TEACHER AND SCHOOL STAFF RIGHTS

If you have any questions regarding Teacher Rights or School Staff Rights, please contact us for a Free Teacher Rights and School Staff Rights Consultation.

Teachers and school staff including food services, maintenance and operations, office and clerical, paraeducators, special services and administration enjoy a number of
rights pertaining to their employment, including recognition of certain freedoms, prohibition against certain forms of disrimination, and significant protections against
dismissal from their position. These rights are derived from state and federal constitutional provisions, state and federal statutes, and state and federal regulations.

Constitutional provisions provide protection to teachers and school staff at public schools that are generally not available to teachers at private schools. Since public schools
are state entities, constitutional restrictions on state action limit some actions that public schools may take with respect to teachers or other employees. Rights that are
constitutional in nature include the following:

•Substantive and procedural due process rights, including the teacher right to receive notice of termination and right to hearing
•Freedom of expression and association provided by the First Amendment
•Academic freedom, a limited concept recognized by courts based on principles of the First Amendment
•Protection against unreasonable searches and seizures by school officials of a teacher's personal property

Though private school teachers do not generally enjoy as much of the constitutional protection as public school teachers, statutes may provide protection against
discrimination. The CIVIL RIGHTS Act of 1964, for example, protects teachers at both public and private schools from racial, sexual, or religious discrimination. Private school
teachers may also enjoy rights in their contracts that are similar to due process rights, including the inability of a private school to dismiss the teacher without cause, notice,
or a hearing.

Denial or Revocation of Teaching Certificate
Courts have held consistently that teaching certificates are not contracts. Thus, requirements to attain or maintain a certificate may be changed and applied to all teachers
and prospective teachers. The certification process is administered by state certifying agencies in each state, and most of these agencies have been delegated significant
authority with respect to the administration of these rules. Despite this broad delegation, however, the state agencies may not act arbitrarily, nor may these agencies deny
or revoke certification on an arbitrary basis. Some state statutes provide that a certificate may be revoked for "just cause." Other common statutory grounds include the
following:

•Immoral conduct or indecent behavior
•Incompetency
•Violations of ethical standards
•Unprofessional conduct
•Misrepresentation or fraud
•Willful neglect of duty

Teacher Tenure
Most states protect teachers in public schools from arbitrary dismissal through tenure statutes. Under these tenure statutes, once a teacher has attained tenure, his or her
contract renews automatically each year. School districts may dismiss tenured teachers only by a showing of cause, after following such procedural requirements as
providing notice to the teacher, specifying the charges against the teacher, and providing the teacher with a meaningful hearing. Most tenure statutes require teachers to
remain employed during a probationary period for a certain number of years. Once this probationary period has ended, teachers in some states will earn tenure
automatically. In other states, the local school board must take some action to grant tenure to the teacher, often at the conclusion of a review of the teacher's performance.
Tenure also provides some protection for teachers against demotion, salary reductions, and other discipline. However, tenure does not guarantee that a teacher may retain a
particular position, such as a coaching position, nor does it provide indefinite employment.

Prior to attaining tenure, a probationary teacher may be dismissed at the discretion of the school district, subject to contractual and constitutional restrictions. Laws other
than those governing tenure will apply to determine whether a discharge of a teacher is wrongful. If a probationary teacher's dismissal does not involve discrimination or
does not violate terms of the teacher's contract, the school district most likely does not need to provide notice, summary of charges, or a hearing to the teacher.

In the absence of a state tenure STATUTE, a teacher may still attain de facto tenure rights if the customs or circumstances of employment demonstrate that a teacher has a
"legitimate claim of entitlement for job tenure." The United States Supreme Court recognized this right in the case of Perry v. Sindermann, which also held that where a
teacher has attained de facto tenure, the teacher is entitled to due process prior to dismissal by the school district.

State laws do not govern the tenure process at private schools. However, a contract between a private school district and a teacher may provide tenure rights, though
enforcement of these rights is related to the contract rights rather than rights granted through the state tenure statute.

Teacher Dismissal
A school must show cause in order to dismiss a teacher who has attained tenure status. Some state statutes provide a list of circumstances where a school may dismiss a
teacher. These circumstances are similar to those in which a state agency may revoke a teacher's certification. Some causes for dismissal include the following:

•Immoral conduct
•Incompetence
•Neglect of duty
•Substantial noncompliance with school laws
•Conviction of a crime

•Insubordination
•Fraud or misrepresentation

Due Process Rights of Teachers and School Staff
The Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, like its counterpart in the Fifth Amendment, provides that no state may "deprive any person of life, liberty, or
property, without due process of law." This clause applies to public school districts and provides the minimum procedural requirements that each public school district must
satisfy when dismissing a teacher who has attained tenure. Note that in this context, due process does not prescribe the reasons why a teacher may be dismissed, but rather
it prescribes the procedures a school must follow to dismiss a teacher. Note also that many state statutory provisions for dismissing a teacher actually exceed the minimum
requirements under the Due Process Clause.

The United States Supreme Court case of Cleveland Board of Education v. Loudermill is the leading case involving the question of what process is due under the Constitution.
This case provides that a tenured teacher must be given oral or written notice of the dismissal and the charges against him or her, an explanation of the EVIDENCE obtained
by the employer, and an opportunity for a fair and meaningful hearing.

Teacher Contracts
The law of contracts applies to contracts between teachers and school districts. This law includes the concepts of offer, acceptance, mutual ASSENT, and consideration. For a
teacher to determine whether a contract exists, he or she should consult authority on the general law of contracts. This section focuses on contract laws specific to teaching
and education.

Ratification of Contracts by School Districts
Even if a school official offers a teacher a job and the teacher accepts this offer, many state laws require that the school board ratify the contract before it becomes binding.
Thus, even if a principal of a school district informs a prospective teacher that the teacher has been hired, the contract is not final until the school district accepts or ratifies
the contract. The same is true if a school district fails to follow proper procedures when determining whether to ratify a contract.

Teacher's Handbook as a Contract
Some teachers have argued successfully that provisions in a teacher's handbook granted the teacher certain contractual rights. However, this is not common, as many
employee handbooks include clauses stating that the handbook is not a contract. For a provision in a handbook to be legally binding, the teacher must demonstrate that the
actions of the teacher and the school district were such that the elements for creating a contract were met.

Breach of Teacher Contract
Either a teacher or a school district can breach a contract. Whether a breach has occurred depends on the facts of the case and the terms of the contract. Breach of contract
cases between teachers and school districts arise because a school district has terminated the employment of a teacher, even though the teacher has not violated any of the
terms of the employment agreement. In several of these cases, a teacher has taken a leave of absence, which did not violate the employment agreement, and the school
district terminated the teacher due to the leave of absence. Similarly, a teacher may breach a contract by resigning from the district before the end of the contract term
(usually the end of the school year).

Remedies for Breach of Contract
The usual remedy for breach of contract between a school district and a teacher is monetary damages. If a school district has breached a contract, the teacher will usually
receive the amount the teacher would have received under the contract, less the amount the teacher receives (or could receive) by attaining alternative employment. Other
damages, such as the cost to the teacher in finding other employment, may also be available. Non-monetary remedies, such as a court requiring a school district to rehire a
teacher or to comply with contract terms, are available in some circumstances, though courts are usually hesitant to order such remedies. If a teacher breaches a contract,
damages may be the cost to the school district for finding a replacement. Many contracts contain provisions prescribing the amount of damages a teacher must pay if he or
she terminates employment before the end of the contract.

Teacher Freedom from Discrimination
The EQUAL PROTECTION Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution protects teachers at public schools from discrimination based on race, sex, and national
origin. These forms of discrimination are also barred through the enactment of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which was amended in 1972 to include educational
institutions. This law provides that it is an unlawful employment practice for any employer to discriminate against an individual based on the race, color, religion, sex, or
national origin of the individual. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 provides protection against discrimination based on sex at educational institutions that
receive federal financial assistance. Title VII and IX also prohibit SEXUAL HARASSMENT in the workplace.

A teacher who has been subjected to discrimination has several causes of action, though proof in some of these cases may be difficult. A teacher may bring a cause of action
under section 1983 of Title 42 of the United States Code for deprivation of rights under the Equal Protection Clause (or other constitutional provision). However, to succeed
under this cause of action, the teacher would need to prove that the school had the deliberate intent to discriminate. Similarly, a teacher bringing a claim under Title VII
must demonstrate that the reasons given by a school for an employment decision were false and that the actual reason for the decision was discrimination.

Teacher Academic Freedom
Teachers in public schools have limited freedoms in the classroom to teach without undue restrictions on the content or subjects for discussion. These freedoms are based
on rights to freedom of expression under the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights. However, the concept of academic freedom is quite limited. The content taught by a
teacher must be relevant to and consistent with the teacher's responsibilities, and a teacher cannot promote a personal or political agenda in the classroom. Factors such as
the age, experience, and grade level of students affect the latitude in which a court will recognize the academic freedom of a teacher.

Teacher Freedom of Expression
A leading case in First Amendment JURISPRUDENCE regarding protected forms of expression is Pickering v. Board of Education. This case involved a teacher whose job was
terminated when he wrote to a local newspaper an editorial critical of the teacher's employer. The Supreme Court held that the school had unconstitutionally restricted the

First Amendment rights of the teacher to speak on issues of public importance. Based on Pickering and similar cases, teachers generally enjoy rights to freedom of
expression, though there are some restrictions. Teachers may not materially disrupt the educational interest of the school district, nor may teachers undermine authority or
adversely affect working relationships at the school.

Teacher Freedom of Association
Similar to rights to freedom of expression, public school teachers enjoy rights to freedom of association, based on the First Amendment's provision that grants citizens the
right to peaceful assembly. These rights generally permit public school teachers to join professional, labor, or similar organizations; run for public office; and similar forms of
association. However, teachers may be required to ensure that participation in these activities is completely independent from their responsibilities to the school.

Teacher Freedom of Religion
The First Amendment and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 provide protection against religious discrimination by school districts against teachers. Teaches may
exercise their religious rights, though there are certain restrictions to such rights. This existence of restrictions is particularly relevant to the public schools, since public
schools are restricted from teaching religion through the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. Thus, for example, a teacher is free to be a practicing Christian, yet
the teacher cannot preach Christianity in the classroom.

