1.

ABSTARCT:
For the vast increasing gadgets, their usage and developments led to the progression of Wi-Fi
which provides a latest technology, it’s called Li-Fi. Li-Fi is a latest technology that makes
use of LED light which helps in the transmission of data much more faster and flexible than
data that can be transmitted through Wi-Fi. Light reaches nearly everywhere so
communication can also go along with light easily. Light Fidelity is a branch of optical
wireless communication which is an emerging technology. By using visible light as
transmission medium, Li-Fi provides wireless indoor communication. The bit rate achieved
by Li-Fi cannot be achieved by Wi-Fi. Prof. Dr. herald Haas, the professor of mobile
communications at the University of Edinburgh, UK, first time publically displayed the proof
of Light Fidelity(Li-Fi), a method of Visible Light communication(VLC). Li-Fi is the transfer
of data through light by taking fiber out of fiber optics and sending data through LED light.

2. INTRODUCTION:
Li-fi basically known as ―light fidelity, is an outcome of twenty first century. The basic
ideology behind this technology is that the data century. The basic ideology behind this
technology is that the data can be transmitted through LED light whose intensity varies
even faster than the human eye. As the transmission of the data takes place through the
light emitting diodes (LED’s) the amount is comparatively small .In modern times, it is
called as the optimized version of WI-FI . In simple terms, Li-Fi can be thought of as a
light-based Wi-Fi. That is, it uses light instead of radio waves to transmit information.
And instead of Wi-Fi modems, Li-Fi would use transceiver-fitted LED lamps that can
light a room as well as transmit and receive information. Since simple light bulbs are
used, there can technically be any number of access points. This technology uses a part of
the electromagnetic spectrum that is still not greatly utilized- The Visible Spectrum.
Light is in fact very much part of our lives for millions and millions of years and does not
have any major ill effect. Moreover there is 10,000 times more space available much
more. The technology truly began during the 1990's in countries like in this spectrum and
just counting on the bulbs in use, it also multiplies to 10,000 times more availability as an
infrastructure, globally.
The advantageous thing is the wireless communication which decreases the cost
enormously. HARALD HASS, who is considered to be the father of Li-fi from university of
Edinburgh, UK says that the heart of this technology lies in theintensity and the potential of
the light emitting diodes. The major reason which lead the modern man through this
invention is that the confinement of Wi-Fi to comparatively small distance.
As there are more and more devices coming up day-by-day the signals are
being clogged up due to heavy traffic, there arise a need for an error free transmission
technology. And the solution to this problem was the Li-fi technology. It has been
designed in such a way that it overcomes the disadvantages that occurs during the usage
of Wi-Fi.
In general terms, Li-fi works even under water thereby causing a great benefit
to the military operations. The physicists envisions that this technology would make a
great difference between the assumption and the proof in this case. The demonstration
took place using two Casio smart phones. The data was made to exchange between the
phones using light. Even though the distance was nominal, it is sure that there would be a
rapid increase in the distance of transmission. As there is a limited amount of Radio
based wireless spectrum available a number of companies formed a consortium called
Li-fi consortium in order to promote high speed optical wireless systems. The members
of this consortium believes that a speed of 10Gbps can be achieved in no time.
If this would be possible then a high clarity image would take about 30 seconds to
download!!
Transfer of data from one place to another is one of the most important day-today activities. The current wireless networks that connect us to the internet are very
slow when multiple devices are connected. As the number of devices that access the
internet increases, the fixed bandwidth available makes it more and more difficult to

enjoy high data transfer rates and connect to a secure network. But, radio waves are
just a small part of the spectrum available for data transfer.
A solution to this problem is by the use of Li-Fi. Li-Fi stands for Light-Fidelity.
Li-Fi is transmission of data through illumination by taking the fiber out of fiber optics by
sending data through an LED light bulb (shown in Fig. 1) that varies in intensity faster than
the human eye can follow.

Whether you’re using wireless internet in a coffee shop, stealing it from the guy next
door, or competing for bandwidth at a conference, you have probably gotten frustrated at the
slow speeds you face when more than one device is tapped into the network. As more and
more people and their many devices access wireless internet, clogged airwaves are going to
make it. One German physicist, Harald Haas has come up with a solution he calls “data
through illumination” –taking the fibber out of fiber optic by sending data through an LED
light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the human eye can follow. It’s the same idea band
behind infrared remote controls but far more powerful. Haas says his invention, which he
calls DLIGHT, can produce data rates faster than 10 megabits per second, which is speedier
than your average broadband connection. He envisions a future where data for laptops, smart
phones, and tablets is transmitted through the light in a room. And security would be snap – if
you can’t see the light, you can’t access the data.
Li-Fi is the term some have used to label the fast and cheap wireless
communication system, which is the optical version of Wi-Fi. Li-Fi uses visible light
instead of Gigahertz radio waves for data transfer.

