FLOUR & PRODUCT QUALITY TESTING

EQUIPMENTS
The raw material of foremost importance in bakery products is the wheat
flour. Bakery units prefer the flour obtained by milling in roller flourmill with
70-72% extraction. Flour quality may be defined as the ability of the flour to
produce an attractive end product at competitive cost, under conditions imposed
by the end product manufacturing unit. The concept of quality differs from
producer and consumer point of view. However, in general, the term quality
may refer to fitness of a raw material or a product for a particular process or
consumer. For a consumer, the following parameters are important criteria of a
product quality.
1. Uniformity and consistency of quality
2. Health safety of the product and
3. Price
Testing of wheat and flour is commonly done for quality control
purposes, result from these tests have a direct relationship to finished product
quality. For manufacturing of any product, various specifications or particular
characteristics are required, these specification decide how flour will perform
during the processing.

Following are the contemporary equipment for the analysis of wheat and
flour:
1. Falling Number
2. Deoxynivalenol (DON) Test kit
3. Single-kernel characterization system instrument
4. Flour Colour Value Analysis
5. Alveograph
6. Rapid Visco Analyzer
7. Differential scanning calorimetry
8. X-Ray Diffraction
9. Texture Analyzer
10. Glutomatic
11. DoughLab
12. BVM Volume Measurement

Falling Number
The Falling Number System measures the alpha-amylase enzyme activity
in grains and flour to detect sprout damage, optimise flour enzyme activity and
guarantee soundness of traded grain. Alpha-amylase activity is crucial for final
product quality of bread, pasta, noodles and malt.
Under conditions of prolonged dampness or rain, grain kernels may start
to germinate, or sprout, when the crop is still standing. Germination begins
when kernels absorb water and generate enzymes that break down stored starch
and protein in the endosperm. The enzymes release sugars from starch and
amino acids from proteins which nourish the growing embryo.
Alpha-amylase is one of the enzymes produced in the sprouting kernel.
Although some alpha-amylase enzyme is present in the embryo or germ of
sound wheat kernels, when germination begins the embryo and layers
surrounding the starchy endosperm produce the enzyme at an accelerating rate.
A severely sprout-damaged kernel contains many thousands of times the
amounts of enzyme present in kernels that are in the early stages of germination.
Because of this, a wheat sample containing very low levels of severely sprouted
kernels may exhibit significant amylase activity. Alpha-amylase converts starch
into sugars in the sprouting kernel, and similarly breaks down the starch
granules in wheat flour when mixed with water to make bread dough. Alphaamylase activity has direct impact on bread and pasta quality and adversely
affects the malting process. As little as 5 % sprouted grain, mixed with 95 %
sound grain, can render the entire mixture unacceptable.
When the tubes containing slurry are placed in the boiling water bath, the
starch begins to gelatinize and the slurry becomes more viscous. The mixing
makes sure the gelatinization is homogeneous in the slurry. What also happens
at this elevated temperature is that the alpha-amylase enzyme starts to break
down the starch and the viscosity thus decreases. The amount of starch break-

. When the stirrer is dropped. The total time in seconds from the start of the instrument until the stirrer has fallen a measured distance is registered by the instrument. That is why more sprouted grain results in a lower Falling Number as Falling Number is the time it takes the stirrer to fall to the bottom. The higher the alpha-amylase activity. the lower the viscosity of the slurry. the more sprouted the grain was the higher the alphaamylase activity will be.down is dependent on the alpha-amylase activity and this means that the higher the activity of the alpha-amylase the lower the viscosity will be. In other words. its speed and thus the time it takes it to fall to the bottom will be determined by the viscosity of the slurry. The lower the viscosity of the slurry the faster the stirrer will fall to the bottom.

