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DOI 10.1007/s00170-012-4600-7

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

programming approach

Hamed Khaledi & Mohammad Reisi-Nafchi

# Springer-Verlag London 2012

issues in manufacturing. The nature of this problem is

complex and therefore researchers have studied it under

several and different assumptions. In this paper, applied

production planning problem is studied in a general manner

and it is assumed that there exists an optimal control problem that its production planning strategy is a digital controller and must be optimized. Since this is a random problem

because of stochastic values of sales in future, it is modeled

as a stochastic dynamic programming and then it is transformed to a linear programming model using successive

approximations. Then, it is proved that these two models

are equivalent. The main objective of the proposed model is

achieving optimal decisions using forecasting sales which

can be applied in master production schedule, manufacturing resource planning, capacity requirements planning, and

job shop/shop floor scheduling.

Keywords Production planning . Dynamic programming .

Linear programming . Optimal control

1 Introduction

Nowadays, because of the intensely competitive markets

and limited resources, many manufacturers have come to

appreciate the importance of production planning. So, designing the best strategy and policy in this scope is vital.

H. Khaledi

Department of Industrial Engineering,

Sharif University of Technology,

Tehran, Iran

M. Reisi-Nafchi (*)

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering,

Isfahan University of Technology,

Isfahan, Iran

e-mail: mohamad.reisi@in.iut.ac.ir

various aspects during last decades.

Zwicker [1] studied inventory and production planning

models by system dynamics. Byrne and Bakir [2] presented

a hybrid approach which combines aspects of both analytic

methods like mathematical programming and simulation

which are two classes of the problem of multi-period

multi-product production planning. They demonstrated

how the analytical model working in cooperation with the

simulation model can give better results than either method

alone. Elhafsi [3] investigated a bi-level inventory system

which was subject to failures and repairs. The objective of

his study was to minimize the expected total cost so as to

determine the production plan for a single demand and finite

horizon. His production planning problem was composed of

the optimal number of lot sizes, the optimal size for each lot,

the optimal ordering schedule for unfinished items, and the

optimal due date to be assigned to the demand.

Yokoyama and Lewis [4] considered a production system

to produce products of multiple items by several machines

to meet time-varying stochastic demand. In their research,

planning horizon was finite and divided into discrete periods. Wang and Liang [5] presented an interactive possibilistic linear programming approach for solving the multiproduct aggregate production planning problem with imprecise forecast demand, related operating costs, and capacity.

Their proposed approach attempts to minimize total costs

with reference to inventory levels, labor levels, overtime,

and machine and warehouse capacity. Rein-qian [6] considered uncertain market and stochastic production environment and the influences of stochastic factors. In order to

deal with these items, he built a stochastic capacity expansion model which aims to minimize the production and

capacity expansion cost. Chazal et al. [7] studied the deterministic optimization problem of a profit-maximizing firm

which plans its sales/production schedule. In their research, they have assumed that the storage cost is convex

the study of a backward integro-differential equation,

from which they obtain explicit construction of the optimal plan.

Jamalnia and Soukhakian [8] developed a hybrid fuzzy

multi-objective nonlinear programming model with different goal priorities for aggregate production planning problem in a fuzzy environment. Their proposed model tries to

minimize total production costs, carrying and back ordering

costs and costs of changes in workforce level (quantitative

objectives) and maximize total customer satisfaction (qualitative objective) regarding the inventory level, demand,

labor level, machines capacity, and warehouse space. Pilar

et al. [9] outlined a stochastic dynamic programming approach that makes use of the scenario tree in a back-to-front

scheme and multi-period stochastic problems related to the

sub-trees whose root nodes are the starting nodes, and then

solved at each given stage along the time horizon. Huang

and Ahmed [10] presented an approach for studying the

planning horizon of capacity planning problems within the

framework of stochastic programming instead of Markov

decision. Firstly, they considered an infinite horizon stochastic capacity planning model involving a single resource,

linear cost structure, and discrete distributions of general

stochastic cost and demand data and then given sufficient

conditions for the existence of an optimal solution.

According to the above-mentioned research studies, production planning is studied in different assumptions and

various situations and this problem has been studied by

system dynamics and optimal control methods in special

cases. For more information, researchers are referred to the

book of Sethi and Thompson [11], which has studied the

optimal control theory and it has mentioned some good

application for it.