Teacher Privacy Rights
Teachers enjoy limited rights to personal privacy, though courts will often support disciplinary action taken by a school district when a teacher's private life affects the
integrity of the school district or the effectiveness by which a teacher can teach. Thus, for example, a teacher may be terminated from his or her position for such acts as
ADULTERY or other sexual conduct outside marriage, and courts will be hesitant to overrule the decisions of the school board.

Teacher Age
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, with its subsequent amendments, provides protection for teachers over the age of 40 against age discrimination. Under
this act, age may not be the sole factor when a school district terminates the employment of a teacher. If a teacher charges a school district with age discrimination, the
school district has the burden to show that some factor other than age influenced its decision.

Teacher Pregnancy
The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 provides protection for teachers who are pregnant. Under this act, a school district may not dismiss or demote a pregnant teacher
on the basis of her pregnancy, nor may a district deny a job or deny a promotion to a pregnant teacher on the basis of her pregnancy.

Illinois Laws Regarding Teachers' Rights
Each state provides laws governing education agencies, hiring and termination of teachers, tenure of teachers, and similar laws. Teachers should consult with statutes and
education regulations in their respective states, as well as the education agencies that enforce these rules, for additional information regarding teachers' rights. Moreover,
teachers should review their contracts, COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT, and/or employee handbook for specific provisions that may have been included in an
agreement. In Illinois, th Teacher's certificate may be revoked or suspended for immorality, health condition detrimental to students, incompetence, unprofessional conduct,
neglect of duty, willful failure to report CHILD ABUSE, conviction of certain sex or narcotics offenses, or other just cause. Teachers may be dismissed on similar grounds.

Additional Teacher Rights Resources
- Deskbook Encyclopedia of American School Law. Oakstone Legal Publishing, 2001.
- Education Law. Rapp, James A., Lexis Publishing, 2001.
- Education Law, Second Edition. Imber, Michael, and Tyll Van Geel, 2000.
- The Law of Public Education, 4th Ed. Reutter, E. Edmund, Jr., Foundation Press, 1994.
- Private School Law in America, 12th Ed. Oakstone Legal and Business Publishing, 2000.
- School Law and the Public Schools: A Practical Guide for Educational Leaders. Essex, Nathan, Allyn and Bacon, 1999.
- Teachers and the Law. Fischer, Louis, David Schimmel, and Cynthia Kelly, Addison Wesley Longman, 1999.

The Privileges of Public School Teachers

Our school's teaching force.

My co teacher, who's taking an MA in ED Management, was reading a book; she was obviously preparing a presentation for her MA class. I took a look at the book and it was an
old book about educational supervision and management, sort of a principal’s manual.
Anyway, there were interesting things that I learned from my reading some of which I already knew some of which I did not know. Anyway, I’m just sharing some excerpts from
School Administration and Supervision by Gregorio p. 363 ff. This book was copyrighted in 1961 so there may be some changes that have been effected since then. Anyway,
here are the excerpts. For brevity, I did not copy all the details except for items which think are not that known to some public school teachers.
Here we go:
As Civil Service employees, the public school teachers, supervisors, and administrators are enjoying special privileges. All privileges of the teaching personnel are prescribed by
law. Some of these privileges are the following: (I did not cite all the relevant laws for this is just an overview of what I have read. For complete information I suggest you read
Gregorio’s book.)

1. Teachers as persons in authority.
This means that teachers cannot be attacked physically when performing their duties. This law protects the teachers from
being physically harmed by parents and other individuals who may have grudges against them.
.
2. Maternity Leave. {I think there are already provisions for paternity leave]

3. Study Leave.
Public school teachers are encouraged to raise their educational qualifications. Study leave is intended to assist teachers in
securing personal and professional improvement and to retain in service those teachers who are efficient.
4. Outside teaching.
The Department allows public school teachers to teach in private evening classes in not more than 12 hours a week in addition to
their regular loads in their own schools.
5. Vacation and sick leave.
6. Compulsory insurance. [GSIS is the main insuring agency of the government.]
7. Vacation Pay.
Teachers are entitled to pay during the Christmas and long vacation.
8. Service Credit.
A teacher on the teacher’s leave basis is given service credit when he is asked to work during the vacation period. This service
credit maybe used to offset past and future absences due to illness and other reasonable causes.
9. Salary Loans.
10. Free Medical Consultations.
11. Cost of living and hardship allowance.
Public school teachers are entitled to cost of living allowance. The teachers’ salaries shall keep pace with the rise in cost of living
by the payment of cost-of-living allowance.
Likewise, special hardship allowances are to be enjoyed by public school teachers in some areas of the country.
In areas to
where teachers are exposed to hardships such as difficulty in commuting to the place of work or other hazards as determined by
the Secretary of Education.
12. Compensation for injuries.
13. Joining Teachers’ Organization.
Public school teachers shall have the right and without previous authorization to freely to establish or to join organizations of their
choosing whether local or national to further defend their interest, subject to existing laws, Civil Service Rules, and policies of the
State. The right established shall be exercised without any interference or coercion.
14. Enjoy Academic Freedom.
Teachers are free to use any method of teaching they think best for their pupils. Likewise, they are free to experiment and express
the result of their experiment.
15. Working Hours for Teachers
Teachers engaged in actual classroom teaching are required to render not more than six hours of actual classroom teaching a day
to give hime/her time for the preparation and correction exercises and other work incidental to his normal teaching duties.
They maybe required to render more than six hours but not exceeding eight hours of actual classroom teaching a day upon
payment of additional compensation at the same rate as his regular remuneration plus at least twenty five percent of his basic
salary.
16. Retirement Benefit.
17. Tenure of office.
Regular or permanent public school teachers and officials are granted stability of employment and security of tenure.

Professional Code of Ethics for Teachers
By Angela Robinson, eHow Contributor , last updated April 17, 2014




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Teachers must follow a code of ethics in the classroom.

The way teachers do their work is regulated by their own ethical standards and by those of the teaching profession. Whereas some professions have formulated their own
universal code of ethics, such as the Hippocratic Oath of doctors, there are several published codes of ethics for teachers. Even though the best known is the code of the
National Education Association, most state departments of education have developed their own codes that govern the work of teachers.

Other People Are Reading

Code of Ethics for the Teaching Profession

What Is the Purpose of the Code of Ethics for Teachers?

1.
o

Personal Example
Guidelines listed in most ethical codes outline how teachers should conduct themselves with students. It includes instructions concerning the care and manner
with which they do their work and how they treat students and others.

Classroom Climate
o

o

Teachers can establish beneficial classroom climates by creating an environment of safety and trust where students are free from fear and ridicule. It is
important for teachers to conduct a spirit of cooperation and friendly competition. The classroom teacher should motivate all students to work hard and should never
embarrass a student if he does not work as hard as others.
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Ethical Dialogue
o

Teachers should establish an ethical dialogue in their classrooms by discussing with the students the core ethical values such as honesty, respect for others and
responsibility. These values come to play not only in the study of classroom subjects, but in the real life events of the school.

Discrimination
o

It is against any code of ethics for teachers to harass or discriminate against a student due to their race, color, sex, nationality, religion or physical or mental
condition. All students have the right to an education and should receive quality care from the teacher.

Obligation to the Public
o

Precautions should be taken to distinguish between teachers' personal views and those of the institution or organization in which the teacher is affiliated.
Teachers should not knowingly misrepresent information in communicating with students, parents or other teaching professionals.
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whether or not they receive compensation. a favor from a public official or employee. (d) "Receiving any gift" includes the act of accepting directly or indirectly. and uphold public interest over personal interest. a favor. Section 3. (b) "Public Officials" includes elective and appointive officials and employees." Section 2. and their subsidiaries.It is the policy of the State to promote a high standard of ethics in public service. lead modest lives. 6713 AN ACT ESTABLISHING A CODE OF CONDUCT AND ETHICAL STANDARDS FOR PUBLIC OFFICIALS AND EMPLOYEES. TO UPHOLD THE TIME-HONORED PRINCIPLE OF PUBLIC OFFICE BEING A PUBLIC TRUST. or in exchange for.This Act shall be known as the "Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees. Declaration of Policies. . . (c) "Gift" refers to a thing or a right to dispose of gratuitously. integrity. It shall not include an unsolicited gift of nominal or insignificant value not given in anticipation of. whether in the career or non-career service.Republic Act No. agencies or branches of the Republic of the Philippines including governmentowned or controlled corporations. or in exchange for. (e) "Loan" covers both simple loan and commodatum as well as guarantees.As used in this Act. including military and police personnel. if the value of the gift is neither nominal nor insignificant. or any act or liberality. . Public officials and employees shall at all times be accountable to the people and shall discharge their duties with utmost responsibility. GRANTING INCENTIVES AND REWARDS FOR EXEMPLARY SERVICE. even on the occasion of a family celebration or national festivity like Christmas. Definition of Terms. Title. the local governments. permanent or temporary. and all other instrumentalities. and loyalty. financing arrangements or accommodations intended to ensure its approval. competence. . and shall include a simulated sale or an ostensibly onerous disposition thereof. regardless of amount. or the gift is given in anticipation of. act with patriotism and justice. a gift from a person other than a member of his family or relative as defined in this Act. in favor of another who accepts it. ENUMERATING PROHIBITED ACTS AND TRANSACTIONS AND PROVIDING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATIONS THEREOF AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Section 1. the term: (a) "Government" includes the National Government.