• The lateral flow strips used in test kits provide a yes or no answer to whether the sample tested contains DON above a certain amount. DON is a toxin produced by fusarium fungi. DON has been implicated in moldy corn toxicosis of swine. 5 ppm for grain products for most animal feeds and 10 ppm for grain products for cattle feed. . while a negative test produces only one line. • All tests include an internal procedural control line that is used to validate the test result. Illnesses have been observed in livestock that have consumed feed grains containing high levels of DON concentrations. also referred to as vomitoxin. DON is often present with other mycotoxins and has been isolated from grains and feeds throughout the world at levels as high as 92 ppm. • Usually within 5 to 15 minutes the results can be read. Because of concerns about DON. and are measured in the marketing channels with commercially available test kits.Deoxynivalenol (DON) Test kit Levels of deoxynivalenol (DON). Test kits are based on immunochemical technology. • The appearance of two lines indicates a positive result. DON occurs in feed grains when grown under certain climatic conditions. the United States FDA has instituted advisory levels of 1 ppm for wheat products for human consumption.

such as conditioning (tempering). roll gap settings. Kernel characteristics are related to important milling properties. • Averages and standard deviations of these parameters are reported as SKCS results in terms of values: kernel weight is expressed in milligrams (mg). The single-kernel characterization system test evaluates wheat kernel texture characteristics by measuring the weight. diameter and weight are analyzed for each individual kernel. SKCS is the only tool for grain uniformity testing. the SKCS determines the characteristics for each and every kernel in the sample – one by one . and kernel hardness by pressure force. Moisture. Uniform wheat performs better in the flour mill and uniform barley results in better malt yields. kernel diameter is expressed in millimeters (mm). electrical current. Moisture. and kernel hardness is expressed as an index of –20 to 120. kernel diameter and moisture content by electrical current. • Wheat kernel characteristics are analyzed for: kernel weight by load cell. moisture content is expressed as a percentage. kernel size. weight and hardness are determined for each kernel and presented in histograms and as averages. hardness.in a fully automatic mode. and force needed to crush the kernels. and flour starch damage content. The SKCS makes it possible to objectively test for uniformity. . In addition to determining the average quality of an entire sample of grain kernels.Single-Kernel Characterization System The Single-Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) is a unique analytical tool.

.g. the Minolta CR series) and spectrocolorimeters (e. the HunterLab UltraScan. are: L* value +92.4 green color b* value +6.Flour Color Value Analysis Flour color is determined by measuring the whiteness of a flour sample with the Minolta Chroma Meter.5 whiteness a* value –2. Colour measuring devices such as tristimulus colorimeters (e.g.9 yellow color Flour color often affects the color of the finished product and is therefore one of many flour specifications required by end-users. Flour color results are reported in terms of 3dimensional color values based on the following rating scale: L* value whiteness 100 white 0 black a* value positive values +60 red color negative values –60 green color b* value positive values +60 yellow color negative values –60 blue color The color values of a typical white flour. ColorQuest and LabScan series). are frequently used to measure flour color. Generally speaking. for example. bright white colour flour is more desirable for many products.

by inflating a bubble in a thin sheet of the dough until it bursts. The Alveograph test provides results that are common specifications used by flour millers and processors to ensure a more consistent process and product. • A stronger dough requires more force to blow and break the bubble (higher P value). that is. • A bigger bubble means the dough can stretch to a very thin membrane before breaking. its ability to stretch before breaking (L value). L Value.Alveograph The Chopin Alveograph is a tool for flour quality measurement. who named it the Extensimeter. The Alveograph is well suited for measuring the dough characteristics of weak gluten wheat. Strong gluten flour will have high P values and is preferred for breads. • A bigger bubble indicates the dough has higher extensibility. • A bigger bubble requires more force and will have a greater area under the curve (W value). and thus its suitability for different uses. • The Alveograph determines the gluten strength of dough by measuring the force required to blow and break a bubble of dough. • The results include P Value. . t was developed in 1920 in France by Marcel Chopin. and W Value. The resulting values show the strength of the flour. It measures the flexibility of the dough produced from the flour. Weak gluten flour with low P value (strength of gluten) and long L value (extensibility) is preferred for cakes and other confectionery products.

• The highest point during the heating cycle is the peak viscosity. The instrument will analyse as little as two or three grams of sample using international standard methods or your own tailor-made test routines of mixing. cooked and extruded foods (e. soup. dairy beverages) other ingredients and foods (e. . • A thicker slurry has more resistance to the paddle during stirring and has a higher peak viscosity. gravy.Rapid Visco Analyzer The Rapid Visco Analyser is a unique tool for product development. meltability tests (e. The RVA is a cooking. • When the slurry is heated. flour and foods. snack foods. ketchup. sauce. the starch granules swell and make the slurry thicker. native starches. process cheese. measuring. heating and cooling.g. modified starches and starchy samples. ready to eat breakfast cereals. hydrocolloids & proteins).g. fish feeds and animal feeds). • Rapid visco analyser results include peak viscosity and are expressed in rapid visco units (RVU).g. grain. dressing.g. mayonnaise. stirring viscometer with ramped temperature and variable shear capability optimized for testing the viscous properties of starch. Applications include: flour and grain quality. quality and process control and quality assurance. pet foods. flour of medium to high peak viscosity is preferred because it gives noodles better texture characteristics. For Asian noodle products. chocolate and confectionery) and “Miniature Pilot Plant” small scale process emulation. formulated foods (e. • The rapid visco analyser indicates starch viscosity by measuring the resistance of flour and water slurry to the stirring action of a paddle. The rapid visco analyser test measures flour starch properties.