Unlike the mentioned papers, in this paper, the production planning problem is studied in a general and applied

manner. So, here, the objective is to achieve optimal decisions using forecasting sales which can be used in the

following cases:

MRP II 0 Manufacturing resource planning

CRP 0 Capacity requirements planning

Job shop/shop floor scheduling

Therefore, this papers method could have many applications because of generality and could be applied in cases

where the production planning problem is defined. The rest

of papers structure is as follows:

In Section 2, the problem is described and its parameters

and variables are introduced. A classic model based on

linear programming for the problem is presented in Section 3, and in Section 4, a new dynamic programming model

is proposed and proved it is equivalent to the proposed

and future works are presented.

2 Problem description

In this paper, the problem objective is attempting to prepare

orders and requests of customers by considering setup costs,

tardiness, and products shortage costs. In addition, producing

customers necessities according to forecasts is another objective now and in future. Therefore, there exists an optimal

control problem that its production planning strategy is a

digital controller and must be optimized. Since this is a random problem, because of stochastic values of sales in future,

in this paper it is modeled as a stochastic dynamic programming and is transformed to a linear programming model using

successive approximations. To understand the problem better,

first, transformed model, i.e., linear programming model, is

presented and then original model, i.e., dynamic programming

and stages of its linearization are described. For linear

programming model, its constraints are introduced at first

and then its objective function is presented.

All necessary parameters and variables are defined as

follows:

i, j01, , n1, , n2, , n: All types of materials, items

and products which should be considered in production

planning

i, j01, , n1: Raw materials, which are purchased and

consumed but are not produced

i, j0n1 +1, , n2: Work in process materials and products which are produced and consumed

i, j0n2 +1, , n: Final products which are produced

and sold

m: Total number of producing machines which have

capacity constraints

k01, , m: Indicates the producing machine k

T: Total periods of production planning horizon

t00, 1, , T: Periods of production planning horizon;

t00: previous period, t01: first period

A: Total number of warehouses.

tIi: Inventory level of item i at the end of period t, so

matrix I is defined as below:

3

2

. . . . . . T I1

0 I1

1 I1

.. 7

6

7

6

...

6 0 I2

. . . . . . .. 7

7

6

.

6

. 7

6

. 7

I 6

7

6...

. . . t Ii . . . .. 7

7

6

7

6

6 ..

.. 7

.. . . . .

4 .

. 5

.

. .

I

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 n

T In

tPi:

matrix P is defined as below:

2

1 P1

6

6 P

61 2

6

6

6

P 6...

6

6

6 ..

6 .

4

1 Pn

2 P1

...

..

.

...

t Pi

...

..

.

..

... ...

T P1

..

.

..

.

..

.

..

.

3

7

7

7 2

3

7

Raw materials : Purchase

7

7 4

5

WIPs : Produce

7

7

End products : Produce

7

7

7

5

2 S1

...

6

..

6 S

.

...

61 2

6

6

S 6

6...

...

6

t Si

6 .

.. . .

4 ..

.

.

1 Sn . . . . . .

T S1

..

.

..

.

..

.

..

.

q11

6

6 q21

6

6

Q 6 ...

6

6 ..

4 .

qn;1

q12

..

.

...

...

qik . . .

.. . .

.

.

... ...

C11

6

6 C21

6

6

C 6...

6

6 ..

4 .

Cn1

C12

..

.

...

...

Cij . . .

.. . .

.

.

... ...

t t n;1

T Sn

3

2

q1;m

0

.. 7

6 ...

. 7

7 6

.. 7 6 qn ;1

6 1

. 7

7 6

.. 7 4 ...

. 5

0

q

nm

0

..

.

3

0

.. 7

. 7

0 7

7

.. 7

. 5

...

..

.

. . . qnm

3 2

C1n

0 C1n1

.. 7 6

..

. 7

.

7 60

.. 7 6

6

0

0

7

. 7 6

..

.. 7 6

40

.

. 5

0

0

Cnn

3

... 0

..

.. 7

.

. 7

7

. . . Cn2 n 7

7

..

.. ... 7

5

.

.

0 0 0

0 : if machine k does not produce item i in period t 2 3

0

3

2

607

3

2

t b11

t b12 . . . t b1;m

7

6

0 0

0

6 .. 7

6

..

.. 7

.. ..

.. 7

.

6

7

7

6

6 t b21

.

...

. 7 6. .

. 7

6 7

6

7

7 6

607

6

.

