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The Easiest Way to Solve a

Rubik's Cube: With Step-by-Step

By Mark Wipfler

How to Solve a Rubik's Cube the Easy Way

Solving a Rubik's Cube may seem to be impossible. In fact most people give up on it after
playing with it for only a few minutes and never pick it up again, while others are willing to tame
the beast no matter how long it takes.
To solve a Rubik's Cube, there's no need for super long algorithms or any other complicated
stuff. If you can remember a phone number, then you can solve a Rubik's Cube. It's that easy!
Here is the secret that most people do not know: You cannot solve the Cube without knowing the
basic solution method. You can find the method from a friend who has already solved the Cube,
from tutorials on the web such as this one, or from the instruction manual that comes with the
Cube - though the manual can be confusing for first-time users. There are a few things that you
have to learn, though they are not difficult.
For instance, you may think that the way to solve the Cube is to do one side at a time. This is not
true. As a matter of fact, that strategy is almost impossible and would require very long computer
generated algorithms that would overwhelm even the most experienced Cubers.
For beginners, the Layer by Layer method is the best and most common way to solve the Cube.
There are other methods that are more advanced, but they are used for Speed Cubing (the art of
solving the Cube in the fastest time possible rather than just solving it). The first step in the Layer
by Layer method is done by picking a color (most common is the white side, which has the white
center dot) to make the "White Cross". Then comes inserting the corners to complete the first
layer, then fixing the edge pieces in the 2nd layer to complete it, and then completing the last
I'll explain each step in an easy-to-understand way with pictures and video to demonstrate the
basic solution. If you are prepared to spend some time, even if it's only 10 to 20 minutes at a
time, you will shortly be solving the Cube faster than you could ever have imagined. Don't give
up if you get anything wrong in any of the steps: you can always start over, no matter how bad
the mistake.

Get To Know Your Cube

Before getting started on the Layer by Layer method, it's important to go over the Rubik's Cube
and familiarize ourselves with its parts and features.
On each side, the Cube has 3 kinds of parts:

The center dot that never moves


The 4 corner pieces


The 4 edge pieces in between the corner pieces.

You can find all of these parts labelled in the diagram below.

Rubik's Cube Diagram: corner pieces have three visible sides while edge pieces have two visible sides.

In total, there are:

6 Center dots, that are each one color

12 edge pieces, which have 2 colors each

8 corner pieces, which have 3 colors each

There are 20 pieces that can be moved around, while the 6 center dots always remain in place.

Rubik's Cube Notations

Rubik's Cube Diagram: here are all the sides of the cube labelled.

Since every Cube will look different, these instructions will use a set of notations that make it
easy to label and refer to the different sides. Standard notation for the Cube is UP, DOWN,
RIGHT, LEFT, FACE, and BACK, or U, D, R, L, F, B for short. The above picture helpfully labels
all the different sides. Remember, though, that the notations are all relative and are determined

based on the Cube's orientation (so if you flipped the Cube upside down, white would no longer
be UP, it would be DOWN.)

Helpful Hint: Color Pairings

In American models, the following color pairs are always opposite of each other.

Green and Blue

Orange and Red

White and Yellow

Take the following quiz to see if you can use your knowledge of color pairings to figure out the
colors of the un-pictured sides in the above diagram.

view quiz statistics

How to Read Rubik's Cube Notations

Rubik's Cube instructions will tell you to rotate different sides. So, when the instructions tell you
to move UP, it means to turn the UP side clockwise 90 degrees (1/4 the way around the top of
the Cube).
The picture below shows you how the Cube should look after moving UP once.
Another way to look at it is to imagine you are looking at the top of the Cube and you want to turn
a hand on a clock from 12 o'clock to 3 o'clock, so you would turn the top layer to the right one

Rubik's Cube Instructions: Move the UP side clockwise, 90 degrees.

To move RIGHT, then you would imagine your looking at the RIGHT side (blue) and do the same,
turn it clockwise one time.
FACE is the same. Just turn the red side to the right one time.
For example, the notations F U R, would instruct you to turn the FACE side clockwise 90
degrees, then the UP side clockwise 90 degrees, and finally the RIGHT side clockwise 90
A Few More Notations
If you need to move a side counter-clockwise, that's called INVERT and is denoted with an
apostrophe. So F' means you should move the FACE side counter-clockwise 90 degrees.
If you need to rotate a side more than once, then it would be twice. So, F2 means you should
turn the FACE side clockwise 180 degrees, (Turning the FACE 3 times is the same as doing an
F' move, so there really is only 3 moves for all faces, either F, F', or F2).