which is related to sprout damage. Sprouting in wheat results in flour that produces sticky dough that can cause problems during processing. .The rapid visco analyser can also be used to determine the stirring number. A stirring number test is performed to measure enzyme activity that results from sprout damage (alpha amylase enzyme activity). Sprout-damaged flour also produces products with poor colour and weak texture.

the temperature program for a DSC analysis is designed such that the sample holder temperature increases linearly as a function of time. DSC has been used to determine the change in enthalpy during gelatinisation of starch.b. The reference sample should have a well-defined heat capacity over the range of temperatures to be scanned.5°C and 86°C.8% w. causes a broadening of the gelatinization temperature range and shifting of endothermal transition toward higher temperatures. The temperature at which the granules swell and burst to form these pastes depends upon the botanical source of the starch.). Both the sample and reference are maintained at nearly the same temperature throughout the experiment. . During the cooking process. Generally. One of the most important physical properties of starch is its ability to form pastes on heating in water. the rate of heating and the presence of sugars. These changes to the granules are detected readily by microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and are affected by the concentration of the starch.Differential Scanning Calorimetry Differential Scanning Calorimetry or DSC is a thermo-analytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. Similar shape and temperatures are indicated on the thermogram of isolated wheat starch heated in limited water conditions (48. which in turn. exposure of wheat grain endosperm to heat without adequate moisture causes alteration of the starch structure. fats and other food components. A DSC thermogram of the wheat grain section heated in excess water shows biphasic transition characterized by peak temperatures of 64.

i. Each crystalline solid has its unique characteristic X-ray powder pattern which may be used as a "fingerprint" for its identification. X-ray diffraction is one of the most important characterization tools used in solid state chemistry and materials science. starch can be characterized by using X-ray diffractometer. Once the material has been identified. how the atoms pack together in the crystalline state and what the interatomic distance and angle are etc.X-Ray Diffraction The discovery of X-rays in 1895 enabled scientists to probe crystalline structure at the atomic level. X-ray crystallography may be used to determine its structure. X-ray diffraction has been in use in two main areas. The distinct peaks demonstrate the crystalline nature of the starch granules and the area above the curve can be taken as the measure of the crystallinity of starch. for the fingerprint characterization of crystalline materials and the determination of their structure. .e. X-ray diffraction is a method used for studying starch structure.

compress-and-hold. extend-and-hold. As the probe comes into contact with the sample the instrument will measure the force needed to bend. . To get the right information about the sample one need to use the right type of probe. The flexibility of the TVT 6700 Texture analyser makes it suitable for a wide range of applications including:  Quality control of raw materials  In-process and finished products testing  Product formulation  Process development  Evaluation of ingredient and processing changes  Monitor changes during storage and transport  Imitating chewing  Imitating consumer handling. The texture analyzer applies controlled conditions of stress or strain to food and other samples to measure a complete texture profile. The texture analyzer is rapid & more sensitive and reproducible than subjective sensory judgment. It accurately measures compressive and tensile force and position over time using standard test modes including single and multiple cycle compression. tensile strength. The probe is what the texture analyzer uses to analyze the sample. extend or displace the sample. fracturability and springback to describe product texture. break.Texture Analyzer Evaluation of texture is often based on sensory evaluation and experience. Data is captured as a graph and stored in a tabular data base for analysis and export to spreadsheet programs. compress.

