Ministry of Defence

Defence Standard 02-738 (NES 738)
Issue 1 Publication Date 01 April 2000

Metals And Corrosion Guide

Incorporating NES 738 Category 3
Issue 2 Publication Date August 1992

AMENDMENT RECORD
Amd No

Date

Text Affected

REVISION NOTE
This standard is raised to Issue 1 to update its content.
HISTORICAL RECORD
This standard supersedes the following:
Naval Engineering Standard (NES) 738 Issue 2 dated August 1992.

Signature and Date

Ministry of Defence

Naval Engineering Standard

NES 738

Issue 2 (Reformatted)

August 1992

METALS AND CORROSION GUIDE

This NES Supersedes NES 738 ISSUE 1 Record of Amendments AMDT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 INSERTED BY DATE .

NAVAL ENGINEERING STANDARD 738 ISSUE 2 (REFORMATTED) METALS AND CORROSION GUIDE The issue and use of this Standard is authorized for use in MOD contracts by MOD(PE) Sea Systems and the Naval Support Command ECROWN COPYRIGHT Published by: Director of Naval Architecture Procurement Executive. Foxhill. Bath BA1 5AB i . Ministry of Defence Sea Systems.

ii .

failure modes. iii . and corrosion. for which established concession procedures are to be followed. etc. This NES is a guide to the use of preferred metallic materials for use in selected applications in Surface Ships and Submarines. It is not an authority for departure from the material specified on drawings. 3. metal processing and finishing. 2. General information is given on the properties and selection of metals. It does not give detailed properties of any metal or alloy for which reference must be made to the relevant material specification or data sheet.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) SCOPE 1. testing.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) iv .

6. 2. This Naval Engineering Standard (NES) is sponsored by the Procurement Executive. It is to be applied as required by any Ministry of Defence contract to provide general information on the use of preferred metallic materials for use in selected applications in Surface Ships and Submarines and on the corrosion and marine fouling to which they are subjected. It is not to be released. Conditions of Release General 9. Director Naval Architecture (Submarines) (DNA(SM)). 11. Any user of this NES either within MOD or in industry may propose an amendment to it. 4. approved. 3. Ministry of Defence. The Crown hereby excludes all liability (other than liability for death or personal injury) whatsoever and howsoever arising (including but without limitation. its servants or agents) for any loss or damage however caused where the NES is used for any other purpose. This Naval Engineering Standard (NES) has been prepared for the use of the Crown and of its contractors in the execution of contracts for the Crown. departmental reorganization and technical changes. 8. reference in this NES to approval. 7. 10. b. reproduced or published without written permission of the MOD. The Crown reserves the right to amend or modify the contents of this NES without consulting or informing any holder. This document is Crown Copyright and the information herein may be subject to Crown or third party rights. Deletions will be indicated by 000 appearing at the end of the line intervals. directly applicable to a particular contract are to be dealt with using existing procedures or as specified in the contract. negligence on the part of the Crown. Section NA 145 for Ship Systems and Equipment.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) FOREWORD Sponsorship 1. v . not directly applicable to a particular contract are to be made to the Sponsor of the NES. Unless otherwise stated. 5. Proposals for amendments which are: a. It is applicable to Ships’ Systems and Equipment and Weapon Systems and Equipment. authorized or similar terms means by the Ministry of Defence in writing. Any significant amendments that may be made to this NES at a later date will be indicated by a vertical sideline. This NES has been reissued to reflect changes in nomenclature. Section NA 115. No alteration may be made to this NES except by the issue of an authorized amendment. If it is found to be technically unsuitable for any particular requirement the Sponsor is to be informed in writing of the circumstances with a copy to Director Naval Architecture (Surface Ships) (DNA(SS)).

including specifications.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) MOD Tender or Contract Process 12. CSE Llangennech. Naval Engineering Standards CSE3a. standards and drawings. substances and/or procedures that may be injurious to health if adequate precautions are not taken. When NES are incorporated into MOD contracts. vi . Prime Contractors are responsible for supplying their subcontractors with relevant documentation. users are responsible for their correct application and for complying with contracts and any other statutory requirements. It refers only to technical suitability and in no way absolves either the supplier or the user from statutory obligations relating to health and safety at any stage of manufacture or use. Dyfed SA14 8YP d. This NES is the property of the Crown and unless otherwise authorized in writing by the MOD must be returned on completion of the contract. those quoted may not necessarily be exhaustive. 16. 389 Chiswick High Road. Compliance with an NES does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations. Related Documents 15. or submission of the tender. Note: Tender or Contract Sponsor can advise in cases of difficulty. Enquiries in this connection may be made of the local MOD(PE) Quality Assurance Representative or the Authority named in the tender or contract. When this NES is used in connection with a MOD tender or contract. In the tender and procurement processes the related documents listed in each section and Annex A can be obtained as follows: a. Where attention is drawn to hazards. Llanelli. This NES may call for the use of processes. the user is to ensure that he is in possession of the appropriate version of each document. Kentigern House. London W4 4AL b. Defence Standards Directorate of Standardization and Safety Policy. together with the sponsoring Directorate and the Tender or Contract Sponsor. Other documents Tender or Contract Sponsor to advise. All applications to Ministry Establishments for related documents are to quote the relevant MOD Invitation to Tender or Contract Number and date. Health and Safety Warning 18. Stan 1. British Standards British Standards Institution. in connection with which it is issued. 65 Brown Street. including related documents. relevant to each particular tender or contract. Glasgow G2 8EX c. 13. 17. 14.

. . . . . . . . . . iii FOREWORD . .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) CONTENTS Page No TITLE PAGE . . 3. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 SECTION 3. . . . . . . . FIGURE 4. . . . . . . . . . vii 3. . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . .1 4. . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v v v v vi vi vi vi CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROPERTIES AND SELECTION OF METALLIC MATERIALS . . . . .1 SECTION 2. . . . . . .2 STRESS RELAXATION BEHAVIOUR FOR TWO BOLTING MATERIALS . METALLIC MATERIALS . . . . . . . . FIGURE 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardness and Abrasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . .10 3. . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Properties . . . .3 3. . .5 3. . . . . ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS .6 3. . Toxicity of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . .6 3. . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . .11 3. . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . FIGURE 4. . . . . . . . . . Related Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 3. . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . .13 SECTION 4. . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . .1 TYPICAL STRESS-STRAIN CURVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii SECTION 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tensile and Shear Properties . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . .2 TYPICAL S−N CURVE FOR UNWELDED STEEL . . . . .2 3. . . .8 3. . . .6 3. . . . . . . . . . . Corrosion Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Relaxation . . . . . .3 SOME FACTORS IN THE SELECTION OF A METAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MOD Tender or Contract Process . . . . . . . . Sponsorship . . . . . Conditions of Release . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Brittle Fracture . . . . . . . . . Fatigue and Corrosion Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notch Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 3. . . .1 4. .2 4. . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creep .4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic Collapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 3. . . . . . . . . . . FIGURE 3. . . . . . FIGURE 3.5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . .3 MODES OF FAILURE . . . . .1 FRACTURE APPEARANCE IN THE CHARPY TEST . . Stress and Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 8. . . . . .2 SECTION 8. . . . . . . . . . Corrosion . . . . Solution Treatment and Precipitation Hardening . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . Wrought Products . . . . . . . .1 7. . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 7. . . Flame Hardening . . . Steels for Carburizing . . . . . . . . . .7 METAL FORMS AND PROCESSES . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normalizing . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . .2 5. . .1 8. . . . . 6. . . . . .5 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . Interrupted Quenching . . . . . . . . . . Tempering . . .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 4. .1 8. . .5 4. . . . Powder Metallurgy .1 7. .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 7. . .4 5. . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . Clad Metals . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . .9 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patented Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 SECTION 7. . Working Processes . . . . . Cast Metals . . . Machining .2 7. . . . . . . . . Carburizing . . . . . . . . .4 4. . .2 8. . . . . . Quenching . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steel . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . Gas Carburizing . Extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 7. Stress Relief . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hot Forming . . . Induction Hardening . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . Steels for Nitriding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shaping Weldments . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . .6 8. . . . . . .9 8. . . . . . . . . . .11 8. . .4 SECTION 6.2 5. . . . . Spinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon-nitriding . . . . . 7.2 7. .2 viii .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7.1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . 5. . . Stress Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking . . . Surface Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . .7 7. . . . . . . . . .3 6. . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 FIGURE 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . Annealing . . . . . . Pack Carburizing . Cold Forming . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . .2 7. . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . 4. . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . .5 SECTION 5.5 4. . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7. . . 8. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . Low Energy Ductile Tearing . .12 8. . Ion-Nitriding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . .2 5. . . Nitriding v Carburizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. .13 SURFACE TREATMENT . . .5 SHAPING OF METALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . 6. . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages of Castings . . . . . . . .11 HEAT TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TYPICAL S−N CURVE FOR MANY NON-FERROUS ALLOYS .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . Liquid Carburizing . . . . . . . . . . . Non-Ferrous Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nitriding .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . .1 5. . . . . .1 5. .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11 9.12 9. . Notch Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 CRACK ARREST TEST AND TRANSITION CURVE . Electroless Plating . .4 8. . .23 9. Radiography . FIGURE 9.8 9. . . . . . . . . . .12 9. . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . FIGURE 9. . . . . . . .17 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Hot Dipped Coatings . . . . . . . . Dynamic Tear Test . . . . . . . .3 9. .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . Wide Plate Test . . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . Sherardizing . FIGURE 9.13 . . Isothermal Crack Arrest Test .18 8. . . Fracture Mechanics Test . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory Testing of Notch Toughness . . . . . . . . . .19 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. 9. . . . .3 8. . . . Material Cleanness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 9. . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . .3 8.5 9. .13 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 9. . . . . . .7 9. . . . Electroplated Coatings . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . Creep and Stress Rupture . . . . . . . . .21 8. .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 8. . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strength and Ductility .1 CHARPY V-NOTCH TRANSITION CURVES FOR DIFFERENT STEELS . . . . . . . FIGURE 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9.12 9. . . . . . .2 TESTING AND QUALITY ASSURANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bulge Explosion Test . . . . . . Anodizing . . . . . . . . .7 FRACTURE MECHANICS SPECIMENS . . . . Ion-Plating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardness . . . . . .24 ix 9. .5 9. . . Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calorizing . . . . . . . . Metal Spraying . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 9. . . . . . . . . . . . FIGURE 9. . . . . .5 9. . .18 9. . . . Fatigue Limit . . . . . . . . . . .8 FIELD OF USE OF KIc AND COD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-Destructive Examination . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . FIGURE 9. . . . . .6 9.2 DROP WEIGHT TEST . . Magnetic Particle . .9 9. . . . . . . . . . . Production Testing of Notch Toughness . . . . . .6 DYNAMIC TEAR TEST . . . . . .15 8. . . . . . . . .5 WIDE PLATE TEST . . .4 8. . Crack Arrest Test .20 8. . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 9. . . . . .3 9. . . 9. . . . . . 8. . .17 8. . . . . .14 9. . . .10 9. . . . . . . . .20 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . Drop Weight Test . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . .13 9. . . . . Eddy Current . . . . FIGURE 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 9. . . . . . . . . Corrosion Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) SECTION 8. . . . . . . . . . . .11 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 9. . . . . . . . . . . . Ultrasonics . FIGURE 9. .12 9. . . . . . .2 9. . .10 9. . . . . . . . . Phosphating . . . .9 9. . . . . . . . .21 9. . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . Dye Penetrant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 8. . . . . . . . .3 BULGE EXPLOSION TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 9.4 9. . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . .12 9. . . . . . . .4 9.5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 9.6 9. . . Welding and Brazing Tests . .

.8 11. . . NA 18 . . .2 11. . . . . . . . . . . .3 14. . . .2 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations of Plain Carbon Steels . . . . . . .5 11. . .3 STEEL FORGINGS FOR NAVAL USE . .1 10. . TABLE 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . .2 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . TABLE 13. Corrosion Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x 10. . . . . . . .2 STAINLESS STEEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 CAST COPPER-BASED ALLOYS FOR NAVAL USE . . . . . . . . .1 SECTION 12. . . . . . . . .1 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 KEY TO PROPERTIES AND USES OF COPPER BASED ALLOYS LISTED IN TABLE 13. . . . . . . .1 10. .1 10. . . .1 14.3 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 14. . . . . . . . . . . . TABLE 11. . . . Corrosion Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Martensitic . . . . . .2 11. . . . . . .1 STEEL PLATES AND SECTIONS FOR NAVAL USE . . . . . . . . . .3 CAST STAINLESS STEELS FOR NAVAL USE . . . . . . Carbide Precipitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 13. . Austenitic . . . . . . . . . . .4 11.2 WROUGHT STAINLESS STEELS FOR NAVAL USE . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 13. . . . . . . . .1 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF TYPE 410 MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL AFTER VARYING HEAT TREATMENTS . . NA 13 . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steels for Naval Use . . . . . . . . Ferritic . . . . . . TABLE 11. . .2 13. Low Alloy Steels . . .2 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 11. . . .1 14.6 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Duplex (Austenitic-Ferritic) . . . .6 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TABLE 12. . . Steels for Naval Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . .7 11. . . . . . .2 STEEL TUBES AND BARS FOR NAVAL USE . . . .1 11. . . . . . . .2 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TABLE 13. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 NICKEL AND NICKEL ALLOYS .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) SECTION SECTION 10. . . . TABLE 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 AND TABLE 13. . .3 11. . . . . . .3 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TABLE 14. . . . . .3 11. . . 14. . . . . 10. . . . . TABLE 13. . .3 10. . . . . . . . . . . NA 21 . . . . . . . . .3 13. TABLE 10. TABLE 11. . . . . . Precipitation Hardening . .5 12. . . . . . . . . .10 14. . . . TABLE 10. . . . . . . .1 WROUGHT NICKEL-BASED ALLOYS FOR NAVAL USE . . . . . . 11. . . . .4 STEEL CASTING FOR NAVAL USE .2 14. . . . TABLE 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress Corrosion Cracking . . . . .1 14. . . . .1 11. . . . . CAST IRONS (GREY FLAKE AND DUCTILE IRONS) . .1 13. . .1 CAST IRONS FOR NAVAL USE . . . . .4 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 GUIDE TO THE USE OF WROUGHT COPPER-BASED ALLOYS . . . .2 10. . . . . .4 WROUGHT COPPER-BASED ALLOY FOR NAVAL USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 14. .5 10. . SECTION 14. . . . . TABLE 13. . . . .5 13. . .1 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 13.5 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 GUIDE TO THE USE OF CAST COPPER-BASED ALLOYS . . . . . .3 11. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . .1 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .2 SECTION 19.8 20. . . . . . .1 SECTION 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . .1 ANNEX B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 SECTION 16. . . . .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) SECTION 15. . . 22. .10 20. . .2 CORROSION . . . . . . . . . . DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . .3 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 20. . . .1 WROUGHT AND CAST ALUMINIUM ALLOYS FOR NAVAL USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impingement Corrosion . . . . . . . . .1 21. .1 SECTION 24. . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 SECTION 23. . . . . . . .6 20.1 SECTION 26. . . . . . . Crevice Corrosion . . . .5 20. . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . Protective Films . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 22. . . . . . LUBRICATING OILS . .1 SECTION 25. . . . . BEARING ALLOYS . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TABLE 18. . . . .1 POTENTIALS IN SEA WATER AGAINST A SILVER/SILVER CHLORIDE ELECTRODE . . . . . . . . . . . . Fouling of Sea Water Systems . . . . . .1 SECTION 17. . . . . . .12 SECTION ALPHABETICAL INDEX xi 20. . .1 ANNEX A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 20. . . . . . . . . . Formation of Surface Films .4 20. . . . . . . . Bimetallic Corrosion . .1 21. . 21. . . . . . 24. . . . . . 21. Pitting . . . . . . . Selective Phase Corrosion . . .1 SECTION 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . Hot Spot Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sacrificial Anode System . . . . .3 CATHODIC PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 SECTION 18. . .1 21. . . TITANIUM . . . . . . . .1 20. .5 20. . . . . . Exfoliation of Aluminium Alloy . .1 NAVAL USES OF LEAD AND ZINC 19. . . . . . . Cavitation . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . .3 20. . . .3 MARINE FOULING . . TABLE 20. . .1 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 22.1 19.5 20. . . . . . . . . . 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 20. . . . .1 20. . .2 20. . . . . . .1 PLAIN BEARING ALLOYS FOR NAVAL USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALUMINIUM AND ALUMINIUM ALLOYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 19. . . . . 22. . . . . . . . .1 19. . . . . . . . . .2 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lead and Zinc . Outer Bottom Fouling . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 20. . Materials . .9 20. .2 21. . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . .1 18.3 20. . . .2 MISCELLANEOUS ALLOYS . .1 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harbour and Estuarine Waters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . RELATED DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanisms of Corrosion . . . ANTIFOULING METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . HOT GAS CORROSION . 16. . . Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) Systems . . . . . . . . . Fouling by Bacteria and Fungi . FRETTING CORROSION . . TABLE 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DAMPING ALLOYS . .1 19. . . . Shape Memory Effect (SME) Alloys . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . .1 20. .6 21. . .1 TABLE 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 20. . . . . . . . . .

NES 738
Issue 2 (Reformatted)

xii

NES 738
Issue 2 (Reformatted)

1.

METALLIC MATERIALS
a.

The wide range of metals and alloys used in Surface Ships and Submarines is
listed in Sections 10. to 19. of this NES. In generic terms they cover carbon and
low alloy steels, stainless steels, cast irons, copper and copper alloys, nickel and
nickel alloys, aluminium and aluminium alloys, titanium and titanium alloys,
plus various other metals for specific use.

1.1

NES 738
Issue 2 (Reformatted)

1.2

1 . shock. Other induced conditions that may have to be tolerated are noise. sewage. The environments include sea water. steam. salt laden atmosphere. 2. electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and transient radiation effects on electronics (TREE). vibration. exhaust gases. oil. Some materials must operate under cryogenic conditions and others must withstand very high temperature. etc. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS a. Metallic materials must be selected with the right properties in addition to strength so that components and structures operate effectively in their particular environment without failure.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 2. refrigerants.

2 .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 2.

but a further property of notch ductility is considered later. Tensile and Shear Properties a. see Section 17. The properties associated with tensile and shear loading revolve around the elastic constants E and N. creep properties and fatigue properties. These properties are intrinsic to the material and those of principal engineering interest are: (1) Density. (2) Mechanical properties. (5) Thermal conductivity.2 The properties of metallic materials may be divided into: The way metals respond to externally applied force is controlled by their mechanical properties. and the relationship between stress and strain.1 . They achieve this capacity by their ability to dissipate elastic strain energy as heat. (2) Specific heat.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 3. To take account of local overloading it is also necessary to have a measure of the metal’s ductility.3 (1) Physical Properties a. (4) Melting point. (6) Electrical conductivity and resistivity. Tensile and shear properties are used in determining the safe loading to be placed on a component or structure.1 Physical properties . 3. Most metals are utilized under elastic conditions. (8) Damping—certain metals and alloys have a damping capacity which can lead to a reduction in vibration and noise. See FIGURE 3. (7) Magnetic permeability—is a measure of the ease with which a magnetic field will pass through a substance. hardness and abrasion resistance. 3. The properties can be divided into tensile and shear properties. notch ductility. Initially. The limit of proportionality is the upper point of the straight line. 3. Ferromagnetic materials have a high permeability and paramagnetic materials a low permeability. The tensile and shear properties concerned are: (1) Limit of proportionality (N/mm 2)—that part of the stress/strain curve where strain is proportional to stress and is represented by a straight line. (3) Chemical properties. (3) Thermal expansion. which means that when the metal is deformed the deformation is not permanent and it returns to its original shape upon removal of the load. 3. PROPERTIES AND SELECTION OF METALLIC MATERIALS a.1. Mechanical Properties a. ductility is determined from percentage elongation and reduction of area in the tensile test.

2 .1 TYPICAL STRESS-STRAIN CURVES 3.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) FIGURE 3.

(7) Reduction of Area (%)—expressed as a percentage of the original cross-sectional area in the tensile test and indicates the extent of necking of the specimen prior to failure. (8) Shear Strength (N/mm 2)—the stress corresponding to maximum load in shear prior to failure. (See Clause 9. b. In some circumstances therefore.3 . denoted by the letter E. It is not necessarily coincident with (a). b. 3. See FIGURE 3. Notch toughness is a measure of the resistance of a metal to brittle fracture. Hardness is specifically a measure of resistance to penetration.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) (2) Elastic Limit (N/mm 2)—closely related to the limit of proportionality and is the maximum stress to which a material can be subjected without causing permanent strain. It is not representative of ductility although generally the higher the hardness the lower the ductility.1% or 0. (10) Shear Modulus—sometimes known as the Modulus of Rigidity and denoted by the letter N. therefore. the tests to determine the above properties are carried out at room temperature or at a nominal 20° C. (9) Elastic Modulus (Young’s Modulus)—the modulus of elasticity for pure tension. (3) Yield stress (N/mm 2)—the stress marking the onset of plastic deformation. be an approximate guide to the condition of a metal after heat treatment or after hot or cold working. Hardness can. c.) 3.1. Tensile strength generally decreases as temperature increases.5 Unless otherwise stated.) Notch Toughness a.2a. (See Clause 4. (5) Ultimate Tensile Strength (N/mm 2)—the stress corresponding to maximum load prior to failure in the tensile test. (6) Elongation (%)—measured in the tensile test and expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length after fracture.1% or 0. A material can show a slight extension on the stress/strain curve and still return to its original length on unloading. the relationship of the transverse strain to the tensile strain is known as Poisson’s Ratio. An example of this conflict is white cast iron which is not employed for structural parts because of its excessive brittleness. (11) Poisson’s Ratio—as a specimen elongates in the elastic region its cross-sectional area decreases. Hardness can indicate the yield strength of a material. expresses the ratio of shear stress to shear strain under elastic conditions. and is the ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain within the limit of proportionality. (4) Proof Stress (N/mm 2)—usually defined as 0.4 3.2X of the original gauge length in the tensile test.2% proof stress and is the stress required to produce a permanent elongation of 0. High hardness may be required to resist wear or abrasion. hardness is a desirable property and in others undesirable since it can represent a loss of ductility. Hardness and Abrasion a. but it is used for resisting wear by abrasion.2a.