Step 1: Make the Daisy Cross

Rubik's Cube: The Daisy Cross

Turn the Cube so that yellow is now the TOP side. Then, find the white edge pieces and put them
on the TOP layer.
Using the picture below as an example, you would want to turn the left-hand side cube R and the
right-hand side Cube F to place the white edge pieces where the "X" is drawn.
When you're finished the TOP side should look like the Cube above, with a kind of daisy flower

Rubik's Cube: to make the "daisy cross" place the white edge pieces on the TOP layer.

Making the Daisy Cross: Helpful Hints

This can often be the most difficult step since there is no formula to get the white edge pieces
where you need them, but there are a few common scenarios a Cuber is likely to face.

If you go to put a white edge on top, and there is another white edge piece where the "X"
is, do a U or U' until a spot is open to put the white edge in.


If the white edge piece is on the DOWN layer or if the piece is in the right position but the
white sticker is on the wrong side, do a F or F' to orient it. CAUTION: You should doublecheck the U layer first, because you may need to turn it so as to avoid displacing any white
edge pieces that are already in their correct position.

Step 2: Make the White Cross

Rubik's Cube: line up the edge pieces with their matching center pieces.

Rubik's Cube: then turn that side 180 degrees to put the white piece on the white side.

Rubik's Cube: the completed white cross. All the edge pieces should be connected to their matching center

To make the white cross, look for a white edge that is lined up with one of the middle layer

If you do not see an edge connected to a center dot, rotate the top layer until one is. In the
picture above, the UP layer is turned once counter-clockwise so that the red edge piece is
connected to the red center piece.
Again using the above picture as a reference, you would then place the white edge piece on the
white side by moving 2R in either directions. That transfers the white edge to the white side while
keeping the edge piece connected to the red center
Do the same thing for the 3 other edges.

Step 3: Fill in the White Corners

Now that you have the white cross, it's time to put in the corners to complete the first layer.
Like the edge pieces, the corner pieces have to match up with the sides corresponding to its
other two colors.
So, on the yellow layer, look for a corner piece that has a white sticker, then rotate that layer until
that corner piece is directly opposite the spot that it belongs in on the top layer. In the picture
below, you know that the white pieces are in their proper place because the other two colors
match the center pieces on both sides.
Once you have the corner piece opposite the spot it belongs in, you will be confronted with one
of the three cases below. Perform the sequence of moves appropriate to your particular case.
HINT: you should make sure that the corner you're trying to move the white piece into doesn't
already have a white piece in it. If there's already a white corner piece there, rotate the white
layer until that corner opens up.
Repeat for the remaining corner pieces.

Rubik's Cube: the three cases you'll encounter when filling in the white corners.

Special Cases

You might find that the white corner piece is already in the correct spot, but it's twisted the wrong
way. In that case, you want to put the white piece on the yellow layer. To do that, orient the Cube
so that the twisted white piece is on the RIGHT side. Then make the following moves: R' D' R D.
Once the white corner piece is on the yellow layer, you can rotate that layer until you arrive at
one of the cases above.

Step 3: Complete the 2nd Layer

For this step, turn the Cube so that the white side is to the left, and yellow is to the right. This
orientation makes it easier to complete the two algorithms that fix the second layer.
As in the picture below, line up an edge piece with its corresponding center piece. You can do
this by turning the right side until the edge piece is connected to its center dot.
Remember to keep the white side to the left and yellow to the right while doing this.

Fix the corners to work on the second layer

Now look to see where that edge piece belongs. In the picture above, that edge piece has
orange and green, so it belongs in the top layer, between the orange and green center dots. So,
we need to move that edge piece counter-clockwise. To do so, make the following moves:
R' U' R U then R F R' F'
In the picture below is the opposite case. The edge piece needs to be moved clockwise. To do
so, make the following moves:
R D R' D' then R' F' R F

In this Cube, the edge piece needs to be moved clockwise.