.

6 1 . . . 0 7 t bk 6 7

tB 6 . . .

...

. 7

t bik

7

7 6

617

6

6 7

6 ..

..

..

.. 7 4 ... . . . ... 5

607

4 .

.

.

. 5

6. 7

0

.

.

.

1

4 .. 5

. . . t bnm

t bn;1 . . .

0

t t 11

6

6 t t 21

6

6

t 6 . . .

6 .

4 ..

7

7 2

3

7

Raw materials : Consumption

7

7 4

5

WIPs : Consumption

7

7

End products : Sales

7

7

5

t b ik

...

unit of item j, so matrix C is defined as below:

2

rn;1

...

...

..

.

...

3

2

r1;m

0

.. 7

.

7

6

. 7 6 ..

.. 7 6 rn ;1

6 1

. 7

7 6

.. 7 4 ...

. 5

0

rnm

0

..

.

...

..

.

...

3

0

.. 7

. 7

0 7

7

.. 7

. 5

rnm

t t 12

..

.

t t ik

..

.

...

...

t t 1m

..

.

..

.

..

.

...

...

..

.

...

3

7

7

7

7

7

7

5

t t nm

ik: Required time for changing from each item to item i

on machine k

in each period, so matrix Q is defined as below:

2

rik

..

.

...

so matrix tt is defined as below:

matrix S is defined as below:

1 S1

r12

..

.

6

6 r21

6

6

R 6...

6

6 ..

4 .

T Pn

tSi:

r11

t d ik

0 : if machine k doesnot setup for item i in period t

To understand better the above definitions, some parameters and variables are shown in Fig. 1 in a schematic

diagram.

In this section, the linear programming model of the problem is presented. Firstly, constraints of the model are described and then its objective function is introduced.

Constraints of the model are as follow:

According to Eq. (1), t periods and n items of goods are

considered in such ways that initial inventories are assumed

to be in hand.

0 Ii

t Ii t1 Ii t Pi t Si

i 1 . . . n1 . . . n2 . . . n; t 1T

t Ii

0production supplies

i 1 . . . n1 . . . n2 ; t 1 . . . T

t Ii

1

2

3

i n21 . . . n;t 1 . . . T

4

rik: Production rate of item i in machine k, so matrix R

is defined as below:

i2La t Ii

Ua

a 1 . . . Awarehouse capacity

0B

0I

1B*, 1P*, 1S*

1I

2B , 2P , 2S

2I

---t=0 -------|---------- t=1 ---------|---------- t=2 ----------|

T-1I

TB , TP , TS

TI

|---------- t=T ----------|

each forward periods problem data

i n2 1 . . . n; t 1 . . . T

function as Eq. (13). The objective function of the model

is presented below:

t Si

6

Pn

t Si

jn1

Cij t Pj

i 1 . . . n1 . . . n2 . . . n; t 1 . . . T

Min W

m

X

q ik t b ik q i

k1

m

X

Z t I; t B;

in1 1

t b ik

Binary0=1

k 1...m

10

m

X

rik t t ik ri

k1

m

X

m

n

X

1 X

bi t Ii

lk

jt bik t1 bik j

2 k1

in2 1

in1 1

n

X

15

the costs of maintaining extra inventory could be added to

the right hand side of Eq. (14). This added item could be

linear or quadratic term like the following relation:

t t ik i n1 1 . . . n2 ; t 1 . . . T

k1

11

m

X

(9) and (10) is like follow constraints:

t Pi

t1 B

and t Ii is shortage amount of product i at the end of period t.

Also, lk is average cost of changing product (line) for

machine k, and the last term in Eq. (14), i.e., jt bik t1 bik j

is equal to:

k1

t b ik 1;

13

14

t b ik i n1 1 . . . n2 ; t 1 . . . T

9

n

P

t1 B

of one period which can be as follow:

which are introduced in relations (9) and (10).

tP i

t1 Z t I; t B;

t1

problem datai 1 . . . n1 ; t 1 . . . T

t Pi

T

X

n

X

k1

n

X

2

g i t Ii or

g i t Ii

i1

16

i1

12

In the above relation, i is unit cost of inventory surplus

and t Ii is surplus amount of inventory of product i at the end

of period t.

