theatre.uk    Suggested citation: Sweeney. both of which deal with the boundaries between reality and fiction and the consequences of transgressing these boundaries.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. behind-the-scenes footage is also broadcast live. . and the theories of observation. live and recorded. in Baudrillard's terms. David (2014). Abstract: Promotional material for National Theatre Live (NT Live hereafter) – which broadcasts live theatrical performances digitally to cinemas – emphasises the “exclusive behind-the-scenes content” that audiences will receive. podcasts and information about theatre-making” available online. Cecília Queiroz. ISBN: 978-09939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). the dramaturgy of Bertolt Brecht. Glasgow  d. Hudson Moura. I compare NT Live's broadcast of live behind-the-scenes footage to the fictional presentation of backstage activity in two 'composed' films by Powell and Pressburger. to create a new form of contemporary spectacle for the 21st century. is characteristic of our current media climate in which the boundaries between backstage and on-stage. The Glasgow School of Art. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    CROSSING BOUNDARIES  Dr. “Crossing Boundaries. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference.sweeney@gsa. David Sweeney  Forum for Critical Inquiry. and 2) If so.

and an up and coming composer. despite the fact that she is contractually prohibited from dancing for anyone other than Ballet Lermontov. the titular shoes. and. Nina's (Natalie Portman) deteriorating mental health. jealous that Vicky and Julian have fallen in love. and production crew (in work attire). Fosse's avatar Joe Gideon (Roy Scheider) hallucinates the five stages of accepting death as a Broadway spectacle following a heart attack.’ which is also based on the Christian Anderson story. This privileging is pivotal in the film's plot in the scene where Lermontov. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      The Red Shoes Based on the fairy tale of the same name by Hans Christian Anderson. affects her perception of reality in a manner reminiscent of psychological horror/thrillers films such as Hitchcock's Rebecca (1940) or Polanski's Repulsion (1965). Julian Craster. then through the set. Vicky Page (Moira Shearer) and her relationships with Boris Lermontov. but also as a cinematic experience that makes full use of techniques such as close-ups. the . Again. the idealistic yet ambitious ingénue. starring Vicky. financial wranglings and so on – of staging a ballet also called 'The Red Shoes. pans and the use of slow motion. The film presents the production processes – including rehearsals. up onto the stage. which was conveyed by a vertiginous tracking shot which swooped. therefore. the night of production. more recently. Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger's 1948 film The Red Shoes is a backstage drama that focuses on a young ballet dancer. both as a spectacle viewed by a theatre audience. which she wears both on and off-stage. Both of these films incorporate fantasy elements: in the former. which promised both a cinematic treatment of theatrical events (including ballet) and “behind-the-scenes” access. the tortured young composer. which is centred around a production of the ballet Swan Lake. in an imitation of the fate of her character in the ballet.” which both the audience and Julian know is not the case. I was reminded of The Red Shoes while watching an advertisement. a move that ultimately leads to her tragic death when her need to dance surpasses her loyalty to Julian: she agrees to star in a revival of the ballet that results in her   Sweeney – 123  demise when. here. The film's audience. for whom Julian has composed the score. Lermontov uses this mendacious appraisal of Julian's work as a reason to fire him from the company. Darren Aronofsky's Black Swan (2010). and the pushy stage mother. which is based on his career as a choreographer and theatrical director. vulgar and completely insignificant. the film audience has a privileged gaze that is nearomniscient. which causes Vicky also to leave. into a backstage area teeming with performers (in costume). owner of the dance company Ballet Lermontov. albeit in a fictional way that often deploys established dramatic stereotypes such as the manipulative male impresario. for National Theatre Live. several of whom acknowledged the presence of the camera. while in Black Swan. dismisses Julian's latest composition as “childish. intercompany tensions. NT Live actively promotes backstage access in its advertising. and which is included in the film. sees both what the fictional theatre audience sees (but in a cinematically enhanced form) and what the theatre audience is denied access to: the backstage events leading up to. from a position high in the auditorium's seating – the gods in British theatre parlance – down through the theatre. appear to take control of her body. artistic disagreements. and including.Interactive Narratives. a result of the pressure on her to succeed as a ballerina. As such. Other cinematic examples of the genre include All That Jazz (1979) directed by Bob Fosse. Backstage drama demystifies the processes of theatrical production. dissolves. in a cinema. who works as the company's orchestral coach.

Breaking the fourth wall removes the boundary not only between audience and character. For Wolfgang Iser. which I'll call The Red Shoes A. including the initial presentation of the dance sequence. to alchemize the fantastic elements of Christian Anderson's story. that is. even when that is not objectively “real. The cast and crew know that they will be filmed backstage on the nights when NT Live broadcasts so it is reasonable to assume that they will behave appropriately. and as such. and equally as fictional. This would require a psychological reading of the film. in which people play themselves. the presentation of the eponymous ballet uses cinematic techniques to abandon the realism that has characterised the film up to that moment. Similarly. but these are not borne from physical trauma or mental illness: rather. As such. Austen's oeuvre has been “re-genrified” with the publication of (terrible) novels such as Pride and Prejudice and Zombies and Sense and Sensibility and Sea-Monsters (both 2009). In this sense. But in what way is what we see behindthe-scenes “real”? As I mentioned. as a fantasy novel by George RR Martin. To accept that supernatural forces actually do punish Vicky or Nina is to cross the boundary from realism to fantasy. supernatural (although his sorceress character Melisandre does admit to using theatrical techniques to impress the credulous). the invisible fourth wall that delineates the border of the play-world. of the character they will play onstage. as result of her ambitiousness. by emphasising the industrial conditions of theatre. and it allows for the possibility that Vicky is truly possessed by the shoes as a punishment for her betrayal of Julian. the cinema audience has a privileged gaze. regardless of genre. and then into the world of the ballet-withinthe film. in theatrical terms.” The Red Shoes also contains fantasy elements. The Red Shoes B: in both worlds. the great German playwright Bertolt Brecht emphasised the importance of defamiliarisation in the production of drama: Brecht's Verfremdungseffekt drew the audience's attention to the artificiality of the spectacle they were viewing through such techniques as the exposure of stagecraft and the breaking of the fourth wall via direct address of the audience. The Red Shoes involves its audience in two acts of boundary crossing: first. Epic Theatre can also be seen to be involved in a form of demystification. Another possibility. NT Live involves its audience in two boundary crossings: into the world of the play. all fiction. separated from the actual world by. if not the role. to make the fantastic real. several of the people present backstage acknowledged and indeed played to the camera in what was clearly a type of performance if not exactly drama.” because the effects – such as slowing of motion and the camera's movement into the shoes – could not be achieved using theatrical techniques. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      cinema audience's gaze is privileged: they see what the characters see. thus creating new fictional worlds. therefore. behind-the-scenes access takes the NT Live audience into a version of the actual world. an interpretation grounded in realism.Interactive Narratives. which is shown from the point of view of the theatre audience. Nina may have died by her own hand. say Jane Austen is no less artificial. but also between fictional world and . in the advertisement I saw at the cinema. what we may term the fantastic is part of the metaphysics of Martin's   Sweeney – 124  A Song of Ice and Fire series and is not. into the world of the film. of course. involves boundary crossing: from the actual world of the reader into the world of the fiction: in this view. is that her own guilt over the betrayal compels her to commit suicide (similarly. including actors in the costume. In his practice of Epic Theatre. and also by providing behind-the-scenes access to the hidden world of backstage reality. The fantastical feel of the ballet is not a result of a cinematic representation of the “magic of theatre. at the end of Black Swan). The dance sequence is pure cinema. However. a realist text by. which introduce fantastic elements to the Austen originals.