Troubleshooting: Special Case 1

Sometimes, as in the following picture, the edge piece is in the right spot, but it's flipped
incorrectly. When that happens, you should perform the "counter clockwise" algorithm from
above. That should rotate the edge piece into the yellow layer, while keeping the white corner
piece in place.
Once you've done that, you spin the yellow layer around until the edge piece is lined up with its
matching center piece. Then do the same algorithm again to get it in the correct position.

Troubleshooting: Special Case 2

Another special case is illustrated in the picture below. In this scenario, you'll have a piece on the
opposite side of the Cube from where it is supposed to be. (Remember, green is always opposite
blue). This is an easy fix. Orient your Cube like the picture below and make the following moves:
U2 R2 U2 R2 U2
*U2 means to turn the UP layer twice (180 Degrees).

In some cases, both of the edge pieces on the UP face will be in the opposite spot of where they
belong, but have no fear! The same algorithm fixes the both of them at the same time!

The picture below shows what the Cube looks like when the first two layers have been solved.
Now, we move on to the last layer: the yellow side.

Step 4: The Yellow Cross

The goal of this step is to make a yellow cross on the yellow side. If you already have a yellow
cross, you can skip down to the next section.
For this step, orient the Cube so that the yellow center dot is on the top, and white is on the
In order to get the yellow cross, you will have to use an algorithm and perhaps repeat it a few
times. For right now, don't worry about whether the edge pieces line up with their appropriate
center pieces - we'll get to that later.
At this stage, you should have one of the three cases shown below. In all three cases, you will
make the same sequence of moves. Just orient the Cube so that it matches the picture and do
the following:

F R U R' U' F'

For right now, don't worry about the corner pieces. We'll get to them later. For now, just focus on
the edge pieces.

Case #1

Case #1

In this case, the yellow center dot does not have any other yellow stickers connected to it.
In this instance, do F R U R' U' F' and it will give you a little "L" of yellow pieces. Then you can
rotate the Cube around so that it matches Case #2.
Don't worry if the rest of the Cube gets messed up while you're doing the algorithm - it will return
to normal once you're finished.

Case #2: The Little "L"

Here you can see the little "L" of yellow pieces on the top left corner of the UP side.
In this picture, 2 of the yellow edge pieces are facing up. Do the F R U R' U' F' algorithm, and it
should give you a line of yellow pieces. Then, rotate the Cube so that it matches Case #3

Case #3: The Line

Here, you can see the "Line," where the center dot has two yellow pieces connected to it. Once
you arrive at this stage, you should do the F R U F' U' F' algorithm one more time, and you
should end up with a yellow cross on the top layer, as in the picture below.

Step 5: Finish the Yellow Layers

Now that you have the yellow cross, it's time to complete the yellow side (UP side). You still do
not have to worry about either lining up the top edge pieces with the appropriate center dots or
placing the top corner pieces. All you have to do right now is get all the yellow stickers facing up.
If all of the yellow stickers are already facing up, you can skip down to the next section.
This step only takes 2 algorithms (one is the mirror of the other) to complete, though you may
have to repeat them a few times.
Keep in mind that the pictures below show you the UP side of the Cube, so be sure that you've
oriented the Cube so that yellow is UP.
Once you've oriented your Cube, it should look like one of the seven pictures below, which are
called the Seven Sunes (and nope, that's not a typo!). Notice the placement of the yellow stickers
on the corner pieces. Some of them may be on top or on the sides.

If you have trouble reading diagram, then click on it to enlarge.

After moving all the yellow stickers to the top, your Cube should look like the one below. The rest
of the stickers are jumbled up. Take note of the "headlights" - the two blue squares sandwiched
around a red square - that will be important later. In the next section, the stickers on the 4 corner
pieces on the top layer will be put in their proper places.