Public officials and employees shall commit themselves to the democratic way of life and values. especially the poor and the underprivileged. Norms of Conduct of Public Officials and Employees. or his rights or duties therein. effectively. professionalism. to a limited number of employees recognized by their office colleagues to be outstanding in their observance of ethical standards. Section 5.All public officials and employees shall. . .(A) Every public official and employee shall observe the following as standards of personal conduct in the discharge and execution of official duties: (a) Commitment to public interest. (B) The Civil Service Commission shall adopt positive measures to promote (1) observance of these standards including the dissemination of information programs and workshops authorizing merit increases beyond regular progression steps.Public officials and employees shall perform and discharge their duties with the highest degree of excellence. public officials and employees shall provide information of their policies and procedures in clear and understandable language. They shall endeavor to maintain and defend Philippine sovereignty against foreign intrusion. . . inso and balae. including bilas. (c) Justness and sincerity. They shall endeavor to discourage wrong perceptions of their roles as dispensers or peddlers of undue patronage. This term shall also apply to the parties to a voting trust. (i) "Conflict of interest" arises when a public official or employee is a member of a board.Public officials and employees and their families shall lead modest lives appropriate to their positions and income. public safety and public interest. telegrams or other means of communications sent by the public. particularly to avoid wastage in public funds and revenues. . (k) "Relatives" refers to any and all persons related to a public official or employee within the fourth civil degree of consanguinity or affinity. maintain the principle of public accountability. (f) Nationalism and patriotism. . shares of stock sufficient to elect a director of a corporation. They shall enter public service with utmost devotion and dedication to duty. or a substantial stockholder of a private corporation or owner or has a substantial interest in a business. and the interest of such corporation or business. avoid red tape and develop an understanding and appreciation of the socio-economic conditions prevailing in the country. They must act with justness and sincerity and shall not discriminate against anyone. They shall at all times respect the rights of others. within fifteen (15) working days from receipt thereof.Public officials and employees shall extend prompt. Unless otherwise provided by law or when required by the public interest. all public officials and employees are under obligation to: (a) Act promptly on letters and requests. courteous. intelligence and skill. and manifest by deeds the supremacy of civilian authority over the military. may be opposed to or affected by the faithful performance of official duty. simplify and systematize policy. ensure openness of information. resources and technology and encourage appreciation and pride of country and people. . and shall refrain from doing acts contrary to law. All government resources and powers of their respective offices must be employed and used efficiently.(f) "Substantial stockholder" means any person who owns. .Public officials and employees shall remain true to the people at all times. especially in the depressed rural and urban areas. Section 4.Public officials and employees shall at all times be loyal to the Republic and to the Filipino people. They shall not dispense or extend undue favors on account of their office to their relatives whether by consanguinity or affinity except with respect to appointments of such relatives to positions considered strictly confidential or as members of their personal staff whose terms are coterminous with theirs. . (g) Commitment to democracy. respond to letters.Public officials and employees shall provide service to everyone without unfair discrimination and regardless of party affiliation or preference. public order. completely and actually depriving or dispossessing oneself of his right or title to it in favor of a person or persons other than his spouse and relatives as defined in this Act. . and adequate service to the public.In the performance of their duties. public consultations and hearings whenever appropriate.Public officials and employees shall always uphold the public interest over and above personal interest. good morals. . public policy. good customs. promote the use of locally produced goods. They shall not indulge in extravagant or ostentatious display of wealth in any form. (g) "Family of public officials or employees" means their spouses and unmarried children under eighteen (18) years of age. (h) Simple living. and (2) continuing research and experimentation on measures which provide positive motivation to public officials and employees in raising the general level of observance of these standards. The reply must contain the action taken on the request. They shall at all times uphold the Constitution and put loyalty to country above loyalty to persons or party. rules and procedures. encourage suggestions. Duties of Public Officials and Employees. (e) Responsiveness to the public. (h) "Person" includes natural and juridical persons unless the context indicates otherwise. directly or indirectly. an officer. (d) Political neutrality. (b) Professionalism. honestly and economically. . (j) "Divestment" is the transfer of title or disposal of interest in property by voluntarily.

at all times. the obscurity of the position. .Public officials and employees shall not. (c) Process documents and papers expeditiously. entertainment. loan or anything of monetary value from any person in the course of their official duties or in connection with any operation being regulated by. that such practice will not conflict or tend to conflict with their official functions. (2) Engage in the private practice of their profession unless authorized by the Constitution or law. counsel. either: (1) To further their private interests. . As to gifts or grants from foreign governments. citations. System of Incentives and Rewards. directorships in government-owned or controlled corporations. manage or accept employment as officer. confidential or classified information officially known to them by reason of their office and not made available to the public. or (2) To prejudice the public interest. (d) Act immediately on the public's personal transactions. the following: the years of service and the quality and consistency of performance. supervised or licensed by their office unless expressly allowed by law. broker. any gift. directly or indirectly. directly or indirectly. . . Incentives and rewards to government officials and employees of the year to be announced in public ceremonies honoring them may take the form of bonuses. For this purpose. gratuity. In the absence of duly authorized signatories. as members.A system of annual incentives and rewards is hereby established in order to motivate and inspire public servants to uphold the highest standards of ethics. but the professional concerned cannot practice his profession in connection with any matter before the office he used to be with. render a performance report of the agency or office or corporation concerned. and the risks or temptations inherent in the work.All official papers and documents must be processed and completed within a reasonable time from the preparation thereof and must contain. or give undue advantage to anyone. or separation from public office. not more than three (3) signatories therein. in which case the one-year prohibition shall likewise apply. . trustee or nominee in any private enterprise regulated.Public officials and employees during their incumbency shall not: (1) Own. said position shall be included in the budget of the office in the next General Appropriations Act. and two government employees to be appointed by the President. or any transaction which may be affected by the functions of their office. . the Congress consents to: . act promptly and expeditiously. employee. Section 6.All public officials and employees must attend to anyone who wants to avail himself of the services of their offices and must. continuing review of the performance of public officials and employees. . except in the case of subparagraph (b) (2) above. the following shall constitute prohibited acts and transactions of any public official and employee and are hereby declared to be unlawful: (a) Financial and material interest. as far as practicable.Public officials and employees shall not use or divulge.All heads or other responsible officers of offices and agencies of the government and of government-owned or controlled corporations shall. The conferment of awards shall take into account. In case there is no next higher position or it is not vacant. (b) Outside employment and other activities related thereto. consultant.In addition to acts and omissions of public officials and employees now prescribed in the Constitution and existing laws. the public within reasonable working hours. It shall be the task of this Committee to conduct a periodic. within fortyfive (45) working days from the end of the year. paid vacations and the like. (d) Solicitation or acceptance of gifts. . the unique and exemplary quality of a certain achievement. . They shall likewise be automatically promoted to the next higher position with the commensurate salary suitable to their qualifications. or (3) Recommend any person to any position in a private enterprise which has a regular or pending official transaction with their office. among other things.Public officials and employees shall not solicit or accept. local and foreign scholarship grants. Section 7. control. These prohibitions shall continue to apply for a period of one (1) year after resignation. The Committee on Awards shall adopt its own rules to govern the conduct of its activities. and the Chairman of the Commission on Audit. Such report shall be open and available to the public within regular office hours. have any financial or material interest in any transaction requiring the approval of their office. . favor. Prohibited Acts and Transactions. agent. (c) Disclosure and/or misuse of confidential information. the official next-in-rank or officer in charge shall sign for and in their behalf.All public documents must be made accessible to. a Committee on Awards to Outstanding Public Officials and Employees is hereby created composed of the following: the Ombudsman and Chairman of the Civil Service Commission as CoChairmen. (e) Make documents accessible to the public.(b) Submit annual performance reports. the level of salary. in all the branches and agencies of Government and establish a system of annual incentives and rewards to the end that due recognition is given to public officials and employees of outstanding merit on the basis of the standards set forth in this Act. and readily available for inspection by. retirement. provided.

transportation. (e) all business interests and financial connections. manner and frequency prescribed by the Civil Service Commission.It shall be the duty of every public official or employee to identify and disclose. Justices. or (iii) The acceptance by a public official or employee of travel grants or expenses for travel taking place entirely outside the Philippine (such as allowances. including. as amended. liabilities. with the Court Administrator. and (5) All other public officials and employees. (c) all other assets such as investments. within thirty (30) days from the date of their assumption of office. except those who serve in an honorary capacity. the necessary authority in favor of the Ombudsman to obtain from all appropriate government agencies. including pertinent reporting and disclosure requirements. (3) Regional and local officials and employees.(i) The acceptance and retention by a public official or employee of a gift of nominal value tendered and received as a souvenir or mark of courtesy. cash on hand or in banks. to the best of his knowledge and information. after of every assumption year of thereafter. bonds.Public officials and employees have an obligation to accomplish and submit declarations under oath of. . liabilities. laborers and casual or temporary workers. . shall be made available for . food. stocks. (d) liabilities. (A) Statements of Assets and Liabilities and Financial Disclosure. including the Bureau of Internal Revenue. with the Office of the President. office. The Statements of Assets. such documents as may show their assets. if possible. . and. (4) Officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain. and the public has the right to know. defined in Republic Act No. The documents must be filed: (a) (b) within on thirty or before (30) days April 30. their assets. his relatives in the Government in the form. Liabilities and Net Worth and the Disclosure of Business Interests and Financial Connections shall be filed by: (1) Constitutional and national elective officials. Statements and Disclosure. and (c) within thirty (30) days after separation from the service. (ii) The acceptance by a public official or employee of a gift in the nature of a scholarship or fellowship grant or medical treatment. with the Secretaries of the Senate and the House of Representatives.All public officials and employees. and all national executive officials with the Office of the President. (b) personal property and acquisition cost. with the national office of the Ombudsman. the year when they first assumed any office in the Government. with the Deputy Ombudsman in their respective regions. Nothing in this Act shall be construed to restrict or prohibit any educational. Liabilities and Net Worth and a Disclosure of Business Interests and Financial Connections and those of their spouses and unmarried children under eighteen (18) years of age living in their households. branch or agency to which he belongs. its improvements. All public officials and employees required under this section to file the aforestated documents shall also execute. and lodging) of more than nominal value if such acceptance is appropriate or consistent with the interests of the Philippines.(1) Any and all statements filed under this Act. . (B) Identification and disclosure of relatives. assessed value and current fair market value. The Ombudsman shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purpose of this subsection. shall file under oath their Statement of Assets. (C) Accessibility of documents. with the Civil Service Commission. Husband and wife who are both public officials or employees may file the required statements jointly or separately. net worth. scientific or cultural exchange programs subject to national security requirements. net worth and financial and business interests including those of their spouses and of unmarried children under eighteen (18) years of age living in their households. and the like. Section 8. Judges. 3019. respectively. with the Clerk of Court of the Supreme Court. and those below said ranks. The two documents shall contain information on the following: (a) real property. with the Deputy Ombudsman in their respective regions. acquisition costs. and also their business interests and financial connections in previous years. (2) Senators and Congressmen. and permitted by the head of office.