2. c. Typical stress relaxation curves for two steels are shown in FIGURE 3. the rate of creep then gradually decreases. but in the presence of a notch. In the presence of such a notch a metal with inadequate notch toughness can fail prematurely. At constant stress. creep occurs. failure may occur well within the normal working level of stress. In some metals creep occurs at room temperature. As the temperature is lowered there is a sudden fall off in notch toughness. This can be important for applications such as fasteners and rolled tubes in tubeplates.4 .7 b. Austenitic steels which have face centred cubic (fcc) crystal structure do not show this characteristic. Ultimately failure may result or the deformation may reach unacceptable limits. The temperatures over which this transition occurs vary for different metals and this is an important factor in choosing metals to operate at low temperatures.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 3. in steam systems. The primary stage is when upon application of the load extension occurs as a result of elastic strain and some plastic strain. The secondary stage follows: creep rate is at a minimum and extension occurs at a uniform rate. Most components spend their life in the second stage of creep. In a normal tensile test a metal may exhibit a high level of ductility. or may be a flaw such as a crack in a weld or an inclusion in a casting. Creep is a time-dependent property of a metal which is of particular significance for those metals stressed at elevated temperatures eg. Risk of failure in way of a notch is increased with an increase in the rate of loading. Creep a. of this NES. The transition behaviour is a function of metals with a body centred cubic (bcc) crystal structure. Testing for adequate notch toughness is described in Section 9. d. Stress relaxation is the property of some materials whereby a slow decrease in stress occurs at constant strain.6 3. Creep occurs in three stages. Many metals and particularly steel exhibit a transition behaviour. Brittle fractures frequently originate at a notch. Notch toughness is a property which is also highly temperature-dependent. deformation takes place slowly over a period of time. Stress Relaxation a. eg shock loading. b. ie. The notch may take the form of an abrupt discontinuity in the structure. The tertiary stage then takes place when the creep rate increases markedly leading to eventual rupture. 3.

NES 738
Issue 2 (Reformatted)

FIGURE 3.2 STRESS RELAXATION BEHAVIOUR FOR TWO BOLTING MATERIALS

3.8

Fatigue
a.

3.9

Most failures of engineering components that are subjected to alternating
stresses can be traced to fatigue. Fracture occurs at working stresses very much
lower than the ultimate strength of the metal. Few engineering areas escape:
fatigue failures have occured in ships, bridges, aircraft and machinery. The
process begins with the formation of a small crack usually at a point of stress
concentration. Under further repeated loading the crack slowly spreads in a
direction normal to the direction of principal tensile stress until fracture occurs.
The final fracture may be ductile tearing or brittle fracture. Failure occurs more
rapidly where stresses fluctuate between compression and tension than where
the fluctuating stress is all tensile. When a design is subject to varying loads it
is necessary therefore to know the fatigue properties of the metal in question.

Corrosion Fatigue
a.

Fatigue life is shortened still further if the component is working in a corrosive
environment. See Clause 3.11a.
3.5

NES 738
Issue 2 (Reformatted)

3.10

3.11

Chemical Properties
a.

The chemical properties of a metallic material which are of prime concern to
ship design are its corrosion characteristics. Corrosion occurs by a number of
different mechanisms. It can occur by direct chemical action when the metal
enters into a chemical reaction with other elements such as oxygen, chlorine or
sulphur; or it can occur by probably the most common mechanism of corrosion,
namely, electrochemical or galvanic action. Corrosion is dealt with in more
detail in Section 20. of this NES.

b.

Metals vary considerably in their resistance to corrosion and it is necessary to
carry out tests under simulated service conditions before selecting previously
untried materials.

Stress and Corrosion
a.

3.12

The combined effects of stress and corrosion manifest themselves in the
phenomena of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. In each case the
combined effect is to shorten life. Metallic materials vary in their resistance to
stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. Testing is necessary under
simulated service conditions.

Selection of Metals
a.

A metallic material is completely defined by its physical, mechanical and
chemical properties. The first stage in selecting a metal or an alloy for a
particular purpose is to examine these properties in relation to fitness for
service. The requirements for service must therefore be defined. Strength in
relation to weight is frequently examined first. Other factors may or may not
be so well defined, such as a level of notch toughness required. This in turn is
related to operating temperatures and whether the loading is static or by shock.
Some of the factors involved are illustrated in FIGURE 3.3.

3.6

NES 738
Issue 2 (Reformatted)

FIGURE 3.3 SOME FACTORS IN THE SELECTION OF A METAL

3.7

or brazed? The ease or otherwise of fabrication may further reduce the field of choice. Risk increases where experience is scant. Many metals and their oxides are toxic if inhaled in a finely divided form. Cost could be a governing factor. welded. The hazard may be a metal powder or as a metal fume from a working process such as brazing. Of particular risk are beryllium and tellurium followed by cadmium.8 .13 b. Guidance on the use of hazardous metals is issued by the Health and Safety Executive. welding or metal spraying. What do we need to do with the material: has it to be machined. Service requirements will determine the materials to be used. zinc.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 3. lead. d. Experience of use of the metal must also be sought. not only the first cost of metal but also the subsequent cost of fabrication. Further factors have now to be considered. c. Finally the availability of the metal in the form. Toxicity of Metals a. chromium etc. cold or hot worked. 3. shapes and sizes that are required has to be investigated. As much as possible is to be found out about the manufacturing route of the metal and the other uses being made of it. cast.

(2) Stress concentration and notch effects. The principal factors determining whether brittle fracture occurs are: d. Brittle fractures in plate bear characteristic chevron patterns which invariably point to the origin of the fracture. Failure by plastic collapse can occur as a result of overloading or manufacturing errors or from inadequate or inaccurate data on which the design was based. see Clause 9. The characteristic of a typical brittle fracture is that it occurs without warning and with little or no previous deformation and propagates at a very high speed. Plastic Collapse a. The edges of the fracture may have shear lips or the fracture may be entirely flat indicating extreme brittleness. chain cables. 4. The nominal stress may be well below the yield strength of the steel. Brittle fracture is a rare event in a large monolithic steel structure but it can result in total loss. and partly due to geometric and stress conditions. etc can have potentially serious results. (4) Rate of loading. (1) Fracture toughness or notch toughness of the metal. is illustrated in FIGURE 4.5a.2 Over the years much data has been collected on engineering failures and this has gradually led to a better understanding of metals and their properties. 4. (5) Size effect. Brittle behaviour is more likely to occur in heavy structures made from thick plate and sections rather than in structures of lighter scantlings. (5) Stress corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. MODES OF FAILURE a. b. Some crystals separate by shear and a measure of the brittleness of the fracture is the percentage of the fracture surface that is crystalline. Some of the more notable failures have been the Americanbuilt liberty ships in World War II. The occurrence of different appearances of the fracture in the Charpy test. (6) Low energy ductile tearing. (3) Service temperature.5d. The effect of (1) to (4) above is described in Clauses 3. (4) Corrosion. This is partly due to metallurgical effects such as segregation and the difficulty of obtaining uniform cooling. Brittle failure of minor items such as fasteners. and the offshore drilling rig. to 3. Sea-Gem. 4. The surface appearance of the fracture is crystalline arising from the fracture of the majority of crystals by cleavage.1.1 (1) Plastic collapse..1 . The size effect relates both to the thickness of plates and sections and to the overall size of the structure. Most failures can be ascribed to one or more of the following mechanisms. c.4b. (2) Brittle fracture. (3) Fatigue and corrosion fatigue. Brittle Fracture a.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 4.

NES 738
Issue 2 (Reformatted)

e.

Avoidance of brittle fracture depends upon design, material selection, and
control over fabrication and acceptance.
(1)

Design—Ascertain, as accurately as possible, the service temperature and
the character of the loading, eg static, fluctuating, impact etc. Section size
increases the hazard, therefore keep thicknesses to a minimum. Avoid
designing-in stress concentrations, taking particular care of details. Pay
special attention to minor fittings attached to main strength members.
Arrange joints to ensure easy access for welding and inspection.

(2)

Material Selection—Ensure that the steel has adequate notch ductility
with a transition range well below the lowest operating temperature.
Check that the steel has been tested in accordance with Section 9. of this
NES.

(3)

Fabrication—The origins of many brittle fractures have been traced to
welds: the quality of welding is therefore very important. The welds of
minor fittings are as important as the structure on which they are made.
The weld metal must have adequate strength and notch toughness and
must have been tested as vigorously as the base material. Inspection must
be equally of a high standard. A satisfactory quality assurance procedure
must be agreed to cover weld procedure, welder qualifications, inspection
and repair methods. Care must also be taken to ensure that cold working
or heat treatment does not significantly impair the notch toughness of the
structure; this in turn requires that the effects of these treatments on
notch toughness be known. Avoid all uncontrolled welding.

FIGURE 4.1 FRACTURE APPEARANCE IN THE CHARPY TEST

4.2

NES 738
Issue 2 (Reformatted)

4.3

Fatigue and Corrosion Fatigue
a.

One of the most common causes of failure in metals is by fatigue. Under
frequently repeated stresses metals fail by fracture well below their yield
strength. If the stresses are continually reversed failure occurs even earlier.
Failure by fatigue is instantly recognizable by the appearance of the fracture.
Two distinct zones are evident, a smooth area due to minute rubbing of the
surfaces together which may show striations or lines of arrest, and a rough or
crystalline area where final failure has occurred by ductile or brittle fracture.

b.

Fatigue fractures are usually initiated at stress concentrations which may result
from a design error such as an abrupt change of section or from a surface flaw,
such as a chisel mark or weld reinforcement. The mechanism of failure is that
a small crack forms at the stress concentration and slowly spreads with repeated
loading. The crack will extend in a direction normal to the direction of the main
tensile stress.

c.

Welding can introduce various stress concentrations from which fatigue
cracking can be initiated. These can be planar defects, such as lack of fusion or
penetration, or more likely surface discontinuities, such as the toe of welds or
weld ripples. The fatigue life of welded items comprises mainly the time spent
in propagating the fracture. For unwelded items a significant portion of life is
also spent in nucleating the fracture. Since the rate of crack propagation does
not vary much with the UTS of the material the fatigue life of welded items is
not increased by using stronger material.

d.

Tensile residual stresses occur in and around welds following contraction on
cooling and can affect fatigue life. The result of residual tensile stresses is to
alter the point in the stress range at which the applied stress acts. Applied
compressive stresses can effectively become tensile and fatigue failure of welded
items can occur under compressive loading. Stress relief can extend the life
under compressive loading but has little effect if the loading is tensile since the
rate of crack propagation does not significantly depend on mean stress.

e.

The method of testing to determine the fatigue life of metals is described in
Section 9. The number of cycles, N, before failure is plotted against the applied
stress, S, usually as log N and log S. A typical curve for steel is shown in
FIGURE 4.2. From it, it will be seen that the allowable stress falls with increase
in the number of cycles. The point where the curve becomes asymptotic to the
abscissa is known as the fatigue limit. FIGURE 4.3 shows a typical S−N curve
for most nonferrous alloys; it is also representative of some steels under
corrosion fatigue conditions. Where there is no clear fatigue limit an endurance
limit is used instead, eg for aluminium alloys. This use of S−N data for fatigue
design is now being replaced by crack propagation data whereby the increment
in crack length per cycle (da/dN) is plotted against a range of stress intensities
(K).

4.3

NES 738
Issue 2 (Reformatted)

FIGURE 4.2 TYPICAL S−N CURVE FOR UNWELDED STEEL

FIGURE 4.3 TYPICAL S−N CURVE FOR MANY NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
f.

Fatigue strength or endurance limit can be markedly lowered by a corrosive
environment. If the highly stressed root of a crack is in a corrosive medium then
the corrosion rate increases due to the stress, and the overall fracture rate also
increases.

g.

To avoid failure by fatigue or corrosion fatigue it is necessary to know the cyclic
pattern of stress and the environmental medium, and also to have appropriate
test data. In many cases accurate information is not available, nominal design
stresses have to be used and an estimate made of the number of cycles of stress.
In applying available test data to welded structures and components the data
used is not to be based on information derived from polished unwelded
specimens. Similarly, results of tests in air may seriously overestimate the life
of an item which operates in sea water. In the end it may be necessary to base
a judgement on the test results available and experience of metals in similar
circumstances in real life situations.

h.

Where there is clear evidence of a fatigue problem there are a number of
measures which can be taken to avoid premature failure. First and foremost is
4.4

−9. The fact that a material fails in a shear mode when tested at its service temperature is not always a guarantee of safety. and the stress.5 . The effect is uncertain at high stress ranges. The corrosion is specific to the material and its environment.12a. of this NES. Machining or fine grinding welds or other rough surfaces can remove or reduce stress concentration. c. and heat exchangers may suffer from tube and tube plate failure due to corrosion and erosion.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) the avoidance or removal of stress raisers.12d. Any dissimilar metal combination in the presence of an electrolyte (sea water) will suffer galvanic attack. 4. dockings and refits. b. 4. Stainless steels fail by crevice attack in the marine environment and selective phase corrosion can affect some cast copper alloys.6 Although not a widespread problem. however. Even a minor fitting can be a stress raiser if carelessly placed on a strength member. Shot and hammer peening can introduce compressive residual stress which will assist in tensile loading (peening of welds is. 4. Geometric discontinuities must be designed out. Stress Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking a. failure from stress corrosion can occur where both stress. see NES 706). has to be tensile. Failure by low energy ductile tearing is possible and suspect materials are to be assessed by the J-integral method. Internal pitting can affect steam and feed water pipes.5 Corrosion a. whether imposed or residual internal. and a corrosive environment are present. but such operations may be limited or prohibited altogether by cost.4 4. The mechanism of various forms of corrosion and their preventive measures are covered in Section 20. Low Energy Ductile Tearing a. the replacement of corroded items is generally effected before in-service failures occur. The selection of metals to avoid or minimize corrosion is covered in Section 20. A brief note on corrosion is included in this section since it accounts for some costly failures in metals. Specialist advice must be sought before introducing any preventive measures other than improving the design. pitting corrosion. Serious corrosion occurs particularly in bilges and all places where water can collect. The cost is very large. The mechanism differs according to the material and the environment but failure would not occur if either stress or corrosion were absent. internal or external. Sea-water systems can suffer from impingement attack and cavitation resulting from local turbulence. Stress relief can assist under compressive loading. Where the stress range is low cathodic protection will increase the fatigue strength compared with free corrosion. and localized galvanic attack. By a programmed system of surveys. Hull structural plating and sections suffer from general corrosion. prohibited. Condensers. see Clauses 9.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 4.6 .

pipe and billet in a continuous process. the shells are usually backed by sand or by metal shot. The item to be cast is made of a low melting point material. METAL FORMS AND PROCESSES a. The shells are made in parts and clipped together to receive the molten charge. Non-machinable and non-forgeable alloys can be cast to finished dimensions by this process. Centrifugal casting employs a metallic mould without cores which is spun at high speed. (6) Continuous. enclosed in a mould which is heated to remove the wax. (2) Shell moulding. the thermosetting mix is poured on to the heated pattern to form a shell. e. Sand casting is a highly skilled process and selection of a modern foundry with appropriate experience in the alloy concerned is vital to achieve good quality components free of defects. (5) Investment.1 With the exception of a relatively small number of sintered products. The molten metal passes through a cooled die emerging as a just solidified bar or tube. originally beeswax. (4) Centrifugal. Surface finish and dimensional accuracy are better than with sand castings. These include: (1) Sand castings. A run of castings is required to justify the cost of the die and provided the design is satisfactory output can be high. f.1 . Continuous casting is used for producing solid and hollow bar. The resulting casting is usually of uniform wall thickness with a fine-grain outer surface. and then the molten metal is run in.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 5. 5. cylindrical sleeves. Dimensional accuracy and surface finish are very good: fine screw threads may be accurately incorporated into the casting. Die casting is mainly confined to zinc and aluminium alloys with some use of magnesium alloys and low melting brasses. g. c. Centrifugal force flings the metal to the surface of the mould. the metal is fed by gravity into the die and in pressure diecasting it is forced into the die under considerable pressure. Investment casting is used for the production of small items requiring close tolerances. Foundry sand is rammed around a wooden pattern which is contained within a moulding box. It is used for producing pipes. In the casting operation. 5. Not all light alloys can be die cast because of their high shrinkage characteristics which leads to cracking. d. A metal pattern is made. The product is superior to that produced by sand castings but the process is only applicable to symmetrical shapes. The moulding box is separated in two halves and the pattern is withdrawn leaving a cavity into which the metal can be poured. b. Cast Metals a. Shell moulding requires a clay-free sand to which is added a thermosetting bonding agent such as phenol or urea formaldehyde. Sand casting is the best known method. In gravity die casting. hollow shafts etc. metals are used either in the cast or wrought form. (3) Gravity die and pressure die. Metals may be cast by a number of different methods.

appear as stringers and are then more serious. impact.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Castings a. The original ingot can suffer from pipes. b. Elongation of impurities and crystalline structure contributes to the directional properties found in wrought products. etc can be reduced by the method used in the melt or casting of the ingot and subsequent control of the cropping process to ensure defective material is removed from the top and bottom of the ingot. From the ingot stage hot rolling produces semi-finished products such as blooms and slabs. Subsequently hot rolling is used for the reduction of these products to plate. c. segregation. Inclusions will be elongated and generally well dispersed. Competent design can. For certain materials.2 5. Blowholes may be welded up by the working process or remain as a defect although altered in shape. however. The principal working processes are rolling. The main advantage of castings is that large and intricate shapes can be produced generally in one piece more economically than by any other process. Internal cracks and bursts can result from forging and various surface defects can result from the working process. Thereafter working can produce directionality of properties or conversely a more isotropic condition if required. Ductility.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 5. by control of working temperature. Ability to achieve the required shape without expensive forging and machining is where the principal savings lie. pattern maker and foundry man. segregation. Primary piping may be cropped from the ingot but if a secondary pipe exists it could ultimately appear as centre-line porosity in a bar product or as laminations in a plate. Measures can also be taken to produce a satisfactory surface finish. sections and rods. Blooms for forging made from continuously cast metal will contain fewer defects than those from cast ingots. They can. Wrought material is not without its defects. porosity and low hot strength. These start with the material production process and control over impurities. particularly sand casting. It should be noted that the tensile strength specified for castings usually relates to standard. The characteristics of the solidification process lead to inherent weaknesses arising from shrinkage. Other defects such as piping. Wrought Products a. Despite increasing quality assurance measures. Wrought products are produced mainly by hot processes although cold processes are necessary for some materials. Control measures are possible. drawing and extrusion. however. An inherent weakness of casting is that it can produce the least predictable of metallurgical structures. porosity. Working Processes a. Yield and tensile strength are less affected.2 . b. In the first stage the metal is cast as an ingot. Close co-operation is essential from the earliest concept stage between the designer. forging. upsetting. and that the actual tensile strength at any point within a casting may vary depending on the local microstructure. Worked material has a more uniform structure and is of greater density and of higher strength than cast material of similar composition. is fraught with difficulties. considerably reduce the problems and the defects. inclusions and cracks.3 5. the casting process. it is possible to produce a fine grain structure. Batch production of castings of smaller items is frequently cheaper than by manufacture from wrought material. blowholes. 5. Subsequent working of the ingot produces plastic flow and impurities are elongated in the direction of working. and fatigue properties are greater in the principal direction of working. sheet. separately cast bars (‘keel bars’).

3 . the hammer is raised by power and allowed to fall under gravity. but certain alloys may also be extruded cold. brasses and ferrous alloys. Metals that can be extruded include aluminium. cold working is also used for drawing. A combination of cold working and precipitation hardening in suitable alloys can increase strength and hardness to an extent which is not possible with either process singly. Powder Metallurgy a. A further development is high-energy rate forging which utilizes pneumatic power. e. Sintering is the conversion to a homogeneous alloy by grain growth across the cold welds between metal particles. d. 5. Hot pressing may be used for items of simple geometry. Modifications of this process use a power-assisted hammer or hydraulic press. 5. (2) provide a cleaner. also known as temper. Its purpose is to: (1) increase strength.6 The extrusion process may be direct or indirect. The end of the bar is heated and the head is forged in a single operation in a machine. Section. 5. One of the advantages of this process is that the metal is worked in depth and not primarily in the surface layer. Cold working is used. In addition to finishing processes. The extrusion process is usually carried out hot. mixed and compressed in a hardened steel die. cold heading may be used instead of hot forging. The hammer is replaced by a hydraulic ram and the heated material is gradually squeezed into shape by the static pressure of the ram. The metals are reduced to fine powders. (4) straighten the product. dimensional tolerances. below the melting point. The drawing process relies on the high ductility of the metal being drawn. at which sintering takes place. 800° C for brasses and 1250° C for steels. Upset forging or heading is used in the production of bolts. as with hammer forging. tubes and wire can be drawn cold through lubricated dies. rivets and similar items. as a finishing process. Dependent on the size of the item and the material.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) b. Extrusion a. In the direct process metal is forced through a die. drop or closed die forging may be used. Where large numbers of similar articles are to be produced. The pressure is high enough to produce a degree of cold welding between the metal particles. Sintering of metal powders is a means by which homogeneous alloys may be produced from metals which are not soluble in the liquid state or which. Most forging is now power assisted although hand forging is still practised by smiths. where required. By this method heated bars or billets are forged between dies. smoother finish. The ram in each case is powered hydraulically. up to 500° C for aluminium alloys. f. The compressed mass is heated to a suitable temperature. and in the indirect process the die is forced into the metal thereby extruding the required shape through the die.5 c. (3) meet closer. because of a wide range of melting points or very high melting points. are difficult to produce commercially.