Step 6: Fix the 4 Corners on Top

Its time to fix the positions of the 4 corner pieces on the top layer. In the following section, we will
fix the positions of the 4 edge pieces in the top layer, which will solve the Cube!
Your first step is to find a pair of "headlights." If there aren't any, hold the Cube so that the white
side is in the FACE position and the yellow side is in the BACK position, and do the following
sequence of moves:
(U2, R2)(U, L, U') R2 (U, L', U)
Once you've made a pair of headlights, orient the Cube so that the white side is in the FACE
position and the yellow side is in the BACK position, and the pair of headlights is on top, as in the
picture below. Then, repeat the same algorithm as above, which should result in 4 pairs of

Next, reorient the Cube so that yellow is on top and white is on bottom. Look around to make
sure there are 4 sets of headlights, as in the picture below. Now its on to fixing the last 4 edge
In some cases, the Cube will be solved at this point. It's pure luck, but it does happen! More
likely, your Cube should look something like the picture below. For now, don't worry about
whether the edge pieces line up with the center piece - that will all be fixed in the final step.

Step 7: Fix the Edge Pieces on Top

You're almost done - just one last step! Now we need to get the edge pieces into their correct
There are 4 possible configurations of the edge pieces at this point, though a single sequence
can account for all of them. You may have to repeat it a few times, though.
All you have to do is look for one side where, as in the picture below, the three pieces in the top
yellow layer bordering it are in the correct place. Put that side into the FACE position.

If there isn't a solved side, then do the sequence below from any side and check afterwards to
see if you can find a side that's completely solved. If there still isn't one, continue to do the
sequence until there is, and then move UP to match that side with the bottom two layers of the
same colors.
Once you have a solved side perform the sequence below. If the Cube is still not solved, do it
again and it should be solved!
(R', U, R') (U', R', U', R') (U, R, U, R2)

20 Amazing Scientific Reasons

Behind Hindu Traditions
BY A.D OCTOBER 22, 2014



1. Joining Both Palms Together To


In Hindu culture, people greet each other by joining their palms

termed as Namaskar. The general reason behind this tradition is
that greeting by joining both the palms means respect. However,
scientifically speaking, joining both hands ensures joining the tips
of all the fingers together; which are denoted to the pressure

points of eyes, ears, and mind. Pressing them together is said to

activate the pressure points which helps us remember that person
for a long time. And, no germs since we dont make any physical

2. Why Do Indian Women Wear Toe


image courtesy
Wearing toe rings is not just the significance of married women
but there is science behind it. Normally toe rings are worn on the
second toe. A particular nerve from the second toe connects the
uterus and passes to heart. Wearing toe ring on this finger
strengthens the uterus. It will keep it healthy by regulating the
blood flow to it and menstrual cycle will be regularized. As Silver
is a good conductor, it also absorbs polar energies from the earth
and passes it to the body.

3. Throwing Coins Into A River

The general reasoning given for this act is that it brings Good
Luck. However, scientifically speaking, in the ancient times, most
of the currency used was made of copper unlike the stainless
steel coins of today. Copper is a vital metal very useful to the
human body. Throwing coins in the river was one way our forefathers ensured we intake sufficient copper as part of the water as
rivers were the only source of drinking water. Making it a custom
ensured that all of us follow the practice.

4. Applying Tilak/KumKum On The


On the forehead, between the two eyebrows, is a spot that is

considered as a major nerve point in human body since ancient
times. The Tilak is believed to prevent the loss of energy, the
red kumkum between the eyebrows is said to retain energy in
the human body and control the various levels of concentration.
While applying kumkum the points on the mid-brow region and
Adnya-chakra are automatically pressed. This also facilitates the
blood supply to the face muscles.

5. Why Do Temples Have Bells

People who are visiting the temple should and will Ring the bell
before entering the inner sanctum (Garbhagudi or Garbha Gruha
or womb-chamber) where the main idol is placed. According to
Agama Sastra, the bell is used to give sound for keeping evil
forces away and the ring of the bell is pleasant to God. However,
the scientific reason behind bells is that their ring clears our mind
and helps us stay sharp and keep our full concentration on
devotional purpose. These bells are made in such a way that
when they produce a sound it creates a unity in the Left and Right
parts of our brains. The moment we ring the bell, it produces a
sharp and enduring sound which lasts for minimum of 7 seconds
in echo mode. The duration of echo is good enough to activate all
the seven healing centres in our body. This results in emptying
our brain from all negative thoughts.