maximal visibility are now part of the human rights (and of human duties all the same)”: we expect to see all. for example. but behind-the-scenes access can be seen as a response to the current expectation of “maximal visibility. not   Sweeney – 125  adaptations of theatre in the same way as the form Badiou criticises. NT Live broadcasts. they can be seen to adapt the form to a different medium. The equivalent of a ready-made – a given transcription of everyday life – which is itself already recycled by all current patterns.” He makes specific reference to “actors whose only effect lies in tremor or slow motion. an actor makes different choices with the knowledge that the production is being broadcast and may be repeated. That adjective belongs to cinema. It would be harsh. to compare NT Live's backstage footage with the voyeurism of Big Brother. is pure virtual reality. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      actual world: NT Live's provision of behindthe-scenes access seems less concerned with demystification of spectacle. associating them with “the shopkeeping bourgeoisie” and describing them as being “as greasy as pork and beans. than in the expansion of it to encompass that which was hitherto restricted: reality becomes part of the spectacle. of course. and more authentic than. with no access whatsoever to any permanence.” in which performances are re-broadcast in a manner similar to television re-runs. involve the viewer in a boundary crossing. (192) Badiou is dismissive of adaptations of theatre to cinema or television. film acting because of the absence of special effects. and for others to make themselves visible to us. particularly digital cinema. “Maximal Visibility” While he or she is still required to attend the cinema at a specific date on a specific time. producted : as in a computer. in the operation Big Brother. Just as docu-soaps. of the fiction. Whether or not this affects performances or stage direction is unknown to me. but cinema. even as Encore presentations. for him. into the “real lives” of the shows’ participants. so behind- .” Alain Badiou writes “there can be no permanent theatre. “no other art form is able to pin down the intensity of what happens the way theatre does” (193).” Furthermore. and the behind-the scenes access. for example. Behind-the-scenes footage. can be compared to the bonus material included on DVD and Blu-ray releases. like reality television. of course. While this practice can be seen to compromise the temporal specificity of the theatrical experience. “The Violence of the Image. in terms of Jean Baudrillard's concept of “maximal visibility” as outlined in his 2004 lecture to the European Graduate School. reality television shows like Big Brother provide a “wonderful model of this forced visibility”: All that is visualized there. even than in backstage drama. For Baudrillard. In his essay “Rhapsody for the Theatre. but have capitulated to audience desires with their “Encore Presentations. NT Live have so far resisted demands for their broadcasts to be released in these formats. it also moves theatrical spectacle closer to cinema: no live theatrical performance is ever the same twice. We can think about this privileging. this footage raises questions about what constitutes fiction today.Interactive Narratives. a synthetic image of the banality.” suggesting that theatrical performance is superior to. as they do involve camera movement. but nevertheless. but we may wonder if.” Baudrillard argues that “Maximal information. are. which does not deteriorate in the way that celluloid does. is always the same. and at the most to exhibitions”: The fact that immediately the spectacle is played a second time changes nothing in this regard. the NT Live Encore viewer is nevertheless privileged in no longer being bound to the temporal and spatial specificity of live theatre. It is two times One. and the interviews with cast and crew also provided in both the cinema broadcasts and on the NT Live website.

References Aronofsky. but. th Iser. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. London: the John Hopkins University Press. in which Shearer plays Olympia. 2008. and so become obedient. 'Rhapsody of Theatre: A Short Philosophical Treatise' in Theatre Survey 49:2. Tales of Hoffman Powell and Pressburger returned to ballet with Tales of Hoffman (1951). Emeric (directors). in an allusion to Frankenstein: “The cinema thus creates here   Sweeney – 126  a new artistic monster: the best legs adorned by the best voice” (54). The Red Shoes (1949). 1993. but as they are certain that they will be punished if they disobey. The Fictive and the Imaginary: Charting Literary Anthropology. Powell. Baudrillard. where there was still a source of power and visibility. of the concept of theatre. presenting aspects of Stella's personality. but alive to the conditions of the 21st century and its maximisation of visibility. Wallis. but in the context of NT Live specifically. 1979 All That Jazz. itself based on the fantasy stories of E. In this tale. This would be an expansion of not just the spectacle of theatre. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      the-scenes access stimulate a discussion of what constitutes “real” behaviour under conditions of observation. Hoffman (who also provided Christian Anderson with the source material for 'The Red Shoes'). Baudrillard claims “we are beyond the Panoptikon.egs. Shearer's vocals were in fact performed by the opera singer Dorothy Bond. Jean. accessed 14/9/2014 Fosse. http://www. to borrow a term from Gilles Deleuze.” this may be true in a wider cultural sense. Bob (Director). to create a new form which is not only live. 2010. This is hinted at in the first tale. as is provided by behind-the-scenes footage. The stories are ostensibly autobiographical. The film is adapted from the opera of the same name by Jacques Offenbach. his betrothed. they are likely to act as if they are under surveillance. Michael and Pressburger. NT Live. which allows a kind of choreography of the second degree where the rhythm of the dance is served by that of the cinema” (54). and presents us with layers of fiction: a character based on Hoffman tells three stories in a tavern during the interval of a ballet starring Stella. Badiou. “docile bodies. US: Fox Searchlight Pictures. which prompted the film theorist André Bazin to remark. Black Swan. 'The Violence of the Image'. we can see Foucault's argument that the knowledge of even the potential of surveillance tends to change behaviour: prisoners in the panoptikon can never be sure if they are being observed or not. Alain. online. Invoking Foucault.Interactive Narratives.T. which includes a ballet sequence. UK: British Lion Pictures. European Graduate School. part of which we also see in the film. but potentially it could by integrating cinematic techniques directly into productions rather than using them simply for mediation. Powell and Pressburger’s work is a modern Prometheus because “[n]ot only is opera liberated from its material constraints but also from its human limitations” and “dance itself is renewed by the photography and the editing. It seems likely that this would change their behaviour.” cast and crew backstage on broadcast night know for sure that they are being filmed and are likely to be part of the expanded spectacle that NT Live provides with its crossing of boundaries.edu/faculty/jeanbaudrillard/articles/the-violence-of-the-image/. 2004. . which also starred Shearer in the dual role of Stella/Olympia. an automaton for whom an unwitting Hoffman falls.A. detailing Hoffman's three failed love affairs before meeting Stella. Switzerland. US: 20 Century Fox/Columbia Pictures. however. Darren (Director). Wolfgang. Baltimore. with its preservation of the intergrity of the traditional theatrical experience – which Badiou values so highly – does not perform a similar liberation or renewal for theatre. Hoffman finally reveals that they are fictions. For Bazin.

Wimmer. Bern: Peter Lang. Michael and Pressburger.Tales of Hoffman (1951). Leila.   Sweeney – 127  . 2009. UK: British Lion Pictures. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Powell. Emeric (directors). Cross Channel Perspectives: The French Reception of British Cinema.Interactive Narratives.

Isabella (2014). New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. The origin goes back to classical antiquity. This paper specifically engages with. Abstract: This article discusses ways in which films.  BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL AND THE IMAGINARY  Isabella Trindade. museums are as old as the history of humankind. 1. and borrows analytical tools from. Media Studies is a relatively new field in the academic circuit. 2) how they have led to an essential transformation in exhibition spaces over the years. and can be considered to have been around ever since humans began to collect and store valuables in specially built rooms. including the history and theory of architecture. Later. providing innovative and inclusive means for artistic expression and new perspectives on contemporary exhibition practices. museum studies and sociology. “In-Between: Between the Concrete and the Virtual. In the Renaissance. Cecília Queiroz. digital screens and new media have been used in exhibition spaces. The intersection of architecture.      INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  tober 23‐25. and provides new ways of enjoying an exhibition. The point is not to list the new technological devices that are used in various exhibition spaces. between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. York University   i_trindade@hotmail. the first museums. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    IN‐BETWEEN: BETWEEN THE CONCRETE AND THE VIRTUAL. is observed in an exhibition. Between the Physical and the Imaginary. which formed the initial core of national museum collections. royal private collections were gathered in palaces. The transposition of film to museums In its broadest sense. art and the expanding digital sphere allows for a transformation of the conventional standards for exhibition spaces. Ricardo Sternberg. this paper has been organized into three parts to conceptualize.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives. Regina Cunha. cultural studies. as we understand them today. and 3) how these contemporaries spaces are ‘in-between’ – between the concrete and the virtual. contextualize and identify the advantages of the format. It is only to note: 1) how they have changed the way art. a number of disciplines. Hudson Moura. combining the approaches of multiple disciplines. communication and media studies. where objects were col- lected and kept in temples as an offering to the muses. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). and Martin Zeilinger.com    Suggested citation: Trindade. To discuss ways in which films. Eds. especially film. were estab- . digital screens and new media have defined new parameters and outlined a new way of designing and creating spaces. and between the physical and the imaginary.