Using the Glutomatic System one can determine the baking quality of wheat and flour. The wet gluten is further dried in the Glutork for dry gluten content and water binding in the wet gluten calculation. The relative amount of gluten passing through the sieve indicates the gluten characteristics. Gluten Index Centrifuge is used to force the wet gluten through a specially designed sieve cassette. The gluten properties and structure are important to:  Form elastic dough  Retain gas during fermentation and baking  Allow expansion  Carry expansion  Retain the shape of loaf As baking quality is both related to starch and protein characteristics. Maximizing the use of high quality flour and minimizing addition of expensive vital gluten results in substantial savings.Glutomatic When baking bread and producing noodles or pasta. crackers and pasta is dramatic. cookies. Wet Gluten is prepared from whole meal or flour by the Glutomatic gluten washer. With the Gluten quality and quantity information at hand. the flour gluten content and strength will determine the quality of the finished product. The effect of gluten quantity and quality in the flour used for breads. a combination of the results from the Falling Number and Glutomatic tests can be used to predict the baking quality. bakeries are able to use the most cost effective grade of flour while still meeting end user quality. The Glutomatic System is the world standard for determination of gluten quantity and quality. .

shearing. . baking. A number of factors related to processing conditions and flour type will also have a large effect on how the dough behaves. evaluate finished dough performance. changes in the fibrillar structure of the protein. starch damage.DoughLAB The doughLAB is a flexible dough rheometer with conventional z-arm mixing action. and noodle dough. stability and softening) which are indicative of the suitability of the flour for different applications. pizza crust. stability. Determine dough mixing profile. It has programmable temperature and mixing energy to mimic commercial processes. softening and other quality parameters of wheat. Variations in water and protein content. wholemeal. Wheat flour doughs are nonlinear viscoelastic materials. All these needs are fulfilled by the doughLAB. pentosans. evaluate ingredients and full formulations and perform standardized methods for water absorption and flour quality. Test flour. gluten strength and the actions of enzymes on the dough components all affect dough behaviour. starch. pastry. and as such there is a complicated relationship between the strains imparted during mixing (stretching. compression and relaxation) and dough resistance. The two key pieces of information required by millers and bakers are the absorption (amount of water required for a dough to reach a definite consistency) and the mixing profile of the dough (development time. Due to the complex nature of dough behaviour an empirical instrument test is desirable. cookie. pasta. rye and durum dough for milling. Create custom tests for bread. and food applications. cracker. semolina and formulations containing ingredients and improvers. development time. research the response of dough to changing stress.

cookies. . ingredients. hearth breads. muffins. weight and density of the sample and shows the results together with a three-dimensional drawing of the sample. brotchen. rolls. crackers. dimensions. It is operated using a menu-based computer interface. test bakeries and baking equipment suppliers: evaluate flour. food companies. or transferred to another computer. food research institutes and test kitchens.BVM Volume Measurement The BVM provides accurate analysis that is repeatable and applicable from one production site to the next. Product and Process Development: Test kitchens. flat breads and steamed breads. Take control of quality across different batches. pan breads. Quality Assurance and Control: Monitor bread making conditions. Volume measurement applications Bakery products: Loaves. food ingredient suppliers. Results can also be stored in a database for further processing. hamburger buns. Ensure product volume and packaging are matched. improvers. sweet rolls and pastries. flour quality and ingredient performance. shifts and production sites. The BVM VolCalc software calculates the volume. The instrument is robust and easy to use for millers. A sample is placed on a rotating support inside the instrument and its volume is measured using a laser on the end of a rotating arm. cupcakes. processing equipment and methods. bakeries. additives.

and often quite painful. Innovation is a key factor in the sustained growth of the food industry. At the same time. can be improved significantly through basic research covering a broad spectrum of disciplines prior to the commercialization of new products and technologies. The advancement in the final product can be brought about by: 1. it is worth mentioning that consumers all around the world are learning more about the food products they eat. One reason the path can be so bumpy is that hurdles in the road to implementation are neither properly addressed nor fully understood. and environmental soundness. Advancement in Equipment 2. although the journey from concept to implementation is not trivial. convenience. The chances for success. however. adequate shelf life and caloric content. regulatory agencies are becoming more stringent and the food industry more liable. every effort should be made to understand the basic principles behind food processing. variety. among other things. as well as to recognize new opportunities and to consider combined strategies. Advancement in Process . in order to meet the demand for better quality food products. Consumers today expect food products that provide. Advancement in Ingredients 3. Strategies to meet such demands include modification to existing food processing techniques and the adoption of novel processing technologies. Therefore.NOVEL FOOD PROCESSING TREATMENTS APPLIED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BAKERY PRODUCTS Food processing has become more sophisticated and diverse in response to the growing demand for quality foods. reasonable cost.

