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RO Recordkeeping and Normalization

Steven Coker

Topics
RO basic system design
RO operating data recording
Factors influencing RO system
performance

RO operating data normalization


FTNORM an easy method for
conducting normalization
calculations

Performance Monitoring

Why?
To track performance of RO system trends

To decide when to clean


To decide when to replace membranes

Useful information in troubleshooting


Required in event of warranty claim

Performance Monitoring

How?
Record operating data
Manually on log sheet
Automatically in SCADA system

Normalize data to account for variation in feed water


pressure, temperature, concentration and recovery

Graph salt passage, product flow and DP vs. time

Basic RO System Design


RO Array

Feed
Water

Permeate
Pump

Concentrate
Temperature, C
Conductivity, S/cm
Flow Rate, gpm
Pressure, psig

Conductivity, S/cm
Flow Rate, gpm
Pressure, psig

Conductivity, S/cm
Flow Rate, gpm
Pressure, psig

Factors Influencing RO Performance


Increasing

Permeate
Flow

Effective Pressure
Temperature

Recovery
Feed Salt Concentration

Salt
Passage

Data Normalization

Why Normalize?
Fluctuations in operating conditions cause permeate flow
and salt passage to change.
Performance changes due to membrane properties
might go undetected.
Normalization eliminates the effects of fluctuating
operating conditions and allows monitoring of the
membrane properties.

Example: Raw Data from RO system


RO operation performance
100%

90.00

99%

80.00

98%

70.00

97%

60.00

96%

50.00

95%

40.00

94%

30.00

93%

20.00

92%

10.00

91%

0.00

90%

Rejection (%)

Temperature ()

100.00

Date
Temperature

Permeate Conductivity

RO membrane properties virtually constant, but the observed performance


is changed by the variation of temperature.
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What is Data Normalization?


Normalization is a calculation method to express measured
membrane performance variables in terms of a set of reference
conditions.
This allows the user to determine whether observed changes in
membrane performance (flow and/or rejection) are normal
variation due to a change in operating conditions or may be an
indication of fouling, scaling, or damage to the membrane.
Typical Reference Conditions:
Stabilized start-up performance data
Computer model (ROSA) projected performance at standard
conditions or start-up performance conditions

Homogenous Solution Diffusion Model


Water and Solute Flux

Fw = A * TCF * (DP - Dp)


Fw
A
TCF
DP
Dp

solvent flux [gallons per square foot per day, gfd]


solvent mass transfer coefficient [gfd/psi]
temperature correcting factor
transmembrane pressure differential [psi]
osmotic pressure differential [psi]

Fs = B * TCF * (DC)
Fs - solute flux [pounds per square foot per day, lbfd]
B - solute mass transfer coefficient [gfd]
DC - transmembrane concentration differential [lb/gal]
The effect of temperature and operating pressure on the membrane performance
can be calculated to avoid interfering with the membrane property evalution.
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RO Permeate Flow Normalization


TCF = exp{ Bm * [1/298.15 - 1/(Tf +273.15)]}
TCF temperature correction factor
Bm

membrane TCF coefficient

Tf

feed temperature, C

NDP = Pf Pfb Pp + p
NDP net driving pressure, psig

Pf

feed pressure, psig

Pfb - feed brine differential pressure, psig


Pp

- permeate pressure, psig

- permeate osmotic pressure, psig

RO Permeate Flow Normalization


Qnorm
Q

TCFref NDPref
Qact

TCFact NDPact
Increasing

- flow rate, gpm

TCF - temperature correction factor


NDP net driving pressure, psig
norm -

Effective Pressure

normalized

act

actual measured variable

ref

reference condition

Temperature
Recovery
Feed Salt Conc.

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Permeate
Flow

RO Normalized Salt Rejection

cp, act cfc, ref Qact TCFref


SR norm (%) 100 1 - (

)
cf, ref cfc, act Qref TCFact
cp cf
cfc Q TCF act
ref
norm

permeate salt concentration


feed salt concentration
feed-concentrate salt concentration
permeate flow rate
temperature correction factor

- actual condition
- reference condition
- normalized

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When should I clean my RO?


Feed Pressure vs. Time
300
Feed Pressure

Feed Pressure, psig

250

200

150

100

50

0
0

50

100

150
Days of Operation
14

200

250

300

When should I clean my RO?