(c) The heads of other offices shall perform the duties stated in subsections (a) and (b) hereof insofar as their respective offices are concerned.A public official or employee shall avoid conflicts of interest at all times. (b) Any violation hereof proven in a proper administrative proceeding shall be sufficient cause for removal or dismissal of a public official or employee. subject in each instance to the approval by affirmative vote of the majority of the particular House concerned. in the discretion of the court of competent jurisdiction. even if no criminal prosecution is instituted against him. accomplices or accessories. subject to the approval of the Secretary of Justice. In the event a determination is made that a statement is not so filed. regardless of whether or not he holds office or employment in a casual. or (b) any commercial purpose other than by news and communications media for dissemination to the general public. Divestment. . disqualification to hold public office. Section 9. or removal depending on the gravity of the offense after due notice and hearing by the appropriate body or agency. or both. Violations of Sections 7. Section 11. . in writing. are complete. (4) Any statement filed under this Act shall be available to the public for a period of ten (10) years after receipt of the statement. (b) In order to carry out their responsibilities under this Act. (2) Such statements shall be made available for copying or reproduction after ten (10) working days from the time they are filed as required by law. after issuance of the opinion acts in good faith in accordance with it shall not be subject to any sanction provided in this Act. and are in proper form. the designated Committees of both Houses of Congress shall have the power within their respective jurisdictions. Review and Compliance Procedure. including guidelines for individuals who render free voluntary service to the Government. with public officials or employees.000). to render any opinion interpreting this Act. The requirement of divestment shall not apply to those who serve the Government in an honorary capacity nor to laborers and casual or temporary workers. temporary. and who. in violation of this Act. Promulgation of Rules and Regulations. the latter shall apply. .The Civil Service Commission shall have the primary responsibility for the administration and enforcement of this Act. shall be subject to the same penal liabilities as the public officials or employees and shall be tried jointly with them. the statement may be destroyed unless needed in an ongoing investigation.It shall be unlawful for any person to obtain or use any statement filed under this Act for: (a) any purpose contrary to morals or public policy. After such period. permanent or regular capacity. The Court in which such action is brought may assess against such person a penalty in any amount not to exceed twenty-five thousand pesos (P25. Nothing in this provision shall be construed as a deprivation of the right of each House of Congress to discipline its Members for disorderly behavior. If the violation is punishable by a heavier penalty under another law. The Ombudsman shall likewise take steps to protect citizens who denounce acts or omissions of public officials and employees which are in violation of this Act. That it may institute such administrative actions and disciplinary measures as may be warranted in accordance with law. It shall transmit all cases for prosecution arising from violations of this Act to the proper authorities for appropriate action: Provided.(a) The designated Committees of both Houses of the Congress shall establish procedures for the review of statements to determine whether said statements which have been submitted on time. he shall resign from his position in any private business enterprise within thirty (30) days from his assumption of office and/or divest himself of his shareholdings or interest within sixty (60) days from such assumption. holdover. (d) The official or employee concerned may bring an action against any person who obtains or uses a report for any purpose prohibited by Section 8 (D) of this Act. and any other individual involved in a similar factual situation. (3) Any person requesting a copy of a statement shall be required to pay a reasonable fee to cover the cost of reproduction and mailing of such statement. If another sanction hereunder or under any other law is heavier. The individual to whom an opinion is rendered. (D) Prohibited acts. Section 12. The Civil Service Commission is hereby authorized to promulgate rules and regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act. or a fine not exceeding five thousand pesos (P5. as well as the cost of certification.(a) Any public official or employee. the appropriate Committee shall so inform the reporting individual and direct him to take the necessary corrective action. in the case of the Executive Department and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. to persons covered by this Act. however. (c) Private individuals who participate in conspiracy as co-principals. committing any violation of this Act shall be punished with a fine not exceeding the equivalent of six (6) months' salary or suspension not exceeding one (1) year. Penalties. . Administration and Enforcement of this Act. When a conflict of interest arises. 8 or 9 of this Act shall be punishable with imprisonment not exceeding five (5) years. . The same rule shall apply where the public official or employee is a partner in a partnership. . he shall be prosecuted under the latter statute.inspection at reasonable hours. Section 10. and.000). in the case of the Judicial Department.

This Act shall take effect after thirty (30) days following the completion of its publication in the Official Gazette or in two (2) national newspapers of general circulation. . the remainder of the Act or the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected by such declaration. Section 14. decrees and orders or parts thereof inconsistent herewith.Section 13. Section 17. Provisions for More Stringent Standards. such sum as may be needed for its continued implementation shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act.(October 26. 1989. This act was amended by PD 1706 (August 8. LEGAL BASES OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATION (LIST OF LAWS.All laws.The sum necessary for the effective implementation of this Act shall be taken from the appropriations of the Civil Service Commission. 1901. Effectivity. law enforcement service and military service. fixing school entrance age 7 years old. introduction of double single session  Commonwealth Act #589-(August 19. are deemed repealed or modified accordingly.If any provision of this Act or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance is declared invalid.preparatory military training shall begin in Elementary grade school at age 10. It provides for the establishment of Department of Public Instruction and establishment of PCAT now TUP and PNS now PNU  Act #1870 founding of UP (June 18. February 20. 1917)  Commonwealth Act #1. unless the same provide for a heavier penalty. ACTS AND DECREES AS LEGAL BASES OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATION  Act #74-enacted in January 21. 1940) conferred the status of PERSONS IN AUTHORITY upon teachers  Commonwealth Act #586 Education Act of 1940-reduction of number of years in elementary (from 7 to 6). 1940) established school rituals in private and public schools  RA #137 (June 14. . Separability Clause. 1936) established the Office of Adult Education (vocational training in an effort to eliminate illiteracy)  Commonwealth Act#578 (June 8. . 1980) requiring all citizens to render civil welfare service. 1947) enacted the Board of Textbooks . Section 16. Repealing Clause. national support of elementary education. . Appropriations. . Approved. or any regulation prescribed by any body or agency. ACTS AND DECREES) LIST OF LAWS.Nothing in this Act shall be construed to derogate from any law. 1908)  Act #2706 Private School Law (enacted March 10. Section 15. compulsory attendance in the primary grades for all children enrolled in grade one.  Commonwealth Act #80. Thereafter. which provides for more stringent standards for its official and employees.

compulsory enrolment of children in public school upon reaching 7 years old)  RA #1124 (June 16. 1954) created the Board of National Education  RA #1265 (June 11. 1972) Education Development Decree of 1972  PD 146-(March 9. 1986) inclusion of human rights courses or subjects  EO #189 (June 10.blogspot. Programs duration varies from a few Edukasyon at weeks to 3 years. Level 7722. Tertiary University/College - Higher Education is governed by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) Undergraduate that was created on May 18. 1995) Anti-Sexual Harassment Act  EO #27 (July 4.dpuf Education System in the Philippines Educatio n Primary School/Level Paaralang Elementarya Seconda Paaralang ry Sekundarya Grade From Grad e To Age From Age To Year s Notes Elementary school covers the first six years of compulsory education (grades 1 6 6 12 6 1–6) informally divided into 3 years of primary level and 3 years of intermediate level. 1994) established TESDA  RA #7836 (December 16. Technical and vocational education is offered by government operated or Vocation al Bokasyonal na private institutions often called colleges. public and private. or the Higher Education Act of 1994. 1956) teaching life. 1994 through the passage of Republic Act No.NEAT  DECS Order #30 s 1994. abolition of double single session. 1976) PBET  DECS Order #30 s 1993. works and writings of Rizal especially Noli and Fili in all public and private schools  RA #4760 (June 18. 1953) Elementary Education Act of 1953. 1959) provided that civil service eligibility shall be permanent and valid lifetime  RA #6655 (May 25.com/2012/09/legal-bases-of-philippine-education. 1976) all honor graduates of colleges and universities are granted civil service eligibility  PD 1006 (September 22. compulsory completion of elementary.See more at: http://syndicaeduc. DepEd (Department of Education) specifies a compulsory curriculum for all secondary schools. 1994) created CHED  RA #7743 (June 17. 1988) Free Public Secondary Act of 1988  RA #7722 (May 18. upon the graduation from most of the programs students Pagsasanay may take TESDA (Technical Education and Skills Authority) examination to receive an appropriate certificate or diploma. 1994)  PD 688-(April 22.NSAT You might also like:  APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES IN EDUCATION  Introduction to Literature Including Philippine Literature  What Is Graduation for You?  Timeless Literary Works of Filipinos  How To Pass LET (Licensure Examination for Teachers) . 1994) Phil Teachers Professionalization Act (supercedes PBET)  RA #7877 (February 14. Secondary education consists of four levels largely based on the American 1 4 12 17 4 schooling system. 1966) Magna Cart of Public School Teachers  RA #1079 (June 15.63mTXE6X. This law repealed Commonwealth Act #586 (restoration of grade 7. The creation of CHED was part of a broad agenda of reforms on the country’s education system outlined by the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) in 1992. 1955) compulsory daily flag ceremony in all educational institutions  RA #1425 (June 12.html#sthash. 1972) NCEE (superceded by RA7731 on June 2. 1994) established public libraries and reading centers in every barangay  RA #7784 (August 4. Part of the reforms was the trifocalization of the education sector into three governing . RA #896 (June 20. 1975) gave power to CSC the authority to give appropriate exam to all public school teachers  PD 907-(March 11. 1987) Basic Salary and COLA of public school teachers will be paid for by national government  PD 6-A-(September 29. 1994) established Centers of Excellence and Teachers Education Council  RA #7796 (August 25.

Algebra 1. only a record of high school education and an enrollment fee. with an optional 7th grade offered by some schools. Most universities offer 4 year degree programs with 2 semesters per year. primary students traditionally sat for the National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) administered by the Department of Education. During 2004. the Department of Education (DepEd) for basic education and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) for technical-vocational and middle-level education. Phillipine History  Year 2 . receiving the substantial portion of the annual budget. sectarian or non-sectarian as well as for-profit or not-for-profit. Total secondary school numbers exceed 5. when DECS was officially converted into the Department of Education (DepEd). Selected schools present additional subjects. Physics. Optional subjects include music. with the largest. Programs offered vary in duration from a few weeks to twoyear diplomas. Tertiary Education Most institutions of higher learning are regulated by the commission for higher education. However. Public universities are all non-sectarian and offer a wide-range of programs. the NEAT was changed to National Achievement Test (NAT) by the Department of Education (DepEd). physical education. Integrated Science. Vocational colleges don’t usually require an entrance examination. and it includes the first six years of compulsory education from grade 1 to 6. Core subjects are as follows:  Year 1 . On completion students may take centrally-administered examinations to obtain their diploma or certificate. Biology. science. Asian History  Year 3 .Educatio n Grade From School/Level Grad e To Age From Age To Year s Notes bodies: the CHED for tertiary and graduate education. Middle Education Middle school education is a part of Primary (or Elementary) Education Secondary Education Secondary education known as Paaralang Sekundarya comprises 4 grades that have changed little since the second world war. with English as a medium of instruction. Literature. Economics Minor optional subjects include Health. Public universities are government funded. Calculus. There are also a number of private tertiary institutions. and health. Culture and Sports (DECS). the scores obtained by students in the NEAT were not used as a basis for their admission into Secondary school. Major subjects include maths.Filipino 2. As of 2006. Geography  Year 4 . Geometry. Trigonometry. English 2. Filipino and social sciences.5 million. Tertiary University/College Graduate Level Primary Education Paaralang Elementarya or elementary education is the first part of the educational system. English 1. only private schools have entrance examinations for Secondary school.Filipino 3. the University of the Philippines. Private school students may select subjects from a wider curriculum including religious instruction in the dogma of their choice. World History. and as a result of reorganization. Physical Education. Most private institutions are Catholic non-profit organizations. Vocational Education Accredited mainly private institutions known as colleges offer technical and vocational education.Filipino 4.Filipino 1. . Students from both public and private elementary schools take this exam to measure a school's competency. Music. The curriculum is prescribed for both private and state schools. Arts. Until 2004. Algebra 2. Colleges typically offer 1 or more specialized programs while universities must offer at least 8 different undergraduate degree programs in a wide array of subjects and at least 2 graduate programs. arts. English. Home Economics and Technology. Chemistry.