6. Why We Start With Spice & End With


Our ancestors have stressed on the fact that our meals should be
started off with something spicy and sweet dishes should be
taken towards the end. The significance of this eating practice is
that while spicy things activate the digestive juices and acids and
ensure that the digestion process goes on smoothly and
efficiently, sweets or carbohydrates pulls down the digestive
process. Hence, sweets were always recommended to be taken as
a last item.

7. Why Do We Applying Mehendi/Henna

On The Hand And Feet

Besides lending color to the hands, mehndi is a very powerful

medicinal herb. Weddings are stressful, and often, the stress
causes headaches and fevers. As the wedding day approaches,
the excitement mixed with nervous anticipation can take its toll
on the bride and groom. Application of mehndi can prevent too
much stress because it cools the body and keeps the nerves from
becoming tense. This is the reason why mehndi is applied on the
hands and feet, which house nerve endings in the body.

8. Sitting On The Floor & Eating

This tradition is not just about sitting on floor and eating, it is

regarding sitting in the Sukhasan position and then eating.
Sukhasan is the position we normally use for Yoga asanas. When
you sit on the floor, you usually sit cross legged In sukhasana or
a half padmasana (half lotus), which are poses that instantly
bring a sense of calm and help in digestion, it is believed
to automatically trigger the signals to your brain to prepare the
stomach for digestion.

9. Why You Should Not To Sleep With

Your Head Towards North

Myth is that it invites ghost or death but science says that it is

because human body has its own magnetic field (Also known as
hearts magnetic field, because the flow of blood) and Earth is a
giant magnet. When we sleep with head towards north, our
bodys magnetic field become completely asymmetrical to the
Earths Magnetic field. That cause problems related to blood
pressure and our heart needs to work harder in order to overcome
this asymmetry of Magnetic fields. Apart from this another reason
is that Our body have significant amount of iron in our blood.

When we sleep in this position, iron from the whole body starts to
congregate in brain. This can cause headache, Alzheimers
Disease, Cognitive Decline, Parkinson disease and brain

10. Why We Pierce Ear

Piercing the ears has a great importance in Indian ethos. Indian

physicians and philosophers believe that piercing the ears helps
in the development of intellect, power of thinking and decision
making faculties. Talkativeness fritters away life energy. Ear
piercing helps in speech-restraint. It helps to reduce impertinent
behavior and the ear-channels become free from disorders. This
idea appeals to the Western world as well, and so they are getting
their ears pierced to wear fancy earrings as a mark of fashion.

11. Surya Namaskar

Hindus have a tradition of paying regards to Sun God early in the

morning by their water offering ritual. It was mainly because
looking at Sun rays through water or directly at that time of the
day is good for eyes and also by waking up to follow this routine,
we become prone to a morning lifestyle and mornings are proven
to be the most effective part of the day.

12. Choti On The Male Head

Sushrut rishi, the foremost surgeon of Ayurveda, describes the

master sensitive spot on the head as Adhipati Marma, where
there is a nexus of all nerves. The shikha protects this spot.
Below, in the brain, occurs the Brahmarandhra, where the
sushumn (nerve) arrives from the lower part of the body. In Yog,
Brahmarandhra is the highest, seventh chakra, with the thousandpetalled lotus. It is the centre of wisdom. The knotted shikh helps
boost this centre and conserve its subtle energy known as ojas.

13. Why Do We Fast

The underlying principle behind fasting is to be found in Ayurveda.

This ancient Indian medical system sees the basic cause of many
diseases as the accumulation of toxic materials in the digestive
system. Regular cleansing of toxic materials keeps one healthy.
By fasting, the digestive organs get rest and all body mechanisms
are cleansed and corrected. A complete fast is good for heath,
and the occasional intake of warm lemon juice during the period
of fasting prevents the flatulence. Since the human body, as
explained by Ayurveda, is composed of 80% liquid and 20% solid,
like the earth, the gravitational force of the moon affects the fluid
contents of the body. It causes emotional imbalances in the body,
making some people tense, irritable and violent. Fasting acts as
antidote, for it lowers the acid content in the body which helps
people to retain their sanity. Research suggests there are major
health benefits to caloric restriction like reduced risks of cancer,
cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, immune disorders etc.