The idea of Li-Fi was introduced by a German physicist, Harald Hass, which he
also referred to as ―data through illumination‖. The term Li-Fi was first used by Haas
in his TED Global talk on Visible Light Communication. According to Hass, the light, which
he referred to as D-Light, can be used to produce data rates higher than 10 megabits per
second which is much faster than our average broadband connection
Li-Fi can play a major role in relieving the heavy loads which the current
wireless systems face since it adds a new and unutilized bandwidth of visible light to
the currently available radio waves for data transfer. Thus it offers much larger
frequency band (300 THz) compared to that available in RF communications (300GHz).
Also, more data coming through the visible spectrum could help alleviate concerns that the
electromagnetic waves that come with Wi-Fi could adversely affect our health.
Li-Fi can be the technology for the future where data for laptops, smart phones, and
tablets will be transmitted through the light in a room. Security would not be an issue because
if you can‘t see the light, you can‘t access the data. As a result, it can be used in high
security military areas where RF communication is prone to eavesdropping.

Li-Fi is a new paradigm for optical wireless technology to provide unprecedented
connectivity within a localized data-centric environment. The increasing demand for higher
bandwidths, faster and more secure data transmission as well as environmental and
undoubtedly human friendly technology heralds the start of a major shift in wireless
technology, a shift from RF to optical technologies.

Li-Fi technology, proposed by the German physicist—Harald Haas, provides transmission of
data through illumination by sending data through an LED light bulb that varies in intensity
faster than the human eye can follow. This paper focuses on developing a Li-Fi based system
and analyzes its performance with respect to existing technology. Wi-Fi is great for general
wireless coverage within buildings, whereas Li-Fi is ideal for high density wireless data
coverage in confined area and for relieving radio interference issues. Li-Fi provides better
bandwidth, efficiency, availability and security than Wi-Fi and has already achieved
blisteringly high speed in the lab. By leveraging the low-cost nature of LEDs and lighting
units there are many opportunities to exploit this medium, from public internet access through
street lamps to auto-piloted cars that communicate through their headlights. Haas envisions a
future where data for laptops, smart phones, and tablets will be transmitted through the light
in a room.

2.1 PRESENT SCENARIO:




At present we have as many as 1.5 million radio wave base stations across the globe.
We also have close to 5 billion mobile connections which transmit a data over
600TB.
This penetration of mobile devices into our lives has led to a wide recognition of WIFI technology.
Radio Spectrum is congested but the demand for wireless data double each year.
Everything, it seems want to use wireless data but the capacity is drying up.

3. HISTORY :

Professor Harald Haas, from the University of Edinburgh in the UK, is widely
recognized as the original founder of Li-Fi. Harald haas continues to hit the world that there
is a possibility for communication through light.LI-FI technology has the possibility to
change how we access the internet, stream videos, receive emails and much more.
The technology truly began during the 1990's in countries like Germany, Korea, and Japan
where they discovered LED's could be retrofitted to send information.
This type of light would come in
familiar forms such as infrared, ultraviolet and visible light. Research into VLC has been
conducted in earnest since 2003, mainly in the UK, US, Germany, Korea and Japan.
Experiments have shown that LEDs can be electronically adapted to transmit data wirelessly
as well as to provide light. VLC is faster, safer and cheaper than other forms of wireless
internet, advocates say -- and so could eliminate the need for costly mobile-phone radio masts
Haas has a small lab stuffed with equipment, including the now-famous table lamp and its
box of electronics. It was here in 2007 that his
research assistant, Mostafa Afgani, first sent data using light signals. Haas's invention
centuries on how these signals are modulated: the information, embedded within visible
light emitted from the LEDs, is transmitted by means of many subtle changes made to the
intensity of the light at the ultra-high rate of 100 million cycles per second (100MHz).
The photo-detector in Haas's box monitors these tiny variations and converts them back
into a digital signal, from which the transmitted information is extracted. In October 2011
a number of companies and industries formed the Li-Fi Consortium, to promote highspeed
optical wireless system sand to enhance the limited bandwidth provided by radiobased
light communication is this method of using rapid pulses of light to transmit
information wirelessly.
Professor Harald Haas, from the University of Edinburgh in the UK, is widely
recognized as the original founder of Li-Fi. He coined the term Li-Fi and is Chair of Mobile
Communications at the University of Edinburgh and co-founder of pure Li-Fi.

The general term visible light communication (VLC) includes any use of the visible
light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit information. The D-Light project at
Edinburgh's Institute for Digital Communications was funded from January 2010 to January
2012. Haas promoted this technology in his 2011 TED Global talk and helped start a
company to market it. Pure LiFi, formerly pure VLC, is an original equipment
manufacturer (OEM) firm set up to commercialize Li-Fi products for integration with
existing LED-lighting systems.

In October 2011, companies and industry groups formed the Li-Fi Consortium, to
promote high-speed optical wireless systems and to overcome the limited amount of radiobased wireless spectrum available by exploiting a completely different part of the
electromagnetic spectrum. A number of companies offer uni-directional VLC products which
is not the same as Li-Fi.

VLC technology was exhibited in 2012 using Li-Fi. By August 2013, data rates of
over 1.6 Gbit/s were demonstrated over a single color LED. In September 2013, a press
release said that Li-Fi, or VLC systems in general, do not require line-of-sight conditions. In
October 2013, it was reported Chinese manufacturers were working on Li-Fi development
kits.
In April 2014, the Russian company Stins Coman announced the development of a LiFi wireless local network called Beam Caster. Their current module transfers data at 1.25
gigabytes per second but foresee boosting speeds up to 5 GB/second in the near future.