The new constitution of 1987 prescribed that both Pilipino (Tagalog) and English are the official languages of communication and instruction.. Primary education through grade seven was funded by the government and free to all. universities.1 percent (United Nations. One is the Philippine’s extensive and relatively inclusive. system of higher education. although in 1908 the University of the Philippines was chartered as the nation’s first comprehensive public university. English continues to be widely used from the higher primary level onwards. Private universities and colleges were also established during this period. covering the first six grades of education. owing to a dearth of materials and resources in Pilipino. the Philippines had achieved universal primary enrollment. covering a period of 40 weeks. which has included periods of Spanish. which can be discerned in a number of ways. The educational ladder has a 6+4+4 structure. Early successes. Institutions of higher education operate on a semester system with an optional summer semester. Not surprisingly. Education is compulsory from age seven to 12. Today the United States continues to influence the education system.3 percent to 95.Education in the Philippines By Nick Clark. close to 100 percent of students finish primary school. The Philippines has long been a leader in the region with respect to achievements in education. The United States has left the largest imprint on the education system. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2006). six years of elementary education. English was instituted as the language of instruction and a public school system was established. American and Japanese rule and occupation. During the period of American colonization. A recent study showed that many Filipino children between 9 and 14 in mathematics. as well as a . Editor WENR INTRODUCTION The Philippine education system has been heavily influenced by its colonial history. mask a long-term deterioration in quality. from 97. A number of colleges and universities were established primarily to train teachers. and modeled on the US system. however. The academic school year in the Philippines starts in June and ends in March. four years of secondary education. Structure Education is offered through formal and non-formal systems. with many Philippine academics having earned graduate degrees from U. English was the official language of instruction from 1935 to 1987. science and reading were two standard deviations below the international mean. The number of years of formal schooling in the Philippines is one of the shortest in the world. urban/rural differences were especially pronounced (World Bank. beginning in 1898. (i. and by 1970.S. The United Nations found that the Philippines was the only country in the region for which the youth literacy rate decreased between 1990 and 2004. and the national figures obscure wide regional differences. and typically four years to gain a bachelor’s degree). 1999). In Manila.e. administered by a Department of Instruction. whereas in Mindanao and Eastern Visayas less than 30 percent of students finish. to which access is widely available (comparative to other Southeast Asian nations).

nevertheless. trade-technical. As in primary school. mathematics. vocational. health and science. After satisfactorily completing the six-year elementary curriculum. Curriculum: As well as following the general secondary curriculum. health education. mathematics and science are taught in English with the social sciences and humanities taught in Pilipino. and the vocational secondary school. Some private secondary schools have competitive entrance requirements based on an entrance examination. representing 66 percent of enrollments (Commission on Higher Education. The pass grade is 75 percent. Consequently. A discussion of the accreditation process in the Philippines can be found in the ‘Higher Education’ section of this profile. A cumulative rating system is used as the basis for promotion. however. there are also science secondary schools for students who have demonstrated a particular gift in science at the primary level. home industry. English and local dialect). or Form 137A. age six to 11). 2008). based on the results of the PSHS System National Competitive Examination. In addition. There are two main types of secondary schools: the general secondary school. Curriculum: During the first two years. social studies (including anthropology. of which there are more than 170 nationally. mathematics. fishery. which enroll more than 90 percent of all high school students. divided into a four-year primary cycle and a two-year intermediate cycle. SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADING SCALE Percentage 95-100 90-94 85-89 80-84 Alpha WES Grading Scale A B+ B B- A B+ B B- .shortage of Pilipino-speaking teachers. In grades one and two. Philippine history and government. but is. Primary Duration: Four years (grades I – IV. For example. The administration and supervision of the school system is the responsibility of theDepartment of Education. SECONDARY EDUCATION Private schools enroll a much higher percentage of students at the secondary level than at the elementary level. and social studies. Ideally. science and technology. private schools often operate a seven-year curriculum starting a year earlier. industrial arts. home economics and livelihood. aesthetic. Science High Schools The Philippine Science High School System is a specialized public system that operates as an attached agency of the Philippine Department of Science and Technology. or engineering upon entering college. students receive a certificate of graduation from the elementary school. Leaving Certificate: Students who successfully complete a minimum of four years of secondary education usually receive a Diploma (Katibayan) from their high school and. There are a total of nine regional campuses. there are advanced classes in science and mathematics. 2005). in grades IV – VI students study music. and ‘non-traditional’ courses while offering a host of specializations. Vocational High Schools Secondary vocational schools offer a higher concentration of technical and vocational subjects in addition to the core academic subjects studied by students at general high schools. the medium of instruction is generally in the local dialect. music and citizen army training). values education and some electives including both academic and vocational subjects. listing all classes taken and grades earned. whereas. Approximately 46 percent of the nation’s secondary schools are private enrolling about 21 percent of all high school students (Department of Education. with English and Pilipino taught as second languages. and entrepreneurship). promoted to the next grade. * Makabayan is described by the ministry as a learning area that serves as a practice environment for holistic learning to develop a healthy personal and national self-identity. Vocational high schools differ from general high schools in that they have a heavier concentration of vocationally oriented training and practical arts. where the quality of programs ranges from high to marginal. Students are admitted on a selective basis. These schools tend to offer technical and vocational instruction in one of five main fields: agriculture. PRIMARY EDUCATION Primary education is compulsory and is six years in duration. are awarded the secondary school Certificate of Graduation(Katunayan) by the Department of Education. Historically. youth development training (including physical education. age 13 to 17) Entrance Requirement: Admission to public school is automatic for those who have completed six years of primary school. politico-economic. Programs contain a mixture of theory and practice. Intermediate Duration: Two years (grades V – VI. athletic. Leaving Certificate: The Certificate of Graduation is awarded to students who complete six years of primary education. agriculture & fisheries. practical arts (including home economics. arts and physical education. Students are rated in every subject four times during the year. a student may take two years of general trade-technical courses followed by two years specialization in cabinet making. Graduates of the PSHS are bound by law to major in the pure and applied sciences. economics. Entrance to science high schools is also by competitive examination. and at the tertiary level over 89 percent of institutions are private. students study a general vocational area (see above). Children generally begin first grade at six or seven years of age. No examination is required for admission to public secondary schools. which has an office in each of the 13 regions of the country. with the main campus located in Quezon City. and ethical). A certificate is issued to secondary school graduates. over 90 percent of enrollments at the primary level are in public schools. mathematics. geography and sociology). Values education and ‘good manners and right conduct’ are integrated in all learning areas. Curriculum: Core subjects: Language arts (Pilipino. This is especially true in vocational and technical fields. at secondary schools that number is less than 79 percent (Department of Education. General High Schools Curriculum: Communication arts (English and Pilipino). in addition. Students are annually promoted from one grade to the next provided that they meet the achievement standards set for the grade. During the third and fourth years they specialize in a discipline or vocation within that area. secondary school students are rated four times a year. age 11 to 13). If a student fails to get a final rating of 75 percent or more in a particular subject. it entails the adoption of modes of integrative teaching that will enable the student to process and synthesize a wide range of skills and values (cultural. 2008). From third grade onwards. Makabayan* subjects: In grades I – III students study civics and culture. Duration: Four years (grades VII – X. he or she repeats the subject the next year. the Government has been unable to fund the whole education system and has concentrated resources on the primary sector. Students are also awarded aPermanent Record.