Advancement in Equipment The food industry is an increasingly competitive and dynamic arena. Some of the advanced equipments that are currently being utilized by the industry are as follows: . with consumers now more aware of what they eat. Different physical phenomena. texture. Different advanced equipment that are used by the bakery industry provide a product with better quality. with the aim to improve. can potentially reduce energy and water consumption and thus playing an important role toward environmental sustainability. Important food quality attributes such as taste. In recent years. a number of innovative technologies or “novel” technologies have been proposed. These innovative technologies provide the opportunity not only for the development of new products but also for improving the safety and quality of conventional products. developed and implemented. investigated. safety & taste and also these advanced equipment help in mass production of goods as well as reduce the time consumed in preparing a final finished product. or replace conventional processing technologies in order to deliver higher quality and better consumer-targeted food products. appearance and nutritional content are strongly dependent on the way the foods are processed. utilized by these technologies.

the cake component is baked in the normal way. and then frozen. evolving needs. The whole cake is then kept frozen until prior to serving. and because many typical frostings will not adhere successfully to frozen cake.Fully Automatic Ice-Cream Cake Bulk Production Line An Ice cream cake consists of a cake that incorporates ice cream. In a typical assembly. with a layer of ice cream between two layers of cake. when it is allowed to thaw until it can be easily sliced but not so much as to melt the ice cream. or composed only of multi-layer rosettes with dry or wet topping between the layers. The machine concept allows it to develop its applications in accordance with the Customers’ new. Making Ice-cream cakes at large scale is a troublesome process but the automated machine can produce various forms of ice cream layer cakes – extruded and decorated. cut to shape if necessary.ice cream cakes and bulks production line. A popular form is a three-layer cake. and these components are then assembled while frozen. Image: TORTICA . as a compliment to the two other textures. . Whipped cream is often used for frosting. Ice cream is shaped in a mould as appropriate.

Wafers can also be made into cookies with cream flavouring sandwiched between them. flat. Adopting advanced technology with electric and gas as heating source. automatic feeding system. cream coating machine. sheet feeding and cooling device. Wafers are very specialised type of biscuit requiring special equipment for production. They frequently have a waffle surface pattern but may also be patterned with insignia of the food's manufacturer or may be pattern-less. cutter and organic heating medium boiler. Image: Fully Automatic Wafer Biscuit Production Line . have wafers in them. tunnel-type oven. often sweet. The plant mainly consists of mixing system. If offers an ideal solution for lower power consumption and overall production cost. the fully-automatic wafer production line is a new generation product developed in China based on the advanced structure of existing plants from domestic market and abroad. often used to decorate ice cream. The production capacity for these equipments varies from 2500kg/24h to 6000 kg/24h. very thin. such as Kit Kat and Munch. and keeping the same surface colour for all biscuits. and dry biscuit. Many chocolate bars.Fully Automatic Wafer Biscuit Production Line A wafer is a crisp. with compact structure and unique reliability.

made from stoneground wholemeal flour. Hostels. Best suited for Industrial Canteens. Pakistan. Langars. which originated and is consumed in India. traditionally known as Atta flour. the southern Caribbean. compact. It is also consumed in parts of South Africa. particularly in Trinidad and Tobago. The fully-automatic. and Railways & Defence Establishments. Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. Its defining characteristic is that it is unleavened. Guyana. and Suriname. The machine produces soft & tasty chapattis without oil.Fully-Automatic Chapati Making Machine Chapati/Roti is generally an Indian bread. single unit machine produces home-like chapattis in most hygienic way. Image: Fully-Automatic Chapati Making Machine . rolls them into chapattis. and Fiji. cooks them by turning sides on tawas and puffs them the way it is done at home. Hospitals. Nepal. The machine produces balls from dough.