As we know. In the twentieth century. music and dance. Moreover. the relationship between films. p. promoting courses. minimalism. The newly established museums began to occupy public buildings or palaces that were converted into museums. performances. and artists and architects began to question the adequacy of these spaces. A museum’s architectural design represented the biggest change that had occurred in terms of shape and form. 2. Over the years. There is an interaction between the viewer and the artwork. films and all kinds of projections have been seen as an important communication tool for creative expression. numerous museums emerged around the world. The in-between areas: between cinema and visual art From a historical perspective. conferences. all these artistic expressions require changes to exhibition spaces. with restaurants. video art. land art. Museums such as the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York and the George Pompidou Museum in Paris have created film departments. transforming the museums into lively and more attractive spaces. contemporary art and museums has intensified in the past twenty years. installations and many other artistic media. the most notorious example being the Louvre museum in Paris. Furthermore. and later became incorporated into the rooms of exhibits and museums worldwide. films were traditionally seen only (or primarily) in movie theaters. which had been designed to house art collections. especially in Europe. and a museum’s internal spaces were part of a continuum. Regarding artistic expression and museum exhibitions. whose existence is based on the relationship established between them. we have seen museums entirely devoted to films – such as London’s Cinema . Films shown inside museums are seen as an important communication tool for telling a story. The public not only interacts. the so-called “Cinéma d'Exposition” (Cinema of Exhibition).Interactive Narratives. but is also part of the artwork and the exhibition. and reflecting on and critically examining a specific fact. involving a hidden projector from behind and an immobile spectator (Païni 2002. supporting knowledge. In the late nineteenth century. an innovative understanding of its role in terms of a dialogue or eventual confrontation with an exhibition’s contents. Museums have also widened their activities. they are designed to be pleasant places to visit. In some cases. the design of museums and exhibition spaces has changed. shape and features. while the control of natural and artificial lighting. such as the AGO 1st Thursday at the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto and the ROM Friday Night Live at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto. it incorporates the role of the artwork itself.   Trindade – 129  Whether interactive or ephemeral and varying in size. architecture has gone through its own continual process of review. a term coined by art critic Jean Christophe Royoux in the early 2000s to describe the transposition of film to museums and art galleries. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      lished with the specific purpose of collecting and protecting precious objects of interest. Both events feature onenight-only artist projects. the idea of creating a specific building to house a collection emerged when the Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier designed the “Musée de la Connaissance” (Museum of Knowledge) in 1939. events and parties. as opposed to the traditional 'film projection' in dark rooms. the Cinema of Exhibition (which incorporates and is appreciated as an artwork). and not only in shape and form: museums are no longer simple exhibition galleries. Buildings began to be designed to organize space. cafes. 1). Thus. happenings. shops and gardens. pop art. museums today are designed to be trendy and to create attractive "hands-on" exhibits to engage visitors. In this process of transformation. in the same way in which art has changed in recent years. ventilation. the most radical changes have been produced by the latest avantgarde: art brut. popup speakers. performances.

such as the 24 Hour Psycho installation mentioned previously. the board of the museum did not agree.” That was. Pierre Huyghe.” the art critic Jean Christophe Royoux once said. among others. Visitors can be alone. considered one of the leading researchers in the field of cinema’s artistic dimension and its relation to contemporary art. seated in an armchair. Stan Douglas. using multiple screens (Today/Tanaan [Eija-Liisa Athila. which completely affect and modify our understanding. Although treated for many years only as cultural objects for the consumer or a type of enjoyable entertainment inside a dark room in a movie theatre. The works of artists such as Douglas Gordon. p. sit or switch positions (depending on the location. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Museum. in which he presents a slowed-down version of Alfred Hitchcock's 1960 masterpiece Psycho. in an experience that is unique to them. or experience a flux of viewers (depending on the number of visitors passing through the space and the amount of time each viewer wishes to 'watch' the projected images). Visitors can stand. Doug Aitken. convinced them. Anthony McCall and David Claerbout.Interactive Narratives. Visitors can stand in front of a screen or beside it. As an example of this relationship. Is there any difference between watching a movie in a theater or in a museum?   Trindade – 130  Absolutely! How does the viewer interact with a movie in these two situations? It depends on many factors. or accompanied by others. or walk in several directions (while looking at a sequence of images across multiple screens. Philippe Dubois. 2012. They have their own trajectory as a participant.” Watching a movie in a museum rather than in a movie theatre is quite different. or The National Museum of Cinema in Italy – and film archives. movies can also be understood as art. while some filmmakers put on exhibitions and installations: “L'installation pour les Cinéastes. a viewer is no longer locked inside a dark room. Isaac Julien. until someone. 7). instead of its original 109 minutes. Cinema and contemporary art are closer than ever before: some artists use movies as a form of artistic expression. who would later become the first director of the film department. In this installation. She had to give a lecture on cinema as the seventh art. “We usually think of cinema as a spectacle involving at least three distinct elements: a movie theatre. for example). Gordon presented a reality that was completely different than what we normally experience in a movie theater (see Figures 1 and 2). p. le cinéma pour les Plasticiens. Sam Taylor-Wood. the 'Cinema of Exhibition' can be exemplified by the installation 24 Hour Psycho (1993) by Scottish artist Douglas Gordon. dedicated to keeping the spirit of cinema alive. with a scheduled time to start and end. Thus. and viewers can watch the movie in its entirety or only a part of it. 1996] . Parente and Carvalho (2008. “Initially. ‘How to put movies alongside El Greco and Pollock?’ they asked. Eija-Liisa Athila. Some films explore other lengths and intensities (slow motion or fast). points out that it was only in 1936 that the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York included a film department that was equal in importance to the departments of painting and sculpture. this installation lasted exactly 24 hours. one to be treated as an art like any other (Lins and Fraga. purpose of an exhibition and furniture available). A room prepared for an exhibition is not necessarily dark or silent. reiterate and recreate the cinema experience. 37) have pointed out that. a device to project a moving image and a film that tells a story in roughly two hours. In a museum. The projection can be viewed in many different ways. The experiences that they invite us to witness call our attention to the reconfiguration of cinema’s architectural space. and currently almost all museums use projections or movies inside their interior spaces.

the Internet. mais au contraire ce que signifie et comment se manifeste la réversion du mobile dans l'immobile. (Iles. text. et par là même la reconstruction de multiples manières. (Parente and Carvalho. . étudier. 3D or 4D. Works exhibited in museums and art galleries nowadays can reinvent cinema in several ways. As an example. 50-51) There are many possibilities representing a shift in how movies can be displayed. Ce qui est en jeu. new technological possibilities for capturing and projecting images. screens). p. 2000]) or by experimenting with the basic properties of the cinematic medium. and to rethink architectural solutions in a world where everything has become digital: video. the architecture of exhibition spaces and technological development has forced architects and engineers to keep abreast of these changes. movies nowadays can be in 2D. 1996] and Taxi Driver Too [Vibeke Tandberg. p. These experiences first began in the 1960s with the use of experimental video art as a form of artistic expression. Many cinematic works have transformed the architecture of the projection room or proposed different relationships with spectators. and with different screen sizes. la vidéo et le projection holographique et photographique pour mesurer. rather than single. while all kinds of projections exhibited in museums and art galleries can reinvent the architecture (see Figures 3 and 4).38) 3. refléter et transformer les paramètres de l'espace physique. d'une expérience indissociable de la construction d'un lieu du spectateur. les diapositives. The relationship between the fields of art (cinema and the various forms of artistic expression). film. 2000. Chrissie. in terms of the architecture of a screening room (the conditions for image projection). Les années 90 voient la consécration des images en mouvement dans les lieux d'exposition apportant ainsi des conséquences importantes sur sa perception.Interactive Narratives. and relationships with spectators. 2008. We need only remember the American pop artist Andy Warhol's experimental video Exploding Plastic Inevitable (1966). (Royoux. Cinematographic installations can be designed from projections on various surfaces and materials (fabric. 1993] and Sections of a Happy Moment [David Claerbout. abstraire. floors. on multiple. glass. which was shown in its various forms in open or closed spaces. c'est non pas de comprendre combien dans l'art contemporain l'image s'anime. cinema has expanded through exposure in space and exposure to other art forms. l'image projetée joua un rôle déterminant dans la création d'un nouveau langage de la représentation. such as field/counter-field (Hors-champ [Stan Douglas. 2001) According to Jean-Christophe Royoux. sound and images.   Trindade – 131  These various ways and possibilities of designing images associated with an artist's work are also responsible for many different sensations. 1999]). quand bien même il s'agirait d'images filmées. Les artistes utilisaient le film. and continual repetition of certain film classics (24 Hour Psycho [Douglas Gordon. which combined the world of rock music – performed by the Velvet Underground and a group of dancers – with the simultaneous use of various projections (see Figure 5). c'est le passage du cinéma à l'exposition qu'il faut interroger. ceilings. Architecture: between concrete and virtual. 2007]). screens. furniture or people moving into a room. and projections pointing at unusual locations – walls. Durant les années 60 et au début des années 70. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      and Third Party [Sam Taylor-Wood. physical and imaginary.