Some other scenarios for changing production line could

be considered. These scenarios are presented as the

following:

Figure 2 shows the relationship between defined parameters and variables graphically. This figure demonstrates that in

each period there exist some inventories (I) and during the

period this inventory increases by producing products (P) and

at the end of the period some products may be sold (S) and the

rest amount of inventory will remain for the next period.

The objective function of the proposed model is to minimize the total cost of inventories according to the

&

first and last item and not to the items sequence, the Z

1P*

defined parameters and

variables

4P

2P

1S*

1I

2S

0I

2I

4S

3P=0

4I

3S

3I=0

t=0

t=1

t=2

t=3

t=4

average cost of changing from item i to k and k to i.

Z t I; t B;

t1 B

n

X

bi

in2 1

t Ii

m

n

X

1 X

lik jt bik t1 bik j

2 k1 in 1

terms could be transformed to the linear relationship:

Equivalent

,

t e ijk t b jk t1 b ik

the last item, Z equation will be as Eq. (18), where lik is

the average cost of changing from each item to item i

(this multiplier is equivalent to ik in alternative mode).

t f ijk t b ik

t1 B

n

X

in2 1

bi t Ii

m

X

n

X

t1 B

n

X

in2 1

m X

n

X

b i t Ii

lik 1t bik t1 bik

1t b ik t1 b ik

first item and the second one and also their sequence, Z

equation will be as Eq. (20), where lik is the average cost

of changing from item i to item j.

n

X

in2 1

t1 B

m

n

n

X

X

X

b i t Ii

lijk t bjk t1 bik

Min W

(

T

X

at1

t1

n

X

bi

t Ii

above equations is equivalent to the following logic

terms:

t b jk

t b ik

n

X

gi

i1

t Ii

m X

n

X

n

X

k1 in1 1 in1 1

27

(

)

n

n

2 P

P

2

bi : t Ii ; g i : t Ii , the KKT conditions will

i1

bound could be used to solve the problem.

k1 in1 1 in1 1

20

b t b jk t g ijk

t1 jk

2 t g ijk 1 t1 b jk t b ik

three above equations, i.e., (24), (25), and (26), the second

inequality is unnecessary because they will be satisfied

automatically.

At last, the most complete objective function for the

production planning problem is suggested as follow:

in2 1

Equivalent

26

in2 1

Z t I; t B;

t bjk t1

b ik t f ijk

2 t f ijk 1 t b jk t1 b ik

k1 in1 1

19

&

only to the first item, Z equation will be as Eq.

(19), where lik is the average cost of changing from

item i to each item.

Z t I; t B;

Equivalent

k1 in1 1

18

&

1t1 b ik

25

t g ijk

Z t I; t B;

24

17

&

t1

b ik t e ijk 1

2 t e ijk t b jk t1 b ik

tb

jk

t1 b ik t b jk and t1 b i k

1t1 b ik t b jk and not

t1 b ik

21

In this section, the dynamic programming model is

presented for the mentioned problem. The state variables of this model are available inventory and current

item of machines, which are shown by vector I and

matrix B. Vector X is a random variable of possible

amount of sales, and f(X) is a joint probability distribution function (pdf) of possible sales.

The original stochastic dynamic programming model in the

infinite case (unlimited forward periods) is shown in Eq. (28).

22

1t b ik t1 b ik not t b jk and t1 b ik

RRR

1;...;1

V I ;BMin

B0

23

...

fZ I P B 0 X ; B 0 ; B a:V I P B 0 X ; B 0 g : f X :d X

X0;...;0

28

function of X, and because of being Markovian process of

8

>

<

V I ; B Min

Z I P B 0

B0 >

:

ZZZ

1;...;1

Z

...

traverses from recursive relation of dynamic programming:

X :f X :d X ; B 0 ; B a:V I P B 0

X0;...;0

ZZZ

1;...;1

Z

...

x0;...;0

X :f X :d X ; B 0

9

>

=

>

;

29

ZZZ

1;...;1

X : f X : d X EX !

X S Sn2 1 ; Sn2 2 ; . . . ; Sn

...