4. TECHNOLOGY DESIGN :
The working procedure is very simple, if the light is on then transmit a digital 1, if it’s off
transmit a 0. The LEDs can be switched on and off very quickly which gives nice
opportunities for transmitting data. Hence all that required is some LEDs and a controller that
a code data into those LEDs.
All one has to do is to vary the rate at which the LEDs flicker depending upon the data
want to encode. Further enhancements can be made in this method , like using array of
the LEDs for parallel data transmission, or using mixtures of red , green and blue LEDs
to alter the light’s frequency with each frequency encoding a different data channel.
Li-Fi is a fast and cheap optical version of Wi-Fi. It is based on Visible Light
Communication (VLC).VLC is a data communication medium, which uses visible light
between 400 THz (780 nm) and 800 THz (375 nm) as optical carrier for data
transmission and illumination. It uses fast pulses of light to transmit information wirelessly.

4.1 HARDWARE:

The main components of Li-Fi system are as follows:
a) A high brightness white LED which acts as transmission source.
b) A silicon photodiode with good response to visible light as the receiving element.

4.2 SOFTWARE:
There is no unique software used for the functioning of the Li-Fi operator as its
functionality is similar to that of Wi-fi.

LEDs can be switched on and off to generate digital strings of different combination
of 1s and 0s. To generate a new data stream, data can be encoded in the light by varying
the flickering rate of the LED. The LEDs can be used as a sender or source, by modulating
the LED light with the data signal.

The LED output appears constant to the human eye by virtue of the fast flickering
rate of the LED. Communication rate greater than 100 Mbps is possible by using high
speed LEDs with the help of various multiplexing techniques. VLC data rate can be
increased by parallel data transmission using an array of LEDs where each LED
transmits a different data stream. The Li-Fi emitter system consists of 4 primary
subassemblies :
a) Bulb
b) RF power amplifier circuit (PA)
c) Printed circuit board (PCB)
d) Enclosure

Fig.
Block diagram of Li-Fi sub-assemblies

The PCB controls the electrical inputs and outputs of the lamp and houses the
microcontroller used to manage different lamp functions. A RF (radio-frequency) signal is
generated by the solid-state PA and is guided into an electric field about the bulb. The high
concentration of energy in the electric field vaporizes the contents of the bulb to a
plasma state at the bulb‘s center; this controlled plasma generates an intense source of
light. All of these subassemblies are contained in an aluminum enclosure .

The bulb sub-assembly is the heart of the Li-Fi emitter. It consists of a sealed bulb
which is mbedded in a dielectric material. This design is more reliable than conventional
light sources that insert degradable electrodes into the bulb . The dielectric material serves
two purposes. It acts as a waveguide for the RF energy transmitted by the PA. It also
acts as an electric field concentrator that focuses energy in the bulb. The energy from the
electric field rapidly heats the material in the bulb to a plasma state that emits light of high
intensity and full spectrum . Figure 3 shows the bulb sub-assembly. Fig. 3. Bulb subassembly

There are various inherent advantages of this approach which includes high brightness,
excellent color quality and high luminous efficacy of the emitter – in the range of 150
lumens per watt or greater. The structure is mechanically robust without typical
degradation and failure mechanisms
associated with tungsten electrodes and glass to metal seals, resulting in useful lamp life
of 30,000+ hours. In addition, the unique combination of high temperature plasma and
digitally controlled solid state electronics results in an economically produced family of
lamps scalable in packages from 3,000 to over 100,000 lumens.
A wireless local area network based on Li-Fi technology needs some additional features to
provide the same qualities as an RF-based wireless network, without losing the main
advantages Li-Fi technology is able to provide. Here are the missing links for a fully
developed Li-Fi WLAN.

4.3 The Li-Fi room connector

Optical signals are not able to penetrate walls. This is an advantage in relation to security
issues. However, in order to provide an optical wireless local area network, rooms need to be
connected with each other. This is achieved via the Li-Fi room connector. The Li-Fi room
connector is a replicator which sends the data stream from one side of the wall to the other
via an optical fiber cable, which connects the two room connectors on each side of the wall.
With smaller rooms, the Li-Fi room connector might be sufficient as the only Li-Fi hotspot in
the room.

4.4 The Li-Fi router

The Li-Fi router is the networks connection to the external link (fiberoptic cable, DSL, GigE,
etc.). The application is mainly useful for small office or home use with cloud & server
functions. It connects office and/or entertainment equipment and covers a radius of 20 meters
with a 100 Mbps transmission speed. The product is developed to a proof-of-concept stage.

4.5 The full features Li-Fi cloud

The Li-Fi cloud is a software solution enabling the user to control all the features within a
datacentric Li--Fi environment. Part of this software has been developed already in
connection with the developments of the Li-Fi applications we offer today.

5. DATA TRANSMISSION:
As WI-FI hotspot and cloud computing are rapidly increasing reliable signal is bound to
suffer. Speed and security are also major concerns. They are vulnerable to hackers as it
penetrates through walls easily. LI-FI is said to overcome this. This new technology is
comparable to infrared remote controls which send data through an LED light bulb that
varies in intensity faster than the human eye can see. In near future we can see data for
laptops, smart phones and tablets transmitted through the light in a room. Li-Fi(Light
Fidelity) is a fast and cheap optical version of Wi-Fi, the technology of which is based
on Visible Light Communication(VLC).