immersion in space and collective experience. wireless sensing techniques. Then you use film. has given space designers access to sophisticated technologies for applications or tasks ranging from artistic performance to museum exhibit design. and these new forms of media provide a new relationship between space and a museum collection. the physical and the imaginary. they allow extending them considerably. Over time. 3D environments in movies and video games. interacting with several elements that are dealt with in an exhibition: scale. app devices. facilitating understanding and suggesting new relationships between a museum and its public.Interactive Narratives. Movies and. We can also say that including . changes to the concept of what a museum is prove that a museum changes as a society transforms. sharing information. coming from a culture in which the Internet. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Image Maximum (IMAX). films speak a unique language. it is important to clarify that interactive museums do not spell the end or replacement of traditionally organized museums. leading to a new architectural transformation. narrative. audio description. more recently. interactivity and set design language. Zonenschein point out that: Parente & Combined with hypertext systems. can extend their spaces and their actions via multimedia collections. a new dynamic to these spaces. All of these elements are essential. epistemological and heuristic processing. tablets and new technologies are becoming increasingly available in everyday society. art and the expanding digital sphere allows for a transformation of the conventional standards for exhibition spaces and provides new ways of enjoying an exhibition. It is a vision of the museum as an institution that not only preserves. first and foremost. sounds and displays. We live in the age of cyber culture. They enrich and help democratize culture. even small ones. We are no longer viewers who only contemplate art. Spaces in museums and art galleries need to be as flexible as possible to enable various spatial arrangements. 2011). the public. and that films share a close relationship with the language of interactive and immersive exhibits. audio guides. smartphones. The reason you go to a museum today is to experience culture. lighting and highspeed connectivity. 2007. On the one hand. We need to interact with it and try it. On the other hand. which all add up in the museum space (Menezes. This is how certain museums. communicating via large-scale synchronized projections. IMAX Dome (180° projection). emerge naturally. 272) Marcello Dantas. the first artistic director of the Museum of the Portuguese Language in Brazil. in a collective way. and projection and display technology. Our position is actually some-   Trindade – 132  where between the concrete and the virtual. p. IMAX 3D and IMAX Digital formats. The rapid evolution of computers. For him. whose contents are choreographed by the natural body movements or physical gestures of the people passing through them. In conclusion. The relationship between the viewer and the artwork has completely changed. Re-thinking museums’ communication systems is a natural and pertinent way of expanding access to and enjoyment of. but also studies and values the diversities in a world with so many cultural multiplicities. they allow the intensive use of audiovisual collections in order to create a new pedagogy of museum spaces. The intersection of architecture. because the hypertext information spaces are virtually unlimited. points out that we live in a visual culture. interactivity. (Parente & Zonenschein in Bittencourt et al. Spaces need to be able to articulate an entertaining and interactive audio-visual narrative for visitors. digital technologies represent a key to the museum. and be concerned with issues such as acoustics. Regarding this aspect.

Interactive Narratives. Source: Retrieved from http://www. Figures Figures 1 and 2: Douglas Gordon.apieceofmonologue. Installation based on the 1960 Hitchcock film.html.com/2010/03/douglas-gordon-24hour-psycho.   . New Media & Social Engagement 2014      films in museums will not spell the end of movie theatres. Going to a museum is an Trindade – 133  experience that can be as just emotional as going to the cinema. 24 Hour Psycho.

Photo: Isabella Trindade. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Trindade – 134  Figures 3 and 4: Museu da Língua Portuguesa (The Portuguese Language Museum).Interactive Narratives. 2006   .

Menezes. Isabela. Consuelo. URL: http://www. 89 References Bittencourt. Chrissie (2001). José Neves. Suplemento Trimestral da Revista Ciência Hoje CH (SobreCultura 10).apieceofmonologue.html [March 3. Marcus. 1968 University of Michigan Yearbook. Rio de Janeiro. . Douglas. ciência e tecnologia: livro do seminário internacional. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art. p. Gordon. Source: Unidentified. at the University of Michigan campus in Ann Arbor. Installation based on the 1960 Hitchcock film. Museus. (2010). Lins. Universidade Federal do rio de Janeiro – UFRJ. Sarah Fassa (organizadores) (2007). Into the Light: The projected Image in American Art 1964-1977. Monografia (graduação em Comunicação social /Jornalismo). 2010]   Iles. Granato. Escola de Comunicação – ECO. O Boom de museus interativos no Rio de Janeiro: Linguagem e Democratização da cultura. O cinema vai ao museu. (2012). Michiganensian. Rio de Janeiro : Museu Histórico Nacional. Benchetrit. 296.com/2010/03/do uglas-gordon-24-hour-psycho. featuring Nico. 24 Hour Psycho. Natassja (2011). New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Trindade – 135  Figure 5: Photograph taken at a performance of Andy Warhol’s “Exploding Plastic Inevitable”. Fraga. 7-8.Interactive Narratives.

37-55.   Trindade – 136  .. Cinémas: Journal of Film Studies. Ybert. Le temps exposé: Le cinéma de la salle au muse. Art Press n°262.Interactive Narratives. Volume 19. numéro 1. p. Mémoire de fin d’études. Dominique (2002). New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Païni.7202/029498ar Royoux. de. Michiganensian. Cinéma d'exposition: l'espacement de la durée. A. DOI: 10. 1968 University of Michigan yearbook. Clément (2005). Cinema as dispositif: Between Cinema and Contemporary Art. V. Paris. Ecole Nationale supérieure NS Louis Lumière. Parente. L’image animée projetée dans les installations d'art contemporain. Jean-Christophe (2000). Carvalho. Cahiers du Cinéma. Le cinéma accroché. (2008).

and suggest that the agency has to be removed in order to share it with the computer program in the narrative setting of interactive fiction. “What’s Missed When No One is Misunderstood? Understanding Whose Agency is Increased Thanks to Interactivity. Cecília Queiroz. thus only giving the user the ability to pick among options? That is. Abstract: Interactive fiction is aptly named. traditional novel.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives.       INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES  NEW MEDIA &  SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT  October 23‐25. New Media & Social Engagement International Conference. I come back to interactive fiction. I then do a rhetorical analysis of Aaron Reed’s interactive fiction. ISBN: 978-09939520-0-5 This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND). in On Interactive Storytelling. Kateland (2014). and speaks” (Crawford. all make the experience much more focused and mediated than the reading of a linear. Hudson Moura. thinks. because it is one of the very few representations of the creation of a program that develops a narrative through collaboration with the player. for it is interactive. does it not automatically influence the user to limit his/her response to the realm of possibilities thought up by the creator? Chris Crawford. Whom the Playing Changed. Regina Cunha. but can a user who has to input decipherable material in order to receive the rest of the text actually be given space to think? Or is the realm of possible responses already limited by the function of the creator. 29). or is there more agency on the part of a user when a response is not mandatory for continuation? While there is certainly value to both interactivity and user agency. and Martin Zeilinger. in order to study the moves that the interactive fiction takes in order to limit the agency of the reader and encourage collaboration with the computer program. the text-based exploration of fictional worlds that had its heyday in the 1980s. I use Roland Barthes to suggest that the reader has complete agency in the act of reading a “traditional” book. though. that interaction is not synonymous with user/reader agency. defines interactivity as “A cyclic process between two or more active agents in which each agent alternately listens. In this paper. the non-linear nature. Georgia State University  kwolfe5@gsu. Let it not be forgotten. p. If a user has to make use of a message in order to continue receiving the message. 2005. the ever-changing circumstances and storyline. The interactivity in interactive fiction. they seem to be often conflated leading to the assumption that . Ricardo Sternberg. can a user really ever have agency in an interactive world. Eds.edu   Suggested citation: Wolfe. 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5    WHAT’S MISSED WHEN NO ONE IS MISUNDERSTOOD?  UNDERSTANDING WHOSE AGENCY IS INCREASED THANKS TO  INTERACTIVITY  Kateland Wolfe.

the claim to decipher a text becomes quite futile. This is a very noble task and certainly creates a place that is reader-centered. To give a text an author is to suggest a way that it must be read and interpreted. interactive fiction was a textonly game popular in the 1980s. Infocom. Crawford’s notion of “second person insight” gives the idea that a good creator of an interactive fiction can make the reader the imposer of Barthes’ “limits” on the text. p. It does not. His essay also aptly expresses why this is valued: the authority of a fixed. expresses the growing values of the last twenty-five years when he says: “the interactive reader of the electronic word incarnates the responsive reader of whom we make so much” (Lanham. Richard Lanham. however. Interactive Fiction is suggested to solve this binary because good interactive fiction. p. 1998.” which is “the ability to think primarily in terms of how an expression will be perceived by the audience” (Crawford. 386). one that many teachers do sympathize with: “you stand up in front of your students.” and “you must be able to visualize the confusion audience members bring to the experience” (Crawford. Barthes was suggesting that within the readership of the same text. p. 1989. the creator has set parameters on how the user can react. “the birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the Author” (Barthes. 268). It does seem that a good interactive fiction. print text is destabilized. This is because in order to have “second person insight. it is still a program that is being discussed and theorized. according to Chris Crawford is developed using “second person insight. the author and reader can both exist as authoritative agents because their texts will differ. To give a text an author is to impose a limit on that text. 272). 1989. Lanham is making more tangible an argument that Roland Barthes had first theorized in 1967: the “Death of the author. to close the writing” (Barthes. 32). printed text    Wolfe – 138  must lie in one or the other. 386). p. would allow the interactor to have agency in the text. By questioning the boundaries between the creator of the text and the consumer of the text. the only company to . 1998. suggesting again that a traditional.Interactive Narratives. This suggests a binary opposition between the agency of the author and the agency of the reader: “Once the Author is removed. 2005. is making an argument that without a stable text. p. wherein the creator can truly anticipate and respect any emotional response. but only by a niche discourse community. p. He goes on to argue that “a text’s unity lies not in its origin but in its destination” (Barthes. and it lies with the reader.” Lanham.” a 1989 article. simple sentences. 1998. to furnish it with a final signified.31). p. however. 386). p. in “The electronic word: literary study and the digital revolution. and note with shock the utter incomprehension in their faces” (Crawford. Crawford uses the example of students. Wasn’t interactive fiction the dead precursor to videogames? As many scholarly essays on interactive fiction will state. By the very art of needing to anticipate the user’s reactions. 2005. reveal the truth to them in a few clean.” the creator “must anticipate and respect it [any emotional response the audience may have]. And this user agency is important because interactive fiction so often gets cited as a model for something that can be used to create spaces that allow for more user agency. give the user agency. For example. 32). New Media & Social Engagement 2014     interactivity is a highly valued function because of the agency that it gives to the user. 2005. This humorous question of pronouns shows Lanham’s desire to destabilize the binary between creator/ medium and critic/admirer: “Programs available widely and cheaply for use on computers just like the one these words are being written on (through? by? with? or from?) allow novices to compose pleasant-sounding music by enlisting the computer as cocomposer” (Lanham.