Feed Pressure vs. Time
300

40.0
Feed Pressure

Feed Temp (C)


35.0

250

200
25.0
150

20.0
15.0

100
10.0
50
5.0

0.0
0

50

100

150
Days of Operation
15

200

250

300

Temperature, C

Feed Pressure, psig

30.0

Normalized Permeate Flow


400

350

Flow (gpm)

300

250

200

150

100
0

50

100

150

Operating Time (days)


16

200

250

300

FTNorm for RO Operation Data Normalization

FTNORM Data Normalization Program


Based on ASTM D 4516

Written as Excel spreadsheet


Data normalized to start-up conditions
Designed for manual data entry but can be incorporated into
SCADA system
Automatic graphing includes:

Normalized permeate flow


Pressure drop
Normalized salt rejection

Graphs of other variables can be easily added


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FTNORM - 1 Stage Data Entry Section


Reverse Osmosis Plant
Operating Data Normalization

Plant Identification:

Train 1 C

Start-Up Date:

5/1/14 0:00

Date
1/5/14 14:00
2/5/14 13:00
3/5/14 22:00
4/5/14 22:00
5/5/14 13:00
7/5/14 22:00
8/5/14 22:00
9/5/14 21:00
10/5/14 21:00
11/5/14 17:00
12/5/14 21:00
13/5/14 14:00
14/5/14 13:00
15/5/14 22:00
16/5/14 18:00
17/5/14 21:00
18/5/14 16:00
19/5/14 16:00
22/5/14 21:00
23/5/14 19:00
24/5/14 13:00
25/5/14 14:00
26/5/14 16:00
27/5/14 19:00
28/5/14 17:00
29/5/14 21:00
30/5/14 13:00
31/5/14 17:00

Permeate Concentrate
Flow
Flow
297.4
379.1
298.2
378.7
296.6
378.3
295.7
378.4
297.7
378.6
296.7
377.3
297.4
378.6
296.5
377.3
297.0
377.7
300.8
386.7
296.4
376.9
298.5
378.9
296.4
377.3
297.6
378.1
297.4
378.8
296.9
376.6
296.2
376.4
297.2
378.1
297.0
376.3
296.1
377.9
296.4
380.0
297.3
378.2
297.6
378.5
295.4
378.2
297.1
378.6
297.7
378.5
297.3
378.6
296.9
378.7

Feed Conductivity / Feed TDS:

Feed
Pressure
55.1
55.0
55.0
54.9
55.1
55.1
55.1
54.8
54.7
54.2
54.7
55.4
54.9
54.8
55.0
55.0
54.7
54.9
55.0
54.9
55.1
54.8
55.2
54.9
55.3
54.7
54.9
54.8

Concentrate
Pressure
54.12
53.96
54.00
53.86
54.12
54.12
54.16
53.86
53.71
53.19
53.75
54.36
53.86
53.82
54.06
53.96
53.71
53.88
54.02
53.92
53.96
53.77
54.22
53.90
54.26
53.65
53.92
53.82

Permeate
Pressure
3.7
3.4
3.5
3.3
3.6
3.7
4.3
3.9
4.0
3.4
3.9
4.3
4.1
3.6
4.0
3.8
3.7
3.7
3.9
4.0
4.0
3.7
4.0
4.1
3.9
3.5
3.9
3.8
19

1.43446

Calculated
Feed
Calculated Permeate
Feed
Feed TDS Conductivity Perm TDS Conductivity Temp (C)
35205
50500
582
1178
25.4
35414
50800
573
1161
25.5
35275
50600
564
1142
25.5
35344
50700
559
1133
25.3
35275
50600
557
1129
25.5
35344
50700
629
1270
25.3
34926
50100
643
1297
25.3
34787
49900
606
1224
25.3
34717
49800
593
1200
25.6
34577
49600
573
1161
25.7
34647
49700
575
1163
25.6
34577
49600
578
1170
25.9
34787
49900
578
1169
25.9
34717
49800
559
1133
25.4
34647
49700
556
1127
25.4
34856
50000
552
1118
25.3
34787
49900
552
1119
25.6
34856
50000
548
1110
25.6
35414
50800
605
1222
25.3
35205
50500
585
1183
25.3
35275
50600
575
1163
25.5
35344
50700
569
1152
25.5
35344
50700
561
1136
25.5
35275
50600
561
1137
25.3
35414
50800
555
1124
25.4
35344
50700
551
1117
25.3
35344
50700
551
1117
25.5
35344
50700
547
1109
25.4

FTNORM - 1 Stage Calculation Section

Plant Identification:

Feed
Flow
677
677
675
674
676
674
676
674
675
688
673
677
674
676
676
674
673
675
673
674
676
676
676
674
676
676
676
676

Days of
Operation
1
2
3
4
5
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Reverse Osmosis Plant