Cermets can be produced.4 . The principal naval application by fusion welding is to obtain a corrosion resistant surface on a steel strength member. a process which is more appropriate for castings and forgings. A more expensive way is to clad by fusion welding. 5. applications by plug welding sheet material to the component. The clad metal can also be bonded to the parent plate by an explosive process.7 Powder metallurgy can also be used to obtain an even distribution of an insoluble constituent in a metallic matrix. Tungsten carbide alloyed with titanium carbide and cobalt is used for cutting tools. Graphite can be evenly distributed in a bearing alloy. Composite plates can be made by rolling two metals together to effect bonding by pressure welding. Cladding may also be carried out on non-critical. Clad metals can be produced by a number of processes. 5. A range of high temperature alloys can also be made by these methods. This procedure can be used for items such as sea-tubes and muffler tanks.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) b. low fatigue. Clad Metals a.

For other metals reference is to be made to the relevant Data Sheet in Def Stan 01−2 or specialist advice is to be sought.1 Cold Forming 6. For this reason it is important in structural steels to limit the amount of cold work. or normalizing will be necessary. spinning may be carried out cold. See NES 706 and NES 770. Hot Forming a.2 6. 6. Shaping Weldments a. Cold working produces strain hardening leading to an increase in strength and also a reduction in notch ductility for those metals exhibiting a transition behaviour. b. Spinning a.3 a. hardened condition to meet design strength requirements.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 6. Where the required deformation is such that the strain limit on cold work will be exceeded it will be necessary to work the metal in the hot condition. The extent of cold work must not produce cracking. or process annealing may be permitted to relieve internal stresses produced by cold work or to restore complete plasticity. The requirements for cold or hot working the metal or weld metal concerned will be equally applicable to spinning. For small items in low strength metals. Stress relieving. It is important to question the effect of hot work on the metal concerned. If the metal is in the heat treated condition prior to forming then subsequent heat treatment. The working temperatures and particularly the finishing temperature will have a crucial effect on the structure of the metal and on its properties. the metal may have been purchased in a cold worked. b. The heat treatments permitted for structural steels are defined in NES 706 and NES 770. SHAPING OF METALS 6. but for a steel pressure vessel it will need to be carried out hot to achieve the necessary plasticity. Part 1. normalizing. A particular method of working metals which is suitable for dome ends of pressure vessels and similar shapes is by spinning. Normally mild steel weldments may be worked hot or cold but where a steel needs to be quenched and tempered after forming then the weld metal will need to be cut out and the joint rewelded. The most economical method of shaping metals is by cold forming which may be by rolling. Part 1. 6. such as quenching and tempering.1 . If the working temperatures are not clearly specified then specialist advice must be sought. The metal being formed must have adequate ductility and its properties must not be seriously impaired by the forming process. Part 1.4 If the item to be worked has been fabricated by welding then the effect of the work on the weld metal must be considered. Alternatively. c. bending or pressing. The plates are continually spun while a forming tool eases the metal into shape. Permitted strain limits for ship structural steels are given in NES 706 and NES 770. Part 1. Temperatures for structural steels are defined in NES 706 and NES 770. The extra strength induced by cold work will be lost on hot working as the metal reverts to a softened state.

2 .5 Machining a. Free cutting steels owe much of their development to their cost advantage in automatic screw cutting. Other free machining steels contain lead which exists as microscopic globules in the steel structure. Other treated metals are stainless steels with added selenium or molybdenum.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 6. b. These steels may be unsuitable for steam or sea water applications and specialist advice is to be sought. The aim of free machining metals is to reduce machining costs. The advantage of lead is that it has little effect on the other mechanical properties of the steel. The addition of sulphur to steels containing manganese creates manganese sulphide inclusions. and copper alloys and nickel silver with lead additions. These are the so called sulphur bearing free machining steels. manganese and sulphur can considerably reduce notch ductility. 6. The difference is shown in the turnings: ductile metals produce continuous coils of turnings whereas in the more brittle but more easily machined metals the turnings break off in small chips. Ductile metals tend to spread and are not as easily machined as harder and more brittle metals. The ease with which metals can be machined is a function of their mechanical properties and metallurgical structure. Finely dispersed inclusions assist chip forming and the compositions of metals can be modified to produce such inclusions. c.

7. and then cooled. Normalizing a. HEAT TREATMENT a. The temperatures at which transformation takes place in the solid state are called critical temperatures or critical points and will vary with the particular composition of the alloy. Alloying additions play a vital role in the transformation of microstructure. preferably in the furnace. Where high surface hardness is required with minimum internal stress it is necessary in certain steels. Annealing a. A slightly different operation is process annealing. and air. This results in less ductility than the full anneal. This is sometimes known as full annealing. to carry out interrupted quenching. oil. Where extremely rapid cooling is required water spray may be used. Steels are normalized before hardening and tempering. to ensure a thorough soak. the rate at which it is cooled.5 Annealing of steel is carried out principally to soften the alloy and to improve ductility. here the steel is heated just above the lower critical point. brine. 7. The workpiece is heated to 40° C above the upper critical point and held sufficiently long at that temperature. The workpiece is heated to 40° C above the upper critical point and cooled in still air. particularly if large items have to be treated. a small increase in hardness. Interrupted Quenching a.4 The properties of steel may be altered with relative ease by heat treatment and this is one reason why steel is so useful. It also relieves the internal stresses caused by previous treatments. 550° C−650° C.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 7. The alteration of properties is obtained in the solid state by properly controlled heating and cooling and is directly related to changes produced in the microstructure.1 . 7. The initial rapid quench in water is followed by a slower quench in oil. In addition to mechanical properties this could also mean a stress-free condition or enhanced corrosion resistance. Quenching b. Its purpose is to remove hardening effects produced by cold work and is used extensively in the production of sheet and wire. The rate of cooling in process annealing is not so critical since reliance is placed on temperature to partially soften the steel and relieve internal stresses. Quenching is carried out in order to harden steel and is normally followed by tempering. 7.2 Normalizing is carried out to refine grain structure and improve mechanical properties and also to reduce alloy segregation in forgings and castings. In steel we are mainly concerned with the upper and lower critical points. and probably better impact properties. 7. The cooling rate influences the degree of hardness that will be achieved and is in turn controlled by the selection of the correct quenching medium. oilwater emulsion. and then cooled very slowly. and initially.3 The heat treatment of metal alloys is carried out in order to produce the desired properties for the service intended. The rate which achieves maximum hardness is known as the critical cooling rate. dependent on its size.1 Steel a. The workpiece is heated to 40° C above the upper critical point and then quenched in some medium to achieve the desired cooling rate. Various fluids are used and include water. High surface hardness is obtained by the rapid quench and the slower quench reduces internal hardness and reduces internal stress. The critical factors are the temperature to which it is heated. 7. the time it is held at that temperature.

Solution Treatment and Precipitation Hardening a.6 Tempering a. Annealing of non-ferrous alloys is carried out to deliberately soften the metal after it has been hardened by work or other process. yield and UTS. Steels for submarine pressure hulls have for many years been quenched and tempered.10 This process produces a hard surface on medium carbon steels while leaving a softer and tougher core. Coils can be specially shaped to the workpiece being treated and can incorporate a spray so that a rapid quench follows the heating. 7. By this method very tough steels of medium to high strength have been produced. The surface of the workpiece is rapidly heated by oxyacetylene torch or other high temperature flame followed immediately by a rapid quench. 7. The resultant induced current on the workpiece raises the surface temperature above the upper critical point. as the name suggests. Stress Relief a. The process involves heating the item to a temperature below the lower critical point. The alloy is heated to a temperature which.2 . b. are amenable to solution treatment and subsequent precipitation hardening. Induction Hardening a. The ductility will decrease and the strength will increase. sometimes called ageing. 7. 7. 7. Non-Ferrous Alloys a. occur at room temperature over a long period of time.9 The object of tempering is to increase the ductility of a quenched steel at the expense of hardness. Some non-ferrous alloys. The object to be surface hardened is enclosed in a coil through which a high frequency current is passed. Subsequent precipitation treatment. Annealing temperatures differ for different alloys and for any particular alloy the degree of softening will be time and temperature dependent.8 Thermal stress relieving may be carried out on castings.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 7. results in the precipitation of phases from the solution to critical sites in the lattice structure resulting in hardening of the alloy. 7. If the alloy is quenched from this temperature the phases remain in solution and the alloy is ductile and in the solution-treated condition. welded fabrications and repairs. is sufficient for the different metallic phases present to ‘dissolve’ and form a ‘solid solution’. approx 575° C. in particular aluminium alloys. For some applications it is possible to attach a quenching spray to the torch. holding at that temperature for one hour per inch of thickness and then cooling in still air. which usually involves heat treatment at a much lower temperature than the solution treatment temperature but which can also. The steel is heated to a temperature below the lower critical point usually in the region 550° C−650° C and then cooled at a pre-determined rate. with some alloys.11 Where components are large and it is impossible to heat the whole surface at once with a torch then induction heating is the preferred alternative. Flame hardening relies on the fact that heat is applied very rapidly. building up a high thermal gradient and raising the surface temperature above the upper critical point prior to the rapid quench.7 Flame Hardening a. The frequency of the current determines the depth of hardening. and on severely cold worked items to relieve internal stress.

d. it also applies to certain steels when tempered after quenching and to precipitation hardening stainless steels. 7. precipitation hardened alloys as the mechanical properties may be impaired and only partially recoverable by further heat-treatment. or heating for any reason. Care must be exercised when welding. Precipitation hardening does not apply only to non-ferrous alloys.3 .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) c.

4 .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 7.

liquid or gaseous.3 The surface treatments covered in this section are the surface hardening of steels and the application of coatings to both ferrous and non-ferrous alloys in order to improve corrosion.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 8. or carbon-nitriding. 8.1 . to 7. The carburizing material may be either solid. 8. 8. Liquid Carburizing a. 8. Steels with a higher carbon content or low alloy steels will be used if greater strength is required.5 Surface hardening by carburizing is achieved by the introduction of carbon into the surface layer of steel. The temperatures used are mostly in the range 930° C−955° C although high temperature gas carburizing at 1095° C is also possible. heat and wear resistance.6 In this process the steel component is packed with charcoal in a heat-resisting box and the temperature raised to 875° C−925° C.. nitriding. The molten salts are held at a temperature of 870° C−950° C and the steel components to be hardened are lowered into the bath in wire baskets.) will be required. The liquid used in this carburizing process is a cyanide-rich bath of fused salts comprising up to 50% sodium cyanide together with sodium carbonate and sodium or barium chloride. 8. 8. other means of surface hardening are by carburizing. of which time is the most important in controlling the depth of carbon penetration. The advantage of the low alloy steels is that the toughness of the core is retained despite the increase in hardness. Pack Carburizing a.2% C provide a ductile core. After carburizing. the composition of core and case. A wide variety of steels are used for carburizing. and the properties required for the component to function properly. The process is the most controllable of the carburizing methods as not only can the temperature be accurately controlled but the composition of the carburizing atmosphere can be monitored and the carbon potential controlled. Low carbon steels up to 0. gears and shafts require a surface that is resistant to hard wear and must also possess a tough interior. The process is ideal for small parts requiring shallow hardening. Gas Carburizing a. ion-nitriding.4 Many moving components used in engineering such as cams. The heat treatment required will depend on the carburizing temperature used.7a. b. Quenching and tempering or interrupted quenching (see Section 7.1 Surface Hardening a. Gas carburizing is carried out in a controlled-atmosphere furnace where the atmosphere is fed with methane or propane diluted by a carrier gas. Carburizing a. SURFACE TREATMENT a. The depth of hardness is dependent on time and temperature.8a.2 8. further heat treatment of the steel is required to toughen the core and for some applications to produce the required hardness in the surface. Steels for Carburizing a. The process consists of surrounding the component with carburizing material and heating to produce a carbon-enriched layer. Surface hardening by heat treatment is described in Clauses 7.

The nitriding agent used is ammonia gas which breaks down in the furnace to release single atoms of nitrogen. At higher temperatures absorption of nitrogen is reduced. titanium. chromium. positive ions bombard the workpiece and raise the surface temperatures to that required for nitriding. Hardness is achieved by the creation of nitrides: subsequent heat treatment is not required. which form hard stable nitrides. Carburizing can produce a much deeper. electroplated. tungsten and molybdenum. 8. sprayed. nitrided steels have the advantages of being more corrosion resistant with greater resistance to fatigue than carburized steels. Nitrided steels are also better at elevated temperatures. Carbon-nitriding a. vanadium. 8.11 In this process the steel workpiece is held in a chamber containing nitrogen at very low pressures (1−10 mbar).8 Nitriding a. The function of surface coatings is to improve the corrosion. The process is more controllable and has a higher output than the gas nitriding process.13 Carbon-nitriding is a modification of the gas carburizing process by the addition of ammonia gas to the furnace atmosphere. or produced by chemical action. There are several patented processes for surface hardening of steel. Surface Coatings a. The steel must be heated to 800° C−875° C for the carbon to be absorbed. 8. Main propulsion gears in MOD ships are now carburized after earlier failures with nitrided gears. Ion-Nitriding a. or wear resistance of metals. Surface hardening of steel by nitriding is achieved by heating the component in contact with a nitrogeneous agent.7 8.2 . The steels must contain those elements such as aluminium. Both carbon and nitrogen are released to be absorbed in the surface of the workpiece. final machined and then nitrided. The disadvantage with nitriding is the high cost of capital equipment which makes the process economical only where large numbers of items have to be treated. eg Sulphanizing and Tufftriding. The component can be heat treated to obtain the required core properties. No quenching is required after nitriding and items can be machine finished before treatment. some of which confer improved properties. By control of temperatures and the amount of ammonia gas added the relative absorption of carbon and nitrogen can be regulated.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 8.9 Steels for Nitriding a. The gas is ionized using the workpiece as the cathode. b. 8.12 Nitriding can be used to surface harden many steels but where a high surface hardness is required steels of special composition are necessary.10 In addition to the very high hardness that is possible. The temperatures used are lower than those for carburizing and are in the range 500° C−565° C. Patented Processes a. Nascent nitrogen is released at the surface of the component and combines with elements in the steel to form nitrides. Nitriding v Carburizing a. Coatings may be metallic or non-metallic and may be hot dipped. heat. Steels of special composition for nitriding are produced and are known as nitro-alloys. 8. 8. tougher case but due to distortion considerable grinding of the hardened surface is necessary.

Nickel provides a sound base for subsequent chromium plating.3 . (1) Zinc coating. Zinc coating is relatively soft and easily abraded. nickel. It is used industrially on gauges. Degreasing and pickling are an essential forerunner to electroplating. taps. as stocks of spare components are used up. Metals that may be deposited include copper. Tin-plate is easily soldered and is ideal for the fabrication of containers. The need for safe disposal of waste cadmium and its corrosion products and effluent from electroplating plants is of considerable importance. (3) Chromium plating provides a very hard. These have relatively low melting points enabling steel products to be dipped in molten baths of the coatings. 03−19 and 03−20). etc and can also be used for restoring worn surfaces. The component must be cleaned by degreasing and acid picking prior to dipping. Sea Systems Controllerate policy is that cadmium may only be specified and used where there is no acceptable alternative. 8. 03−10. A low temperature heat treatment is required after plating to avoid hydrogen embrittlement. or galvanizing. chromium. Electroplated Coatings a. The electrolyte contains a salt of the metal to be deposited. cadmium.15 The coatings used in the hot dip process are zinc and tin. (5) Restrictions in the use of cadmium: cadmium and its corrosion products are a potential health hazard to personnel and contribute to toxic pollution. (1) Copper is mainly used as an undercoat for nickel and chromium plating. Cadmium and cadmium plated components which can be satisfactorily replaced are to be eliminated from new and existing equipment.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 8.14 Hot Dipped Coatings a. It can also be used for restoring worn steel parts. 8. The anode is sometimes a non-reactive conductor but more often it is made from the metal to be deposited. wear resistant finish. (2) Nickel coatings provide excellent corrosion resistance and are sufficiently hard not to be easily damaged. Components to be plated are made the cathode in an electrolytic cell. Fluxes are used to assist in obtaining a good bond between coating and base metal. Scratches or scores on the coating result in local sacrificial corrosion of the zinc but the base metal is still protected. By this latter method the concentration of the metal in the electrolyte is maintained at the expense of the anode. zinc and tin (Def Stans 03−8. It is resistant to food acids but offers no protection once scratched. The chromium layer is porous so where corrosion resistance is required it must be backed by nickel plating. (4) Zinc plating is widely used for fasteners and similar articles where uniformity and control of thickness of film is important and in this respect the process is preferred to hot-dipping. (2) Tin provides a nontoxic coating which is extensively used in the food processing industry for canning all types of food. It is more expensive than zinc coated sheet. and for copper coated wire. drills. provides excellent corrosion resistance. Protection is afforded by the oxide surface on the zinc.

The resultant coating is thin and offers only limited protection against corrosion. (2) Bonderizing—phosphoric acid plus a catalyst. The article must be chemically clean before anodizing. Positive ions of metal stream to the cathode and plate it.18 The article to be plated is contained in a chamber with argon at very low pressure. or oxalic acid. is an electrolytic process for providing aluminium with a thick protective oxide film. 8. Ion-Plating a.4 . Anodizing a.17 Sherardizing a. 10% phosphorus. furnace parts and similar items and for items in contact with flue gases containing sulphur. The articles are slowly tumbled in a drum containing zinc powder heated to 370° C. from a chemical solution without the use of an external electropotential. Prior to sealing the coating will readily accept a dye if required. 8. Various sealing treatments are available. Phosphate coatings are produced on the surface of steel by dipping. Degreasing and pickling are required prior to coating. Anodizing. Commercial processes based on phosphating are: (1) Parkerizing—uses phosphoric acid plus iron and manganese phosphate. eg 90% nickel.21 This is an aluminizing process which is also similar to carburizing. The resultant coating is heat and corrosion resistant and is used for coating ferrous turbine blades. or anodic oxidation. In the near vacuum conditions in the chamber the metal vaporizes readily and a small percentage of the vapour is ionized. The article to be anodized is then made the anode in an electrolytic cell containing a solution of chromic. The oxide film is spongy and requires sealing before the article goes into service. 8. This has a cleaning effect on the surface of the cathode and is known as sputter cleaning or ion scrubbing. Phosphating a. 8. When the current is flowing oxygen forms on the anode and combines with the aluminium. aluminium oxide and aluminium chloride at 815° C−980° C. The layer of aluminium oxide so formed grows outward from the surface. Calorizing a.20 Sherardizing is a process of coating articles with zinc that is similar in many respects to carburizing. brushing.16 Electroless Plating a. 2N/m2. or spraying with phosphoric acid (Def Stan 03−11). Commercial processes are Kanigen and Fescolising (Def Stan 03−5). 8. 8. but its surface is rough and is an excellent key for a subsequent paint system. sulphuric. The coating metal is contained in a tungsten boat in the chamber and is separately heated. Thorough mechanical cleaning or polishing is followed by degreasing or electrolytic cleaning. The items to be coated are tumbled in a mixture of aluminium powder.19 Electroless plating involves the deposition of an alloy coating. The argon is ionized by a high dc voltage and the cathode is bombarded by positive argon ions. Thinner and more uniform coatings of zinc are possible than with hot dip galvanizing which makes the process particularly suitable for threaded items.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 8.

Wear and corrosion resistant ceramic materials are also thermally sprayed. Critical parts of steel ship structure can be sprayed with zinc or aluminium to give sacrificial protection from corrosion. b.5 . and many more besides. Sprayed coatings are porous which is an advantage for certain coatings used as oil-lubricated bearings. A wide variety of coatings are available for restoring worn parts and for improving wear resistance and corrosion resistance. but in a corrosive environment coatings require sealing. Metal spraying also has a wide application in view of its portability and flexibility. 8. can be deposited by metal spraying.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 8. Other coatings improve heat resistance or provide electrical conduction or electrical resistance.22 Metal Spraying a. All the metals used for coating by hot dipping and electroplating. Metal spraying methods are defined in Def Stan 03−6.

6 .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 8.

Metals and alloys are required to comply with defined compositions and to meet mechanical and other type tests. (1) Ultimate tensile strength. (2) Smaller scale test and non-destructive examination. (4) Material cleanness. (3) Notch toughness. Exceptionally metallurgical examination of the microstructure is also required. 9. Strength and ductility are measured by the tensile test in accordance with BS EN 10 002. From it are determined: c. these are: 9. the rate of loading under test. b. Chemical analysis to determine that the composition is within the required tolerances is the first test in the production route. By standardizing tests we arrive at meaningful and comparable results. (7) Corrosion resistance. (5) Fatigue limit.1 Strength and Ductility a. (4) Reduction of area. (8) Corrosion fatigue limit.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 9. (6) Creep. aimed at ensuring that essential properties are met in production runs. TESTING AND QUALITY ASSURANCE a. (10) Ease of welding or brazing.1. b. (9) Susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. The tensile properties for steel plate are often only determined for one direction in a plate. c. and the elastic compliance of the testing machine. (2) Yield or proof stress. There are. however. Tests used on metallic materials to ensure that the required properties are being achieved may be classified as: (1) Laboratory and type tests used initially when introducing a new material into service. three principal directions affecting properties in a rolled plate.1 . The results are influenced by the shape and size of test specimen. (2) Hardness. The tensile test is suitable for laboratory and production use. Mechanical and other properties that are tested are: (1) Strength and ductility. (3) Elongation.

ie. The fall-off is directly attributable to the steel making process and in particular with the degree of inclusion in the steel. Hardness values may indicate the strength of a metal but do not represent the ductility and more particularly the notch ductility (notch toughness) of the metal. ie the material cleanness. For any given metal. Normally the thicknesses of plates do not lend themselves to tensile testing on a production basis in the short transverse direction. e. It is also a useful tool in examining the heat affected zones adjacent to welds where high hardness levels. through the thickness. and can be used as a measure that treatments have been correctly carried out. although specifically a measure of resistance to penetration is also a measure of resistance to deformation. caused by heat treatment.2 . hardness relates to the condition of metal eg.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 9. Small Hounsfield tensile specimens are one of the tests used for this purpose. Production tests will be limited to longitudinal or both longitudinal and transverse tensile tests. Hardness.2 (1) Longitudinal or direction of rolling. d. (2) Transverse to rolling. FIGURE 9.1 CHARPY V-NOTCH TRANSITION CURVES FOR DIFFERENT STEELS 9. There are various methods of measuring hardness all of which employ a hardened ball or pyramid and then relate the size of the indentation to a standard scale. Hardness a. ie high strength and low ductility. Most structural steels have a dramatic fall-off in ductility in the short transverse direction. may be undesirable. but on occasions such tests are specified. (3) Short transverse. The difference in the tensile test results for longitudinal and transverse direction may not be great and will depend on the degree of cross-rolling of the plate in manufacture. b.