or in many colleges and universities the results of their own entrance examinations. Dalubhasa. A CHED database of higher education institutions and programs is available HERE. In the same year total post-secondary enrollments amounted to 2. Institutions with programs accredited at Level II receive full administrative deregulation and partial curricular autonomy. 2005) registered in the Philippines. The Bachelor of Laws (LL.). Graduates are required to then take licensing examinations. with an average grade equal to or better than 2. The first degree awarded in medicine is the Doctor of Medicine (M. it was not designed or intended as an admission test. As defined by CHED. both public and private.402. three to five years’ residency (for specialization).D. CHED is also responsible for developing policies to support quality improvement in the higher educational system. Accreditation The voluntary accreditation system is modeled on the regional accreditation system employed in the United States. had pursued accreditation.036 institutions (19 percent). as appropriate. 50 local universities and colleges. completion of which combined with completion of the LL. During the first two years of study. if desired. building specifications and tuition fees. . to another new and independent agency. the supervision of tertiary schools was the responsibility of the Bureau of Higher Education.I. but has nonetheless served that purpose for some institutions. Government recognition should not. UNIVERSITY HIGHER EDUCATION The structure of the tertiary system in the Philippines in terms of awards and style of programs offered at Philippine universities strongly resembles the US higher-education system. In addition to regulating higher education. Privately administered testing programs through the Center for Educational Measurement (CEP) are also widely used by colleges for admissions purposes. an independent government agency. including priority in funding assistance and subsidies for faculty development. vocational and education training institutions offering higher-education programs). The commission regulates the establishment or closure of private higher education institutions. Level IV accreditation is reserved for academic programs considered to be comparable in quality to those of internationally renowned universities. science or commerce.B/J. Four accreditation associations. However. the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) was used for admission to post-secondary degree programs. the accrediting agencies collectively constitute a federation. There are four levels of accreditation. usually in arts. In 1995. In 2007. curricular development. The post-secondary programs leading to the Doctor of Dental Medicine and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine normally require six years of study. the Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools.443 (89 percent) were in the private sector. however. Colleges and Universities Accrediting Agency Incorporated (ACSCU-AAI). of which 1. The Juris Doctor (J. The Philippine Education Placement Test (PEPT) is a national examination designed to evaluate the grade level of students returning to the school system or seeking admission to college based on knowledge and skills gained through formal and non-formal methods. This is generally followed by a one-year internship. With the exception of AACCUP. With the passage of the Higher Education Act in 1994. or Kadalubhasaan) degrees usually require two years of full-time study and a minor thesis or comprehensive examinations. Prior to 1994. Programs and Degrees Stage I Bachelor’s (Batsilyer) degree programs are a minimum of four years in length. although a select few are granted autonomy or deregulated status in recognition of their committed service through quality education and research when they reach Level III accreditation (see below). the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities Commission on Accreditation (PACUCOA). Some institutions offer a two-year (generally 70 credit) Associate (Asoyado) degree program. architecture (226 credits) and music programs normally require five years of study. Graduates of these programs can. A four-year Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) is the sole entry-level degree for nursing. Some institutions offer five-year programs in science.) requires an additional eight units (2-4 classes) of coursework and a thesis beyond the requirements for the LL.D. The establishment of TESDA has increased emphasis on and support for non-degree vocational education programs. Students of both programs are expected to complete an internship of not more than 12 months. 2003). technical and vocational education programs from the Bureau of Vocational Education. All students seeking admission to medical programs must attain a passing score on the National Medical Admission Test (NMAT) as established by each institution. pharmacy and agriculture (200 credits). only 386 of 2. which generally requires that students study basic medical sciences for the first two years followed by two years in clinical rotation. such as law and medicine are undertaken following a first bachelor degree. five special institutions (mainly providing training in areas such as military science and national defense). As a matter of policy. which coordinates and certifies the activities of the individual agencies. qualifies them to take the bar examination administered by the Supreme Court. including the privilege to offer distance education programs. although only program evaluations and not institutional evaluations are performed. 2007). Engineering.619 institutions of higher education (CHED. CHED encourages institutions to seek accreditation and provides a number of incentives in the form of progressive deregulation. transfer into the last two years of a bachelor degree program. legislation was passed providing for the transfer of supervision of all non-degree. Stage II Master of Art/Science (Masterado.B) also requires four years of study following the first degree.00. all educational programs can operate legally if they have government recognition in the form of applying for and receiving a grant of authority and official recognition to operate. 9 other government schools (usually technical. Colleges and Universities (PAASCU). the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) was created to exercise general supervision and control over all colleges and universities –– both public and private –– in the country. recognized by the Department of Education and organized into a federal system. with courses counting towards the major usually being undertaken in the last two years of the program. there was only one institution in the country whose programs had been granted Level IV status –– De La Salle University (Pijano. The two most common ones are the College Scholastic Aptitude Test (CSAT) and the Admission Test for Colleges and Universities (ATCU). after which graduates take the licensing examination and. Public institutions of higher education include 111 chartered state universities and colleges (with 271 satellite campuses). In 2003. Culture and Sports.B. their program offerings.75-79 0-74 C F C F HIGHER EDUCATION In academic year 2004/05 there were 1. Programs with Level III accredited status are granted full curricular deregulation. the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority(TESDA). 85 percent or B. Level IV institutions are eligible for grants and subsidies from the Higher Education Development Fund and are granted full autonomy from government supervision and control. students are required to take general education courses (63 credits). The NSAT is administered to fourth-year high school students to gauge the quality of the individual institutions they are attending. A voluntary accreditation system in the technical and vocational sector is currently being implemented by the Technical and Vocational Education Accrediting Agency of the Philippines (TVEAAP). The entrance requirement for most master degree programs is a bachelor degree in an appropriate discipline. grants and subsidies to institutions with accredited programs. A total of 2. a division of the former Department of Education. be confused with accreditation. Level I gives applicant status to schools that have undergone a preliminary survey and are certified by FAAP as capable of acquiring accredited status within two years. the Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines (FAAP). also under the control of the Department of Education.B or L. An increasingly popular associate and certificate program is midwifery and the sole tertiary-level credential in the field is the two-year Graduate in Midwifery certificate.D. encourage private institutions to raise the level of their programs above the minimal standard: the Association of Christian Schools. it was abolished and replaced by the NSAT because it was considered by many not to be discriminative enough. Private universities and colleges follow the regulations and orders of CHED. usually involving two years of appropriate preliminary studies and four years of specialized studies.274 programs were accredited (CHED. and the Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities of the Philippines (AACCUP). From 1973 to 1994. Some professional degrees. and one Commission on Higher Education (CHED)-supervised post-secondary education institutions (CHED 2005).315 students (of whom 66 percent were in the private sector). Admission Requirements Entrance to universities and other institutions of higher education is dependent on the possession of a high school Certificate of Graduation and in some cases on the results of the National Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT).

” November. although the minimum at many schools is likely to be 140 to 160 units. while the dissertation may comprise as little as a quarter or a fifth of the total credits.75-2. Postsecondary programs lead to either a certificate (often entitled a Certificate of Proficiency) or a diploma. SOURCES International Bureau of Education – Unesco. “Import and Export of Higher Education: How to Sustain Quality – Experience in the Philippines. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2006 Vea.html>.P. NON-UNIVERSITY HIGHER EDUCATION Technical and vocational schools and institutes offer programs in a variety of fields. All technical credentials are referred to as certificates and are awarded after the successful passing of standardized examinations administered by TESDA. “Social Policy and Governance in the East Asia and Pacific Region: Education in the Philippines.ibe. business studies. fisheries. World Bank. World Data on Education. Academic Credit System Degree programs at all colleges and universities are weighted according to a system of instructional units based on class hours where one unit of instruction equals one hour of lectures or three hours of lab work per week. technical trades.A few universities offer four-year master’s programs that build on a four-year bachelor’s degree for veterinary medicine.B for admission. including agriculture.50 1. Last revised. and entrance examinations are generally not required. such as Doctor of Education (Ed. Both require a J. “Higher Education and Accreditation System in the Philippines.” Bangkok: IEEE Conference on Engineering Accreditation Around the World. Concepcion. TESDA has (recently) established a process called the Technical Occupation Qualification and Certification System (TOQCS) through which standards are set for a specific set of craft/trade-level qualifications based upon the type of program and occupational skill level involved. rather than the usual six-year program (see above). Public Health (D. Technical and vocational institutions label their credentials by a wide variety of titles in a particular field.S. secretarial studies. Two academic degrees in law are offered in addition to the first professional degrees: the two-year Master of Law (LL. Grading scale may vary. or LL. with an average grade of 2. and interior and fashion design. courses are three units in value and require 54 hours of classroom instruction over an 18-week semester. All four levels do not exist in all occupational categories. these include diploma.L).M) and the three-year Doctor of Civil Laws (D. The Professional Regulation Commission regulates programs for 38 different professions and administers their respective licensure examinations. The National Certificates generally require a program of study of between one and two years. while preschool teachers must have at least six units of preprimary education. Community colleges offer two-year programs leading to an Associate Degree in a range of vocational areas. III and Technician or Master Craftsman). DC: Projects for International Education Research. Reynaldo. Pijano. PIER World Education Series.). 1995. Canberra: Australian Government Publications Service.25 2. crafts. 1999. WES GRADING SCALE Scale 1 1.unesco. II. Four-year bachelor degree programs in the arts and sciences require a minimum of 120 units for graduation. Ph. United Nations.00 4 5 Scale 2 91-100 85-90 75-84 0-74 WES Equivalency (U.E. trade technical education. The entrance requirement is usually a master degree. Stage III Doctor of Philosophy (Doktor sa Pilospiya) programs often involve a substantial amount of coursework.C. hotel and restaurant management. At the secondary level. Philippines Workshop Report. August 2006 <http://www. or a bachelor’s degree in another area with the addition of at least 18 units in professional education.Ed).S) A B C * F * May represent a conditional failure or a conditional pass. elementary-level teachers must hold a minimum of a Bachelor’s Degree in Elementary Education (B. A list of TESDA-recognized technical and vocational schools and programs is available HERE. All these programs are four years in length.” Hong Kong: INQAAHE Asia Pacific Sub-Network Forum. associate. Programs that require primarily coursework without original research emphasis. National Office of Overseas Skills Recognition (NOOSR).) and others. Typically.5-3.org/en/access-by-country/asia-and-thepacific/philippines/profile-of-education. the basic qualification is a Bachelor’s Degree in Secondary Education (B. The Philippines: A Comparative Study.D programs usually require two or three years of full-time study beyond the master's degree.Ed). Please refer to grading scale on transcript Editor's Note This profile is an update of a profile that was originally published in the November/December 2004 issue of WENR. The entry requirement is a high school diploma.D. Programs and Degrees Credentials are awarded by individual institutions and authorized by TESDA.D. TEACHER EDUCATION In general. Philippines. Some programs may require as many as 185 units.00-1. November 2004. .H. graduate or craftsman. Some technical institutes are authorized to award bachelor degrees in a similar range of subjects to those of technical and vocational schools.00 or B. Washington. award professional degrees identified specifically as Doctor of the program’s disciplinary field. January 2003. and usually without a major dissertation. There are a series of tests that lead to certifications on a four-step ladder (Level I. 2001.