5.1 WHY VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION:
At first Radio waves, its expensive and less secure. Infrared, due to eye safety regulation
can only base with low power. Gama rays can not be used as they could be dangerous.
Ultraviolet light is good for place without people, but otherwise dangerous for the human
body.
Fig

VLC is a data communication medium, which uses visible light between 400 THz (780
nm) and800 THz (375 nm) as optical carrier for data transmission and illumination. Fast
pulses are used for wireless transmission. Communication system components are:
1. A high brightness white LED which acts as a communication source.
2. Silicon photo diode which shows good response to visible wavelength region.
LED illumination can be used as a communication source by modulating the LED light
with the data signal. The LED light appears constant to the human eye due to the fast
flickering rate. The high data rate can be achieved by using high speed LED’s and
appropriate multiplexing techniques. Each LED transmits at a different data rate which
can be increased by parallel data transmission using LED arrays.
Many different reasons exist for the usage of LED light in spite of fluorescent lamp,
incandescent bulb etc which are available.

6. DESIGN OF LI-FI:
Li-Fi architecture consists numbers of Led bulbs or lamps, many wireless devices
such as PDA, Mobile Phones, and laptops. Important factors we should consider while
designing Li –Fi as following:
1. Presence of Light must be line-of-sight.
2. Lamp driver where internet connection, switch and LED lamp connected.
3. For better performance use LED bulbs.
4. A photo detector received data.

6.1 WHAT MAKES A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE:
Typically, fiber optic cables are made up of various parts depending on what cable I
want. To better understand, imagine looking at a bulls-eye, the outer most circle would
be the cable jacket or what you see on the outside of a fiber optic cable. The core is where
the data is sent as light from one end of the cable to another. One key important fact is

that the light is reflected off of mirrors inside the cable which helps get the light waves to its
destination. Generally, fiber optic cables are wires that transmit data. through an extremely
thin layer of glass or plastic threads. These threads are the actual fibers in a fiber optic
cable. The relationship to LI-FI technology is in the regard that data travels through
the fiber in the form of light which is then translated into 1's and 0's, the data part. One
of the key advantages to using light as a data transmitter is its massive bandwidth
which is what makes fiber optics popular today. However, fiber optics are notoriously
expensive but may soon replace most existing traditional metal cables.

6.2 IMPLEMENTATION:
Li-Fi is typically implemented using white LED light bulbs at the downlink transmitter.
These devices are normally used for illumination only by applying a constant current,
Implementation of Li-Fi given in the figure. In figure a internet connection is connected to
the lamp driver . A switch connected with lamp driver and LED lamp also connected this
lamp driver through fiber optics cable. Now a receiving device named photo detector is using
for receive signal and processing , this device is connected with PC or Laptop’s LAN port.
On one end all the data on the internet will be streamed to a lamp driver when the LED is
switched on the microchip converts the digital data in form of light. The light sensitive device
photo detector receives the signal and converts it back into original data. This method of
using rapid pulses of light to transmit information wirelessly is technically referred as Visible
Light Communication.

7. APPLICATIONS:
There is a wide necessity for data transfer and by the end of the day every field involves the
use of technologies.one such technology is Li-Fi which can have its applications extended in
areas where the Wi-Fi technology lack its presence like medical technology, power plants and
various other areas where Li-Fi proved it excellence of the undersea awesomeness.
Spectrum Relief:
Excess capacity demands of cellular networks can be off-loaded to Li-Fi networks where
available. This is especially effective on the downlink where bottlenecks tend to occur.
Mobile Connectivity:
Laptops, smart phones, tablets and other mobile devices can interconnect directly using
Li-Fi. Short range links give very high data rates and also provides security.
Hazardous Environments: Li-Fi provides a safe alternative to electromagnetic
interference from radio frequency communications in environments such as mines and
petrochemical plants.
Aviation:
Li-Fi can be used to reduce weight and cabling and add flexibility to seating layouts in
aircraft passenger cabins where LED lights are already deployed. In-flight entertainment
(IFE) systems can also be supported and integrated with passengers’ own mobile devices.
Underwater Communications:
Due to strong signal absorption in water, RF use is impractical. Acoustic waves have
extremely low bandwidth and disturb marine life. Li-Fi provides a solution for shortrange
communications.
Reduction in accident numbers:
LED headlights and tail-lights are being introduced. At traffic signals, we can use LIFI in
order to communicate with LED lights of the cars by the number of accidents can be reduced.
Data can be easily transferred by making use of LIFI lamps with the street lamps. This can be
used for vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communications. This can be applied for
road safety and traffic management.
\
RF Avoidance:
Some people claim they are hypersensitive to radio frequencies and are looking for an
alternative. Li-Fi is a good solution to this problem.