enzymes that delay staling in baked goods and soy protein. and lecithin products from Solae in order to provide nutrition enhancement. breads to rise. better appeal. new recipes and helped the industry grow. Innovations in ingredients have led to the creation of new types of pastries. Bakers would add their own additions to try and control the baking soda's effects with early and individual innovation. early baking sodas to raise their pastries. fibre. This has significantly contributed to the use of innovative bakery ingredients in order to add fibre and increase the shelf life of the products—all the while retaining softness and taste. Some of advancements in ingredients that lead to development of new or improved products are as follows: . Before baking powder. bakers had to rely on unstable. during the heating process the ingredients release carbon monoxide that helps cakes. Baking powder was introduced in the mid-19th century. and improved flavour. New methods and ingredients are constantly being developed to create and deliver better products. taste and convenience from bakery foods. It’s used almost in every recipe. There have been new innovations in bakery ingredients from the past few years and the development in product quality and making of some of the favourite food continues today. extended shelf life.Advancement in Ingredients The present day consumer looks for new bakery products. Bakeries now use tailored blend solutions that add healthy fibre without stripping bread of its moisture and taste.

edible biscuits made with activated charcoal. which are used for grilling foods outdoors and are not eaten. as the biscuits are designed to relieve pain and discomfort in the lower body by collecting excess gas in the bowels and stomach. peat and bamboo. Charcoal biscuits are medicinal. This absorption quality is important. Activated charcoal is black in colour and may cause black stools. Activated charcoal used for food and medicinal purposes is produced from natural items including wood. charcoal biscuits are made with food grade charcoal and are eaten to help relieve bloating and/or pain from flatulence.Charcoal Biscuit A charcoal biscuit is a biscuit based on a powdered willow charcoal or activated carbon mixed with ordinary flour. Never to be confused with charcoal briquettes. Activated charcoal used to make charcoal biscuits usually comes in either granular or fine powder. heartburn and stomach upset. The activated charcoal found in charcoal biscuits is oxidized at a high temperature with steam or air. coconut shells. Many people find that eating some charcoal biscuits helps relieve some of the discomfort caused by indigestion and gas. sugar and eggs. olive pits. and made into dough with butter. Charcoal used in consumable products should have no taste or odour. They are often sold in health food stores. The oxidation process allows the charcoal to absorb three times better than regular charcoal. Food grade activated charcoal must have certification. .

They are derived from various sources—seeds. seaweeds and micro-organisms— many are polysaccharides while others are proteins. water retention and texture improvement. Gums and thickeners are used in gluten-free formulations for a variety of purposes including gelling and thickening. Novel approaches including the application of dietary fibres and alternative protein sources combined with response surface methodology are also emerging. due to their structure-building and water binding properties. carrageenan. the absence of gluten causes problems in bread-making hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). plant extracts. Being gluten free. many gum locust bean types gum. . gums and hydrocolloids represent the most widespread approach used to mimic gluten in the manufacture of gluten-free bakery products. However. it will not cause adverse reactions for people with gluten intolerance. In 2001 a study group at Yamagata University's Department of Engineering made use of foam moulding technology to produce rice bread made from 100% rice flour. including guar gum. The use of starches. Rice starches are widely available and offer potential in the formulation of gluten-free baked products. fruits. which are desirable for special diets. To ensure that gluten-free bread is acceptable. Absence of gluten. xanthan gum and agar gave successful formation of rice bread where HPMC gave optimum volume expansion.Gluten-free Rice Bread Rice bread is a type of bread that is made from rice flour rather than wheat flour. products with baked and sensory characteristics similar to those of wheat flour yeast bread are needed. low levels of sodium and high amounts of easily digested carbohydrate are all properties of rice.

descended from the holiday puddings (such as figgy pudding). called Black wine is specially produced to be used in the making of black cake. sometimes are. also known as "black cake". It is typically made with plums and raisins soaked in rum. If fruit is added to it. In Puerto Rico. Bizcochos de Ron are given as gifts during the holiday season. The result. and some rum cakes such as Tortuga contain even more than five percent of certain grain alcohols. rum cake is called Bizcocho de Ron. a special wine.Rum Cake A rum cake is a type of dessert cake which contains rum. In St. and is a sponge cake. Traditionally. with a lighter texture. It is possible to become intoxicated from consumption of excessive amount of rum cake. . dried fruit is soaked in rum for months and then added to dough prepared with sugar which has been caramelized by boiling in water. Raisins and sultanas may be soaked in rum for one day or one night. it is fresh or dried. but they are not considered an insulting gift. the way fruitcakes in the U. is similar to a fruitcake.S. as well as brown sugar and a bittersweet caramel called "browning". so as to absorb the rum. Black cake is traditionally associated with Vincy Christmas. Vincent and the Grenadines. rum cakes are a traditional holiday season dessert. In most of the Caribbean.

moulding. without the optimum processing condition. However. The advancement in process or modification of process is often done to improve product quality or to improve the production rate or even to make a new product by doing some modification in the traditional process of making a particular product.Advancement in Process The qualities of bakery products rely on both formula and processing conditions. proving. Some of the products that arose due to advancement in their manufacturing process are described below: . baking and cooling. Some qualities can be improved by optimizing a formula. Processing of bakery products mainly consists of mixing. Each of these processes dominates different quality attributes. the final product quality can be much degraded.