this relationship pits the interactor against the programmer or the game (as it stands as the work of the programmer). In this way. is software that uses preprogrammed rules and descriptions combined with input from a user to create a story. interactive fiction has been circulated. xxi). too” (Reed. and to do things you did not want” (Scott. ‘ha-ha. Other scholars offer reasons that interactive fiction is valuable to a larger community. As noted above. That’s a real experience. The interactor is viewed as the customer and the programmer as the person responsible for immersing the interactor into the world. 2006). addresses this concern from the opposite point of view when he says: If you sit down in front of a text adventure for the first time. and less with how much the player can affect. and theorized by a fairly closed discourse community. many interactive fiction scholars just start making their point. author of Creating Interactive Fiction With Inform 7. was sold to Activision in 1986 (Scott. 2011. This closed community is also suggested by how little of the literature on interactive fiction seeks to make the argument relevant to a larger audience. also in Get Lamp. The agency in this instance is a powerstruggle. text adventures seem to prioritize the gaming aspect and interactive fiction prioritize the story. The misconception is that that’s the intended interaction of the game and that’s what the author has spent all of his time thinking about. Current views on user agency Discussing the place of interactor agency in interactive fictions seems first to depend on determining the purpose of the interactive fiction. Andrew Plotkin. The interactivity of the interactor is something to be guarded against. anybody who considers a single session in an interactive fiction as a narrative or a piece of fiction is being asked to not only consider the text as written by the programmer of the game. He also argues that text-based gaming allows the reader to go beyond things that can be captured by an image. Again. a full-length documentary on interactive fiction and text adventures. Interactive fiction. New Media & Social Engagement 2014     focus its commercial production on interactive fiction. 2013). a self-defensive nature of the author is addressed. Ernest Adams says “because the more freedom you give the player. it seems to mirror that of a business relationship. This relationship sees interactivity not in terms of agency of the interactor. Dennis Jerz. The question of agency of the player is more concerned with how much the player can do. but in terms of “freedom” of the player. suggesting that it is the author that is being blamed (or even the game). but is also asked to consider the way the text has been interpreted and reacted to. criticized. 2006). when it is noted that game creators are the ones playing the game. such as its use in the classroom to get students into a meaningful relationship with reading. 2006). The question being asked in these instances is about the quality of the product: how immersed can the player become in the game world? This function of interactivity is not concerned with the literary quality of the session. In this way. p. in Get Lamp. by addressing the assumed “intentions” of the author. argues that “[interactive fiction] not only talks back to its reader. this sucks!’” (Scott. In some    Wolfe – 139  cases. not the relationship between the two. text adventures and interactive fiction are often approached with a different frame of mind. seen as an ancient artifact by many. Since then. reading an interactive fiction session transcript linearly is more like reading a relationship than reading a story. but listens. This is alluded to in Get Lamp. the more the player has the power to do things you did not anticipate. the first thing that is going to happen is that you’re going to type something and the computer is not going to understand it. shows his concern that the interactor is “going to say. Another way of understanding interactor agency that does not recognize interactive fiction as a program to develop literary fiction is to consider interactive fiction as a tool for . (Scott. Again. that’s a mistake. Aaron Reed.Interactive Narratives.

For Short. especially in education. In co-authorship. 1999). The interactor does not have agency. It is easy to see that with an interactive fiction’s limited vocabulary it can quickly become normative. he claims that it is the “careless or unskilled” (Desilets. And that unity is meant to be admired and adapted. in “Player Freedom. then the interaction is no longer happening. and experiencing the interactive fiction in that manner. 2007). Desilets is perhaps the bridge between the understanding of interactive fiction as a game and the understanding of it as a literary experience. Emily Short counters Bond. instead the interactor is being required to do something for his or her own good.” Granted. Andrew    Wolfe – 140  Bond has what seems to be a less moral approach. This is not taking into consideration that when interaction happens. 1999) who cannot get through the interactive fiction. that is a limitation of the interface and not of the theory. is seen in the end of Desilets’ essay when. Bond implies that interactive fiction (the work of the programmer) is art and “art isn’t about catering to your audience. These are positive outcomes that potentially help the interactor to have more agency in his or her life or subsequent education. I am avoiding questions of limitation of the interface here. enjoyed as art in that way. if the interactor is able to . the Pause that Distresses: How Computer-Based Literature Interrupts the Reading Process Without Stopping the Fun. that “offering the player a moral choice in interactive fiction is not the same as offering the player co-authorship” (Short. Brendan Desilets. it “forces readers to think about how they are controlling their thinking” and the reader “must still pause often” (Desilets. 2007) This is to suggest that the moves the interactor makes are predetermined by the programmer and programmed for the interactor to interpret on the terms of the programmer. The agency of the interactor then is limited to trying to figure out what the programmer was expecting. the interactor is without agency to choose whether he or she is going to do these activities. Bond argues that “to experience art is to submit to another ego. climbing to a podium and shouting ‘here I stand!’”(Bond. but also to make choices not to make choices.” treats the reader as a student. He is suggesting that the program be given all of the agency in much of the same way Barthes was offering all of the agency to the reader. in “Interactive Fiction Vs. co-authorship is the goal. expressing an opinion. but in the dynamic presented by interactive fiction. because otherwise the failure to solve it cleanly is meaningless” (Short. The idea of theory is to question what interactive fiction is capable of if the interface can be made to match the theory. and co-authorship does not happen merely when an interactor is given a decision. then interactive fiction is nothing but what Montfort and others refer to as hypertext fiction. the shift of agency has gone too far back to the programmer. it is also possible for misunderstandings to happen. in “On Stephen Bond on Player Freedom” and suggests. Desilets sees interactive fiction as a tool for getting students to think critically and comprehend what they are reading. 2007). Desilets focuses on how interactive fiction “forces” or creates situations where the reader “must. “You have to be free to try to solve the problem. 2007). Bond. If the interactivity of the interactive fiction becomes normative. instead. though. It’s to entertain someone else’s vision” (Bond. Thus. but one that is also easy to equate with early ways of approaching literature. However. it’s about taking sides. Bond proposes that “a text’s unity lies” in its origin. however.” argues that interactive fiction is an art and should be appreciated as such. Short’s definition of interaction is not about letting the interactor make choices in the narrative. Bond is here fulfilling the other side of Barthes’ binary. New Media & Social Engagement 2014     teaching and testing student understanding and engagement.Interactive Narratives. If the interactor is only choosing from a menu of options. For example. Thus. not changed or affected. What’s at stake in giving some of the reader’s agency back to the author.