Location Based Services (LBS):
Highly accurate location-specific information services such as advertising and navigation that
enables the recipient to receive appropriate, pertinent information in a timely manner and
location.
Airlines:
Airline Wi-Fi, nothing says captive audience like having to pay for the "service" of dialup
speed Wi-Fi on the plane. And don’t get me started on the pricing. The best so far is that
passengers will "soon" be offered a "high-speed like" connection on some
airlines. United is planning on speeds as high as 9.8 Mbps per plane. Twice that
capacity in my living room. And at the same price as checking a bag, Li-Fi could easily
introduce that sort of speed to each seat's reading light.
Smarter Power Plants:
Wi-Fi and many other radiation types are bad for sensitive areas. Like those surrounding
power plants. But power plants need fast, inter-connected data systems to monitor things like
demand, grid integrity and (in nuclear plants) core temperature. The savings from proper
monitoring at a single power plant can add up to hundreds of thousands of dollars. Li-Fi
could offer safe, abundant connectivity for all areas of these sensitive locations. Not only
would this save money related to currently implemented solutions, but the draw on a power
plant’s own reserves could be lessened if they haven’t yet converted to LED lighting.
Education systems:
As with the advancement of science the latest technology is the LIFI which is the fastest
speed internet access service.so this will leads to the replacement of WIFI at institutions and
at companies so that all the people can make use of LIFI with same speed intended in a
particular area.
Usage-Models:
Within a local Li-Fi cloud several database services are supported through a
heterogeneous communication system. In an initial approach, the Li-Fi Consortium
defined different types of technologies to provide secure, reliable and ultra-high-speed
wireless communication interfaces. These, Technologies included Giga-speed
technologies, optical mobility technologies, and navigation, precision location and
gesture recognition technologies. For Giga-speed technologies, the Li-Fi Consortium
defined Giga Dock, Giga-Beam, Giga-Shower, Giga-Spot and Giga-MIMO models to
address different user scenarios for wireless indoor and indoor-like data transfers.
Giga Dock is a wireless docking solution including wireless charging for smartphones,
tablets or notebooks, with speeds up to 10Gbps, the Giga Beam model is a point-to-point data
link for kiosk applications or portable-to-portable data exchanges. Thus a two-hour full
HDTV movie (5 GB) can be transferred from one device to another within four seconds. Giga
shower, Giga Spot and Giga- MIMO are the other models for in-house communication. There
a transmitter or receiver is mounted into the ceiling connected to, for example, a media

server. On the other side are portable or fixed devices on a desk in an office, in an operating
room, in a production hall or at an airport.
Giga Shower provides unidirectional data services via several channels to multiple users with
gigabitclass communication speed over several maters. This is like watching TV channels or
listening to different radio stations where no uplink channel is needed. In case Giga Shower is
used to sell books, music or movies, the connected media server can be accessed via Wi-Fi to
process payment via a mobile device. Giga-Spot and Giga-MIMO are optical wireless singleand multi-channel Hot-Spot solutions offering bidirectional gigabit-class communication in a
room, hall or shopping mall for example.
Extends our life span:
For a long time, medical technology has lagged behind the rest of the wireless world.
Operating rooms do not allow Wi-Fi over radiation concerns, and there is also that
whole lack of room. dedicated spectrum. While Wi-Fi is in place in many hospitals,
interference from cell phones and computers can block signals from monitoring
equipment. Li-Fi solves both problems: lights are not only allowed in operating
rooms, but tend to be the most glaring (pun intended) fixtures in the room. And, as
Haas mentions in his TED Talk, Li-Fi has 10,000 times the spectrum of Wi-Fi, so
maybe we can, I delegate red light to priority medical data. Code Red!
Replacement for others technologies:
This technology doesn’t deal with radio waves, so it can easily be used in the places
where Bluetooth, infrared, WIFI and Internet are banned. In this way, it will be most
helpful transferring medium for us. It includes other benefits like:
*A very wide spectrum over visible wave length range.
* Extremely high colour fidelity.
*Instant start time.
*Easy terminal Management.
*Dynamic dark i.e. brightness Modulation of lamp output to enhance video contrast.
*Trouble-free integration into existing light engine platform.
Li-Fi is the upcoming and on growing technology acting as competent
for various other developing and already invented technologies. Since
light is d major source for transmission in this technology it is very advantageous and
implementable in various fields that can’t be done with
the Wi-Fi and other technologies. Hence the future applications of the
Li-Fi can be predicted and extended to different platforms like education
fields, medical field, industrial areas and many other fields.

8. FEATURES:
Li-Fi offers a number of key benefits over Wi-Fi but is inherently a complementary
technology.
Capacity:
Bandwidth:
The visible light spectrum is plentiful (10,000 more than RF spectrum), unlicensed and
free to use.
Data density: Li-Fi can achieve about 1000 times the data density of Wi-Fi because
visible light can be well contained in a tight illumination area whereas RF tends to spread
out and cause interference.
High speed: Very high data rates can be achieved due to low interference, high device
bandwidths and high intensity optical output.
Planning: Capacity planning is simple since there tends to be illumination infrastructure
where people wish to communicate, and good signal strength can literally be seen.
Efficiency
Low cost: Requires fewer components than radio technology.
Energy: LED illumination is already efficient and the data transmission requires
negligible additional power.
Environment: RF transmission and propagation in water is extremely difficult but Li-Fi
works well in this environment. Safety: Life on earth has evolved through exposure to visible
light. There are no known safety or health concerns for this technology.
Non-hazardous: The transmission of light avoids the use of radio frequencies which can
dangerously interfere with electronic circuitry in certain environments.
Security.
Containment: It is difficult to eavesdrop on Li-Fi signals since the signal is confined to a
closely defined illumination area and will not travel through walls.
Control: Data may be directed from one device to another and the user can see where the
data is going; there is no need for additional security such as pairing for RF
interconnections such as Bluetooth.