3 Notch Toughness a. In warship construction geometric and metallurgical notches and some cracks exist in the hull structure and fittings. 9.1 and involve the measure of energy absorbed in fracturing a specimen which has a sharp notch machined into its surface. as shown in FIGURE 9. to be able to measure the toughness of a metal in the presence of a crack. (5) Wide Plate test. therefore. Laboratory Testing of Notch Toughness a. c. (1) Drop-weight test.3 .4 9. (2) Maximum fracture resistance under explosive attack. Different steels exhibit different levels of absorbed energy and different positions of the transition curve with regard to temperature. b. 9. Steel for submarine pressure hulls commands a wider range of testing than steel for uses of lesser importance. Some or all of the following tests are used for evaluating metals for MOD(PE) use. b. The Charpy values obtained in a rolled plate will depend on: (1) the specimen orientation relative to the direction of rolling of the plate. Charpy specimens are tested over a range of temperatures. Brittle fracture is a form of fracture that occurs suddenly under a load which is not sufficient to result in general yielding across the whole of the fractured section. (2) initiation of a crack under dynamic loading. Design concern may be for: (1) Freedom from brittle fracture under all operating conditions particularly in extreme cold weather. (3) Crack Arrest test. For production testing the Izod test is generally used for non-ferrous metals and the Charpy V notch for steels. (4) Isothermal Crack Arrest test. The Charpy test illustrates the transition behaviour of steel with regard to temperature. It is necessary.1. Cross rolling will reduce this effect. Many different tests have been developed and may be classified as: (1) initiation of a crack under static loading. Transverse specimens could have values 1/3 lower than longitudinal specimens.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 9. Part 1 and BS EN 10 045. (2) Bulge Explosion test. Production Testing of Notch Toughness a.5 Notch toughness is a measure of the resistance of a metal to fracture in the presence of a notch. (3) crack propagation. Izod tests are carried out at room temperature. (2) the specimen position within the thickness of the plate: lower values may be obtained at mid-thickness in thick plates. Both tests are defined in BS 131.

The specimen is positioned on an anvil so that the saw-cut is on the tension side when the specimen is impacted by a weight. (7) Fracture Mechanics tests. this corresponds to a position near the lower shelf of the Charpy curve. This is the nil-ductility transition temperature. Bulge Explosion Test a. Drop Weight Test a. The test is illustrated in FIGURE 9.2 DROP WEIGHT TEST 9.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 9.2. FIGURE 9. A brittle weld bead is deposited on the specimen and notched with a saw cut to provide a crack initiator.3. This test is carried out in air with the target plate at specified sub-zero temperatures. 9. The temperature of the target plate is lowered in dry ice.6 Dynamic Tear test. A stop on the anvil limits the amount of bend so that it may be said that yielding has just occurred.4 .7 (6) The drop weight test is used to determine the nil-ductility transition temperature of a steel. The arrangement of the test is shown in FIGURE 9. The charge weight and its stand-off distance from the target plate are aimed at producing a reduction in thickness of 3% on the first shot. Specimens are tested at various temperatures to determine the transition where a crack propagates across the specimen to where it is arrested in the plate. Crack starters are used similar to those used in the drop weight test.

see FIGURE 9. 9. This is the isothermal crack arrest test. which is just sufficient to initiate cracking from a precut notch.3 BULGE EXPLOSION TEST b. From this data a crack-arrest curve can be drawn. (4) severity of deformation.9 Tests are made on plain plate.5. Wide Plate Test a. Variations of the test can be used to examine heat affected zones and weld metal. The wide plate test uses a large specimen to determine the background stress.8 number of explosive shots. at pre-determined temperatures. (2) the cracking produced. The gradient can be monitored from a series of thermocouples. Cracking can be initiated by impact near the saw-cut as shown and the temperature at which the crack is arrested can be associated with the background stress that has been applied.10 (1) Crack Arrest Test a. and welded T-butts.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) FIGURE 9. see FIGURE 9. welded butts. Isothermal Crack Arrest Test a.5 . 9. 9. The criteria used in assessing performance are: If the crack arrest test is carried out at various levels of uniform temperature it is possible to find the transition temperature for through cracks. In this test a crack is initiated from a saw-cut in a plate loaded to defined levels of elastic stress. (3) crack path.4. By cooling the end containing the saw-cut with liquid nitrogen a temperature gradient can be obtained along the length of the plate. 9.

4 CRACK ARREST TEST AND TRANSITION CURVE 9. may be classified as: (1) initiation under static loading.5a. Drop Weight Nil Ductility Transition Temperature.6 . See FIGURE 9. It features the worst mechanical condition that can be expected to occur in a structure. Bulge Explosion. Charpy V-notch. a notched specimen is simply supported at its ends and then impacted by a drop-weight or pendulum. (2) initiation under dynamic loading. b. Wide Plate Test.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 9. ie. FIGURE 9.6. In the Dynamic Tear Test the resistance of a steel to the propagation of fracture can be measured as a function of temperature and section thickness. The energy required for a through fracture is measured. In the test. The various tests listed in Clause 9.11 Dynamic Tear Test a. highly constrained crack. high strain rate and a sharp.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) FIGURE 9. The application of LEFM is usually restricted to materials in which fracture initiation is not preceded by significant yielding. general yielding fracture mechanics (GYFM). Crack Arrest Test.7 .12 Fracture Mechanics Test a. The parameters measured are: 9.5 WIDE PLATE TEST FIGURE 9. 9. All three methods use similar experimental techniques to determine a fracture mechanics parameter which can be used as a toughness value at the initiation of crack growth. ie brittle materials which fail in an almost entirely elastic manner. Typical specimens are shown in FIGURE 9. linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Dynamic Tear Test. Fracture mechanics began as a study of crack propagation in brittle materials and developed along three lines. b. Isothermal Crack Arrest Test.7.6 DYNAMIC TEAR TEST (3) propagation of fracture. Where yielding occurs at the crack tip prior to failure either GYFM or EPFM may be used. and elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM).

FIGURE 9. (4) residual stress system can vary with the method of welding and fit-up etc. (5) experimental techniques to determine KIc and COD are critical. e.5a. the crack opening displacement used under plane stress conditions and typified by shear fracture. COD. (3) analytical treatments of complex geometry are limited. The value JIc can be used as a fracture criterion for ductile materials and can also be used to estimate KIc values for those materials where yielding does not occur. (3) JIc. (2) uncertainty of loads in structure. (1) some uncertainty of environmental conditions.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) KIc COD JIc — — — LEFM GYFM EPFM The methods of testing are described in BS 5447 for KIc.8 illustrates the field of use of KIc and COD.8 . BS 5762 for COD. Each test gives a result which is a characteristic of the test itself. and JIc may be defined as: (1) KIc. c. d. All the notch toughness tests listed in Clause 9. the stress intensity factor at the crack tip leading to rapid crack extension under plane strain conditions. and more generally as a basis for material and weld metal selection: the J-integral (JIc) approach to fracture safety is appropriate to most non-ferrous alloys and to the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. All three methods can be used to evaluate materials in terms that can be significant to design particularly in estimating the critical defect size to cause failure. a need to carry out a multi-test approach to obtain sufficient assurance that the metal is tough enough for the service intended. therefore. The use of KIc and COD to assess the critical size of defects is hampered by the following: f. The properties KIc. COD values have been used by some UK companies to fix acceptance levels for weld defects and inspection sensitivity. 9. Correlation with the Charpy results is essential since the Charpy will be used for quality assurance testing in production runs. a measure of the crack extension force at the initiation of crack growth. are suitable for laboratory use only. (2) COD. typified by a flat fracture. and ASTM E 813 for JIc. (6) work to date has mainly concentrated on static loading. There is.

7 FRACTURE MECHANICS SPECIMENS 9.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) FIGURE 9.9 .

b. to the lack of ductility in the short transverse direction. This occurs under fillet welds and T-butt welds particularly in thick plating.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) FIGURE 9. Part 5. through the thickness. The fall-off in properties in this direction may be due to any of the following: (1) inclusions and laminations of a macro nature arising from dirty ingots and insufficient cropping of the tops and bottoms of ingots. found in structural steels. These may be revealed in the shipyard when cutting affected plates. (3) to a lesser extent lamellar tearing can also arise from alloy segregation. c. Determination of crystallinity is made in accordance with BS 131.10 .13 Material Cleanness a.8 FIELD OF USE OF KIc AND COD 9. 9. Reference was made in Clause 9. Nick fracture tests may also be specified. At present there is no satisfactory non-destructive method of determining micro-inclusions. MOD(PE) specified structural steels are not normally affected.1d. but particularly silicates. In this test full plate thickness specimens are nicked and bent until fractured. The standard of acceptance is based on the crystallinity and laminations exhibited by the fracture face. (2) micro-inclusions which manifest themselves in fabrication by lamellar tearing. The inclusions are mainly silicates and sulphides. ie. The presence of laminations or macro-inclusions may be determined non-destructively by ultrasonic examination. Some specifications require sample inclusion counts (eg Q1N plate).

c. the creep rate is not measured by extensometry. to ensure that heat-affected zones and weld metals are also tested. Corrosion Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking a. Stress rupture tests are used for the preliminary screening of prospective materials for high temperature duties. 9. 9. (3) welded butts.14 9. A family of stress−rupture curves at various temperatures can be produced with time-to-rupture plotted against stress.15 Creep and Stress Rupture a. where relevant.11 . The effect of welds on stress-raisers is to reduce to a common level the fatigue life despite the difference on tensile properties. Creep tests are made by subjecting a tensile type specimen to constant load at a constant temperature and then measuring the increase in length as a function of time. (5) T-butt welds. Tests are usually made at temperature levels of interest and at various levels of stress. High stresses and high temperatures will increase the minimum creep rate during the secondary stage and will decrease the time required for rupture. What fatigue tests will show is whether there is a fatigue problem which is an inherent property of the material. (3) lack of information on real cyclic loading in service. Application of laboratory data may fail to give realistic results because of: (1) size of specimen. (4) possible recovery effect during time interval in service. b. b.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 9. (2) different residual stress pattern in real structure. the time to failure and elongation at failure are measured. Fatigue Limit a. Specimens are tested to failure at various temperatures and stresses of interest. One important fact that has emerged from fatigue testing welded specimens is that within the range 104 to 106 a single S−N curve represents structural steels. There is considerable difficulty in applying the results of the tests to real structures in order to predict life.16 In the laboratory. Specimens must include welded joints. (2) drilled specimens to represent stress raisers. Pre cracked specimens are used and either immersed in salt water for example or subjected to salt water spray and controlled humidity conditions during test. Tests are carried out by axial loading and loading by bending on: (1) plain metal. fatigue tests are normally only possible on relatively small size specimens. (4) fillet welds. The majority of fatigue tests are carried out in air but the effect of the environment on certain metals can be significant both on fatigue life and on the susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

It is particularly suitable for automated production lines and is used for detecting cracks. 9. voids. will need to be carried out on sample welded and brazed joints unless these are already adequately documented. Finds particular use on non-ferrous materials. lowered corrosion resistance in aluminium bronze and stainless steels. 9. Dye Penetrant a. Suitable only for ferromagnetic material. Parts 1 to 5. Their use may be on a sample basis or may be specified for 100% coverage of the production run. The techniques and their methods of use are specified in NES 729.20 Used for detecting internal defects in castings.12 . Normalizing may reduce this attenuation in some alloys. 9. For detecting surface-breaking defects such as cracks and porosity in castings. 9. Some of the difficulties encountered in the heat-affected zone of welds include brittleness in steel leading to cracking. Difficulties can be experienced with many cast metals because of the high attentuation of energy caused by the cast structure. folds.c. Heat treated alloys may require re-heat-treatment. Capable of detecting surface-breaking defects and sub-surface defects using high current equipment. Suitable for surface and near surface defects but generally limited to specimens of simple geometry. Used extensively on castings and crack detection of welding.21 Non-destructive examination techniques play a major role in the inspection of metals. Some or all of the mechanical and corrosion tests listed in Clause 9.17 9.19 Ultrasonics a. Radiography a. Any metal that has to be joined by welding or brazing must be tested to determine its ability to be so joined. and other defects in bar and tube. Magnetic Particle a. Eddy Current a. 9. Non-Destructive Examination a.22 Used for the detection of cracks. consideration must be given to the effect of temperature on the structure of the base metal. In brazing also. c. laminations and macro-inclusions in cast and wrought materials and for thickness gauging. 9. and softening of work-hardened metals.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 9. forgings and welded structures. Non-Destructive Examination. bar and tube material and in welds. b.18 Welding and Brazing Tests a. Weld or brazing filler metal must be selected to give adequate properties for the service intended and the effect of the heat of the operation on the base metal assessed.23 Eddy currents are used to detect physical and chemical changes in conducting materials. the formation of a brittle sigma phase in high chromium alloys. It could have an annealing effect or cause grain growth in cold-worked parts and precipitation hardenable alloys.

(Note: that Quality Assurance does not necessarily denote a superior quality of material. must be marked with a unique identification which is repeated on all its QA documentation. When called for. either as an individual piece or as a batch.13 .) 9.24 Quality Assurance a.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 9. it just provides a signed statement of the results of specified tests unambiguously identified to the material. The material. Quality Assurance Documentation provides the written evidence of the results of the several examinations and tests required by the relevant specifications for a material.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 9.14 .

) d. notch ductility. Such steels are known as carbon-manganese steels and are superior to the plain carbon steels of the same carbon content and at very low extra cost for the alloying content. Above this amount there is a decline in ductility. It combines readily with iron to form iron sulphides which render the steel hot short. Such steels have a good uniformity of composition and are free from blowholes. The most important of these elements is carbon. With 1. Silicon acts as a deoxidizing agent. Low strength and inadequate notch ductility at low temperatures are the major limitations on the use of mild steel in the construction of warships and submarines. further up the scale cast irons have a carbon content of 1. The amounts have to be less than 0. Steels that are deoxidized with aluminium have finer grain characteristics than those deoxidized with silicon. In all these steels other alloying elements will be present in small quantities. Both sulphur and phosphorus can be controlled to 0. g. above 0.25% to 0.1 . Manganese has a strong affinity for sulphur and introduced into the composition combines preferentially with sulphur and either passes out of the melt as slag. manganese.1 CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS a. Mild steel is probably the most commonly used engineering material. this results in practically no gas evolution on solidification. some as impurities. f. 10. and weldability. b.1 shows the MOD(PE) structural steels. e.4% silicon raises both the yield and ultimate strength of steel. Killed steels are those that have been completely deoxidized in the refining process.45% the steels are classified as high carbon steels.7%. TABLE 10. c. Sulphur is generally regarded as an impurity. Limitations of Plain Carbon Steels a. phosphorus. manganese also increases strength and lowers the transition temperature.25%. or exists in the steels as well distributed inclusions of manganese sulphides.03% is known as pure iron.67%.025% or less by modern steel making methods. Iron with a carbon content less than 0. The limitations of mild steel have been overcome by the addition of other alloying elements which sometimes needs to be accompanied by heat treatment. Phosphorus is an impurity which in small amounts increases the strength and hardness of steel. it has a carbon content of up to 0.5% manganese a steel has increased strength in the ‘as rolled’ condition and increased strength and good ductility in the heat treated condition.7% to 6. Sulphur is only a deliberate choice in steel for machining stock where iron sulphides act as chip formers and improve machinability. steels have a carbon content of 0. Manganese is also a deoxidizer and is often used in conjunction with silicon for this purpose. Aluminium is a deoxidizer and grain refiner.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 10. (Note: such steels have poor corrosion resistance and poor toughness. The usefulness of manganese by reason of its affinity for sulphur has already been stated.05% otherwise there is an unacceptable fall-off in ductility and dynamic properties.45%. the combination of iron and carbon to form iron carbide is the basis of all steel. The most frequently found are sulphur.03%−1.2%. Carbon in medium carbon steels ranges from 0. and silicon. 10. Many elements will combine with iron to form a wide range of steels. Increasing the carbon content of plain carbon steels can lead to higher strength but at the expense of ductility. Up to 0. In small quantities up to 0. Increasing percentages of manganese lowers ductility and in steels with over 2% manganese the effect is very marked. creating difficulties in welding and in working at high temperatures.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 10. TABLE 10.1 to TABLE 10. forgings. b. Added in specified amounts these will result in increased strength and higher notch ductility at the same time maintaining good weldability. The principal alloying elements additional to those found in plain carbon steels are nickel.4 show the principal uses of plain carbon and low alloy steels in surface ships and submarines. Steels for Naval Use a. In general. chromium. Although of higher strength.2 . and castings.2 10.5% Mo have been developed for service at elevated temperatures because of their good creep resistance. Low alloy steels are considerably more expensive to purchase than plain carbon steels and are more costly to fabricate. 10. Other low alloy steels such as the 1% Cr or 0. the term ‘low alloy steel’ refers to steel with an overall alloy content of less than 10%. and molybdenum. Examples are shown of the use of rolled plate and section. c. low alloy steels may not perform well under corrosion fatigue conditions despite showing an adequate performance under air fatigue. Heat treatment such as normalizing or quenching and tempering may be necessary to achieve the required properties.3 Low Alloy Steels a.

eg vertical keel on large warships.3 Q1N Ni C M Ni−Cr−Mo * Ratio of 0. B Quality C−Mn NES 791 Part 3 450 310 Normalized carbon maganese steel. Main ship structure except highly stressed areas or where crack arrest properties are required. Used in heavy box sections.Spec UTS N/mm 2 Mild Steel NES 791 Part 1 430 Yield or Proof Stress N/mm 2 245 Notch Tough Mild Steel NES 791 Part 2 430 245 Normalized weldable structural steel.88 Remarks and Naval Use Weldable structural steel.1 STEEL PLATES AND SECTIONS FOR NAVAL USE NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) . Supersedes DGS 9. A notch tough weldable structure steel used for more highly stressed areas of ship structure or where crack arrest properties are required.2% proof stress to UTS not to exceed 0. BX Quality C−Mn NES 791 Part 4 450 280 Similar to ‘B’ quality but with greater control of impurities to improve and provide guaranteed through-thickness properties to resist lamellar tearing. weldable used for submarine pressure hulls and machinery. High strength quenched and tempered steel with high notch toughness toughness. Material 10. weldable. Supersedes DGS 322.1d. TABLE 10. Supersedes DGS 1257. C−Mn BS EN 10025 Fe 510DI NES 736 Part 1 500 340 * 550 Weldable structure steel plate used for purpose similar to ‘B’ quality. Used for internal ship structure and non-stressed superstructure. Supersedes DGS 70. Not suitable for low temperature stressed applications.

TABLE 10. ti Typical range of bar stock in MOD(PE) use.2 STEEL TUBES AND BARS FOR NAVAL USE NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Carbon Steel Yield or Proof Stress N/mm 2 195 Material . Pipes and tubes for use with saturated steam. 10. Acceptable for systems up to 400° C.BS 3059 Part 1 320 Carbon Steel 360 215 C−Mn DGS 6142 Seamless BS 3602 360 360 to 500 215 C−Mn BS 3602 410 410 to 500 245 Mild Steel NES 791 300 − 26 Carbon BS 970 Part 3 070M20 BS 970 Part 3 080M40 BS 970 Part 1 150M19 400* 200* 509* 247* 509* 247* 40 Carbon 28 carbon Manganese Spec UTS N/mm 2 Remarks and Naval Use Seamless and welded boiler tubes. Supersedes DGS 6141.4 Note: * For more details see appropriate British Standard. Pipes and tubes for pressure purpose with specified elevated l t d ttemperature t properties.

A vanadium bearing Ni−Cr−Mo steel.Yield or Proof Stress N/mm 2 Spec UTS N/mm 2 Carbon Steel NES 848 Part 1 430 to 650 Q1(N) Ni−Cr−Mo NES 736 Part 2 * Cr−Mo DGS 6019 930 740 Cr−Mo NES 380 850 635 Ni−Cr−Mo DGS 6022 850 to 1540 665 to 1125 Specifies four compositions of forged material with increasing nickel content. Used for gears in propulsion and auxiliary machinery. 547 * Ratio of 0. Used for steam turbine rotors in main propulsion machinery. Ni−Cr DGS 6017 1000 − Material Remarks and Naval Use Specifies the requirements for carbon manganese steel forgings. coupling bolts and general purpose forgings. Used for main propulsion machinery.5 For case hardened gears in propulsion machinery. pinions. air cylinders. wheels and wheel rims. 10. shaft brackets. Used for rotors in main propulsion HP steam turbines. t For hardening by nitriding.2% proof stress to UTS not to exceed 0. C−Mn 490 to 610 280 to 305 Ni−Cr−Mo−V BS 1503 224−490 NES 380 700 520 General purpose forgings where moderate low temperature notch toughness is a requirement.3 STEEL FORGINGS FOR NAVAL USE NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) . propulsion shafting. Not suited to application involving low temperatures due to low notch toughness.88 Weldable quality Quenched and Tempered material with good d notch t h ttoughness h att llow ttemperature. TABLE 10.

