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1. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION


2. The process by which the researcher collects the information needed to answer
the research problem.What is data collection?
3. When to collect the data Who will collect the data How to collect the data
Which data to collect In collecting the data, the researcher must decide:
4. The information gathered about the variables The research design The
identified hypothesis or research problem The selection of data collection method
should be based on the following:
5. Degree of objectivity Degree of obtrusiveness Degree of quantifiability
Degree of structure The methods of data collection vary according to:
6. RESEARCHINSTRUMENTS
7. Massey states that the Instrument development requires a high degree of
research expertise, as the instrument must be reliable and valid. The type of
instrument used by the researcher depends on the data collection method selected.
facilitate variable observation and measurement. described as a device used to
collect the data. Instrument or a Tool RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
8. Ways of Searching forResearch Instruments
9. Develop his/her own instrument to fulfill a specific need. Combine or adapt one
or more tools used by other researchers. Talk with other researchers who may
know of certain tools they have developed for themselves, or may have used tools
developed by others. Read books that provide a description or an actual copy of
various instruments for the reader. Read professional journals to learn what kind of
instruments are being used for similar studies, their format, style, and how they are
used by the writers.Ways of Searching for Research Instruments
10. Guidelines for Developing an Instrument
11. The instrument must be based on the theoretical framework selected for the
study. The instrument must be based on the theoretical framework. The research
tool will only be effective only as it relates to its particular purpose. The instrument
must be suitable for its function.Guidelines for Developing an Instrument
12. The research tool should be designed and constructed in such a way that
cheating is minimized An instrument should include an item that directly asks the
hypothesis. The devised research tool should provide comparable data every time

the subject uses the instrument. The instrument should be reliable. The content of
the instrument must be appropriate to test the hypothesis or answer the question
being studied. The instrument should be valid.Guidelines for Developing an
Instrument
13. The researcher may need to read extensively to identify which aspects of the
theory are appropriate for investigation. The instrument should not contain
measures that function as hints for desired responses. A good instrument is free of
build-in clues. The instrument should be free of bias.Guidelines for Developing an
Instrument
14. The researcher should gather a group of items from such sources as persons
knowledgeable in the field, accepted theories or hypotheses, personal experience,
or material from studies reported in books and professional journals. The
researcher should gather a group of items from such sources. The researcher,
through the instrument, must be able to gather data that are appropriate in order to
test the hypothesis or to answer the question under investigation.Guidelines for
Developing an Instrument
15. Therefore, the respondent who agrees to participate in a study is responsible
for supplying information or for exhibiting behavior that is truly his own. The
response given by each respondent in the research study should solely be his own.
There should be no contamination through outside influences, such as someone
elses ideas or products.Guidelines for Developing an Instrument

Types of Research Instruments


Types of Research Instruments
1. Questionnaire
2. Checklist
3. Distribution
4. Interview
5. Observation
6. Records
7. Experimental Approach

8. Survey Approach
1. Questionnaire
1. A series of questions designed to elicit information, which is filled in by all participants in
the sample. 2. This can be gathered either by oral interview or by written questionnaire.
3. This is the most common type of research instrument
Advantages of a Questionnaire 1. Relatively simple method of obtaining data. 2. Less time is
consumed. 3. Researcher is able to gather data from a widely scattered sample.
Disadvantages of a Questionnaire 1. Responses to a questionnaire lack depth.2. Respondent
may omit or disregard any item he chooses.3. Some items may force the subject to select
responses that are not his actual choice.4. Length of the questionnaire is limited according to
the respondents interest.5. Printing may be costly especially if it is lengthy.6. Data are limited
to the information that is voluntarily supplied by the respondents.7. Some items maybe
misunderstood.8. The sample is limited to those who are literate.

21. Techniques for Developing Questionnaire 2. Researcher may read


literatures about the topic look through available questionnaires or obtain help from
experts.4. Open - ended questions are preferable than closed questions since they
reflect respondents attitudes, feelings, which are expressed in his own words.6. If
yes - no questions are used; additional information may be gained by leaving space
for respondents own idea.8. The possibility of a middle ground statement is also
important.10. Every item in a questionnaire should relate to the topic under study.
Criteria of a Good Questionnaire
Clarity of Language: It must meet the level of understanding of the respondents in order to
generate needed responses
Singleness of Objective: An item must have one and only one answer
One-to-One Correspondence: The questionnaire as a whole must correspond with the
objectives of the study
Correct Grammar, Spelling, and Construction: The questionnaire must be constructed
observing grammatically correct sentences, correctly spelled words, coherence in construction
of sentences, etc