and thus the continuation of the story. 7).” Roger S. and engage in conversation about the game. but rather an amalgamation of the work of both the interactor and the programmer.G. 2011. the purposefulness of a puzzle. the accepting of some responses. he suggests that this is agency which should be afforded to the “model reader” who is “a late 20th Century person armed with a reasonable knowledge of contemporary Western life and literary conventions” (Sorolla. 4). even though it normally provides the interactor no opportunity to influence the course of the narrative that is being produced” (Monfort. p. As Gijsbers argues. 5) is fixed: coherence among objects and contexts. He offers six criteria upon which the scale from “fictional coherence” to “a rambling munchhausenish charm” (Sorolla. Sorolla suggests that the reader with agency is the one who gets to read the interaction as a coherent piece of fiction.33). Sorolla makes no qualms about placing in binary opposition the “real world” (or a real world created fictionally) and a “trivial diversion” (Sorolla. new ways which would allow the player to freely use his creativity for the first time. Sorolla offers some real limits about who the interactor can be and what the program can do in order to suggest what interaction should look like. 2003. While Monfort and Short balance out the definition of interaction. This seems like a good. the logical solving of puzzles including logical locks and keys. and which would allow the player to be a real co-author for the first time” (Gijsbers. and the rejecting of others. 2011. New Media & Social Engagement 2014     bypass certain decisions altogether and decide to not make choices. however. and the correct invocation of the    Wolfe – 141  interactor as reader. p. p. then interactive fiction is not just a group of different preplanned options. 2007.Interactive Narratives. 6-7). The second is in having a way for the player to be able to change the game. Instead. p. The system. He argues that the trick to implementing this comes in three things. but to protect the game from being irreconcilably ruined. doing more than choosing from a dropdown list of actions or responses. for instance. but it also suggests that the programmer has the right to require specific knowledge of his or her reader in order to make interaction. Monfort also suggests the definition of interactive to be “works of fiction which explicitly call upon the reader to interact with them by means of queries or replies” (Monfort. Nick Montfort makes a very similar distinction: Monfort holds that there is a difference between “input” from the user and interaction when he says “pressing the space bar in response to >MORE is an input. Furthermore. 8). suggest changes to the game. This suggests a reasonable limit to what the program is able to interact with. This radical suggestion . so that the desired agency can be shared between the program and the interactor. The essays of other authors appearing in the IF Theory Reader presuppose the reader’s agreement that interactive fiction is to be considered a program producing literary fiction and continue from there to theorize how interactive fiction should be created in order to best make this model of interaction. The first is opening the play up to a larger community of people for each run-through of the game. again. comment on the games through publication. the player is asking specific questions and offering specific responses that the system then works with. The irony of this “radical” suggestion is that it seems a lot like the system that exists now: we play the games. Victor Gijsbers’ “Co-authorship and Community: An Essay on Innovating Interactive Fiction” offers the most radical definition of interactivity when he suggests that “[allowing the player to change the world] would allow completely new ways of interacting with a piece of interactive fiction. possible. p. “Queries” and “replies” suggests that the player is. 2011. 2003. is still responsible for the mediation of the information. viable way to grant the player agency. which suggests that the definition of “interaction” includes having influence on the narrative product. p. In “Crimes Against Mimesis. it will give the player real agency.

it was all that was supposed to be there. Whom The Telling Changed by Aaron A. On this first screen I get panicked because I clicked to the link for a game and I don’t know what to do next. I would know that when I was ready. every difference from one to the next is going to look like a major difference in structure. they become the sole creator of the meaning of the text. however. and cut his story into stone" (Reed. the interactor is switching roles from interactor to programmer. but there is not enough interactive fiction to clearly categorize it into what is typical and what is a-typical. Then. uses a keyword-based conversation system and a single-word shorthand for examining items” (Reed. Reed’s Whom the Telling Changed in order to show more specifically that interaction in an interactive fiction means to limit the agency of the reader and give more room for shared agency with the program. The agency is now split between the interactor who can interpret the words in any manner desired and the programmer (via . This appears off-center on an otherwise white screen with no further direction. for using Reed’s interactive fiction is that he wrote Creating Interactive Fiction with Inform 7. because anything that is written or sketched or recorded automatically links to Plato and his discussion of the unknown. 2006). 2006) and claims to be taken from The Epic of Gilgamesh. The interactor is then just the creator of a different piece of interactive fiction. Or these are all of the places I would visit if this had been an epilogue at the beginning of a novel. and cut his story into stone” is not a complete sentence and should not be proceeded by a semicolon. interactive fiction is no longer interactive because the agency of the program is limited. what he is doing is worth noting. Reed starts with what literature would call an    Wolfe – 142  epigraph that says: "He found the knowledge at the heart of the universe. Because the base number of interactive fictions created is so low. It has only four rooms. How do I move past this page? All it takes is hitting any key. no puzzles to speak of. So. Furthermore. then he must have influence over and insight into the world of interactive fiction. but I become singularly focused on how to get to the next screen and am no longer encouraged to take my time in reading/ thinking about/ exploring the “epigraph. If Reed is the authoritative figure to look to for explaining how Inform 7 works. the timing of the story is being guided by the programmer. maybe I pull up a new window and link to it on my computer. I would know what to do next. it encourages me to keep trying to fill (even metaphorically) this page with information. This is exactly how the interaction would work if I was reading a book. Then I move to the left and stop in the part of my memory where Plato lives. It is possible to argue that Reed’s Whom the Telling Changed is not a typical interactive fiction.” In this way. Then I meander into the part of my memory that knows that “Returned. If the text had been centered. Inside my memory I first venture to the room that holds the knowledge of The Epic of Gilgamesh. it would seem that it was enough for the page. knowing what to do next would encourage me to take my time. A reason. However. Reed himself states that it is “an experimental piece of interactive fiction designed as an exercise in exploring a conversation or story space rather than a physical space” (Reed. because it opens up all of the agency to the interactor. The otherwise blank screen gives me literal space to think about these things while the fact that it is off center gives me an urgency to think these things. Returned. New Media & Social Engagement 2014     resembles how people interact in discourse communities already. scroll down or tap the page if it’s an e-text. I am going to turn to Aaron A. outside force of writing. Since the text is off-center. Aaron Reed’s Whom the telling changed Now. that “Whom the Telling Changed is very different from an average interactive fiction. the open source software used to create many interactive fictions. All of these variables have an effect on the interactive process.Interactive Narratives. I flip the page. When the interactor can help change the programming. 2006).

Interactive Narratives, New Media & Social Engagement 2014 
  
the program) that is pushing the interactor to
continue on in the story.
As Reed points out, there are key words
that are highlighted as the story moves forward. These key words work to make explicit
a part of interactive fiction that is often
problematically implicit: the fact that the program has to be spoken to in very specific language and can only accept commands of a
certain style. The keywords in the interactive
fiction function in the same way that many
commands do, they take the reader to something that is pre-programmed to continue the
story in what may seem like an arbitrary manner. The other commands function as typically
binary options. If the interactor is to look at the
“symbol of your (sic) occupation,” the interactor is asked: “Which do you mean, the medicine bag or the copper dagger?” (Reed, 2006).
Depending on which the interactor chooses,
the lover will take the other. Another example
of this is that the interactor is approached by
two other players and told “As you approach,
your enemy grows silent. Your love turns to
you with a look of relief and reaches out a
hand” (Reed, 2006). When the interactor
reaches for the hand of his/her lover, the interactor is asked: “Which do you mean, Sihan
or Saiph?” (Reed, 2006). The one who is not
chosen gets mad and walks away. The key
words acting more as interactive than the
commands shows that the work is sharing
agency with the player: it is helping the player
see what is important to it. And, it seems, the
interactive fiction is going even further to comment on how interactive fiction is working in
order to show its awareness of itself.
The type of narrative that this interactive
fiction and others can create has a lot of positive implications, ranging from being a new
producer of a creative product that relies on
the programming of a system and not the actual creation (which I see as being the most
important), to educational benefits, to fun in
solving puzzles. However, one of the implications is not heightened agency for the interactor/reader, but rather heightened agency for
the program and the author of the program.

  

Wolfe – 143 

Interactive fiction – at its best – offers a very
highly structured, though always changing,
way of experiencing a text that can be very
fulfilling and beneficial in certain circumstances. What needs to be further discussed,
however, is the way that interactive fiction, as
a model for future production of digital media,
limits the reader’s ability to misunderstand the
text and all of the productive rabbit holes that
get
explored
via
the
accidental
miscommunication.
References
Works of interactive fiction:
(2006) Whom the Telling Changed. Developed in
Inform 7.
Other Works:
Barthes, Roland.(1998). The Death of the
Author. In Eric Dayton (Ed.), Art and
Interpretation: An Anthology of Readings in
Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art. (pp. 383386). Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview.
Bond, Stephen. (2007). Player Freedom. URL:
http://emshort.home.mindspring.com/whatsif.ht
ml
Crawford, Chris. (2005). On Interactive Storytelling.
Berkley,CA: New Riders Games
Desilets, Brendon. (1999). Interactive Fiction Vs.
The Pause that Distresses: How ComputerBased Literature Interrupts the Reading
Process Without Stopping the Fun. Currents in
Electronic Literature. 1.1(1999): np.
Gijsbers, Victor (2007) Co-Authorship and
Community: An Essay on Innovating Interactive
Fiction. URL:
http://lilith.gotdns.org/~victor/innovationcomp/In
novation.pdf
Montfort, Nick, Twisty Little Passages (MIT Press,
2004).
Lanham, Richard A. (1989). The Electronic Word:
Literary Study and the Digital Revolution. New
Literary History 20: 2, 265-290.
Reed, Aaron A. (2011). Creating Interactive Fiction
With Inform 7. New York: Cengage Learning.
------. Whom The Playing Changed: An Analysis of
72 Player Transcripts. URL: www.aaronreed.net
Scott, Jason, dir. Get Lamp. 2013.