88 Remarks and Naval Use A general purpose casting used for shaft brackets.4 STEEL CASTING FOR NAVAL USE NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Plain Carbon (Types NES 849 A. B and C) Yield or Proof Stress N/mm 2 230 Material 10. rudder castings. Used for similar applications to DGS 6081 but where the temperatures are higher. TABLE 10.430 Mo (Types D. also used extensively for engine and machinery castings which require good impact and shock resistance. li ti Spec UTS N/mm 2 * Ratio of proof stress to UTS not to exceed 0.6 . headers and end covers in heat exchangers. Q1(N) Ni−Cr−Mo NES 736 Part 3 * 550 High quality notch tough castings used in submarine hull valves l and d similar i il applications. Mo−V (Type G) NES 849 540 325 Moly Vanadium steel castings with superior creep resistance. E and F) NES 849 460 260 Carbon Moly Steel castings primarily for elevated temperature purpose over 400° C.

Austenitic a. These figures can be raised by cold work at the expense of ductility. conditioning. and nitrogen are added to enhance the properties imparted by chromium and to meet specific purposes. It is used as compressor disc material in certain gas turbines for surface ships. 11.1 These steels are used where high strength and corrosion resistance are required. Ferritic a. Ferritics are also highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 11. These steels are not hardenable by heat treatment. Other elements such as nickel.3 (1) This group contains chromium generally in excess of 14% with small amounts of carbon. are magnetic. Other elements such as molybdenum and manganese are added dependent on the design requirements for the alloy. Martensitic a.1 . b.2 STAINLESS STEEL a. usually 0. Cold work also increases the magnetic permeability in an alloy which is otherwise considered to be non-magnetic. A feature of this type of steel is the wide range of combinations of solution. Austenitic alloys are not heat treatable but the mechanical properties can be improved by cold work. Ductility is good down to very low temperatures. Austenitic stainless steels generally contain not less than 18% chromium and 8% nickel. The properties obtainable in a type 410 martensitic stainless steel on heat treatment are shown in TABLE 11. The fully austenitic structure is soft and ductile but because of its pronounced work hardening characteristics the UTS is relatively high. (5) Precipitation hardening. Chromium is the principal alloying element in stainless steel conferring corrosion resistance by its ability to form a protective film of chromium oxide. titanium.1 11. molybdenum.1% maximum. An additional benefit of chromium is that it promotes resistance to tempering and some stainless steels are stronger at elevated temperatures than low alloy steels. Typical yield and UTS values are 255 N/mm2 and 560 N/mm 2. and ageing treatments which may be used to develop some desired balance of properties. have fairly good ductility and are heat treatable. With a low carbon content corrosion resistance is very good except in association with chlorides. 11. Martensitic stainless steels have a chromium content of about 12%−18%. (3) Martensitic. 11. niobium. The stainless steels produced by alloying may be grouped into five main classes: Austentic. (2) Ferritic. (4) Duplex. b.

This situation occurs in crevices and in stagnant sea water.1 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF TYPE 410 MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL AFTER VARYING HEAT TREATMENTS * Tempering in the range 400° C−565° C is to be avoided because of low and erratic impact properties.5 Precipitation Hardening a. Resistance to stress corrosion cracking is not as good as ferritic stainless steel. (3) precipitation from an austenitic matrix. In oxidizing environments the protective film remains intact but it will be destroyed where oxygen or other oxidizing agent is not available in sufficient concentration to maintain the film. c. 11. b.2 . The resulting galvanic action causes localized pitting. Modifications of compositions has produced three types of alloy that can be hardened in different ways: (1) precipitation from a martensitic matrix.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) TEMPERING Temp Annealed UTS N/mm 2 480 YS N/mm 2 240 ELONG (2!) 30 R OF A % 70 IZOD ROCKWELL (Joules) Hardness 95 − As Quenched − − − − − C43 205° C 1310 1000 15 55 48 C41 315° C 1240 965 15 55 48 C39 425° C 1345 1030 17 55 * C41 540° C 1000 790 20 65 * C31 650° C 760 585 23 65 102 B97 760° C 620 205 30 70 136 B89 TABLE 11. This group of stainless steels are chromium−nickel steels with other alloying elements such as aluminium or copper. The nature of this mechanism of protection gives rise to two major corrosion problems. (2) precipitation from a martensitic matrix after transformation from austenite to martensite. 11. The availability of oxygen to local areas can be reduced by deposits on the metal surface. 11. Stainless steels obtain their corrosion resistance from a passive oxide film which forms on the surface of the metal in the presence of oxygen. 11. The affected area rapidly loses its passive film and corrosion occurs. The precipitation hardening stainless steels find more use in the aircraft and missile industry than in warships. They can be hardened to high strength by solution treatment and ageing. b. This occurs freely in air or oxygenated water. Corrosion Resistance a. When the film is thus locally damaged the exposed metal is anodic to the generally extensive surrounding area. The material is cast more easily than the other groups and tends to be used for this purpose.6 By adjusting the composition ferrite can be introduced into an austenitic matrix give rise to increased strength and enhanced corrosion resistance.4 Duplex (Austenitic-Ferritic) a. namely crevice attack and pitting.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) d. When Cr−Ni stainless steels are heated in the range 490° C to 870° C chromium carbides form and are deposited at grain boundaries. Sealants in the crevices can reduce or delay corrosion but should not be regarded as a permanent cure. See TABLE 11.9 Most stainless steels are susceptible to crevice attack and pitting in sea water or in a sea-damp atmosphere. Carbide Precipitation a. then the specialist section is to be consulted. 11. Steels with niobium or titanium are referred to as ‘stabilized stainless steels’. 11. In a corroding medium a knife line attack occurs known as ‘weld decay’. The austenitic groups are the most susceptible. The depletion of chromium from the matrix reduces corrosion resistance and corrosion occurs at the grain boundaries. Stainless steels are not used extensively in warships. or by introducing other elements such as niobium or titanium which will combine preferentially with carbon leaving the chromium intact.7 Stress Corrosion Cracking a. The problem is overcome by adjusting the composition of the stainless steel so that there is little carbon available. Stainless Steels for Naval Use a.8 Stainless steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in the presence of chlorides. 11. When they are used it is mainly the stabilized fully austenitic grade which has good corrosion resistance and is readily weldable.3 . or which stainless steel should be used.3 for naval uses. 11. Where there is any doubt whether to use the stainless steel. less than 0. The only solution is to prevent contact by the corroding media. Susceptibility varies with different grades. The only cure is to avoid crevices.2 and TABLE 11. This is a particular problem in welded stainless steel where a narrow area in each weld heat affected zone can suffer chromium depletion.03%.

2 WROUGHT STAINLESS STEELS FOR NAVAL USE NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Material . Forgings BS 970: Part 1 Grade 431S29 En57 850−1000 680 Valve Spindles. Martensitic 13Cr Forgings BS 970: Part 1 Grade 410S21 En56A 690−850 495 Steam Turbine Blades.4 Tubes Duplex 255 Ferralium Bar TABLE 11. Austenitic 18/9:Cr/Ni Bar BS 970: Part 2 Grade 302S31 510 210 Heat Resisting Fittings. Austenitic 17/11/2½ Bar and Sheet Cr/Ni/Mo BS 970 : Part 1 Grade 316S11 460 170 Centrifuge components.2) 1030 980 Compressor Discs—Gas Turbines. Flexible Bellows.Austenitic 18/12:Cr/Ni (Niobium Stabilized) Form Relevant Specification Superseded Specification UTS N/mm 2 Yield or Proof Stress N/mm 2 Naval Use BS 3059: Part 2 Grade 347S59 510−710 245 Superheater Tubes—use in temperature range 400° C−800° C. Pump Shafts and fittings. Austenitic 17/12:Cr/Ni Sheet BS 970: Part 1 Grade 316S13 463 170 Gas Turbine Exhaust Uptakes. UNS No 32550 760 490 Used for bolts for sonar housing and Torpedo Tube mechanisms. 11. Propeller Shafts of Fast Patrol Boats. Martensitic 14/5:Cr/Ni Forgings FV520B (See TABLE 10. Austenitic Tubes 18/12:Cr/Ni (Titanium Stabilized Solution treated at 1100° C BS 3059: Part 2 Grade 321S59 490−690 195 Superheater Tubes—use in temperature range 300° C−600° C. Shrouding and fittings. Martensitic 17/2½: Cr/Ni Bar.

Pumps and Valves. Naval Use Austenitic 18/8:Cr/Ni BS 3100: Grade 316C12 Martensitic 13/1:Cr/Ni BS 3100: Grade 410C21 540 370 (Rp 0.2) Feed Pump Castings.2) Steam Turbine Blading. Rudders.Material Relevant Specification Superseded Specification BS 1631 UTS N/mm 2 Yield or Proof Stress N/mm 2 430 215 (Re) Valve Bodies.5 NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) .3 CAST STAINLESS STEELS FOR NAVAL USE 11. Duplex Ferralium 255 UNS No 32550 740 480 Propellers for Fast Patrol Craft and Hovercraft. Shaft Seals. Martensitic 13/4:Cr/Ni BS 310: Grade 425C11 770 620 (RP 0. TABLE 11. Valve Bodies. Impellers.

6 .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 11.

g. 12. Additional elements such as manganese. Cast iron will only be considered for use in HM Ships when: (1) it is fully supported in a framework of material of acceptable shock resistance. h. (3) it can be demonstrated to meet the service requirements. sulphur and phosphorus are added to modify the structure and produce a wide range of cast irons of differing properties. c. The UTS of the seven grades in BS 1452 are in the range of 154−400 N/mm2. The next best in order of shock resistance are the black heart malleable castings grades B 35−12 and B 32−10 of BS 6681 having minimum elongation of 12% and 10% respectively. Cast iron is an iron−carbon alloy which contains relatively large amounts of carbon either as graphite or as iron carbide. f. The higher strength grades cover irons such as Meehanite in which additions of calcium silicide produce a fine distribution of graphite and improved mechanical properties. the second type includes malleable cast iron covered by BS 6681. grades 10−17 of this specification. the higher strength irons. TABLE 12. being required to show 17% and 12% elongations respectively. (2) because of its low cost and procurability it is advantageous to adopt commercial equipment without modification. CAST IRONS (GREY FLAKE AND DUCTILE IRONS) a. In assessing possible applications it should be noted that cast irons fall into two broad classifications according to their ductility: (1) Grey iron castings covered in BS 1452 show little or no ductility in a tensile test and the specification therefore does not call for tensile ductility. prior approval for the use of cast iron must be obtained from MOD(PE). engine mountings or supports nor where operating loads impose tension or flexure. Neither must it be used for bedplates. For applications such as bushes and liners where emphasis is on antifriction properties.1 . d.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 12. A common feature of most cast irons is their unsatisfactory shock performance. b. and shock testing of the equipment concerned. (2) Ductile irons form the second broad classification and consist of irons possessing measurable ductility and for which a minimum elongation in the tensile test is specified varying from 2−17% according to grade. silicon. In the above cases. e. may be considered. This will in many instances involve full characterization of the proposed material. SNG 370/17 and SNG 420/12 are the most ductile. grades 20−26 of the group covered by BS 1452. The first type in this class embraces spheroidal or nodular graphite irons (SNG) covered by BS 2789.1 shows some uses of cast iron. These four grades of castings can be used with comparative safety in certain applications not exposed to excessive shock loading or low temperatures. eg impact testing to establish temperature transition curves. Of the SNG irons. Because of this the use of cast iron is not permitted where fracture would impair the watertight integrity of hull structure or important watertight bulkheads. fracture toughness tests. The low strength irons. are not to be considered for any application with the exception of commercial equipment referred to above.

Pump impellers.2 White Cast Irons 4844−Part 3 Grade 3E Accepted on chemical composition and hardness Very wear resistant. sea-water filters for marine engine coiling. 185 420 235 TABLE 12. cargo winch brake drums. 400 230 Used for cylinder blocks for motor boat engines. Nodular (Spheroidal 2789−Grade 400/18 Graphite) Cast Iron 380 12. turbocharger housings.Grey Cast Iron Malleable Cast Iron Yield or Proof Naval Uses Stress N/mm 2 84 Finds application in naval workshops for use as slides. bushes. Also Diesel Engine Main Structures when adequate shock mounting arrangements are fitted. Used in shot blasting machine components and as tiles or wear plates for chutes in material handling applications in dockyard areas. piston rings. exhaust manifolds. 200 Used for machine frames in workshop equipment.1 CAST IRONS FOR NAVAL USE NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Material . transducer housings. BS Specification UTS N/mm 2 1452−Grade 300 (typical) 6681−Grade W38−12 (typical for Whiteheart) 300 6681−Grade B32−10 (Typical for Blackheart) 320 190 Used for conveyor chains in dockyard applications. Austenitic Cast Irons (Ni-Resist t type) ) 3468− Type 1B AUS101B 3468− Type D−2 AUS202A Sea-water pump impellers. spacers and rollers.

but which at one time had wide applications. tin. however. silicon. and ease of fabrication. a range of deoxidized coppers are much cheaper but suffer a marked reduction in electrical conductivity. It is virtually non-magnetic. c.1 to TABLE 13. high conductivity copper is available but is expensive. 13. Part 2 as appropriate. Ratings are also included of their corrosion resistance. Due to a tendency to stress corrosion cracking and susceptibility to dealuminification this material has been replaced by High Tensile Aluminium Bronze (Nickel−Aluminium Bronze) to specification NES 833. are: (1) Aluminium Bronze Rods. Beryllium Copper is a high strength alloy primarily used for electrical components and springs. Part 2 or Aluminium Silicon Bronze to NES 834. It can be used wherever the cast material is specified and when machining from stock is more economical than producing patterns and individual castings. Oxygen free. Generally the quality of continuous cast material is very high and is equal to the standards set for Class 1 castings in NES 745. b. Three materials which are unsuitable for Naval Service. known as tough pitch copper. It is.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 13. shock resistance. Sections and Forgings to ADSPEC 1076. zinc. Cupric oxide has little effect on malleability and none on electrical conductivity but renders the material hot short and unweldable. aluminium. Commercially pure copper.5 show both cast and wrought alloys and their applications. non-sparking and it has good resistance to corrosion. bushes. not a recommended material as beryllium metal and compounds are potentially highly toxic. bearings etc. Many elements alloy with copper: chief among these are nickel. Part 1. The principal use in HM Ships of the alloys so produced is in systems where corrosion resistance is essential. Continuously cast bar stock is a convenient and economic form for the manufacture of pipe fittings. iron. beryllium and phosphorus. Due to its grain structure it is not suitable for non-destructive examination by Ultrasonics.1 . Part 2 and NES 838. d. Part 1. Certain cast and wrought copper based alloys have inherent deficiencies which render them unsuitable for Naval Service or place limitations on their use. It contains up to 0. The other principal physical properties are high electrical and thermal conductivity and a good resistance to corrosion. COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS a.1% oxygen residual to the production methods and is held as cupric oxide. TABLE 13. In the annealed condition copper has exceptionally good ductility and malleability. (2) Beryllium Copper. In addition to the notes in the Tables particular attention is drawn to: (1) Continuous Cast Gunmetal and Phosphor Bronze Rods to Specification NES 830. is widely used in the electrical industry for conductors.

The use of this material is not permitted in surface ships and submarines because it is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This material suffers from severe dezincification when in sea water. (3) Naval Brass to BS 2870.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) (2) High Tensile Brass (also known as Manganese Bronze). 13. 2874. It also suffers from dezincification.2 . 2875−CZ 112 (Wrought) and BS 1400 SCB4 (Cast). It is only to be used for minor fittings which are not in contact with sea water and whose failure would not be hazardous.

1%) 20 27 NES 824 480 300 18 − Contd TABLE 13.1 CAST COPPER-BASED ALLOYS FOR NAVAL USE NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) .2% Proof Stress N/mm 2 230 620 Nickel−Aluminium Bronze NES 747 Part 3 (Commercial Alloy) Sand Castings and Ingots Nickel−Aluminium Bronze (Naval Alloy) Sand Castings and Ingots—Sand Castings with welding restricted to the non-wetted surface (Class I and II Castings only) UTS N/mm 2 Elongation % Izod Joules 13.3 15 30 250 15 24 640 250 13 20 NES 747 Part 4 620 250 15 24 Nickel−Aluminium Bronze Guide to the design and manufacture of Nickel Aluminum bronze Castings NES 747 Part 5 − − − − Aluminium−Silicon Bronze Sand Cast Copper−Nickel−Chromium Sand Cast NES 834 Part 1 460 170 (0.Mechanical Properties* Material Specification Nickel−Aluminium Bronze NES 747 Part 1 (Naval Alloy) Centrifugal Castings Nickel−Aluminium Bronze NES 747 Part 2 (Naval Alloy) Sand Castings and Ingots 600 0.

TABLE 13.Mechanical Properties* Material Specification 250 0.1 CAST COPPER-BASED ALLOYS FOR NAVAL USE NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Contd .2% Proof Stress N/mm 2 125 270 300 BS 1400PB1 PB2 PB4 Gunmetal Sand Cast NES 830 Part 1 Gunmetal Continuous Cast NES 830 Part 2 LG2 LG4 Phosphor Bronze Sand Cast 13.4 Phosphor Bronze Continuous Cast Naval Brass Sand Cast *Note: UTS N/mm 2 Elongation % Izod Joules 16 26 100 130 13 13 26 26 220 220 190 130 130 100 3 5 3 − NES 838 Part 1 360 170 6 − BS 1400 SCB4 250 70 18 − The properties shown are typical and are not necessarily as shown in the relevant specifications for the acceptance minimum for cast keel bars.

F. pump casings etc. H. G A. K For high integrity castings in contact with sea water. G A. F. bushes. F. Copper−Nickel− Chromium Sand Cast NES 824 A A A A F. eg condenser headers.5 Nickel−Aluminium Bronze (Naval Alloy) Centrifugal Castings NES 747 Part 1 A B A A C−20 E. K For high integrity casting in contact with sea water. J. F.2 GUIDE TO THE USE OF CAST COPPER-BASED ALLOYS . F. J.Material Specification Sea Water* Corrosion Resistance G C SSC Shock* Resistance Fabrication* Fabrication Service* Use Service Remarks 13. K Suitable for symmetrical castings. Nickel−Aluminium Bronze (Naval Alloy) Sand Castings and Ingots NES 747 Part 2 A B A A C−20 E. F Suitable for non-magnetic applications (including in sea water) but not water speeds above 2. G A.5m/sec. F. (contd) NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) TABLE 13. K For high integrity castings in contact with sea water. F. H. G A. F. NES 747 Part 4 Nickel−Aluminium Bronze (Naval Alloy) Sand Castings and Ingots— Sand Castings with welding restricted to the non-wetted surface (Class I and II Castings only) A B A A C−20 E. J. G A. F. Nickel−Aluminium Bronze (Commercial Alloy) Sand Castings and Ingots NES 747 Part 3 A B A A C−20 E. G A. H. K Cheaper alternative to NES 747 Parts 1 and 2 which has good corrosion resistance to sea water in an unwelded condition but more liable to corrosion of heat affected zones when any welding is present. Aluminium−Silicon Bronze Sand Cast NES 834 Part 1 A A A A C−20 E. F. H. H.

E. B. low integrity. B. F. 13.2 GUIDE TO THE USE OF CAST COPPER-BASED ALLOYS Suitable for small. NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) (contd) . F. Prohibited for sea water applications. F.3 for key TABLE 13. high load bearing applications (with hard shafts) and low integrity sea water applications. B. K Suitable for lightly loaded gear and bearing applications (LG2 only for gears) medium strength sea water applications. G A. E. E. E. K * See TABLE 13. K Suitable for high speed. high load bearing applications (with hard shafts) and low integrity sea water applications. Naval Brass Sand Cast BS 1400 SCB4 C C C B C−20 D. B. Phosphor Bronze Continuous Cast NES 838 Part 1 A B A D C−20 D. LG2 LG4 Suitable for medium strength sea water applications. E. F Gunmetal Continuous Cast NES 830 Part 2 A A A B E−70 E A.Material Specification Sea Water* Corrosion Resistance G C SSC Shock* Shock Fabrication Service Remarks Gunmetal Sand Cast NES 830 Part 1 A A A C C−70 E A. G A. K Suitable for high speed. and lightly loaded bearings. general purpose castings. G E. F.6 Phosphor Bronze Sand Cast BS 1400 PB1 PB2 PB4 A B A D C−20 D.

SCC = Stress Corrosion Cracking) Very good resistance to corrosion in sea water Fairly good resistance to corrosion in sea water Not suitable for sea water applications This very broad guide refers only to uncoupled corrosion rates.7 . Shock Resistance A B C D — — — — Suitable for maximum shock resisting applications Good shock resistance Only suitable for low shock applications Not recommended for use where liable to shock loading Fabrication A B C D E F G — — — — — — — Good cold working properties Good hot working properties Machineabillty rating—(free cutting brass = 100) Can be soft soldered Can be silver soldered Gas shielded arc weldable Manual metallic arc weldable Service Use A — Suitable for underwater fittings B — Suitable as a bearing material C — Suitable for HP air piping D — Suitable for hydraulic piping E — Suitable for temperatures up to 300° C F — Suitable for temperatures up to 150° C G — Suitable for refrigeration piping down to −50° C H — Suitable for water speeds up to 4. Refer to Section 20. C = Crevice. for detailed considerations.25m/sec I — Suitable for pump shafts J — Suitable for propellers K — Suitable for gears and wormwheels L — Suitable for fasteners TABLE 13.2 AND TABLE 13.NES 738 Issue 2 Corrosion Resistance* A B C — — — * Note: (G = General.5 13.3 KEY TO PROPERTIES AND USES OF COPPER BASED ALLOYS LISTED IN TABLE 13.