Operating Data Normalization

Train 1 C

Recovery
(%)
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%
44%

Differential
Pressure
0.99
1.03
0.99
1.01
1.01
0.99
0.97
0.91
1.02
1.03
0.98
1.03
1.01
1.01
0.97
1.01
1.02
1.01
0.99
1.01
1.11
1.02
0.99
0.97
1.03
1.02
1.01
0.99

Temperature Calculated Feed/Brine Permeate


Normalized Normalized
Correction Feed/Brine Osmotic
Osmotic Net Driving Permeate
Permeate
Factor
Avg Conc Pressure Pressure
Pressure
Flow
Salt Passage
1.012
46378
38.6
0.5
12.9
297
1.7%
1.015
46688
38.8
0.5
12.7
301
1.6%
1.015
46464
38.6
0.4
12.8
298
1.6%
1.009
46525
38.7
0.4
12.8
297
1.6%
1.015
46491
38.7
0.4
12.8
297
1.6%
1.009
46583
38.7
0.5
12.7
302
1.8%
1.009
46022
38.2
0.5
12.6
304
1.8%
1.009
45842
38.1
0.5
12.9
297
1.7%
1.018
45756
38.0
0.5
12.6
300
1.7%
1.021
45474
37.8
0.5
13.0
295
1.7%
1.018
45665
38.0
0.5
12.8
295
1.6%
1.027
45589
37.9
0.5
13.1
288
1.7%
1.027
45839
38.1
0.5
12.6
299
1.6%
1.012
45765
38.0
0.4
13.1
292
1.6%
1.012
45650
37.9
0.4
13.1
292
1.6%
1.009
45963
38.2
0.4
12.9
296
1.6%
1.018
45855
38.1
0.4
12.9
294
1.6%
1.018
45936
38.2
0.4
12.9
294
1.6%
1.009
46709
38.8
0.5
12.2
313
1.6%
1.009
46366
38.5
0.5
12.3
309
1.6%
1.015
46416
38.6
0.5
12.4
307
1.6%
1.015
46580
38.7
0.5
12.3
311
1.5%
1.015
46582
38.7
0.4
12.5
306
1.5%
1.009
46429
38.6
0.4
12.2
313
1.5%
1.012
46656
38.8
0.4
12.5
306
1.5%
1.009
46585
38.7
0.4
12.4
311
1.5%
1.015
46570
38.7
0.4
12.2
313
1.5%
1.012
46555
38.7
0.4
12.2
312
1.5%
20

Normalized
Permeate
Salt
Rejection
98.3%
98.4%
98.4%
98.4%
98.4%
98.2%
98.2%
98.3%
98.3%
98.3%
98.4%
98.3%
98.4%
98.4%
98.4%
98.4%
98.4%
98.4%
98.4%
98.4%
98.4%
98.5%
98.5%
98.5%
98.5%
98.5%
98.5%
98.5%

FTNORM 1 Stage
Normalized Permeate Flow
500

Permeate Flow (m3/hr)

400

300

200

100

0
0

10

15

20

Operating Time (days)


21

25

30

35

FTNORM 1 Stage
Normalized Salt Passage and Salt Rejection
5.0%

100.0%
Salt Rejection

4.0%

99.0%

3.0%

98.0%

2.0%

97.0%

1.0%

96.0%

0.0%

95.0%
0

10

15

20

25

Operating Time (days)


22

30

35

Salt Rejection (%)

Salt Passage (%)

Salt Passage

FTNORM 1 Stage
Differential Pressure
3.0

2.5

Pressure (bar)

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0

10

15

20

Operating Time (days)


23

25

30

35

FTNORM available from the web:


Go to: www.dowwaterandprocess.com
Click on Answer Center and enter FTNORM in search field
Click on FTNORM System Data Normalization Download
Download and save FTNORM spreadsheet appropriate for your system
Follow instructions for setup and entering data into FTNORM
One-stage system:

Two-stage system:

US Units (gpm psig)


Metric Units (m3/hr bar)
Metric Units (m3/hr kg/cm2)

US Units (gpm psig)


Metric Units (m3/hr bar)
Metric Units (m3/hr kg/cm2)

Additional FTNORM features available from DWPS TS&D:

Three-stage systems
Permeate backpressure
Boost pumps
Energy recovery devices

Data entry macro


Normalized DP
Specific flux

Conclusions
Track the performance of RO trains in order to identify
problems early.

RO systems react to variation in feed water


characteristics and operating conditions.
RO data normalization allows the RO operator to
distinguish between normal variation in performance and
potential problems.
Use normalization software such as FTNORM to easily
trend the important performance variables and review
the data frequently.

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Questions?

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Thank You!

Steven D. Coker
sdcoker@dow.com

http://www.dowwaterandprocess.com/