Interactive Narratives, New Media & Social Engagement 2014 
  
Short, Emily. (2007). On Stephen Bond On Player
Freedom. URL:
<http://emshort.home.mindspring.com/whatsif.h
tml> May 25.
Sorolla, Roger S. G. (2001). Crimes Against
Mimesis. In Jackson-Mead, Kevin and J.
Robinson Wheeler(Eds.). IF Theory Reader.
Boston, MA: Transcript on Press.

  

Wolfe – 144 

 
 
 

INTERACTIVE NARRATIVES 
NEW MEDIA & 
SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT 
October 23‐25, 2014 | University of Toronto |ISBN: 978‐0‐9939520‐0‐5 
 

TELLING THE STORIES OF LEFT‐BEHIND CHILDREN IN CHINA: 
FROM DIARY COLLECTION TO DIGITAL FILMMAKING 
Janice Hua Xu, PhD, Assistant Professor of Communications, School of Arts and 
Sciences 
Holy Family University, Philadelphia 
jxu@holyfamily.edu   
Suggested citation: Xu, Janice Hua (2014). “Telling the Stories of Left-Behind Children in China:
From Diary Collection to Digital Filmmaking.” In Proceedings of the Interactive Narratives, New
Media & Social Engagement International Conference. Eds. Hudson Moura, Ricardo Sternberg,
Regina Cunha, Cecília Queiroz, and Martin Zeilinger. ISBN: 978-0-9939520-0-5
This article is released under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC-ND).
Abstract: The issue of “left-behind children” in China has been widely recognized as a significant
social problem, as more than 61 million children are living in villages away from their parents,
who have migrated to large cities to seek employment opportunities. There is a very limited
number of media products depicting left-behind children in rural China as central characters with
individual personalities. As Stuart Hall states, representation is the process or channel or medium through which meanings are both created and reified. This paper analyzes how stories and
voices of this underprivileged group are presented in recent years to the public in different nonfictional media forms, particularly documentary films. Through content analysis of selected samples, the paper examines how narratives are weaved about the lives and emotions of these children, and how the stories make sense of their family experiences. The paper discusses the
power of digital narratives and visual-based expressions. It also examines how the products of
representation are mediated by different types of storytellers, who are often motivated by a
sense of social engagement to raise awareness about the plight of these children to appeal for
support, but addresses the issue from their specific perspectives.
Introduction
‘Left-behind children’ (LB children) refers to
rural children under 18 who are left at home
when both or one of their parents migrate to
urban area for work. Across China, more than
61 million children – nearly a quarter of children in China – live in rural villages without the
presence of their parents, who have migrated
in search of work to provide a better life for
their families. Recent findings showed that

left-behind children were disadvantaged and
suffered from developmental, emotional and
social problems (Su et al, 2013). Researchers
found that due to a lack of family protection
and educational opportunities, there have
been growing signs of serious mental health
problems and an increased criminal record
among this vulnerable group (CCRCSR,
2014). Because migrant workers rarely get to
spend time with their children, children often

2013). and how the stories make relate their unique family experiences with absent parents to the audience. 2005). representation is the process or channel or medium through which meanings are both created and reified. when a legislation was proposed at Chinese People Consultative Conference by 24 members to establish a mechanism to safeguard these children’s healthy growth. It unveils for the first time the inner lives of these young people. The marking of “difference” is thus the basis of that symbolic order which we call culture. with decrees referring to the LB children (Zeng. 2012). With an initial print run of 15. with content that usually emphasizes “childishness” and “prettiness” (Donald.”   Xu – 146  portraying these children as “clever. People think all they need is something to eat and wear. This paper analyzes how the situation of this underprivileged group is presented in recent years in platforms outside mainstream media. seeing them as pitiful kids who live in poverty and isolation. when a few provinces passed laws to protect the rights of minors. It is very rare to have their own voices heard or individual personalities represented in the media. 2006). the book sold more than 100. p.” Academic research papers usually focus on sociological and psychological issues caused by absent parents and present these children as one abstract category. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      feel lonely and helpless. or as “problematic children. media scholars need to “develop closer and better micro-analysis. mediation can be seen as a public-political process. Culture depends on giving things meaning by assigning them to different positions within a classificatory system. But they are so much more than that. and different. specifically in documentary films. In 19992000. Media reports in China about LB children started to appear in 2002. usually as targets of charity or protective policy.” Silverstone points out that the study of media mediation of reality requires giving attention to both the institutions and technologies through which the circulation of news discourse takes place (2004).Interactive Narratives. and sometimes have the fear of being abandoned. p. explained his motivation: "People tend to have a stereotype about left-behind children. and pictures of these children whose average age was 9. It is also found that left-behind children had lower scores in health behavior and school engagement than rural children of nonmigrant worker parents (Wen & Lin.000 copies in a few months (Sun. a process that sets up norms of public conduct. and increased in numbers in 2006. such as children’s deaths from accidents caused by . Chinese media rarely use children as the main subjects of reporting except for programs produced for children. and even dropping out of school." He traveled to Beijing and Shanghai to look for publishers but was refused 10 times before finally securing a publisher in Jiangsu province. 2013). Their 34-year-old teacher Yang Yuansong. However. More media reports have been addressing this matter since 2010. It examines how narratives are weaved about the lives of these children by different storytellers. shapes the spectator as a citizen of the world. They are more prone to skipping class. as their caretakers are often unable or unwilling to monitor their study habit.9). fighting. Also. news reports about shocking events. CCTV produced a series on children in the Western provinces in connection with the national campaign of “opening up the West. decorative. a collection of the diaries of 26 "left-behind children" in China’s remote Guizhou province was published in the form of a book.000 copies. letters. 143) proposes with respect to the documentary. As Stuart Hall states.” but their problems such as poverty and lack of media access were not foregrounded (Donald. who initiated the project by compiling diaries. 2005. As Corner (1995. media representations of these children in news reports were often stereotypes. While there is a lack of in-depth reports on the LB children issue in mainstream media. and carries important ethical power of contemporary public life (Chouliaraki. In 2012. Traditionally. of the language and image of the media.

corruption. an 11-year old boy says he is older now and has stopping crying at night for missing his parents. A 7-year-old girl says she's not sure her mom can tell her apart from her twin sister. have brought more attention across the nation to the precarious condition in which some leftbehind children live.com. and for them to bring him a bike as gift. with one father wearing a helmet in a construction site saying he really misses his children. The problem and solution is visually represented by contrasting images of separation and reunion. The red Coke mingles well into the red colors of New Year celebration around the house. Phoenix Satellite Television Company made a 5-episode documentary titled The Left-Behind Children in China.Interactive Narratives. Later. and received attention in interna- . the viewers see the parents of the three families arriving at their homes in a red Coco-Cola van. with emotional moments such as the mother arriving at home and asking her daughter. and so on. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      lack of supervision. and tends to take narrative structures that reflect the implied messages of the film. These documentary films can be divided into the following categories: corporate public affair mini documentary. so-called “underground” and “independent” documentary films have emerged in the public domain of mainland China. In the film. as well as the long-term consequence of having absent parents working far away from their hometowns. the message of “going home” echoes with millions of people making their way home from cities across the country to celebrate the Lunar New Year with family. Coca-Cola and PR agency McCann’s Shanghai branch created a 4-minute documentary entitled Love and Care for China's left-behind Children which launched across China. In 2013. has come back home. It's been too long since their mother. Independent Documentary Film Since the early 1990s. and how parents cope without seeing their children. and which was shared on social media and shown on taxi screens before the 2014 Chinese New Year holiday starts. Although they share the general theme of raising awareness about the LB children and calling for love and care for them. It was   Xu – 147  viewed more than 2 million times on video sharing website todou. “Who am I?” and getting the reply. CCTV also made public service announcements encouraging volunteers to contribute to the growth of these children. The film also shows scenes from the parents’ workplaces in the cities. and covered this topic in talk show programs. The issue of LB children can appeal to a wide audience and is politically safe. Corporate public affair mini documentary Western corporations conducting business in China have engaged in various public relations initiatives to build a brand image among Chinese consumers. but this year’s work was particularly busy. or arrests of rural elementary school teachers molesting LB children. “You are Mommy!” Aired right before 2014 Chinese New Year. each has its unique strengths in telling a story. and then sitting at the New Year banquet table where Coke bottles are placed next to the abundant food. A 7–year-old boy wants to see his parents. The narrative focuses on the question of whether the children will be able to see their parents this New Year. focusing on the hope and joy of reunion at Chinese New Year (see Figure 1). including making public affair mini documentaries. there have been a few dozens of films or “minifilms” made on LB children. a migrant worker. films by independent filmmakers. unlike many other problems facing Chinese society such as pollution. food safety. driven by a uniformed driver. and films by volunteer/student teams. reuniting with their children and the grandparents. with interviews with residents at various locations in China as well as scholars and education experts. It draws people’s attention to the vital question of how the children cope without their parents. Outside the programs produced by Chinese mainstream media.