9. LIMITATIONS OF LI-FI:
The main problem is that light can’t pass through objects, so if the receiver is
inadvertently blocked in any way, then the signal will immediately cut out. ―If the light
signal is blocked, or when you need to use your device to send information — you can
seamlessly switch back over to radio waves‖, Harald says. Reliability and network coverage
are the major issues to be considered by the companies while providing VLC services.
Interference from external light sources like sun light, normal bulbs; and opaque materials in
the path of transmission will cause interruption in the communication.
High installation cost of the VLC systems can be complemented by large-scale
implementation of VLC though Adopting VLC technology will reduce further operating
costs like electricity charges, maintenance charges etc.
This research report categorizes the global VLC technology market; based on
component, applications, and geography. Li-Fi uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) which
are rapidly gaining in popularity for standard light bulbs and other domestic and
commercial purposes. They are expected to be ubiquitous in 20 years. VLC is not in
competition with Wi-Fi, Prof. Haas says, it is a complimentary technology that should
eventually help free up much needed space within the radio wave spectrum.
We still need Wi-Fi we still need radio frequency cellular systems. You can’t have a
light bulb that provides data to a high-speed moving object or to provide data in a
remote area where there are trees and walls and obstacles behind,‖ he says.

10. COMAPRISON:
COMPARISON OF SPEED OF VARIOUS WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES
Technology Speed- Wi-Fi –150 Mbps, Bluetooth 3 Mbps, IrDA 4 Mbps ,Li-Fi >1 Gbps
COMPARISON WITH WI-FI USED FOR CONNECTING TO THE END USER
Li-Fi, an alternative to Wi-Fi that transmits data using the spectrum of visible light, has
achieved a new breakthrough, with UK scientists reporting transmission speeds of 10Gbit/s
– more than 250 times faster than ‘superfast’ broadband. Both Wi-Fi and Li-Fi transmit
data over the electromagnetic spectrum, but whereas Wi-Fi utilizes radio waves, Li-Fi uses
visible light. This is a distinct advantage in that the visible light is far more plentiful than the
radio spectrum (10,000 times more in fact) and can achieve far greater data density. It
17
acquired this name due to the similarity to WI-FI, only using light instead of radio. WI-FI
is great for general wireless coverage within buildings, and li-fi is ideal for high density
wireless data coverage in confined area and for relieving radio interference issues, so the
two technologies can be considered complimentary.
Problems in Wi-Fi The following are the basic issues with radio waves
: a) Capacity: Wireless data is transmitted through radio waves which are limited and
expensive. It has a limited bandwidth. With the rapidly growing world and development of
technologies like 3G, 4G and so on we are running out of spectrum.
b) Efficiency: There are 1.4 million cellular radio base stations that consume massive amount
of energy. Most of the energy is used for cooling down the base station instead of
transmission. Therefore efficiency of such base stations is only 5%.
c) Availability: Availability of radio waves is a big concern. It is not advisable to use mobile
phones in aero planes and at places like petrochemical plants and petrol pumps.
d) Security: Radio waves can penetrate through walls. They can be intercepted. If someone
has knowledge and bad intentions, they may misuse it. This causes a major security concern
for Wi-Fi. B. Advantages of Li-Fi Li-Fi technology is based on LEDs or other light source for
the transfer of data. The transfer of the data can be with the help of all kinds of light, no
matter the part of the spectrum that they belong. That is, the light can belong to the invisible,
ultraviolet or the visible part of the spectrum.
The speed of the communication is more than sufficient for downloading movies, games,
music and all in very less time. Also, Li-Fi removes the limitations that have been put on the
user by the Wi-Fi.

a) Capacity: Light has 10000 times wider bandwidth than radio waves [5]. Also, light
sources are already installed. So, Li-Fi has got better capacity and also the equipments are
already available.
b) Efficiency: Data transmission using Li-Fi is very cheap. LED lights consume less energy
and are highly efficient.
c) Availability: Availability is not an issue as light sources are present everywhere. There are
billions of light bulbs worldwide; they just need to be replaced with LEDs for proper
transmission of data.
d) Security: Light waves do not penetrate through walls. So, they can‘t be intercepted and
misused. With the advent of Li-Fi, now it is not mandatory to be in a region that is Wi-Fi
enabled to have access to the internet. One can simply stand under any form of light and surf
the internet as the connection is made if light is present.

10.1 SUMMARY OF DISADVANTAGES OF LI-FI:
One of the major demerits of this technology is that the artificial light cannot penetrate into
walls and other opaque materials which radio waves can do. So a Li-Fi enabled end device
(through its inbuilt photo-receiver) will never be as fast and handy as a Wi-Fi enabled device
in the open air. Also, another shortcoming is that it only works in direct line of sight. Still, LiFi could emerge as a boon to the rapidly depleting bandwidth of radio waves. And it will
certainly be the first choice for accessing internet in a confined room at cheaper cost.