Specification UTS N/mm2 Mechanical Properties* 0. Forging Stock. Rods and Sections NES 833 Part 2 650 285 16 24 NES 834 Part 2 525 245 20 33 NES 838 Part 2 365 260 18 100 Sheet and Strip BS 2870 CZ112 370 − 22 − Rods and Sections BS 2874 CZ112M 370 120 19 40 Plate BS 2875 CZ112 350 − 18 − Sheet. Rods and Sections Phosphor Bronze Rods and Sections (For QA Rods) Naval Brass Aluminium−Nickel−Silicon Brass 13. Forging Stock. Plate Forgings. Rods and Sections. Tubing NES 749 Part 2 500 260 20 − NES 749 Part 3 450 230 40 40 Aluminium−Silicon Bronze Forgings. Strip. Rods and Sections Tubing High Strength Cupro-Nickel Forgings and Rod Copper Tubes NES 837 * The properties shown are typical and are not necessarily as shown in the relevant specifications. NES 749 Part 1 420 200 25 − Forgings. Forging Stock. Tubing NES 780 Part 2 310 110 30 54 NES 780 Part 3 400 140 35 − NES 779 Part 1 NES 779 Part 2 280 280 − − 36 30 NES 779 Part 3 310 110 35 57 NES 835 720 420 20 41 − 35 − 90/10 Cupro-Nickel Sheet. NES 780 Part 1 350 140 30 55 Forgings.8 (Solution treated and precipitation hardened) 70/30 Cupro-Nickel Plate and Sheet.4 WROUGHT COPPER-BASED ALLOY FOR NAVAL USE NES 738 Issue 2 Material . Strip and Plate. Forging Stock Rods and Sections. Forging Stock.2% Proof Stress N/mm2 Elongation % Izod Joules Nickel−Aluminium Bronze Forgings. TABLE 13.

Contd TABLE 13. L Aluminium−Silicon Bronze Forgings. Rods and Sections 13. K. K Good cold working properties. G A. F. pump components etc in contact with sea water.9 Phosphor Bronze Naval Brass Sheet and Strip BS 2870 CZ112 Rods and Sections BS 2874 CZ112M Plate BS 2875 CZ112 Suitable for general low integrit applications. L Suitable for propeller shafts. G A. I. E. E. diaphragms etc. Can be used as fastener material with suitable heat treatment. bourdon tubes. Forging Stock. E. suitable for springs. F. pump shafts and oil lubricated bearings for non-magnetic sea water applications. Forging Stock. L Suitable for fasteners. G B. F. F. F. Rods and Sections NES 833 Part 2 A B A A B C−20 E.5 GUIDE TO THE USE OF WROUGHT COPPER-BASED ALLOYS NES 738 Issue 2 . I. H. B. I. Rods and Sections (for QA NES 838 Part 2 Rods) A B B B A C−20 D. B. G A.Material Specification Sea Water* Corrosion Shock* ResisResistance tance G C SSC Fabrication* Fabrication Service* Use Service Remarks Nickel−Aluminium Bronze Forgings. NES 834 Part 2 A A A A B C−20 E. Not suitable for water speeds above 2. integrity applications Not to be used in contact with sea water.5m/sec. B. F. E. C C B B B C−50 C 50 D. Also bush and bearing applications (not as a rubbing pair).

E. Rods and Sections Tubings 90/10 Cupro-Nickel Tubing High Strength Cupro-Nickel Forgings and Rod NES 780 Part 1 NES 780 Part 2 Remarks Suitable for applications where low magnetic permeability is a requirement. G A A A A A B C−20 D. F.5 GUIDE TO THE USE OF WROUGHT COPPER-BASED ALLOYS Contd . For use up to 150° C. G A. Notch sensitive to fatigue loading. E. K. In tube form it is suitable for most systems iincluding l di sea water.. Forging Stock.. H.. In tube form it is suitable for hydraulic and HP air systems. L Sheet. F. NES 780 Part 3 Used in sea water systems. D.. F. E. H NES 779 Part 3 A A A A A B C−20 D. D. G NES 835 A A A A A C−20 A. G. F.). NES 749 Part 2 Tubing NES 749 Part 3 70/30 Cupro-Nickel Plate and sheet Forgings. Strip and Plate NES 749 Part 1 Forgings. TABLE 13.10 C C C A A B** B C−50 E** C. I. Rods and Sections. G A. F. Must not be brazed or welded. Suitable for high interrity sea water applications. C. Forging Stock..NES 738 Issue 2 Contd Material Specification Sea Water* Corrosion Resistance G C SSC Shock* Resistance Fabrication* Service* Use Aluminium−Nickel− Silicon Brass 13.6m/sec. Not recommended for sea water systems due to low impingement resistance (ie 1.

after hot work heat treatment is necessary TABLE 13.11 NES 738 Issue 2 . E**.Contd Material Sea Water* Corrosion Resistance Specification Shock* resistance G C SSC B A A Fabrication* Service* Use Remarks A B D.3 for key B**. G F. G Liable to work harden in high vibration unless regularly annealed. Copper Tubes NES 837 B * See TABLE 13.5 GUIDE TO THE USE OF WROUGHT COPPER-BASED ALLOYS 13. E. F.

12 .NES 738 Issue 2 13.

Monel K500. They are designated in BS 3072 to BS 3076 as NA 13. 28−34% copper plus small quantities of iron and manganese. of this NES. If NA 18 is in the fully aged condition then welding will result in a heat affected zone with the lower strength of the solution treated condition. 0. 14. MIG and MMA but properties of the hardened alloys are reduced in the HAZ to that of the annealed material. 14. There are three nickel-based alloys used in surface ships and submarines. Other nickel-based alloys such as Inconel 718 and various grades of Nimonics are used in marine gas turbines. Corrosion Resistance a. NA 13 can be welded by TIG.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 14.2 NA 18 a. This section deals with nickel-based alloys where nickel forms more than 50% of the composition. Alloy NA 21 is a heat resistant alloy with a good creep characteristic and a good resistance to oxidation up to 500° C. 8% molybdenum plus small quantities of iron and niobium.4 Alloy NA 13 contains a minimum of 63% nickel. and are also known as of Monel 400.1 . Some of the uses of nickel have already been described in the previous sections. then solution treat and age. 14. for alloying in a wide range of steels including low alloy. NA 21 a. It contains 58% nickel. The nickel-based alloys are markedly cathodic in sea water which could lead to corrosion of less noble connected metals—see Section 20. The mechanical properties depend on the condition of the alloy. and for alloying in copper-based metals.3 Alloy NA 18 is of similar composition to NA 13 but with the addition of small amounts of aluminium and titanium. Mechanical properties depend on the condition of the alloy. and Inconel 625. Better results are achieved by welding in the solution-treated condition. Although nickel and nickel-based alloys have excellent corrosion resistance care must be taken when they are coupled to other metals.1. typical properties are: UTS 550 N/mm2. with strength increasing from the annealed condition. These additions render the alloy precipitation hardenable and results in the much higher strengths shown in TABLE 14. Because of its excellent corrosion resistance it is also used as an alternative to NA 13 and 18 at normal and low temperatures. particularly with MIG. Corrosion resistance is similar to that of NA 13. stainless and heat resisting steels. It is used as a weld overlay when very good corrosion and moderate wear resistance are required. b. Welding is more difficult. 14. It is also used as a bond coat for spraying and plating. NA 18 and NA 21 (see TABLE 14. c. 14. 20% chromium.1 NICKEL AND NICKEL ALLOYS a.1).2% proof stress of 200N/mm 2. to the hot rolled and highest in the cold drawn condition. NA 13 a.

eg cold rolled and annealed.2 Sheet and Plate BS 3072 480−510 195−275 25−35 Strip BS 3073 480 195 35 Seamless Tube BS 3074 480 170−380 15−35 Wire BS 3075 480−770 − 20−25 Bar BS 3076 480−600 170−415 20−35 Sheet and Plate BS 3072 900−970 620−690 15 Strip BS 3073 900−1170 620−900 5−15 Seamless Tube BS 3074 900 620 15 Wire BS 3075 760−1240 − − Bar BS 3076 830−1000 500−760 14−20 Sheet and Plate BS 3072 690−830 275−415 30 Strip BS 3073 − − − Seamless Tube BS 3074 690−830 275−415 30 Wire BS 3075 − − − Bar BS 3076 690−830 275−415 25−30 Remarks and Typical Uses Sea water pump shafts.Material NA 13 NA 18 NA 21 Form Spec UTS N/mm 2 0. l Fasteners Fasteners. turbines Weld overlay for tailshafts. TABLE 14. Marine wire rope for towing sonar. Tube and shell heat exchangers. Used for similar items to NA 13 b t where but h the th higher hi h strength t th can be used with advantage. exchangers Exhaust ducts for gas turbines. Tubes for steam coils in calorifiers. tailshafts stabilizer stock. * Properties depend on condition of product. cold worked and stress relieved etc.1 WROUGHT NICKEL-BASED ALLOYS FOR NAVAL USE NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Mechanical Properties* .2% Proof Stress N/mm 2 Elongation % 14. stern tube liners. valve spindles i dl and d seals.

The modulus of elasticity of aluminium alloys is only one third that of steel. ALUMINIUM AND ALUMINIUM ALLOYS a. The alloys fall broadly into two classes. Commercially pure aluminium and non-heattreatable alloys can only be strengthened by cold work.−7. d. The heat-treatable alloys contain silicon and copper in addition to magnesium. The properties of aluminium alloys are not affected by very low temperatures but the alloys do suffer a loss of strength at only moderately high temperatures. the heat-treatable alloys are strengthened by precipitation hardening (see Clauses 7. b.1). The large deflection experienced by aluminium alloys may not be acceptable where alignment of weapon systems is concerned or for structures where buckling under compression is possible. e.11a. Resistance to sea water corrosion varies with alloy composition.11d. c. Additionally their coefficient of heat conductivity is significantly higher than that of steel leading to a more rapid spread of fire than in a steel structure.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 15.1 . Some use is also made of manganese. This can cause problems in a composite steel and aluminium structure. the non-heat-treatable and the heat-treatable alloys. The principal alloying element used in the non-heat-treatable alloys for marine use is magnesium. This is a serious drawback in structural use since in the event of fire. A wide range of aluminium alloys are available which offer various combinations of strength.) and higher strengths are possible with these than can be achieved with the cold worked alloys. The other attraction is their generally good corrosion resistance which is achieved by a tough continuous oxide film which forms immediately on exposure to air. corrosion resistance and weldability (see TABLE 15. Contact with copper alloys in marine conditions results in serious corrosion. Instructions on welding and fabricating both these types of alloy are contained in NES 706. strength decreases at above about 250° C. Both cold worked and precipitation hardened alloys are softened by welding. 15. One of the main advantages of aluminium alloys is that their density is only one third that of steel. With strengths approximately half that of steel. good weight to strength ratios are possible. therefore. under stress they deflect more readily than steel.

TABLE 15. ventilation trunking. solution heat treated etc. Al−Si−Mg Castings BS 1490 LM25 − 130−280 1−5 A heat treatable alloy. and in distillate coolers on desalination plant. Sheet NES 831 Part 1 and Strip Lockers. minor bulkheads. non-heat-treatable. h t t t bl BS 1470 5083 275−405 125−270 4−16 Al−Mg−Mn Extruded Sections NES 831 Part 2 BS 1474 5083 275−280 125−130 11−14 Al−Mg Sheet and Strip NES 831 Part 1 BS 1470 5251 160−275 60−175 3−20 Al−Mg Tubes BS 1471 5251 N4 160−225 60−175 5−18 Al−Si−Mg−Mn Forgings BS 1472 6082 H30 170−310 100−270 5−16 Guard rail stanchion.tion % Remarks and Typical Uses Superstructure. * Properties depend on condition of the material eg. switchgear boxes. furniture. Al BS 1470 1200 SIC 70−150 − 2−30 Commercial aluminium. The properties of cast alloys are further controlled by the casting process eg. chill cast etc (see relevant British Standard).2% Proof Stress N/mm 2 Elonga. heat-treatable. Used for similar applications as LM6. Galley and laundry machinery. etc. Al−Mg Rivets and Bolt Stock BS 1473 5154A NR5 215−245 − Structural rivets. Minor fittings. non-heat-treatable. Bolt stock for the manufacture of fasteners. g furniture.2 Al−Mg−Mn Plate. mess racks. sand cast. annealed. Al−Si Castings BS 1490 LM6 − 160−190 5−7 Used in a variety of ships’ fittings. t non-heat-treatable. 15.1 WROUGHT AND CAST ALUMINIUM ALLOYS FOR NAVAL USE NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Material .Spec Superseded Spec UTS N/mm 2 0. Non-heat-treatable. strain hardened.

commercially pure titanium approximates in strength to mild steel with a weight approximately 60% of that of steel. It can be welded in a vacuum chamber or by the inert gas process with the addition of a trailing gas shield and a gas backing shield to protect the weld on cooling. Some titanium alloys are equal in strength to some of the alloy steels. With limited knowledge of the full characteristics of titanium alloys each proposed application requires detailed consideration by material specialists. The major disadvantage with titanium is that it is a highly reactive metal with a notable affinity for oxygen. The resistance to corrosion is provided by the formation of a passive stable oxide film on the surface. CP Titanium and most alloys possess excellent corrosion resistance especially in marine conditions. Titanium and its alloys can be welded but the precautions necessary are rigorous. Some titanium alloys may suffer from stress corrosion cracking in sea water. Chemical cleanliness is required and all air must be excluded from the weld zone. c.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 16. Development is continuing on both wrought and cast commercially pure and alloyed titanium for naval use. components of diesel engine exhaust systems and reinforcing bolts in GRP hulls. nitrogen. 16. Successful use of CP titanium to date in naval vessels has been for tubes in steam drain coolers. d. The attraction of titanium and its alloys is their high strength to weight ratio and their excellent corrosion resistance. The modulus of elasticity is low compared with steel and titanium is therefore not as stiff as steel. It resists both general and pitting corrosion and is resistant to crevice attack. The net effect is that titanium is very costly to produce and to fabricate. b.1 . Quite small amounts of these elements adversely affect the ductility and toughness of titanium. hydrogen and carbon. TITANIUM a. e.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 16.2 .

but changes in a somewhat complex fashion with peak stress. 17. leading to reduction in fatigue-type failures. The utilization of such materials in design can contribute to vibration and noise reduction combined with the fact that intensity of vibration stress under resonant conditions can be limited. DAMPING ALLOYS a. The damping capacity of a metal is a measure of its ability to convert strain energy into other forms of energy such as heat.1 . In a perfectly elastic solid subjected to sinusoidal strain the stress and strain are in phase with each other and therefore no energy is converted or dissipated. (1) Anelastic—in an anelastic solid there is a lag between the application of stress and reaching the resulting equilibrium strain unless the stress changes very. very. (2) Hysteretic—a hysteretic solid has a stress-strain curve on loading that does not coincide with that on unloading. The area between the two curves is proportional to the energy loss and does not vary with the frequency with which the load cycle is traversed. Other commercially available alloys with high damping capacity are unsuitable in contact with sea water because of lack of resistance to corrosion.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 17. known as anelastic and hysteretic: c. Grey cast iron has good damping capacity but because of its poor shock performance it is unsuitable for shipboard use. b. There are two mechanisms of damping. Materials with this characteristic give rise to an energy loss that reaches a peak at a certain critical frequency of vibration. In a damping alloy this does not apply and the phase angle between stress and strain is a measure of the energy conversion or damping capacity: the higher the damping capacity the greater is the strain energy that is dissipated. slowly. Damping from this mechanism is usually high and since it does not vary with frequency it is thus of particular interest to design engineers.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 17.2 .

(3) The ability to absorb foreign particles and prevent damage to the moving part. This is an alloy of tin. silver additions have been made in order to refine the structure of the white metal. In an endeavour to overcome this problem. The functions of the overlay are: (1) To provide a compatible bearing surface with good frictional properties that will withstand local metal-to-metal contact without failure particularly during the running in of new bearings. For a bearing material to be successful in service it must possess the following features: (1) Sufficient strength to maintain dimensional stability. h. noise. lubrication and working temperatures. and nickel with small additions of tin and lead. (4) The material must resist corrosion in its working environment. or an overlay of lead and indium. Typical overlay compositions contain lead and tin sometimes with the addition of a small amount of copper. manufacturers have produced ‘fatigue resistant’ white metal bearings in which cadmium. Copper-based alloy bearing materials are also used for the applications listed in TABLE 18. 18. c. Promising results have been obtained from rig-tests but such alloys have not yet been produced on a commercial scale. (2) Ability to conform to minor irregularities and deflections. e. Although adequate for many applications the performance of white metal bearings falls off rapidly with rise in temperature.1. running speeds. The majority of bearings used in marine engineering are oil lubricated and the material best able to meet the requirements listed in Clause 18. and. This section covers cast and manufactured bearings.c. Crown Metal is used which is an alloy of copper. BEARING ALLOYS a. The thickness of the overlay will range from 0.1 .075mm depending on bearing load. Bearings must be capable of operating under such conditions without seizure. zinc. see TABLE 18.22a. The ability to sustain imposed dynamic loadings at operating temperatures is reflected in the fatigue strength characteristic of the bearing and in that respect the white metal bearings perform less satisfactorily than the copper-based alloys and the aluminium-based alloys. For highly loaded slow speed underwater bearings. To assist against possible seizure selected bearings may be given a plating overlay. and cadmium. (2) To improve load distribution. antimony. is white metal.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 18. or tin. d. copper. Other plain bearing materials are used in marine machinery such as the aluminium−tin alloys which now find widespread use as diesel engine bearings. f.017mm to 0. nickel. The choice of metallic bearings is governed by many factors including load conditions.1. b. eg sea water or the oxidation products of lubricating oil. and copper according to usage. in some cases. (3) To confer some degree of embeddability of foreign particles. It does not include sprayed wear-resistant coatings referenced in Clause 8. type and size. Each application has to be considered according to its own particular requirements. In the normal course of the operation of plain bearings consideration must be given to the occasions when boundary lubrication conditions prevail and metal to metal contact may occur. zinc. g.

5 NES 839 High unit loads and high temperature. large plant and machinery bearings. NES 839 BS 3332/1 Underwater grease lubricated bearings Solid die castings. Phosphor-Bronze Cu−88 Sn−10 P−0.5 Zn−30 Cu−1. Crown Metal Cu−48 Zn−35 Ni−15 Pd−1 Sn−1 NES 836 Machined cast components Heavily loaded low speed applications where resistance to corrosion in sea water is required—rudder bearings.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Bearings Specification Forms Available Applications Type I White Metal Sn−89 Sb−7 Cu−3 Cd−1 Type II White Metal Sn−68. General workshop plant and machinery bearings operating at lower loads and temperatures. lining of g direct housing. Type III White Metal Sn−90 Sb−7 Cu−3 NES 839 BS 3332/1 Lead Base White Metal Pb−74 Sb−13 Sn−12 Cu−1 BS 3332/7 Solid die castings. lining of half bearings such as stern tubes.5 BS 1400 PB1 Machined cast components Heavily loaded low speed applications where resistance to sea or fresh water is required. cast iron and bronze components.1 PLAIN BEARING ALLOYS FOR NAVAL USE 18. Contd TABLE 18. and bushes. turbine bearings.2 . lining of steel. Main bearings of diesel engines. marine gearbox bearings.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Contd Bearings Specifications Forms Available Applications Copper−Lead Cu−70 Pb−30 − Lining of steel-backed Crankshaft half components shell bearings for diesel engines. gearbox. to produce copper-lead bearings gives a much more reliable product than the cast version. Small end. The use of the sintering process. Copper-lead bearings are also available with controlled porosity to give retention of oil in the bearing. For small bearings and bushes of standard sizes sintered bronzes are often used. rocker bushes etc. and gearboxes. usually without overlay. usually overlay plated for crankshaft bearings. Both PTFE and nylon can be reinforced with bronze particles and can function as dry bearings. crankshaft.6b. Heavily loaded diesel engine crankshaft bearings. Split and unsplit bushes for small-ends. lining of steel-backed components Main bearings for diesels and compressors.1 PLAIN BEARING ALLOYS FOR NAVAL USE i. and linkage bushes. plated. j. Small end.6a. Aluminium Silicon Alloy Al−95 Cd−1 Si−4 − Lining of thin walled half bearings.3 . Under wet conditions graphite may promote corrosion of the journal. usually overlay plated.−5. rockers. 18. k. split bushes and thrust washers. TABLE 18. Non-metallic bearing materials such as PTFE and nylon are competing with metals for many applications. High duty IC engines. High Tin Aluminium Alloys Al−79 Sn−20 Cu−1 − Lining of thin and medium walled half bearings. see Clauses 5. Heavily loaded crankshaft bearings for high speed petrol and diesel engines. gearbox. split bushes and thrust washers. linkage. thrust washers. PTFE has the lowest coefficient of friction of any solid material but it needs strengthening with a filler metal. These can be made self lubricating by the addition of powdered graphite in the mix to be sintered or by subsequent impregnation with oil or PTFE.. rockers. Overlay. Low tin Aluminium Alloys Al−92 Sn−6 Cu−1 Ni−1 − Cast or rolled machined components.

4 .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 18.

The force exerted by the coupling is considerable and the joint is completed at a temperature below −54° C.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 19. Used as protective coatings for steel parts in marine atmospheres. Another shape memory alloy. As the temperature of the coupling rises it contracts to its memory shape and firmly joins the hydraulic lines. Part 2).1 . SME brass. b. and a coupling liner with annular lands made from a high strength cupro-nickel.1 Shape Memory Effect (SME) Alloys 19. c.2 a. Used as screening against radiation in particular areas of nuclear submarines. MISCELLANEOUS ALLOYS 19. Material Lead Form Wrought Castings Zinc Costings Naval Use Resistant to sulphuric acid and used in lead-acid battery maintenance spaces.1. Lead and Zinc a. Finds use in certain parts of Naval Diving Equipment. TABLE 19.1 NAVAL USES OF LEAD AND ZINC 19. In use they are removed and installed in the hydraulic line within 60 secs. The SME alloys when plastically deformed in their martensitic state will revert to their original shape on heating to a temperature where the martensitic structure disappears. The expanded couplings are stored in liquid nitrogen at −196° C. After inspection couplings are protected from corrosion by a heat shrink plastic sleeve. The main naval application for SME alloys is the use of Cryofit pipe couplings manufactured from Tinel which is a nickel−titanium alloy (see NES 797. After cryogenic cooling the bore of the driver is mechanically expanded and the liner passed into the driver’s internal bore. Shape Memory Effect is a phenomenon possessed by certain alloys which gives them a unique mechanical memory. This is a copper−zinc−aluminium alloy and the energy output from the device is considerably greater than that from a bimetallic strip. Coated with PVC and used as ballast. The coupling assembly consists of a coupling driver manufactured as a smooth bore cylinder in Tinel. eg weighted boots. The lands form a hydraulic seal and provide the mechanical grip when compressed by the driver. is now used in thermostatic control units. d. The uses of lead and zinc are summarized in TABLE 19.