Education during that period was inadequate.  3. sciences. age. provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government. The government shall establish and maintain a complete and adequate system of public education. Education was at its nadir. PROCLAMATION OF MARTIAL LAW As far as education concerned. and socio-economic status of the individual. The means of giving people an orientation towards a democratic way of life. Universities established by the State shall enjoy academic freedom. Education: religion-oriented. The State shall establish and maintain a complete. All schools shall aim moral character. The tribal tutors were replaced by the Spanish Missionaries. suppressed and controlled. Children were provided more vocational training and less academics (3Rs) by their parents and in the houses of tribal tutors. 2 issued on Feb. personal discipline and scientific and technological and vocational efficiency.Philosophy of philiippine educationPresentation Transcript  1. The State shall maintain a system of free public elementary education and in areas where finances permit. unstructured. Education should be universal and free all regardless of sex. JAPANESE OCCUPATION  6. eading writing ithmetic R PRE-SPANISH PERIOD Education was informal. . Educational system under the Japanese military government were articulated in Executive Order No. PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE  7. for the elite. THE PHILOSOPHY OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATION “ No one can step twice in the same river. and was used as an instrument for indoctrinating the people to embrace Japanese Ideologies. SPANISH ERA  4. 1942. Article XV Sec. for fresh waters are ever flowing in upon him”  2. and vocational efficiency and to reach the duties of citizenship. Optional religious instruction shall be maintained by law. establish and maintain at least up to the secondary level. Primary instruction was free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development. 8 states that: All educational institutions shall be under the supervision and subject to the regulation by the State. Carried out by the civilian teachers of English called “Thomasites. (Educational Decree 1863) Establishment of normal school for male teachers under the supervision on the Jesuits. and create and maintain scholarships for poor and deserving students. All institutions shall aim to inculcate love for country. The state shall create scholarship in arts. 17. The state shall provide citizenship and vocational training to adult citizens and out-of-school youth. and shall provide at least free primary instruction and citizenship training to adult citizens. the Marcos Constitution of 1973.” AMERICAN ERA  5. The educational philosophy was in accordance with the provisions of Article XIV Section 5 of the 1935 Constitution which provides that: All educational institutions shall be under the supervision and subject to the regulation by the State. religion. and letters for especially gifted citizens. by the Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Imperial Army. and devoid of methods. and develop moral character. teach the duties of citizenship.

 13. Section 1. 9. CHAPTER 3 Duties and Obligations Sec. we must invest in our people . April 26. 15. THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINES The 1987 Constitution provides in Article XIV. . The Education Act of 1982 has provided measures to maintain quality education. and indigenous learning Sec. Several Accrediting Agencies  11. summarized in these statements: “ If we are to develop.”  20. according to the findings of the department of education. providing learning and life skill to young people and adults. Duties of Parents. 4 (2) Ownership and administration of schools Sec. April 26. 17. the Philippines has posted modest but consistent gains since 2006. Sec. And invest in people. Some of the measures taken to address drop-outs 1. CULTURE AND SPORTS Sec. where applicable. 3 (1) Optional religious instruction. ARTS. ARTICLE XIV (1987 CONSTITUTION) EDUCATION. Sec. Sec. Sec. Teacher's Obligations.  10. 2 (1) System of education relevant to society. foster love of humanity. Duties and Responsibilities of Students. Sec. and personal discipline. 8. These existing accrediting agencies comprise the Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines ( FAAP ). 4 (3) Tax exemptions Sec. Other schemes which provide learners with an array of alternative delivery modes of learning for them to complete elementary and high school are: Drop-Out Reduction Program (DORP) MISOSA or Modified In-School and Off-School Approach and IMPACT or Instructional Management by Parents Community and Teachers. AQUINO ADMINISTRATION  12. 10. Special Rights of School Administration. providing free and compulsory education for all. Sec. 4 (1) State power over educational institutions. The Philippines has been making sustained progress in education in the last few years. Candidate status – the period where an institution has already completed its preliminary survey and starts preparing for formal survey. Sec. Sec. 2. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Rights of Schools. Obligations of Academic Non-Teaching Personnel. . and improving the quality of education. This initial accreditation status lasts for three years. Right of Students in School. Sec. After a temporary decline. 2 (2) Free public education Sec. This usually lasts until the institutional is granted accreditation status which takes place between one or two years. 3 (2) thus: All educational institution shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism. if government does it alone. develop moral character. THE RAMOS ADMINISTRATION ONWARDS TO PHILIPPINES 2000 President Ramos stressed that the delivery of quality education to all the people as mandated by the Constitution is the chief means to empower the masses. reaching out to them. appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country. Sec. We have to learn to talk of growth not in terms of statistics. teach the rights and duties of citizenship. 1986 1987 Constitution which provided the present philosophy of education in the Philippines as stated in Article XIV. Special Rights and/or Privileges of Teaching or Academic Staff Sec. Sec. Section 1 that the State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. Project Reach which enlists the help of local government units in finding the school children. and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.  14. To increase enrolment and retention in school the education department has also strictly implemented the “no collection” and “no mandatory uniform policy”  18. College and Universities ACSC-AA . EDITORIAL (TEMPO. informal. Sec. Declaration of Basic Policy. Another intervention that has improved school retention is the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) as centerpiece of the government’s poverty reduction measure. The Six EFA goals which Philippines has committed itself include: expanding early childhood care and education. 5 (2) Right of every citizen to select a profession. EDITORIAL (TEMPO. Scientific. Rights of Parents Sec. MAINTENANCE OF QUALITY EDUCATION Voluntarily accreditation refers to the recognition of an educational program or. 14. 2 (4) Non-formal. EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) President Aquino has declared the period of 1990 – 1999 as the “Decade of Education for All” Education for All encompasses four major programs Institutionalization of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) Universalization of Quality Primary Education (UQPE) Eradication of Illiteracy Continuing Education and Development  15. 11. . Rights of all School Personnel. . . 18. In another state of the nation address the President emphasized his educational platform. One of them is voluntarily accreditation. This act shall apply to and govern both formal and non-formal system in public and private schools in all levels of the entire educational system. 3. 5 (2) Academic freedom Sec. for it will take 110 years to eradicate illiteracy. respect for human rights. the Philippines is steadily moving towards the Education for All (EFA) goal by 2015. Sec. “ EDSA People Power Revolution” on February 22-23. 8. of an educational institution as processing certain standards of quality or excellence. 2 (5) Special education and adult education Sec. 5 (2) Right of teachers to professional growth. 5 (1) Regional and sectoral needs Sec. 2010 issue)  17. strengthen ethical and spiritual values. The most profitable human investment is in basic education .Philippine Association of College and Universities-Commission on Accreditation.  9. REPORTER: MELGAZAR . EDUCATION ACT OF 1982 This was an act that provided for the establishment and maintenance of an integrated system of education.Association of Christian Schools and Colleges – Accrediting Association PACU-COA . 13. 12. THANK YOU…. and keeping them in school. Sec. 16.Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools. Programs or institutions desiring to be accredited generally have to pass through these stages: Applicant status – a stage where an institution is officially listed by the accrediting agency as an applicant institution for a maximum period of three years. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels. achieving gender equality by 2015. 2010 issue)  16.  19. the deadline set by the United Nations Educational. 2. encourage critical and creative thinking broaden scientific and technological knowledge and provide vocational efficiency. Member institution – this distinction is granted to an institution who satisfies all the requirements for accreditation. Other programs currently being implemented by the government under its poverty reduction thrusts which have direct impact on health and education are the Food for School and Essential Health Care Package which was recently recognized internationally. CHAPTER 2 Rig hts Sec. increasing adult literacy by 50 percent. and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). PAASCU . 2 (3) Scholarship program Sec.. but in terms of people . School Administrators' Obligations. . MEETING THE GOALS OF EDUCATION FOR ALL Due to the sustained implementation of education reforms.

THEEDUCATIONALCOMMUNITY  2. AFTER THELIBERATION OF THE PHILIPPINES IN 1946. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THEPHILIPPINES• THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (DEPED) ADMINISTERSTHE WHOLE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM WHICH INCLUDES THEALLOCATION OF FUNDS UTILIZED FOR SCHOOL SERVICESAND EQUIPMENT (SUCH AS . FORMAL SCHOOL  3. HOWEVER. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THEPHILIPPINES• THE SYSTEM OF EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES WASPATTERNED. BOTH FROM THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS OFSPAIN AND THE UNITED STATES. THE EDUCATIONALSYSTEMIN THE PHILIPPINES  4. THE SYSTEM HAVECHANGED RADICALLY AND MOVED AT ITS OWN.  5.Educational systemPresentation Transcript  1.

REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT• SCHOOLS WERE REOPENED ON AUGUST 29. EDUCATION OF THE ANCIENT EARLYFILIPINOS• EARLY FILIPINO ANCESTORS VALUED EDUCATION VERYMUCH. THEALIBATA WAS COMPOSED OF 17 SYMBOLS REPRESENTINGTHE LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET. NEEDLE WORKS(BOYS AND GIRLS)  28. SPANISH SYSTEM• FOR THE ELITE  23. REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT• THE BURGOS INSTITUTE IN MALOLOS. PRE – MAGELLANIC TIMES• READING. SPANISH SYSTEM• TRIBAL TUTORS WERE REPLACED BY THE SPANISHMISSIONARIES  21.   17. SPANISH SYSTEM• RELIGION .  6. AGRICULTURE. EDUCATION OF THEANCIENT EARLYFILIPINOS  13. AMERICAN REGIME• AMERICAN INFLUENCES CAN STILL BE SEEN IN OURLIFESTYLE OR WAY OF LIFE.  7. EDUCATION OF THE ANCIENT EARLYFILIPINOS• THIS EDUCATION BASICALLY PREPARED THEIR CHILDRENTO BECOME GOOD HUSBAND AND WIVES. SPANISH SYSTEM• EDUCATION IS INADEQUATE. SPANISH SYSTEM• PRIMARY INSTRUCTION IS FREE AND COMPULSORY  26. HISTORICALDEVELOPMENT OF THEPHILIPPINEEDUCATIONAL SYSTEM  10. 2012. 18. DEPED STARTED TOIMPLEMENT THE NEW K TO 12 EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMWHICH INCLUDES THE NEW CURRICULA FOR ALL SCHOOLS. SPANISH SYSTEM• EDUCATIONAL DECREE OF 1863 – ONE PRIMARY SCHOOLFOR BOYS AND GIRLS IN EACH TOWN  24. SUPPRESSED ANDCONTROLLED  27. SPANISH SYSTEM• SUBJECTS OFFERED: READING.  35. AMERICAN REGIME• SCHURMAN COMMISSION – ADEQUATE SECULARIZED ANDFREE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM  34. HISTORY.ORIENTED. EDUCATION OF THE ANCIENT EARLYFILIPINOS• THE FATHERS TAUGHT THEIR SONS HOW TO LOOK FORFOOD AND OTHER MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD.  8. EDUCATION OF THE ANCIENT EARLYFILIPINOS• INFORMAL AND UNSTRUCTURED. AMERICAN REGIME• TAFT COMMISSION AS PER INSTRUCTION OF PRESIDENTMCKINLEY – FREE PRIMARY INSTRUCTION THAT TRAINEDPEOPLE FOR THE DUTIES OF CITIZENSHIP AND AVOCATION.BOOKS. AMERICAN REGIME• ENGLISH IS THE MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION  36. 1898 BY THESECRETARY OF INTERIOR  30. VOCAL/MUSIC. THE MILITARYACADEMY OF MALOLOS AND THE LITERARY UNIVERSITY OFTHE PHILIPPINES WERE ESTABLISHED. SPANISH SYSTEM  20. ARITHMETIC.  19. SPANISH. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THEPHILIPPINES• ALL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN THE PHILIPPINESMUST START CLASSES FROM A DATE MANDATED BY THEDEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (USUALLY EVERY FIRSTMONDAY OF JUNE FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS ONLY) AND MUSTEND AFTER EACH SCHOOL COMPLETES THE 200 DAYSCHOOL CALENDAR OF DEPED (USUALLY AROUND THETHIRD WEEK OF MARCH TO THE SECOND WEEK OF APRIL).). EDUCATION IS NOW COMPULSORY.GEOGRAPHY. EDUCATION OF THE ANCIENT EARLYFILIPINOS• THE MOTHERS TAUGHT THEIR GIRLS TO DO THEHOUSEHOLD CHORES. CHRISTIANDOCTRINE. PRE-MAGELLANICTIMES  11.  32. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THEPHILIPPINES• HOWEVER. .  16.  22. WRITING AND ARITHMETIC  12. AMERICAN REGIME  33.  9. WRITING. REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT• THE MALOLOS CONSTITUTION ESTABLISHED A SYSTEM OFFREE AND COMPULSORY ELEMENTARY EDUCATION. EDUCATION OF THE ANCIENT EARLYFILIPINOS• FILIPINO MEN AND WOMEN KNOW HOW TO READ AND WRITEUSING THEIR OWN NATIVE ALPHABET CALLED ALIBATA. REVOLUTIONARYGOVERNMENT  29. AND THE SUPERVISION AND ORGANIZATION OFTHE SCHOOL CURRICULA.  15. IN THISSYSTEM. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THEPHILIPPINES• THE FORMER EDUCATION SYSTEM OF THE PHILIPPINES ISCOMPOSED OF SIX (6) YEARS OF ELEMENTARY STARTING ATTHE AGE OF 6 OR 7 AND FOUR (4) OF HIGH SCHOOLEDUCATION STARTING AT THE AGE OF 12 OR 13. AMONG THESESEVENTEEN SYMBOLS WERE THREE VOWELS ANDFOURTEEN CONSONANTS. SPANISH SYSTEM• NORMAL SCHOOL FOR MALE TEACHERS  25. SINCE JUNE 4. RECRUITMENT OF TEACHERS FOR ALL PUBLIC IN THEPHILIPPINES.IN THIS SYSTEM.  14. EDUCATION IS NOT COMPULSORY. SCHOOL CHAIRSETC.  31.