11. SUMMARY 0F APPLICATIONS OF LI-FI:
There are numerous applications of this technology, from public internet access through
street lamps to auto-piloted cars that communicate through their headlights. Applications of
Li-Fi can extend in areas where the Wi-Fi technology lacks its presence like medical
technology, power plants and various other areas. Since Li-Fi uses just the light, it can be
used safely in aircrafts and hospitals where Wi-Fi is banned because they are prone to
interfere with the radio waves. All the street lamps can be transferred to Li-Fi lamps to
transfer data. As a result of it, it will be possible to access internet at any public place and
street. Some of the future applications of Li-Fi are as follows:
a) Education systems: Li-Fi is the latest technology that can provide fastest speed internet
access. So, it can replace Wi-Fi at educational institutions and at companies so that all the
people can make use of Li-Fi with the same speed intended in a particular area.
b) Medical Applications: Operation theatres (OTs) do not allow Wi-Fi due to radiation
concerns. Usage of Wi-Fi at hospitals interferes with the mobile and pc which blocks the
signals for monitoring equipments. So, it may be hazardous to the patient's health. This can
even be beneficial for robotic surgeries and other automated procedures.
c) Cheaper Internet in Aircrafts: The passengers travelling in aircrafts get access to low
speed internet at a very high rate. Also Wi-Fi is not used because it may interfere with the
navigational systems of the pilots. In aircrafts Li-Fi can be used for data transmission. Li-Fi
can easily provide high speed internet via every light source such as overhead reading bulb,
etc. present inside the airplane.
d) Underwater applications: Underwater ROVs (Remotely Operated Vehicles) operate from
large cables that supply their power and allow them to receive signals from their pilots above.
But the tether used in ROVs is not long enough to allow them to explore larger areas. If their
wires were replaced with light — say from a submerged, high-powered lamp — then they
would be much freer to explore. They could also use their headlamps to communicate with
each other, processing data autonomously and sending their findings periodically back to the
surface. Li-Fi can even work underwater where Wi-Fi fails completely, thereby throwing
open endless opportunities for military operations.
e) Disaster management: Li-Fi can be used as a powerful means of communication in times
of disaster such as earthquake or hurricanes. The average people may not know the protocols
during such disasters. Subway stations and tunnels, common dead zones for most emergency
communications, pose no obstruction for Li-Fi. Also, for normal periods, Li-Fi bulbs could
provide cheap high-speed Web access to every street corner.
f) Applications in sensitive areas: Power plants need fast, inter-connected data systems so
that demand, grid integrity and core temperature (in case of nuclear power plants) can be
monitored. Wi-Fi and many other radiation types are bad for sensitive areas surrounding the
power plants. Li-Fi could offer safe, abundant connectivity for all areas of these sensitive
locations. This can save money as compared to the currently implemented solutions. Also, the

pressure on a power plant‘s own reserves could be lessened. Li-Fi can also be used in
petroleum or chemical plants where other transmission or frequencies could be hazardous.
g) Traffic management: In traffic signals Li-Fi can be used which will communicate with the
LED lights of the cars which can help in managing the traffic in a better manner and the
accident numbers can be decreased. Also, LED car lights can alert drivers when other
vehicles are too close.
h) Replacement for other technologies: Li-Fi doesn‘t work using radio waves. So, it can be
easily used in the places where Bluetooth, infrared, Wi-Fi, etc. are banned.

12. SWOT:
Li-Fi technology is based on LEDs or other light source for the transfer of data.
The transfer of the data can be with the help of all kinds of light, no matter the part of the
spectrum that they belong. That is, the light can belong to the invisible, ultraviolet or the
visible part of the spectrum. Also, the speed of the communication is more than sufficient for
downloading movies, games, music and all in very less time. Also, Li-Fi removes the
limitations that have been put on the user by the Wi-Fi.

12.1 STRENGTH:

a) Capacity:
Light has 10000 times wider bandwidth than radio waves [5]. Also, light
sources are already installed. So, Li-Fi has got better capacity and also the
equipments are already available.
b) Efficiency:
Data transmission using Li-Fi is very cheap. LED lights consume less energy and are
highly efficient.
c) Availability:
Availability is not an issue as light sources are present everywhere. There are
billions of light bulbs worldwide; they just need to be replaced with LEDs for proper
transmission of data.
d) Security:
Light waves do not penetrate through walls. So, they can‘t be intercepted and
misused With the advent of Li-Fi, now it is not mandatory to be in a region that is WiFi enabled to have access to the internet. One can simply stand under any form of
light and surf the internet as the connection is made if light is present. Figure 6 gives a
description of Li-Fi along with its advantages.

12.2 WEAKNESS:
a) One of the major demerits of this technology is that the artificial light cannot
penetrate into walls and other opaque materials which radio waves can do. So
a Li-Fi enabled end device (through its inbuilt photo-receiver) will never be as fast
and handy as a Wi-Fi enabled device in the open air. Also, another
shortcoming is that it only works in direct line of sight.
b) Structural capabilities may take many years to replicate as per the requirements.