2 .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 19.

however. This form of corrosion between a metal and a corroding agent results in the formation of a non-metallic compound. A galvanic cell is thus set up and a small electrical current flows through the conductor. The varying potentials of metals in sea water are shown in the galvanic series in TABLE 20. to the metals above them. The bulk of corrosion at atmospheric temperatures is. The rate of corrosion will depend on factors such as. and salt solutions. The former may be initiated by chlorides. caused by bimetallic corrosion. eg metal oxide.1. Those metals further down the table are more noble. The attack can be caused by direct chemical action or by galvanic action. temperature. c. sulphides or. d. alkalinity/acidity (pH of the water) but mainly on the difference in electrical potential of the two metals. ratio of areas of anode to cathode. Thus a small anodic area coupled to a large cathodic area will result in rapid corrosion of the former. 20. Both metals would be slightly attacked by direct chemical action. 20.1 Mechanisms of Corrosion a. water speed. The relative surface areas of anode and cathode have a major effect on the rate of corrosion. or cathodic.2 The term corrosion is generally applied wherever a metal is attacked and wasted by its environment.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 20. such as sea water make good electrolytes. by oxygen. Where an alternative is not possible then consideration is to be given to insulating the metals from one another. Acids. Galvanic corrosion can also occur at local positions within a plate or pipe without a second metal being present. alkalis. If two dissimilar metals are placed in sea water but not electrically connected then galvanic action will not occur. An electrolyte is an electrical conducting solution in which positively charged and negatively charged ions can move freely. for example the scaling of steel at red heat. more commonly. The anodic metal wastes away and the cathodic metal is protected from corrosion. b. CORROSION 20.1 shows whether a corrosion problem exists or not and whether an alternative choice of metal could sensibly be made.1 . breaks in protective films or coatings). The electrolyte may be present in bulk as when immersed in sea water or as a thin condensed film on the metal surface. Bimetallic corrosion occurs when two dissimilar metals connected by an electrical conductor are immersed in an electrolyte. Bimetallic Corrosion a. The cause of this local corrosion may be one of the following: (1) variations in composition in local areas causing a potential difference (eg in way of welds. The relative position of a pair of metals in TABLE 20. If the metals are electrically connected then the anodic metal will corrode rapidly and the cathodic metal will be protected. One of the metals will act as an anode and the other as a cathode according to the electrical potential of each metal. The speed of the process increases with rise in temperature.

2 .1 POTENTIALS IN SEA WATER AGAINST A SILVER/SILVER CHLORIDE ELECTRODE 20.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) TABLE 20.

See also Clause 20. b. Some metals owe their corrosion resistance to the formation of an oxide film on their surface. Corrosion of this nature is said to be due to concentration cells. Formation of Surface Films a. Aluminium has a high affinity for oxygen and produces a dense and impervious oxide film which protects the metal underneath from further attack. (6) alloys with a structure consisting of two different metallurgical phases will be subject to galvanic corrosion if one phase is anodic to the other. (3) variation in the mechanical condition of the metal due to the local working or heating that it has received. In the electrochemical action corrosion products will be formed which may or may not be deposited on the metal surface dependent on the metals and electrolyte concerned.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 20. Films that are not tightly adhering can result in progressive corrosion of the metal underneath. The extent to which an oxide film will protect the metal beneath depends on: (1) the nature and continuity of the film and how effectively it bonds to the metal beneath. metallic chromium and stainless steels owe their protection to a film of chromium oxide which forms readily under oxidizing conditions. Impurities are often segregated at crystal boundaries and can give rise to intercrystalline corrosion. If these areas are small in relation to the area of the cathode then the attack may be deep. Similarly. eg welding. Iron at high temperatures will continue to oxidize even though coated with an oxide skin. b. The corrosion reaction becomes stifled and will eventually cease. 20. (2) the mobility of metal and non-metal ions within the oxide film. Where such a film is incomplete.3 . (5) variation in the oxygen content of the electrolyte can have significant effect. The corrosion product forming on an anode surface may itself be strongly cathodic to the underlying metal.5a. In some cases an oxide film may be deposited completely over the surface and may insulate the metal beneath. or where it is damaged.3 20. Porous films offer poor protection. This can give rise to local differences of potential.4 (2) the presence of impurities in the metal surface which are part of the microstructure and are anodic or cathodic to the metallic matrix. corrosion will take place in the bare anodic areas. (4) differences in cleanliness of the surface exposed to the liquid can result in differences in potential. Protective Films a. eg low oxygen area within a crevice surrounded by a high oxygen area. cold bending.

see Clause 20. b. but the extent and significance of the corrosion will depend on the distribution and amount of the anodic phase in the alloy.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 20. Such corrosion may be described as ‘layer’ or ‘plug’ type according to whether it proceeds mainly parallel or normal to the surface exposed to the corrosive environment. Corrosion and protection of phases can result in a similar manner as in Clause 20. The severity of attack is not only dependent on the speed and turbulence of the water. An example is naval brass where in the affected areas the typical yellow colour changes to copper-red. This occurs on the removal of zinc and is otherwise known as dezincification. Crevice corrosion occurs when a thin film of electrolyte is trapped between two closely contacting surfaces.4 . 20. Impingement Corrosion a.7 Selective Phase Corrosion a. very extensive hidden corrosion can occur.4a. b. occur where items are in close contact in an electrolyte. Impingement destroys the oxide skin locally and electrolytic corrosion takes place between the intact cathodic oxide skin and the exposed anodic metal. Maximum design speeds of sea water in pipes are given in NES 719. but it can also occur under any crevice-forming object. One of the factors that influence the rate of corrosion is the nature of the flow of liquid over the corroding metal. Two forms of corrosion may then occur. Accelerated corrosion due to the continual removal of protective corrosion product films is called impingement corrosion. but also on the suspended grit and entrained air in the system.2a. This type of corrosion is confined to alloys having a micro-structure consisting of two or more phases of differing corrosion potential leading to an internal galvanic cell. Lack of dissolved oxygen in the crevice will prevent the repair of surface oxide films on which some metals depend for their corrosion resistance. Crevice attack can. loose paint.. Impingement corrosion is a hazard in all systems carrying sea water. Types of aluminium bronze suffer similarly on the removal of aluminium and this is known as de-aluminification.5 20. Turbulence caused by change-of-direction and in-line fittings increases the risk of impingement corrosion and lowers the rate of flow that may be safe in straight pipes. Although the gap may be very small. Corrosion takes place more readily where fresh liquid is continually available either by turbulence or simply by rate of flow. Pipes in sea water systems are normally of cupro-nickel and are protected by their own oxide surface. but where the anodic phase is continuous and small in area compared to the cathodic phase. leading to serious loss of strength. In copper alloys corrosion may have the appearance of coppering which describes a corrosive attack where one or more alloying elements are lost and porous copper remains. By the first method corrosion takes place over the creviced area and by the second method corrosion occurs near the edge of the crevice. Examples are bolted flanges and pump spindles in way of packing. therefore. Crevice Corrosion a. A dispersed anodic phase is not particularly harmful. The second form of attack occurs because the non-uniform distribution of oxygen produces a concentration cell giving rise to galvanic action. or other deposit. b. This may result from the application of fresh oxygenated liquid itself or by the removal of corrosion products or protective films from the metal surface. the electrolyte is drawn in by capillary action and remains there to become stagnant.6 20. such as loose scale.

and where the carbon film is discontinuous. 20.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) c.7b. and include: (1) non-adherent products of corrosion may collect at localized areas and create a cell. pitting will occur. working or bending processes. 20. preventing the formation of a protective film and accelerating the attack. Hot Spot Corrosion a. such as sand. (2) non-metallic inclusions in the surface which are cathodic or anodic to the parent metal. The surroundings within a pit can also become acidic. (3) local differences in micro-structure due to cold work or heat treatment setting up galvanic cells. (6) fluids at rest for a long time may set up concentration cells. often in the form of horseshoe-shaped pits. b. The resultant corrosion leads to lack of oxygen and the formation of a concentration cell. eg the penetration of the film on stainless steel by chloride ions. with the horse walking upstream. 20. All forms of pitting are caused by the same basic mechanism which follows when a local void occurs in the protective surface film and a galvanic cell is set up. (4) penetration of the protective film by the corroding agent.9 Cavitation a. and the water side of liners in internal combustion engines.8 20. In copper and copper alloys the pits will be clean. dead barnacles etc can produce the same result. the surface close to the affected area may be coated with copper salts in the form of blue-green traces.10 Impingement attack is readily identified in pipes: the surface of the metal is extensively pitted. The absence of the protective film may be due to its non-uniform distribution when formed during the process of corrosion. often accompanied by the formation of metallic copper in the pits. or more usually the local destruction of the film. Carbon is cathodic to all metals. Other affected areas are the suction areas of pump impellers and casings. (5) carbon film on the insides of tubes originating from lubricants for machining. Any other stationary debris. Pitting a.2d. Many metals which suffer little or no overall corrosion in sea water are often susceptible to deep pitting. Removal of the protective oxide film by cavitation can give rise to an accelerated form of attack by cavitation corrosion by a similar mechanism to impingement corrosion described in Clause 20. Cavitation is an erosion effect whereby metal is removed by the impact of collapsing bubbles which form when pressure in a liquid is locally reduced below its vapour pressure. Local destruction of the film can occur from a variety of causes some of which were listed in Clause 20. Localized introduction of high temperature water or steam can cause severe local attack on the sea water side of a copper alloy tube opposite the high temperature point on the steam side. Corrosion pits are formed.5 . It occurs on the suction faces of ships’ propellers where bubbles continuously form and collapse in rapid succession.

Sea water systems are particularly at risk in harbours and estuaries where the waters are polluted by sewage and organic industrial wastes. 20. Instructions on the chemical protection of new sea water systems is given in NES 781.6 . If this film is damaged or destroyed locally exposing bare metal rapid corrosion will occur due to the large cathode-to-anode ratio. Delamination of the surface layers is caused by the pressure exerted by the voluminous corrosion products.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 20. Harbour and Estuarine Waters a. The corrosion takes place at the grain boundaries due to the difference in potential between the micro-constituents and the metallic matrix. Special attention must be paid to newly constructed systems and repaired systems which have not developed their full protective oxide film.11 Exfoliation of Aluminium Alloy a. Copper alloys can develop sulphide films which are cathodic to the metal.12 The exfoliation of aluminium alloy is the result of the directionality of grain structure combined with micro-constituents at the grain boundaries. Oxygen is depleted and hydrogen sulphides formed. 20. Marked directionality of grains can occur in rolled plate and if the corroding agent penetrates the surface layer corrosion can occur as the result of galvanic action.

c. It is most suitable for small ships and ships with a regular docking programme for the renewal of the anodes. Aluminium alloy anodes are also used for special applications.2a. These assemblies are designed to last 7−10 years.2c.−20. A magnesium alloy is used on some commercial vessels because of its higher driving voltage but this can damage some types of paintwork unless fitted remote from the structure being protected. Protection by sacrificial anodes does not require an external electric power supply or any control by ship’s staff. Materials a.1 . b. the sacrificial anode system and the impressed current system.3 The principles of corrosion by galvanic action are explained in Clauses 20. however. b. Details of the systems and their applications are contained in NES 704. where it is shown that small electrical currents flow between anodic and cathodic material when these are immersed in an electrolyte. such as sea tubes and inside ballast tanks and free-flood spaces of submarines. This is achieved by swamping these localized corrosion currents by applying an opposing current from an external source. The principle of cathodic protection is to maintain the potential of the steel hull at 0. A carefully balanced zinc alloy which corrodes evenly at a steady rate is used for sacrificial anodes fitted to ships. larger ships and nuclear submarines to protect the underwater hull surface. Sacrificial anodes are also needed within deep recesses. lead/antimony/silver alloy or platinized titanium anodes are fitted to plastic backing shields to prevent damage to the paint in the immediate vicinity by high current density. It is used.2 Sacrificial Anode System a. The weight of anode material must be calculated to last for the planned docking interval and the surface area of the anodes required is related to the underwater surface area of the hull and the area of the propellers and any other exposed copper alloys. 21. It is essential that each anode is in good electrical contact with the steel structure it is protecting.1 21.. Parts 1 to 5. Reference electrodes mounted on the hull monitor the hull potential and the current to the anodes is controlled to maintain the set voltage required. ICCP systems are used on most frigates. normally three groups port and three groups starboard. to ensure that protection is being given. 21. Lead alloy or platinized titanium anodes fitted on and insulated from the hull surface are wired to a control unit. Two systems of cathodic protection are used. Hull potential readings need to be taken at regular intervals.85 volts relative to a standard silver/silver chloride reference electrode at which potential corrosion of the steel will not occur. Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) Systems a. Wet bilges and tanks can be protected by aluminium ribbon anodes or similar sacrificial anode systems. Ships fitted with ICCP systems are coated with a coal tar epoxy (cte) paint in accordance with NES 760 or NES 774. to protect naval ships fitting out by being suspended away from the hull.80 to 0. 21.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 21. Sea water inlet and outlet tubes are protected by anodes fitted as near as possible to the inlet and outlet valve. The lead/silver alloy. and this in turn leads to the wastage of the anodic material. Underwater hull plating is protected by groups of anodes arranged around the hull. CATHODIC PROTECTION a. The conventional paints with an oleo-resinous base are unsuitable for the alkaline conditions usually present when ICCP is in use.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 21.2 .

22. Algae prefer some daylight and settle on ships’ hulls near the waterline where they are responsible for the so called ‘grass’. calcareous tube worms and barnacles. Mussels are not a major problem on the bottom of active ships since they are quickly swept away at speed. Mussels are the worst offenders in sea water systems although barnacles and hydroids are frequent colonizers.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 22. Algal fouling contributes as much to increase in skin frictional resistance as the hard shelled animal organisms of similar area of deposition. Fouling by any of these organisms can reduce the heat transfer efficiency of heat exchangers and condensers and they can cause complete blockage of tubes. The soft growths are algae. The main hard growths are mussels. Outer Bottom Fouling a.2 22. The problem can be contained by keeping the fuel as dry as possible and by increased cleanliness in storage. Fouling by Bacteria and Fungi a.1 . and in order to complete their life style. the latter being the dominant species in many parts of the world. b. Fungi and bacteria are micro-organisms which require organic carbon to feed on and they will attack many carbon-based materials. 22. Fouling of Sea Water Systems a. hydroids. The settling of organisms within sea water systems likewise increases resistance to flow. Barnacles attach themselves in heat exchanger tubes. calcareous tube worms and barnacles tend to settle in greater numbers further down the hull. The hard shelled animal species. Plant and animal organisms abound in the sea. kelps and sponges. Their adherence to the hulls of ships results in a roughened surface causing increased resistance to water flow thus decreasing top speed and increasing fuel consumption. Hydroids often settle in great numbers in the end boxes of heat exchangers. Perforation of heat exchanger tubes has been shown to be the result of impingement corrosion caused by turbulence induced by mussel shells lodging in the tubes. Slime-forming organisms can also contribute significantly to drag. b. Some of the problems caused by fouling by bacteria and fungi are: (1) growth in hydraulic fluids leading to physical blockage of filters. (3) problems can occur with fungal growth in aviation fuel. there are in addition the micro-organisms which are soft growths and consist of fungi and bacteria.1 22. Much of the fouling in sea water systems is in the form of dead material trapped in the system. Much of the fouling is caused by dead organisms trapped in the systems. Marine fouling may be divided into hard and soft growths. b. some need to attach themselves to a firm base. All of the above may be described as macro-fouling organisms. (2) in some circumstances the development of micro-organisms can lead to the formation of stable emulsions in hydrocarbon fluids and can be particularly serious in lubrication systems.3 MARINE FOULING a. can cause blockage and excessive water velocities in their vicinity and deposits can initiate crevice corrosion of many alloys. Acidic by-products of the attack can lead to corrosion and pitting of metals.

water coalescing action is also reduced by the production of surface-active materials. 22. the growth of micro-organisms has led to considerable problems in blockage of filters and clogging of coalescers.2 . (5) rigid controls are also required to prevent the growth of micro-organisms in fresh water tanks. the net effect is reduction in turbine power and loss of operational efficiency. Additional water removal equipment is required plus fine filtration.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) (4) dieso fuel for gas turbines is required to be of higher purity than that previously used.

Other measures under investigation are copper dosing and chlorination. The paints contain materials that are poisonous to the fouling organisms and are generally based on cuprous oxide. Sea water systems may be protected by a number of methods but at present only the Cathelco system has been introduced in the Royal Navy. (2) Copper dosing—similar in operation to the Cathelco system but using a copper anode only. 23. At certain concentrations chlorination may reduce corrosion of nickel−aluminium bronze and some other complex copper alloys. The erodable antifouling paints employ a combination of tributyl tin and zinc or copper oxides. Antifouling paints are the only practical means at present of reducing fouling of the outer bottom.1 . The method in each case is as follows: (1) Cathelco—copper and aluminium anodes are enclosed in a housing incorporated in the flow line. b. (3) Chlorination—the introduction of chlorine into the water flow can be achieved by the electrolysis of sea water in an electro-chlorination unit using platinized titanium electrodes.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 23. The anode is supplied with an impressed current which releases copper and aluminium in minute quantities preventing the settlement of fouling organisms. ANTIFOULING METHODS a.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 23.2 .

1 . To combat this form of corrosion. low aluminium overlay coatings which are more resistant to attack than the traditional aero engine type Nimonic alloys and pack aluminized coatings. In bioxidant gases such as SO2/SO3 simultaneous oxidation and sulphidation may occur. Gas turbine exhaust ducts and uptakes may contain some Inconel 625 components but in the main austenitic stainless steel. the particular form of attack depending on temperature. Seasalt contains some sodium sulphate and further sulphate is formed by reaction of the sodium chloride in the salt with SO2/SO3 in the combustion gases. A particular example of accelerated oxidation accompanied by sulphidation may occur in marine gas turbines due to the presence of sulphur oxides in the combustion gases (from sulphur in the fuel) in combination with seasalt ingested with air and fuel. carbon dioxide etc. BS 970. Special problems may also arise in other high temperature components such as diesel engine exhausts and exhaust ducts of gas turbines. The most aggressive form of corrosion may arise in the temperature range 650° to 750° C.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 24. As temperatures rise the rate of corrosion of metals increases because of the faster rate of chemical reactions at elevated temperatures. When metals are heated in air they react with the oxygen in the air and are oxidized. Grade 316S12 has proved adequate. which help to destroy the protective properties of the oxide scale. 24. Similar effects occur in other oxidizing media such as steam. HOT GAS CORROSION a. high temperature and high pressure water. d. c. specially developed higher chromium super alloys are used together with high chromium. Materials such as Inconel 625 may be necessary for the inboard diesel exhaust systems in submarines with other lower alloyed special stainless steels for the outboard systems. salt-induced hot corrosion may occur. The sulphate is deposited on hot surfaces such as first stage turbine blades by impaction or condensation and in the presence of traces of chloride. b.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 24.2 .

The oxide itself can also act as an abrasive. Fretting damage can in turn lead to further deterioration by fretting fatigue. When oxidation occurs on stationary surfaces in air the oxide film thickens and at ordinary temperatures retards the rate of corrosion.1 .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 25. Retardation is never realized and the rate of corrosion can be high. FRETTING CORROSION a. b. The exposed chafed metal oxidizes. Actual points of contact that exist between the mating surfaces are broken off during the relative movement and debris is accumulated in the spaces between the points of contact. c. This type of corrosion arises where two metal surfaces in tight contact are subject to a small relative movement such as might occur with vibration. In the case of fretting corrosion the relative movement raises the temperature and the oxide film is rubbed off exposing fresh metal. 25.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 25.2 .

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 26.1 . Corrosion of lubricated bearing surfaces can occur if oxidation of the constituents of the oil produces acids. Similarly corrosive wear can occur in internal combustion engines particularly when operating at low cylinder temperatures. Additives to lubricating oil can be made to combat corrosion and corrosive wear. The gaseous combustion products condense as acids on the cylinders and ring surfaces. LUBRICATING OILS a. 26.

2 .NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) 26.

1 TABLE 15. BS EN 10 045.1. .2 and TABLE 18.1 and aluminium alloys for general engineering purposes: plate. 12.1 Specification for wrought aluminium TABLE 15..4a.g.4a. Specifications for wrought steels for mechanical and allied engineering purposes Part 1: General inspection and testing procedures and specific requirements for carbon.1 Tensile Testing of Metallic Materials 9. RELATED DOCUMENTS A.2 BS 1400 Specification for copper alloy ingots and 13.1 BS 1452 Specification for flake graphite cast iron 12. carbon manganese alloy and stainless steels TABLE 11. sheet and strip BS 1470 BS 1471 Specification for wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys for general engineering purposes: drawn tube BS 1472 Specification for wrought aluminium TABLE 15.d. copper castings TABLE 13.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) ANNEX A.4a.2 TABLE 11.13c. copper alloy and high conductivity TABLE 13. TABLE 12. extruded round tubes and sections TABLE 15.and U-notches) 9. 9.1 Part 1: Method of test at ambient temperature Test Method (V. Part 2: The Charpy V-notch impact test on metals Part 5: Determination of crystallinity 9.1a.1 and aluminium alloys for general engineering purposes: forging stock and forgings BS 1473 Specification for wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys for general engineering purposes: rivet.1 BS 1474 Specification for wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys for general engineering purposes: bars.. bolt and screw stock TABLE 15. BS 131 Notched bar tests BS 970 Part 1: The Izod impact test of metals 9.1 ANNEX A..1 A.e.1 The following documents and publications are referred to in this NES: See Clause BS EN 10 002.2 Part 3: Bright bars for general engineering purposes Part 4: Valve steels TABLE 10.