Characteristic of a Good Questionnaire 1. Well-stated title3. Has statement of


purpose5. It assures the respondents about the confidentiality of responses7. It is
designed to achieve the objectives of the study9. It has a clear direction11. There
are no double-negative questions13. It avoids double barreled questions15. The
design corresponds to an easy tabulation of data
25. This allows the subject to choose one of the given alternatives. This gives the
respondents the ability to respond in their own words.2. Close-ended or fixed
alternative Degree of Structure Questions1. Open-ended questions

26. This offers more than one choice. Example: How favorable is it to you to
become pregnant at this time? ___ Very favorable ___ Favorable ___ Not sure ___
Unfavorable ___ Very unfavorable This requires the respondent to make a choice
between two responses such as yes/no, male/female, or married/unmarried.
Example: Have you been ligated? ___ Yes ___ No 2. Multiple questions Specific
Types of Closed-ended Question: 1. Dichotomous questions
27. Example: People have different views on family planning, which of the
following best represent your views? ___1. Family planning is necessary to quality
life. ___2. Family planning is immoral and should be totally banned. ___3. Family
planning has undesirable side effects that suggest need for caution. ___4. Family
planning has beneficial effects that merit its practice. ___5. Family planning is moral
and should be practiced. A special type of multiple-choice question. The
respondents are asked to select a response according to their own point of view. 3.
Cafeteria questions
28. Example: Why must family planning be practiced? Rank your answers from the
1-most reasonable to 5-least reasonable? ___Limits maternal disabilities. ___Gives
parents more time to meet family needs. ___Helps maintain financial viability of the
family. ___Affords more working hours for couples. ___Ensures family capability to
educate all the children in the future. The respondents are asked to choose a
response from the most to the least. 4. Rank-Order questions
29. Example: On the scale of 1 to 5 where 1 means strongly disagree and 5 means
strongly agree, the Health Center in Barangay A provides you the necessary
services. Scale ___ 5 - Strongly agree ___ 4 - Agree ___ 3 - Uncertain ___ 2 - Disagree
___ 1 - Strongly disagree This is typically bipolar in nature, with the end points
specifying the opposite extremes of a continuum. The respondents are asked to
judge something along an ordered dimension. 5. Rating questions
30. 2. Checklist
31. These are items that comprise several questions on a topic and require the
same response format.2. Checklist
32. Example: Here are some characteristics of birth-control devices that are of
varying importance to different people. How important are the following in choosing
a birth-control method? Characteristic of birth- Of very Of great Of some Of no
control device great importance importance importance Importan ce 1. Comfort 2.
Cost 3. Ease of Use 4. Effectiveness 5. Noninterference of spontaneity 6. Safety 7.
Safety to partner
33. 3. Interview

34. This involves either structure or unstructured verbal communication between


the researcher and subject, during which information is obtained for a study.3.
Interview
35. The questions are asked orally in either face to face or telephone format.
researcher designed the questions to be asked prior to interview including the order
of the questions. always operates within formal written instrument referred as
interview schedule. This allows the researcher flexibility in questioning the
subject.2. Structured Interviews conducted in a usual situation. long sometimes
(hours) and more conversational Types of Interview1. Unstructured Interviews
36. Disadvantages of Interview 1. Time element 2. Biases may result 3. Costly
Advantages of Interview 1. Data from interview are usable 2. Depth of response can
be assured 3. In an exploratory study, the interview technique provides basis for the
formulation of questionnaire 4. Clarification is possible 5. No items are overlooked 6.
Higher proportion of responses is obtained 7. Greater amount of flexibility is
allowed
37. 4. Observation
38. researcher typically has some prior knowledge about the behavior or event of
interest preparation of record-keeping forms such as category systems, checklists
and rating scales. a method of collecting research data that has both opponents
and proponents.2. Structured observation Types of Observation1. Unstructured
observation most commonly used in qualitative research.4. Observation
39. Advantages of Observation3. Produces large quantities of data w/ relative
case.5. All data obtained from observation are usable.7. Relatively inexpensive.9. All
subjects are potential respondents.11. Subjects are usually available.13. The
observation technique can be stopped or begun at any time.7. Observation may be
recorded at the time they occur eliminating bias because of recall.
40. Disadvantages of Observation 1. Accurate prediction of a situation or event to
be observed is unlikely. 2. Interviewing selected subjects may provide more
information, economically, than waiting for the spontaneous occurrence of the
situation. 3. The presence of an observer gives the subjects a quality normally
absent. 4. Observed events are subject to biases. 5. Extensive training is needed.
41. 5. Records
42. Sources1. Census data2. Educational records3. Hospital/clinic records A record
refers to all the numbers and statistics that institutions, organizations and people
keep as a record of their activities.5. Records