12.3 OPPORTUNITY :
a) Can be used in the places where it is difficult to lay the optical fiber like hospitals. In
operation theatre Li-Fi can be used for modern medical instruments.
b) In traffic signals Li-Fi can be used which will communicate with the LED lights of
the cars and accident numbers can be decreased. Thousand and millions of street
lamps can be transferred to Li-Fi lamps to transfer data. In aircraft L-iFi can be
used for data transmission.
c) It can be used in petroleum or chemical plants where other transmission or
frequencies could be hazardous.
d) Still, Li-Fi could emerge as a boon to the rapidly depleting bandwidth of radio
waves. And it will certainly be the first choice for accessing internet in a
confined room at cheaper cost.
12.4 THREATS :
a) May not be as successful as expected
b) Certain features of other connectivity’s like Wi-Fi are better suited to the common
man.
c) Will have to be extremely productive to overcome the massive usage of wifi,etc.

13. WORKING OF LI-FI:

A new generation of high brightness light-emitting diodes forms the core part of light
fidelity technology. The logic is very simple. If the LED is on, a digital 1 is transmitted. If
the LED is off, a digital 0 is transmitted. These high brightness LEDs can be switched on and
off very quickly which gives us a very nice opportunities for transmitting data through
light.
The working of Li-Fi is very simple. There is a light emitter on one end, for example, an
LED, and a photo detector (light sensor) on the other. The photo detector registers a binary
one when the LED is on; and a binary zero if the LED is off. To build up a message, flash the
LED numerous times or use an array of LEDs of perhaps a few different colors, to obtain data
rates in the range of hundreds of megabits per second.

The block diagram of Li-Fi system is shown in Fig

The data can be encoded in the light by varying the flickering rate at which the
LEDs flicker on and off to generate different strings of 1s and 0s.The LED intensity
is modulated so rapidly that human eye cannot notice, so the light of the LED appears
constant to humans

Light-emitting diodes (commonly referred to as LEDs and found in traffic and street
lights, car brake lights, remote control units and countless other applications) can be
switched on and off faster than the human eye can detect, causing the light source to appear
to be on continuously, even though it is n fact 'flickering'. The on-off activity of the bulb
which seems o be invisible enables data transmission using binary codes: switching on
an LED is a logical '1', switching it off is a logical '0'. By varying the rate at which the
LEDs flicker on and off, information can be encoded in the light to different
combinations of 1s and 0s. This method of using rapid pulses of light to transmit
information wirelessly is technically referred to as Visible Light Communication (VLC),
though its popularly called as Li-Fi because it can compete with its radio-based rival
Wi-Fi.

Figure shows a Li-Fi system connecting devices in a room.

Many other sophisticated techniques can be used to dramatically increase VLC data
rate. Teams at the University of Oxford and the University of Edinburgh are focusing on
parallel data transmission using array of LEDs, where each LED transmits a different
data stream. Other groups are using mixtures of red, green and blue LEDs to alter the
light frequency encoding a different data channel.

14. CONCLUSION:
The possibilities are numerous and can be explored further. If his technology can be put into
practical use, every bulb can be used something like a Wi-Fi hotspot to transmit wireless data
and we will proceed toward the cleaner, greener, safer and brighter future. The concept
of Li-Fi is currently attracting a great deal of interest, not least because it may offer a
genuine and very efficient alternative to radio-based wireless. As a growing number of
people and their many devices access wireless internet, the airwaves are becoming
increasingly clogged, making it more and more difficult to get a reliable, high-speed
signal. This may solve issues such as the shortage of radio-frequency bandwidth and also
allow internet where traditional radio based wireless isn’t allowed such as aircraft or
hospitals. One of the shortcomings however is that it only work in direct line of sight. There
are a plethora of possibilities to be gouged upon in this field of technology. If this technology
becomes justifiably marketed then every bulb can be used analogous to a Wi-Fi hotspot to
transmit data wirelessly. By virtue of this we can ameliorate to a greener, cleaner, safer and a
resplendent future. The concept of Li-Fi is attracting a lot of eye-balls because it offers a
genuine and very efficient alternative to radio based wireless. It has a bright chance to replace
the traditional Wi-Fi because as an ever increasing population is using wireless internet, the
airwaves are becoming increasingly clogged, making it more and more difficult to get a
reliable, high-speed signal. This concept promises to solve issues such as the shortage of
radio-frequency bandwidth and boot out the disadvantages of Wi-Fi. Li-Fi is the upcoming
and on growing technology acting as competent for various other developing and already
invented technologies. Hence the future applications of the Li-Fi can be predicted and
extended to different platforms and various walks of human life.
The Idea of Li-Fi technology currently attracting us a great deal of interest because
it’s latest and very efficient alternative to radio-based wireless technology. The possibilities
are numerous and can be explored further. If this technology can be put into practical use,
every bulb can be used something like a Wi-Fi hotspot to transmit wireless data and we can
proceed toward the cleaner, greener, safer and brighter future. As a growing number of people
and their many devices access wireless internet, the airwaves are becoming increasingly
clogged, making it more and more difficult to get a reliable, high speed signal. This may
solve issues such as the short age of radio frequency bandwidth and also allow internet where
traditional radio based wireless is not allowed such as aircraft or hospitals. One of the
shortcomings however is that it only work in direct line of sight.
.