30

X 0;...;0

:

Where vector S is the expected values of forecasting

sales. Therefore, probability distributions of forecasting

sales are not important and it is enough to know their

average. Now, dynamic programming is as follows:

V1 T 1 I;T1 B

TB

35

31

V0 0

T !1

T !1

T!1

32

optimal decisions then:

VT 0 I;0 B Z 0 I P 1 B* 1 S ; 1 B* ; 0 B

a: Z 1 I P 2 B* 2 S ; 2 B* ;1 B*

*

a: Z 2 I P 3 B 3 S ; 3 B* ; 2 B* a:f. . .g

Z 1 I ; 1 B* ; 0 B

a: Z 2 I ; 2 B* ; 1 B* a: Z 3 I ; 3 B* ; 2 B* a:f. . .g

T

X

at1 Z t I; t B* ; t1 B* W *

37

1B

33

2B

a:V

T 21 I P2 B2 S ; 2 B

g

Z 1 I P 2 B* 2S ; 2B* ; 1 B

a:VT2 1 I P 2 B* 2 S ; 2 B*

36

t1

VT 0 I; 0 B MinfZ 0 I P1 B1 S ; 1 B ; 0 B

a:V

T 1 0 I P1 B1 S ; 1 Bg

Z 0 I P 1 B* 1 S ; 1 B* ; 0 B

a:VT 1 0 I P 1 B* 1 S ; 1 B*

T1 Bg

a:V

0 T 1 I PT BT S ; T Bg

Z T1 I P T B* T S; T B* ; T1B

a:V0 T 1 I P T B* T S ; T B*

V I ; B Min

fZ I P B 0 S ; B 0 ; B a:V I P B 0 S; B0 g

0

approach and linear programming model are equivalent,

like Eq. (32).

MinfZ T 1 I PT BT S ; T B ;

34

So, the optimal solution of the proposed linear programming in the previous section is exactly equal to the optimal

solution of original dynamic programming, which to solve

it, the problem should be solved for T01 and then the value

of T must increase successively until the solution of T+1

and T become equal. In this case, the optimal solution of

unlimited periods is obtained.

is to use the maximum capacity of the equipment, then the

costs of maintaining extra inventory must be omitted from

the objective function. On the other hand, by decreasing the

time of changing production line (ik) and decreasing setup

costs (ijk), it is possible to go toward just-in-time production by considering maintaining extra inventory costs. In

fact, optimal strategy of the proposed dynamic programming is gotten solution as pulling according to sales value,

and if the strategy is to achieve agile manufacturing, then it

is equivalent to implementing KANBAN.

5 Conclusion

Production planning has become one of the most important

issues for manufacturers from several years ago. So, its related

problems have been studied by many researchers from different

point of views. In this paper, the problem is considered in a

general and applied manner and a new model is proposed to

achieve optimal decisions which are applicable in master production schedule, manufacturing resource planning, capacity

requirements planning, and job shop/shop floor scheduling. A

new stochastic dynamic programming model and its transformed

linear model are presented for the problem and then it is proved

that these two models are equivalent. For further studies, it is

suggested that these models are applied on real world data.

Besides, fuzzy concepts could be useful to model the problem.

References

1. Zwicker E (1980) System dynamics in inventory and production

planning. OR-Spektrum 1:143168

2. Byrne MD, Bakir MA (1999) Production planning using a

hybrid simulation-analytical approach. Int J Prod Econ

59:305311

3. Elhafsi M (2002) A production planning model for an unreliable

production facility: case of finite horizon and single demand. Eur J

Oper Res 143:94114

4. Yokoyama M, Lewis HW (2003) Optimization of the stochastic

dynamic production cycling problem by a genetic algorithm.

Comput Oper Res 30:18311849

5. Wang RC, Liang TF (2005) Applying possibilistic linear programming to aggregate production planning. Int J Prod Econ 98:

328341

6. Rein-qian Z (2007) Research on capacity planning under stochastic production and uncertain demand. Syst Eng Theory Pract 27

(1):5159

7. Chazal M, Jouini E, Tahraoui R (2008) Production planning and

inventories optimization: a backward approach in the convex storage cost case. Int J Math Econ 44:9971023

8. Jamalnia A, Soukhakian MA (2009) A hybrid fuzzy goal programming approach with different goal priorities to aggregate production planning. Comput Ind Eng 56:14741486

9. Pilar CM, Escudero LF, Monge JF (2009) On stochastic dynamic

programming for solving large-scale planning problems under

uncertainty. Comput Oper Res 36:24182428

10. Huang K, Ahmed S (2010) A stochastic programming approach

for planning horizons of infinite horizon capacity planning problems. Eur J Oper Res 200:7484

11. Sethi S, Thompson GL (2000) Optimal control theory: applications

to management science and economics, 2nd ed. Springer,

New York

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