When the cups are filled with the correct amount of dough. salt. or an extracted molar!) The formed cookie is then cooled by air from a fan and pushed to the packaging area. A "fortune" is a piece of paper with words of wisdom. sugar. This watery dough is transferred by a pump to the fortune cookie oven. water. The paper strips are sucked by vacuum onto the cookies. almond extract. a fan. The plates flatten the dough and also allow heat to transfer through the metal surfaces against both the top and bottom of the cookie so it is golden brown on both sides. turmeric extract. but may include melted butter.5 minutes. stabilizing agents. .Fortune Cookies A fortune cookie is a crisp cookie usually made from flour.6 cm] in diameter) in the shape of the finished but unfolded cookie. The cookies rotate through the circular oven. The machine then bends the cookie in the middle to its familiar crescent shape (which has been fancifully described as a pair of water wings. and instant tea powder. One complete orbit takes 3. peanut oil. a mechanical arm snatches the cookie from the plate and transfers it to a receiving area where the fortunes are added. When the cookie has finished baking. The ingredients for fortune cookies are mixed together to form the batter. baking powder. which is the time it takes the thin dough to bake. This moulding process makes the cookies different from traditional ones. vanilla extract. Commercial manufacturers may also add baking soda. Other ingredients may vary depending on the recipe. which is circular and contains a number of shallow cups with flat bottoms (about 3 inches [7. as regulated by the batter pump. The cookies are pushed along to two mechanical fingers that grab the still hot cookie and fold it in half so it resembles a halfmoon with the paper fortune inside. flat metal plates are placed in the cups on top of the dough. and eggs with a "fortune" wrapped inside. and anticaking agents such as silico aluminate. an aphorism. As the plates are lifted up. or a vague prophecy. it sticks to the plate.

and the by-products that provide sourdough bread with its unique flavour. It's the carbon dioxide that cause bubbles to form in the dough. and other by-products in the process. rather than from dried or blocked commercial yeast—are made by combining a proportion of starter dough with fresh dough. San Francisco bread is made with a particularly high ratio of starter to fresh dough—sometimes over 50%. In comparison with breads made quickly with cultivated yeast. carbon dioxide. When these organisms are mixed with fresh flour. giving it a light and airy structure. It was thought that all the sourness of the sourdough bread is due to the ingredients main the lactobacilli but good sour flavour really comes down to technique.Sourdough Bread Sourdough is a bread product made by a long fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeasts. producing alcohol. it usually has a mildly sour taste because of the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli. All starter-based breads—those are breads in which the leavening comes from a batch of yeast and microbe-infested dough. they start eating. .

traditionally associated with the town of Chorley in Lancashire. A Chorley Cake uses normal shortcrust pastry and an Eccles Cake uses flakey puff pastry. sandwiched between two layers of unsweetened shortcrust pastry. which after baking is normally a deeper brown in colour and is sweeter than a Chorley Cake. and is commonly eaten with a light spread of butter on top. and sometimes a slice of Lancashire cheese on the side. Locals often refer to Chorley Cake as Fly Pie. The Chorley Cake. fruit-filled pastry cakes. They are a close relative of the more widely known Eccles cake. . As with many regional foods. England. The other difference is that the currants in the Eccles Cake are often concentrated together in the middle while in the Chorley and Sad Cake the fruit is usually evenly distributed. or sweeter raisins or sultanas used. but have some significant differences. every household has its own individual variations and so it is not uncommon to see some sugar added to the fruit.Chorley Cake Chorley cakes are flattened. A Chorley cake is made using currants. The Chorley cake is significantly less sweet than its Eccles cousin. These sweeter varieties are sometimes referred to as "snap". although a relative of the Eccles Cake the two are easily distinguished by the different pastry.

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