43. Adva Disadvantages of Records1. All the researcher can have is what is there.
If the record is incomplete, there is no way it can be completed.2. No one can be
sure of the conditions under which the records were collected.3. There is no
assurance of the accuracy of the records.ntages of Records1. Records are
unbiased2. Records often cover a long period of time3. Inexpensive
44. 6. Experimental Approach
45. Researcher controls the independent variable A powerful design for testing
hypothesis of causal relationships among variables. 6. Experimental Approach &
Two Groups of Experimental Approach 1. Treatment / Experimental group 2. Control
groupwatches the effect on the dependent variable.
46. Advantages of Experimental Approach1. It is difficult to minimize all the
variables in which the control and experimental groups might differ.2. Causal
relationships are difficult if not impossible to establish.3. The time element may
confound the results of experimental research.4. In an experimental laboratory
setting it may be difficult to obtain subjects, especially subjects who are unaware of
the experiment
47. 7. Survey Approach
48. Advantages of Survey Approach 1. Can provide information about the
possibilities of undertaking different types of research methods. 3. Provides data
about the present. 5. Has a high degree of representativeness. 7. Easy to get
respondents and information often do not express their true reactions to the
questions. Another name is FORMULATIVE OR EXPLORATORY research. Nonexperimental type in which the researcher investigates a community or a group of
people. 7. Survey Approach
49. Disadvantages of Survey Approach 1. Yields a low degree of control over
extraneous variables. 2. Verbal behavior is quite unreliable and that people
50. MEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES
51. specific number to the collected data (Massey, 1991). Measurement is the
process by which the researcher assignsMEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES
52. Nominal level variables include sex, marital status and health status In relation
to marital status, 0 might represent single and 1 married. Example: ASSIGNING
A CODE TO LABEL This level includes assignment of numbers simply to classify
characteristics into categories. Levels of Measurement1. Nominal level (the lowest
level)

53. represent the rank order (1st, 2nd, 3rd etc.) Data are categorized and ranked,
ordered from most to least: according to frequency of occurrence as explained by
Dr. Barrientos-Tan. This permits the sorting of objects on the basis of their standing
on an attribute relative to each other. Levels of Measurement2. Ordinal level (the
second lowest level)
54. 1. Likert scale2. Guttman scale3. Graphic Rating Scale4. Semantic Differential
Scale
55. anxiety levels measured on a Likert scale Fahrenheit and centigrade
temperatures Example: Use of mode, median, mean do not have an absolute or
rational zero point. This occurs when the researcher can specify both the rankordering of objects attribute and the distance between those objects. Levels of
Measurement3. Interval level (the second highest level)
56. The ratio level has a rational, meaningful zero.Levels of Measurement4. Ratio
level (the highest level)
57. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF MEASUREMENT
58. refers to the extent to which an instrument measures what it is designed to
measure. Validity means the degree of consistency and accuracy with which an
instrument measures a variable. Reliability RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF
MEASUREMENT
59. Testing Validity of Data Collection
60. There are three categories of testing the validity of a data collection
instrument.2. Self-evident measures3. Pragmatic MeasuresTesting Validity of Data
Collection
61. The researcher typically verifies this by conducting a literature review to
determine which content should be covered and by asking experts to evaluate the
instruments representativeness of the content. relies on the assurance that you
can demonstrate an adequate coverage of the known field. the researcher
typically verifies face validity by asking experts to evaluate the instruments intent.
1.2 Content validity most basic level, when little or nothing is known about the
variable being measured; refers to the fact that the instrument appears what it is
supposed to measure. 1.1 Face validity (VALIDITY OF THE OBSERVER) Self-evident
measures
62. Construct validity Predictive validity Concurrent validity Thus attempting to
answer the question, Does it work? the procedure essentially tests the practical
value of a particular research instrument or tool Pragmatic Measures

63. Note that with concurrent validity, the two measures are taken at the same
time. Ex. a measure of job satisfaction might be correlated with work performance.
Researcher typically validates concurrent validity by using the instrument in
conjunction with a second instrument already known to be valid. refers to the
extent to which an instrument can accurately identify subjects that differ with
respect to a given characteristic. Concurrent validity
64. the researcher commonly validates this by using the instrument, then
comparing the results with some future outcomes. to predict some future
occurrences. Predictive validity
65. is related to the theoretical ideas behind the personality trait under
consideration useful mainly for measuring the traits or feelings such as generosity,
grief or satisfaction. Construct validity
66. Testing the Reliability of Research Instrument
67. Repeated observations Test / Retest There are two categories for tests of
stability: This refers to the extent to which the same results are obtained with
repeated use of an instrument The best indicator of an instruments reliability.
Testing the Reliability of Research Instrument1. Stability
68. This refers to the consistency of the results by different investigators or similar
tests at the same time. This refers to the extent to which all parts of the
measurement techniques are measuring the same concept.3. Test of Equivalence
Testing the Reliability of Research Instrument2. Internal consistency