3 Specification for steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes Part 1: Specification for Seamless and electric resistance welded including induction welded tubes TABLE 10.1.1 Part 2: Submerged arc welded tubes BS EN 10025 ANNEX A. Specification for hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels and their technical delivery conditions A.5 13.d.1 and nickel TABLE 14..1 and nickel TABLE 14. and nickel TABLE 14.b.2 BS 2870 BS 2874 BS 2875 BS 3059 13. TABLE 13.2 TABLE 10.d. Specification for steel castings for general engineering purposes Specification for white metal bearing alloy ingots Specification for Austenitic cast iron TABLE 11. TABLE 12. TABLE 13.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) BS 1490 Specification for aluminium and aluminium alloy ingots and castings for general engineering purposes TABLE 15.5 Part 1: Specification for low tensile carbon steel tubes without specified elevated temperature properties Part 2: Specification for carbon.1 .b.2 TABLE 18.4 and TABLE 13. TABLE 13. 14.2 and TABLE 11.3 BS 2789 Specification for spheroidal graphite or nodular graphite cast iron Specification for rolled copper and copper alloys: sheet. 14.4 and TABLE 13.d.1 BS 1503 Specification for steel forgings for pressure purposes TABLE 10.1 and nickel TABLE 14..e.1. alloy and austenitic stainless steel tubes with specified elevated temperature properties BS 3071 Specification for nickel copper alloy castings BS 3072 Specification for nickel alloys: sheet and plate Specification for nickel alloys: strip Specification for nickel alloys: seamless tube Specification for nickel alloys: wire Specification for nickel alloys: bar BS 3073 BS 3074 BS 3075 BS 3076 BS 3100 BS 3332 BS 3468 BS 3602 and nickel TABLE 14..5 TABLE 10.1 Specification for copper and copper alloys: plate Steel boiler and super-heater tubes 13.4 and TABLE 13. strip and foil Specification for copper and copper alloys: rods and sections (other than forging stock) 12..1 TABLE 12.

3 ANNEX A.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) BS 4844 BS 5447 Specification for Abrasion resisting TABLE 12. 21. 4.16a. NES 704 Standard Test for JIc.20a.a. DEF STAN 03−20 Electro-deposition of zinc 8. 21.. 21. ASTM E813 9.15a. Part 3: Eddy Current 9. 8.12b. A measure of fracture toughness Requirements for Cathodic Protection 21. toughness (KIc) of metallic materials BS 5762 Methods of crack opening displacement (COD) testing 9.12b.a. Ship in Refit or Laid-up Part 5: General Information on Bimetallic Couples Welding and Fabrication of Ship Structure Sea Water Systems for HM Surface Ships Requirements for Non-Destructive Examination Methods Part 1: Radiographic 21.15a.15a.18a.3a.1c. Part 4: Liquid Penetrant 9.1 Part 2: Forgings TABLE 10. DEF STAN 03−11 Phosphate treatment of iron and steel 8.15a.7b.2b. 15.12b.e.3 Part 3: Steel Castings TABLE 10.a.18a.b. 9.1c. 20..1 white cast irons Methods of test for plane strain fracture 9.3h.18a.f. TABLE 12.1b. Part 5: Ultrasonic 9. Part 1: Common Requirements NES 706 NES 719 NES 729 NES 736 Part 2: Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Part 3: Sacrificial Anode or Self-Energized System Part 4: Ship Fitting-out.22a. BS 6681 Specification for malleable cast iron DEF STAN 01−2 DEF STAN 03−5 Guide to engineering alloys used in Naval service Electroless nickel coating of metals 12. DEF STAN 03−10 Electro-deposition of nickel and chromium 8. DEF STAN 03−19 Electro-deposition of cadmium 8. Plates TABLE 10.a.1 6. DEF STAN 03−6 Guide to flame spraying processes 8. 6. 12. . DEF STAN 03−8 Electro-deposition of tin 8. Part 2: Magnetic Particle 9. 6.18a.18a.a.. 6. 6.4 A. Requirements for Q1 (Navy) Steel Part 1.

NES 779 Requirements for 90/10 Copper−Nickel Alloy Materials Part 1: Sheet. Rods and Sections Part 3: Tubes NES 770 Welding and Fabrication of Q1N HY80 and QT35 Steel Part 1: General 6.1 . 6. Strip and Plate TABLE 13.c.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) NES 745 NES 747 Classification.1 and 13.4 and TABLE 13.4 and 13. Inspection Requirements and Acceptance Standards for Castings Part 1: Copper and Nickel Alloy Castings Nickel Aluminium Bronze Castings and Ingots Part 1: Requirements for NAB (Naval Alloy) Centrifugal Castings and Ingots Part 2: Requirements for NAB (Naval Alloy) Sand Castings and Ingots Part 3: Requirements for NAB (Commercial Alloy) Sand Castings and Ingots 13.5 Part 2: Forgings.1 and 13. Rods and Sections Part 3: Tubes TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE 20. 6.2 13. Forging Stock.4 and Aluminium−Nickel−Silicon Brass TABLE 13.3a.4 13.4 and TABLE 13.1b.12a. Rods and Sections Part 3: Tubes NES 780 Requirements for 70/30 Copper−Nickel Alloy Material Part 1: Sheet. TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE 13.5 TABLE 10. Forging Stock. Forging Stock.5 Part 1: Sheet Strip and Plate Part 2: Forgings..5 13. Strip and Plate TABLE 13. NES 781 Process and Procedure Requirements for the Protection of Sea Water Systems using Sodium Dimethyldithiocarbamate NES 791 Requirements for Weldable Structural Steels Part 1: Mild Steel—Plate Sections and Bars ANNEX A.4 and 13.2 Part 4: Requirements for NAB (Naval Alloy) Sand Castings with Restricted Welding NES 749 Part 5: Requirements for the Design and Manufacture of NAB Sand Castings Requirements for TABLE 13. A. 6..2b.5 Part 2: Forgings.1 and 13.1c.2 13..

1 NES 848 Requirements for Carbon−Manganese and Low Alloy Steel Forgings Part 1: Carbon−Manganese Steel Forgings Steel Castings for Structural Engineering Pressure Purposes TABLE 10. Part 2: Composite CRYOFIT Couplings NES 824 Copper−Nickel−Chromium Sand Castings and Ingots Part 1: Production Requirements TABLE 13.1 and TABLE 13.5 NES 838 Requirements for Phosphor Bronze Rods Part 1: Continuously Cast NES 839 Requirements for White Metal Ingots TABLE 18.c.1 NES 833 Requirements for Nickel−Aluminium Bronze Part 2: Forgings. TABLE 13.2 NES 831 Requirements for Aluminium Alloy Parts 1 and 2 TABLE 15.4 and TABLE 13.3 Turbine rotor forgings 3% chromium− molybdenum steel TABLE 10.4 and TABLE 13.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Part 2: Notch Tough Mild Steel—Plate TABLE 10.1 Part 3: B Quality Mild Steel—Plates and TABLE 10.4 and TABLE 13. Forging Stock. Rods and Sections Requirements for Aluminium−Silicon Bronze Part 1: Sheet Strip and Plate 13.5 NES 836 Requirements for Crown Metal Cast Bearings Requirements for Copper Tubes TABLE 18. Forging Stock.5 TABLE 10.1 Pipework Engineering 19.1 and TABLE 13.4 and TABLE 13.4 ANNEX A. Forging Stock.d.1 Sections NES 797 Part 4: BX Quality Steel—Plates TABLE 10. . TABLE 13.2 TABLE 13.5 NES 835 Requirements for High Strength Copper−Nickel−Manganese Alloy— Forgings. Rods and Sections TABLE 13.3 NES 849 NES 380 A.1b.1 NES 834 NES 837 13.2 Part 2: Guide to Production Methods NES 830 Requirements for Gunmetal Ingots and Castings Part 1: Gunmetal—Sand Castings and Ingots Part 2: Gunmetal—Continuously Cast TABLE 13.5 Part 2: Forgings. Rods and Sections TABLE 13.

Nickel−chromium−molybdenum− vanadium steel TABLE 10.2 * In the course of preparation.3 DGS 6022 Forgings for through-hardened gears TABLE 10.6 . When published.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) NES 380 Turbine rotor forgings. ANNEX A. it will supersede the stated document. A.3 DGS 6017 Forgings for and heat treatment of carburized and hardened gears TABLE 10.3 DGS 6019 (*NES 381) Forgings for and heat treatment of nitrided gears TABLE 10.3 DGS 6142 Carbon steel steam piping TABLE 10.

1 ANNEX B. The pH value is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity and equals the log of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration per litre.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) ANNEX B. Acidity or Alkalinity (pH) The acidity of a solution is due to the concentration of hydrogen ions and the alkainity of a solution is due to the concentration of hydroxide ions. Air Hardening Age Hardening (aged) The increase in hardness of an alloy with time at room temperature by the mechanism of precipitation hardening. eg a material which after rapid removal of a load appears to be permanently deformed but over a period of time the deformation disappears. Anisotropy Where materials have different properties in different directions. Acids have pH values less than seven. Artificial Ageing Ageing at a higher temperature so that precipitation hardening occurs. Cold Working Cold working is defined as plastic deformation at temperatures below the recrystallization temperatures. while alkalis have pH values greater than seven. The work done in producing an elastic strain is stored and reappears on removal of the load. Critical Points The temperatures at which phase transformations occur in the solid state in steels. Ceramics Inorganic non-metallic materials which in general possess very low thermal conductivity with poor thermal and mechanical shock characteristics but good high temperature properties. A steel whose composition is such that after heating above the upper critical point it can be hardened by cooling in air. Cermets A composite material containing metal and ceramic constituents. Deoxidation (steel) Ductility Elastic Strain Energy Capacity of a material to undergo deformation under tension without rupture. The addition of alloying elements in steel which tend to form oxides which are removed as slag leaving deoxidized steel. . Cold Short (steel) A steel with low ductility and dynamic properties at room temperature. The metal additions improve the thermal and shock characteristics of ceramics while retaining good high temperature properties. DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS B. High phosphorus steels are cold short. B.1 For the purpose of this NES the following definitions apply: Anelasticity The non-elastic behaviour of solids.

The capacity of a material to deform under compression without rupture. Nickel−chromium-based alloys with other alloying additions which will resist oxidation and mechanical stress at very high temperatures. The process of adding or removing electrons to or from neutral atoms. The compound is usually extremely hard but very brittle. Grain Structure Hardenability The susceptibility to hardening by quenching. Intermetallic Compound Ion Ionization Isotropic Internal Stress Killed Steel Malleability Nimonics ANNEX B. HAZ Heat affected zone—that part of the base metal which is metallurgically affected by the heat of welding or cutting but not melted. The size and orientation of the solidified metallic grains. Hot Shortness Poor ductility at forging temperatures leading to cracks while hot. B. The inverse is conductivity. Homogeneous Alloy An alloy whose constituents are uniformly distributed. Resistivity is a measure of the resistance of a conductor of unit length and unit cross-sectional area. An atom which possesses a charge because it has had electrons added or removed. Forging Burst An internal crack produced during heating and forging. Steel that has been completely deoxidized in the refining process and in which there is practically no gas evolution on solidification. Having the same properties in all directions. Noble Potential A potential towards the positive end of a scale of electrode potentials. EMP Electromagnetic pulse—an intense pulse of electromagnetic radiation produced at the instant of detonation of a nuclear weapon.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity An important feature of metals. The potential of an electrode which is made cathodic is said to become more noble or more positive.2 . The orientation depends on the direction of cooling and the working the metal receives. The size of the grain depends on the temperatures from which the metal is cooled. Notch Sensitivity A reduction in mechanical properties by the presence of stress concentrations. Locked up residual stresses arising from elastic strains internally balanced. Passivation The condition in which normal corrosion is impeded by an absorbed film on the surface of the metal. That which is formed when two metals react chemically on solidification. the cooling rate and the temperature of the metal.

Plasticity The property of a material by virtue of which it may be permanently deformed when it has been subjected to an externally applied force great enough to exceed the elastic limit. Recrystallization The formation of new annealed grains from previously strain-hardened grains.3 ANNEX B. Quench Cracks Cracking in a metallic material on quenching due to volumetric change or pressure set up by phase changes. the increased hardness and strength resulting from plastic deformation. Strain Hardening Increased hardness and strength resulting from plastic deformation.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) Phase (metallic) A physically homogeneous part of a metallic material formed from two or more elements and which may coexist with one or more other phases. of some steels on tempering at certain temperatures. Solid Solution Stress Concentration Factor The ratio of the maximum stress due to a notch to the mean stress which would exist in the absence of the notch. Same as strain hardening. Work Hardening B. the devices produce spurious outputs and may recover or remain inoperative. and particularly notch toughness. Reference Electrode Residual Stress Ruling Section Segregation Heterogeneities in composition. The largest diameter bar which can be hardened and tempered to develop a selected combination of mechanical properties at the axis of the bar. Vapour Pressure The pressure at which molecules escape from a substance as vapour. Locked up stresses arising from elastic strains internally balanced. the effect on electronic devices of neutron and gamma radition resulting from a nuclear explosion. Solute atoms are distributed throughout the crystal grains with the crystal structure being the same as the pure metal which is the solvent. . Temper Brittleness The loss of ductility. may be gross or chemical segregation or may be caused during grain formation when it is known as dendritic segregation. TREE Transient Radiation Effect on Electronics. A standard half cell against which the potential of a cathodically protected structure is measured.

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) ANNEX B. B.4 .

1 Bearing alloys.12 Anelastic damping. 3. 18. 8.1 Annealing.1.4 Brittle fracture. 23. 15.7.2 Bulge explosion tests.1 Anodizing. 13.1 B Bacterial fouling. 18. 11. 7.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) ALPHABETICAL INDEX A Abrasion. 4.3 Aluminium silicon bronze.1.2. 17. 13.1 Bonderizing.4.3 Aluminium alloy.9. 15. 13.4 Antifouling methods. 13.1 INDEX . 20. 13. 8.3 Beryllium copper.4. 9. 4. 15.1.5 INDEX. 9.1 Austenitic stainless steel.5 Aluminium and aluminium alloys. exfoliation of. 22.

25.3.1 pack.1 Carbon-nitriding. 8. 8. 10. 13. 26.5 impingement. 8. 20.4 estuarine waters. 13. 20.1 SNG.1 pitting.2 .10. 3. 20.3 Chip forming. 5.4 Carbide precipitation in stainless steel. 8.1 cavitation. 3.1 galvanic. 5. 9. 9. 20. 8. 20. 12. 20.1 grey iron. 9. 6. 5. 8.3 Carbon steels.1 Carburizing v nitriding.3 hot dipped.5 Creep.1 hot spot. 5. 5.1 liquid.1 Cast metals. 4.2 Carburizing. 20. 20. 11.1 gas. 11. in machining. 9.6. 3.1 ductile iron.2 Cast irons. 24.4 surface films.12 Corrosion. 12. 21. 8.3 Cold forming. 13.1 Copper and copper alloys.5 crevice. advantages and disadvantages. 20.5.2 Cathodic protection. 20. 8.3 Crack arrest tests.3 Continuous casting.3 Clad metals. 12.1 mechanism of.11 Coatings electroplated.1 Charpy test.2 Chromium plating.1 impressed current.4 Cleanness.5 fretting. 13.1 Castings.9. 20.5. 20. 8. 12.4. 12.1 hot gas.1.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) C Calorizing. 8.5 protective films.6 fatigue.2.3 selective phase. 6. 21. 3.1 sacrificial anode.1 for naval use.11 Crevice corrosion of stainless steel.12 INDEX INDEX.1 Cavitation. 11.4 lubricating oils. material.5 Centrifugal casting. 20. 9. 5. 21.3 Cupro-nickel. 20.1 Cold working.

4 Fatigue limit. 7.3 F Failure.1 Gunmetal. 4.1 Fatigue.1 by bacteria and fungi.12 Elastic constants.1 marine.10 G Gas carburizing. 9. 20. 4.11 Ferromagnetism. modes of.3. 11.1 Estuarine waters.3 Forming cold. 3. 22. 6. 22. 22. 3. 3. 8.2 Dye Penetrant.1 hot.1 Fouling. 13. 5. 22. 9.1 Electroless plating.1 Fracture mechanics test.5 Extrusion.1 Die casting. 22. 2.4 Duplex stainless steels. 5.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) D Damping alloys. 13. 3.1 of sea water systems.1 Damping capacity of metals. 9. 13.6 Exfoliation of aluminium alloys.7.1 Flame hardening. 5. 4.2 Forging. 9. 9.1 Gunmetal. 8.1 Drop weight test.7 INDEX. 6.8. corrosion.4 Electroplated coatings.1 Environmental conditions.1 Elastic limit.13 E Eddy current.4. 20. 9. 3.1 Elastic modulus. 3. continuous cast.3 Elongation in tensile test. 9.3 INDEX . 3. 8. 17.5.1 outer bottom.

7.2 precipitation. 8. upset forging.3. 14.5. 8. 8.1 Induction hardening. 21.3 Heat treatments.1 Hardness. 7. 5.2 Inconel 625. 7.6 Hardening flame.1 Ion nitriding. corrosion.1 Liquid carburizing.5 Izod test. 14.1 Low alloy steels.2 induction.8 L Lead.3 J J-integral.1 Inconel. 5.4 . 3.1 Hot gas corrosion.3 Hot forming.1 Hot dipped coatings. 3.1 Hot pressing. 9.1 I Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP). 20.2 Ion plating. 8.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) H Harbour and estuarine waters. 9.1 Investment casting. 7. 6. 4.2 Interrupted quenching.4 Isothermal crack arrest test. 24. 9. 14.1 Inconel 718.3 Hysteretic damping. 10. 7. 7.2.3 surface. 17. 8.5 INDEX INDEX. 9.2 Heading. 7. 19. 5.2 Low energy ductile tearing. 4.1 Limit of proportionality.

9.2 Monel K 500. 3. 20.4.4. 8.2.3. 13.4 Phosphating.1 Notch toughness.1 Pitting corrosion. 4. 13. 7. 5.1 Mechanical testing of metals. 8. 8. 13.1. 13.1 Q Quality assurance. 5. 14. 13.1 Powder metallurgy. 14.4 Notch toughness tests. 7.12 Nickel−aluminium bronze. 9. 7. 5. 3.12 Magnetic permeability.2 N Naval brass.5 Modulus of rigidity.5 Plastic collapse.13 Quenching.4.2.2 Magnetic particle testing. 22. 3. 9. 8. 9.1 Poisson’s ratio.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) M Machining. 13.7.1 P Pack carburizing. 14. 14.7.2 Nitriding v carburizing.1 Paramagnetism.1 INDEX. 8. interrupted. 3. 14. 15.1 Proof stress. continuous cast. 13. definition. 13.1.4 Phosphor bronze.12 Normalizing.12 Nickel and nickel alloys.3 Nitriding. 13. 8. 6.7. 7. 22. 3. 9. 14.3 Nickel plating. 13.1 Quenching.2 Non-destructive examination.3.12 Phosphor bronze.3 O Outer bottom fouling.3.9. 9.5 INDEX .1 Parkerizing. 3.1 Metal processes. 14.1 Monel 400. 3. 13. 13. 13.1 Metal spraying.1. 8.4 Precipitation hardening.1 Marine fouling. 7.9.

3 Spinning. 11. 10.1 for naval use.1 carbide precipitation. 9. 3.2. 7.1. 8.2.1 for Naval use. 8. 11.1 precipitation hardening.1 S Sacrificial anode system. 11. 5. 8. 3.1 Shear properties.5 Stress corrosion. 11. 21. to produce bearings. 7. 18.2 for nitriding. 11.11 Sulphanizing.2. 10.3. 3. 11. 11.2 ferritic.2 Steel carbon.2 rupture. 11. 5. 3. 11. 4.3 duplex (austenitic ferritic). 9. 8. 11.8 Shape memory effect (SME) alloys.1 Sand casting.3.1 Stainless steels. 11. 6.3 martensitic. 3.4 relief.1 Sheradizing. 8.3 corrosion resistance. 11.1 for carburizing. 11. 3.2 stainless.4 Sintering. 11.6. 19.2.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) R Radiography.1 Shell moulding. 7. 11. 11.12 Reduction of area in tensile test. 8.1 Selecting metals for use.6.1 treatment.1 INDEX INDEX.5 in stress corrosion cracking.5 relaxation.2 Surface coatings. 11. 8.5 austenitic. 11.1. 5.2 hardening.6 .3 Solution treatment.3 Sintering.

9.1. 5.7. 9. 9.12 wide plate. 8.8 Tufftriding. 9.12 Upset forging.11 crack arrest.3 INDEX.1.6 fatigue. 5. 3.8 isothermal crack arrest. 9. 9. 9. 8.1 Toxicity of metals.1 stress corrosion cracking. 16.NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) T Tensile properties. 9.5 drop weight. 9.2 U Ultrasonics. shaping. 9. 19.5 Charpy.3 W Welding and brazing tests. 9.12 welding and brazing.4 dynamic tear.1 White metal bearings. 18.5 Working processes.2 Test bulge explosion. 9. 9. 9.1 Zinc plating. 9.3 Wide plate test. 3.5 of metallic materials. 9.11 fracture mechanics. 9.12 Weldments.3 corrosion fatigue. 5. 6.5 Titanium. 9.4.2 Z Zinc.3 Wrought metals.1 Tensile test. 9. 9. 9.7 INDEX .

NES 738 Issue 2 (Reformatted) INDEX INDEX.8 .

Inside Rear Cover .

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