” and a 92 minute-long “Children at a Village School. depicting how the children cope with their parents’ absence living with grandparents or other relatives. sometimes among them there is an ob- . and the decaying state of his home village. The children’s stained and bulky clothes. 80 per cent of children are left behind. “Children at a Village School” was being screened at Guangzhou. as expressed through their activities in isolation or ways of interacting with others. the smoky kitchen where firewood is used for cooking. 2005). through public support. Through temporary teaching at the school. or escape classes to play pokers. As digital cameras have become affordable to the middle class. the fence made of split bamboo. which can have a strong impact on the audience from urban regions.Interactive Narratives. The films also raise questions about the fate of these children and the effect of their upbringing. He stated that his motivation for the projects was to raise concern about the issue to help maintain the small village school. They tend to structure the film as day-in-life story. p. rural protests against land expropriation. even though the conditions of the character could be seen as highly problematic in the eyes of the audience.” Independent filmmakers documenting the lives of LB children usually have close ties to the area when the film is shot. he managed to create several films documenting the growth journey of several village children. and appeared at Songzhuang Documentary Festival in Beijing and Guangzhou International Documentary Festival in China. Jiang’s films were watched by a lot of viewers online. For instance." “When I   Xu – 148  Grow Up. Wang.” In this remote village in Hunan Province. bureaucratic corruption. and water basin for washing clothes with. Wuhan. the films usually do not include scenes of the city workplaces of the parents. While the images might represent a typical rural household. unwashed faces. Beijing and other large cities. This narrative structure is utilized in the work of independent filmmaker Jiang Nengjie. there is little immediate challenge or confrontation. working on and off in the city and fundraising. These include the mini-films "Road. the impoverished elderly and mentally handicapped. as some children had to walk three to four hours a day to go to school. who was himself a “left behind” child. and graduated from university in 2008. and just sexuality. and probably there is no resolution. Jiang Nengjie was born in Hunan in 1985. and their dreams of love still unfulfilled. Due to limited funding. their classroom is still shabby. In this narrative structure. the child walks alone at night with a flashlight to return home from school. the muddy road in front of the house. 50). In 2014. This could include the material conditions of their daily existence and their psychological state. 2010. returning to the city sometimes to work and raise funds. and later. One of the appeals of the documentary films of Jiang Nengjie comes from the visual depictions of the living environment of the LB children. religious fervor. to raise funds to get a substitute teacher and school bus. and are more or less familiar with the characters in the film. 2009. period (Nornes. Liu. even though the village school managed to receive donations and visits from volunteers and a BBC filming crew (see Figure 2). New Media & Social Engagement 2014      tional film festivals (Berry. While the children have grown up in the years between the different films. all offer vivid details of the daily lives of the children and their struggle for survival. a compromised education system. independent filmmakers use methods of direct cinema to address “the spectrum of life the government usually stakes off as taboo: prostitution. As a new college graduate. homosexuality. 2006. and spent nearly six years from 2009 to 2014 to complete a series of documentaries about his hometown. Jiang started his filming projects after learning that the school in his home village with 22 children was shutting down. The filmmaker captures the moments from the lives of LB children in a detailed manner that reveals the challenges of living without their parents. Changsha. He worked briefly in the city.

the film narrates the undesirable conditions they see. and at the same time yearning for family love. The 50-minute film made in 2013 described the reactions of the students to the living conditions of the children and their efforts in providing psychological counseling and bringing entertainment to brighten the monotonous life of children in a hot summer. For instance. upon arrival at the boarding school the college students tried to improve conditions of the shabby boarding school dormitory. one of the theme’s driving story development is how the . the independent filmmaker does not intend to create an “upbeat” mood or avoid showing embarrassing moments in their film. Usually shot from their point of view. as part of their education requirement. whose vision of the outside world was limited to the Wushan county center. It was awarded first prize in the Western China international film festival in September 2013. The film’s director. a team of volunteers or college students arrives from the city to a rural village or school for short-term teaching or aid activities. they also found their power to help the children really limited. These images bring to the audience in urban areas visual evidence of the theme of the film. School in the Depth of the White Cloud. there is often an ambivalent attitude toward the future of these children. they found it too difficult to change the lighting structure of the room. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      ject which seems to be surprisingly fancy. Li Jie. reflecting the reality of widespread loneliness among the left behind children. As they see different sides of the lives of their subjects and the odds they face. Another example of a film with this structure is titled Grass on the Plain. made by 8 graduate students of Southwest University of China who were assigned to teach for one year at Wushan County in Chongqing. even when some progress is seen in the films. and the efforts and activities they engage in to help the locals. which is probably a gift from their absent parents. which highlights the 20-day experience of a group of students from Shanghai Maritime University to address the needs of left behind   Xu – 149  children in a boarding school in Anhui province. and help them strengthen emotional ties with their parents by establishing online chat facilities. It documented their efforts in utilizing limited resources to launch a moot court. In this story line. sports games.Interactive Narratives. such as a brand-new schoolbag with foreign cartoon characters. A recent example of a film with this narrative structure is Summer of Sangying Town. later produced another film about a LB children’s family. a 2012 documentary about 40 volunteers from Shanghai visiting the mountainous region Jiangxi Province during the traditional Lunar New Year Dragon Boat Festival. were mostly introvert and short in confidence or desire to study. for instance. and find their existing views about the world somewhat changed because of the encounter and the eye-opening experience. The University/NGO Team documentary Another type of documentaries about LB children is made because of the arrival of outsiders at the rural village. and gradually learn information about the outside world and build a dream about their own future. and a carefully organized variety show. The film focuses on their effort to adjust to a life in the isolated poverty-stricken rural village. In the process the two sides coming from different background and age groups discover about each other and challenge each other in unexpected ways. While the students fulfilled their scheduled tasks and delivered help that was appreciated by the local children and villagers. music classes. While they managed to install mosquito-proof screens on the windows. gain their respect. The college students found that the children. Different from the corporate documentaries. the local children they encounter. eventually forming certain level of friendship with the children. For films of this structure. including moments when parents returning from the city could not recognize their children. communicate with the children.

a new documentary about LB children premiered in Beijing. entitled Stories Through 180 Lenses. 2014). the universal themes of family. Through a variety of storytelling devices and strategies. As the outsiders are young people who grow up in comfortable surroundings and hold somewhat romantic notions of remote areas. and so on. as well as strength to endure hardship and problemsolving abilities. the choices also reflect the fact that families and villages with LB children vary vastly in their individual situations. their psychological and emotional state. In August 2014. and through the process develop a relationship with the local children. They can be seen as a symbolic form that unites the argumentative and the aesthetic functions of discourse. As the children take cameras in their own hands.   Xu – 150  drawing the sensibilities of the audience and engaging them in a reflection of the human price paid for modernization. a text can make itself believable as representation of reality. They are not what postmodernists call discursive constructions either.Interactive Narratives. love. their interactions with other children and adults. leading to new ways of looking at their lives in the city. It is funded by Porsche China’s “Empowering the Future” program and directed by well-known director Zhang Yimou (CSR News. “A slice of life” can take on the quality of being about something meaningful and profound. These children usually have different communication styles with city children who tend to be the center of attention of the family. New Media & Social Engagement 2014      visitors engage in problem solving to deal with some material needs of the children.000 children. the encounter with the LB children often raises questions about their own assumptions. the audience can expect yet another way for the children’s daily feelings being expressed. the plight of many of these children raises more questions than answers. Conclusion Documentaries attend to social issues of which we are consciously aware. and dream make these films appealing with an intricate manner. While the storytellers engage dramatic forms such as conflict or problem/resolution. and their emotional reflections to be captured in a fresh manner. 90 percent of the halfhour film consists of footage shot over six months by 2. surrounded by their parents and grandparents due to China’s one-child policy. The issue of children being left behind can be viewed from many perspectives. While different storytellers bring a variety of motivations to the filmmaking process and may frame the issue of LB children from their particular angels. They are not transparent renderings of situations. Another theme is insight and growth. such as their schooling. Although the situations of the children are vastly different from those of the audience in the cities. The production team distributed 180 digital video cameras free of charge to children in 72 schools in remote Southwest China. their access to adequate material resources such as nutritional food. .

 New Media & Social Engagement 2014      Figure 1 Figure 2   Xu – 151  .Interactive Narratives.

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