14. The Scientific Explanation Of

Touching Feet (Charan Sparsh)

Usually, the person of whose feet you are touching is either old or
pious. When they accept your respect which came from your
reduced ego (and is called your shraddha) their hearts emit
positive thoughts and energy (which is called their karuna) which
reaches you through their hands and toes. In essence, the
completed circuit enables flow of energy and increases cosmic
energy, switching on a quick connect between two minds and
hearts. To an extent, the same is achieved through handshakes
and hugs. The nerves that start from our brain spread across all
your body. These nerves or wires end in the fingertips of your
hand and feet. When you join the fingertips of your hand to those
of their opposite feet, a circuit is immediately formed and the
energies of two bodies are connected. Your fingers and palms
become the receptor of energy and the feet of other person
become the giver of energy.

15. Why Married Women Apply Sindoor Or


It is interesting to note that that the application of sindoor by

married women carries a physiological significance. This is so
because Sindoor is prepared by mixing turmeric-lime and the
metal mercury. Due to its intrinsic properties, mercury, besides
controlling blood pressure also activates sexual drive. This also
explains why Sindoor is prohibited for the widows. For best

results, Sindoor should be applied right upto the pituitary gland

where all our feelings are centered. Mercury is also known for
removing stress and strain.

16. Why Do We Worship Peepal Tree

Peepal tree is almost useless for an ordinary person, except for

its shadow. Peepal does not a have a delicious fruit, its wood is
not strong enough for any purpose then why should a common
villager or person worship it or even care for it? Our ancestors
knew that Peepal is one of the very few trees (or probably the
only tree) which produces oxygen even at night. So in order to
save this tree because of its unique property they related it to

17. Why Do We Worship Tulsi Plant

Hindu religion has bestowed Tulsi, with the status of mother. Also
known as Sacred or Holy Basil, Tulsi, has been recognized as a
religious and spiritual devout in many parts of the world. The
vedic sages knew the benefits of Tulsi and that is why they
personified it as a Goddess and gave a clear message to the
entire community that it needs to be taken care of by the people,
literate or illiterate. We try to protect it because it is like
Sanjeevani for the mankind. Tulsi has great medicinal properties.
It is a remarkable antibiotic. Taking Tulsi everyday in tea or
otherwise increases immunity and help the drinker prevent
diseases, stabilize his or her health condition, balance his or her
body system and most important of all, prolong his or her life.
Keeping Tulsi plant at home prevents insects and mosquitoes from
entering the house. It is said that snakes do not dare to go near a

Tulsi plant. Maybe that is why ancient people would grow lots of
Tulsi near their houses.

18. Why Do We Worship Idol

Hinduism propagates idol worship more than any other religion.

Researchers say that this was initiated for the purpose of
increasing concentration during prayers. According to
psychiatrists, a man will shape his thoughts as per what he sees.
If you have 3 different objects in front of you, your thinking will
change according to the object you are viewing. Similarly, in
ancient India, idol worship was established so that when people
view idols it is easy for them to concentrate to gain spiritual
energy and meditate without mental diversion

19. Why Do Indian Women Wear


Normally the wrist portion is in constant activation on any human.

Also the pulse beat in this portion is mostly checked for all sorts of
ailments. The Bangles used by women are normally in the wrist
part of ones hand and its constant friction increases the blood
circulation level. Further more the electricity passing out through
outer skin is again reverted to ones own body because of the ring
shaped bangles, which has no ends to pass the energy outside
but to send it back to the body.

20. Why Should We Visit Temple?

Temples are located strategically at a place where the positive

energy is abundantly available from the magnetic and electric
wave distributions of north/south pole thrust. The main idol is
placed in the core center of the temple, known as
*Garbhagriha* or *Moolasthanam*. In fact, the temple structure
is built after the idol has been placed. This *Moolasthanam* is
where earths magnetic waves are found to be maximum. We
know that there are some copper plates, inscribed with Vedic
scripts, buried beneath the Main Idol. What are they really? No,
they are not Gods / priests flash cards when they forget the
*shlokas*. The copper plate absorbs earths magnetic waves and
radiates it to the surroundings. Thus a person regularly visiting a
temple and walking clockwise around the Main Idol receives the
beamed magnetic waves and his body absorbs it. This is a very

slow process and a regular visit will let him absorb more of this
positive energy. Scientifically, it is the positive energy that we all
require to have a healthy life.

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