 54.  57.  48.  41.  42. AND GREAT BRITAIN. THE TOTAL NUMBER OF STUDENTS STUDYING INTHE 400 PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN THE COUNTRY REACHED10. 37.MINISTRY OF EDUCATION WASCREATED  55. 1945 – THE DEPARTMENT OF INSTRUCTIONWAS MADE PART OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICINSTRUCTION  58. AMERICAN REGIME• THE INSTITUTE OF PRIVATE EDUCATION WAS ESTABLISHEDIN ORDER TO OBSERVE PRIVATE SCHOOLS. SPECIAL EDUCATIONALINSTITUTIONS. THEY WERE THE THOMASITES. JAPANESE REGIMETHE GOVERNMENT MADE SOME CHANGES IN THE SYSTEMOF EDUCATION IN FEBRUARY. JAPANESE REGIME• JUNE 1942 – THE PHILIPPINE EXECUTIVECOMMISSION.  40.  51. JAPANESE REGIME• LOVE FOR WORK AND DIGNITY OF LABOR WASEMPHASIZED. AMERICAN REGIME• GOOD MANNERS AND DISCIPLINE WERE ALSO TAUGHT TOTHE STUDENTS.  44. JAPANESE REGIME• FEBRUARY 27. JAPANESE REGIME• TAGALOG. DEPARTMENT OFEDUCATION  60.. PHILIPPINE COMMISSION• REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1916 – THE FILIPINIZATION OF ALLDEPARTMENT SECRETARIES EXCEPT THE SECRETARY OFPUBLIC INSTRUCTION. PHILIPPINE COMMISSION• CREATED A HEAVY SHORTAGE OF TEACHERS  47. INACCORDANCE WITH THE 1935 CONSTITUTION. 1942.• TO BE AWARE OF MATERIALISM TO RAISE THE MORALITY OF THEFILIPINOS. AMERICAN REGIME• VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND SOME HOUSEHOLDACTIVITIES LIKE SEWING.  49.  56. HEALTH ANDPUBLIC WELFARE AND SCHOOLS REOPENED. PHILIPPINE COMMISSION• 1908 – THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE APPROVED ACT NO.  43. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION• 1978 – MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND CULTURE IN VIRTUEOF PD NO.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION• 1972 – DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WAS RENAMEDDEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND CULTURE(PROCLAMATION NO.  59. PHILIPPINE COMMISSION• THE COMMISSION AUTHORIZED THE SECRETARY OF PUBLICINSTRUCTION TO BRING TO THE PHILIPPINES 600 TEACHERFROM USA. AMERICAN REGIME• THERE WAS ALSO THE EXISTENCE OF "ADULT EDUCATION"IN ORDER TO GIVE FORMAL EDUCATION EVEN TO ADULTS.  38.000.• TO SPREAD ELEMENTARY AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. 2 OF 1942 – JAPANESE EDUCATIONALPOLICIES  53. COOKING. JAPANESE REGIME• MILITARY ORDER NO. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION• BUREAU OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS REGULATESAND SUPERVISES PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS  62. PHILIPPINE COMMISSION• 1901 – A HIGHLY CENTRALIZED PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMWAS INSTALLED  46.1870 CREATED THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES. AMERICAN REGIME• THE COMMONWEALTH PROVIDED FREE EDUCATION INPUBLIC SCHOOLS ALL OVER THE COUNTRY. CULTURE AND SPORTS . THESE CHANGES WERE:• TO STOP DEPENDING ON WESTERN COUNTRIES LIKE THEU. PHILIPPINECOMMISSION  45. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION• 13 REGIONAL OFFICES WERE CREATED MAJORORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES WERE IMPLEMENTED  65. PHILIPPINE HISTORY AND CHARACTEREDUCATION WAS RESERVED FOR FILIPINOS. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION• 1947 – DEPARTMENT OF INSTRUCTION WAS CHANGED TODEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION  61. ANAGRICULTURAL SCHOOL AND COMMERCE AND MARINEINSTITUTES WERE ESTABLISHED. 1397  64. 1081)  63.  39. AMERICAN REGIME• IN 1941. SCHOOL OF ARTS AND TRADES. PHILIPPINE COMMISSION• 1902 – THE HIGH SCHOOL SYSTEM SUPPORTED BYPROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS. AND FARMING WEREALSO GIVEN IMPORTANCE. 1913 . COMMISSION OF EDUCATION. PROMOTE AND ENRICH THE FILIPINOCULTURE.• TO RECOGNIZE THAT THE PHILIPPINES IS A PART OF THEGREATER EAST ASIA CO-PROSPERITY SPHERE SO THAT THEPHILIPPINES AND JAPAN WILL HAVE GOOD RELATIONS.  50. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION• EDUCATION ACT OF 1982 – MINISTRY OFEDUCATION.• TO LEARN AND ADOPT NIPPONGO AND TO STOP USING THEENGLISH LANGUAGE. JAPANESE REGIME  52. JAPANESE REGIME• OCTOBER 14. AMERICAN REGIME• EDUCATION ALSO EMPHASIZED NATIONALISM SO THESTUDENTS WERE TAUGHT ABOUT THE LIFE OF THE FILIPINOHEROES.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION• EO NO. FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THEPHILIPPINES• PRESCHOOL EDUCATIONPRESCHOOL EDUCATION IS OPTIONAL FOR CHILDREN 3 TO 4YEARS OLD.CHED (COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION) WASCREATED  68. EXCEPT FOR SOMEHIGHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS WHICH REQUIRE A LONGERPERIOD OF STUDY TO COMPLETE A DEGREE. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION• RA 7722 .  80. RA 9155GOVERNANCE OFBASIC EDUCATION ACT  72.  78.4. WITH ENGLISH AS THE MEDIUM OFINSTRUCTION. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE PRESENTPERIOD• GRADUATE SCHOOLING IS AN ADDITIONAL TWO OR MOREYEARS. 2nd. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE PRESENTPERIOD• CLASSES IN PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS START IN JUNE AND ENDIN MARCH.  87. ON THE OTHER HAND. CULTURE ANDSPORTS) – ELEMENTARY. SELF – RELIANT.  88. SIX YEARS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION. PRODUCTIVE AND PATRIOTICCITIZENS. SOMETIMESFIVE AND IN SOME CASES AS IN MEDICAL AND LAWSCHOOLS. RA 9155• PROVIDES THE OVERALL FRAMEWORK FOR (I) SCHOOLHEAD EMPOWERMENT BY STRENGTHENING THEIRLEADERSHIP ROLES (II) SCHOOL – BASED MANAGEMENTWITHIN THE CONTEXT OF TRANSPARENCY AND LOCALACCOUNTABILITY. 3rd and to 4thor 5th year  86.  69. DISTRICT OFFICESAND SCHOOLS)  73.  82. SECONDARY AND NON-FORMALEDUCATION INCLUDING CULTURE AND SPORTS 71. FOLLOWED BY FOUR YEARS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE PRESENTPERIOD• AN OVERALL LITERACY RATE WAS ESTIMATED AT 95. KNOWLEDGE AND VALUES TO BECOMECARING. FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THEPHILIPPINES• ELEMENTARY LEVELELEMENTARY LEVEL PROVIDES BASIC EDUCATIONTRADITIONALLY UNTIL THE SIXTH GRADE WHILE OTHER SCHOOLSOFFER UNTIL THE SEVENTH. SIXYEARS OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION.TESDA (TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLSDEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY) WAS CREATED.  74.3.  67.  81. RA 9155• DECS (DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. COLLEGE EDUCATION USUALLY TAKES FOUR. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE PRESENTPERIOD• THE GENERAL PATTERN OF FORMAL EDUCATION FOLLOWSFOUR STAGES:1. SECONDARY ANDTERTIARY EDUCATION. THIS IS NOT PREREQUISITE FOR ENTRANCE TO GRADE ONEFOR THE ELEMENTARY LEVEL BUT MOST OF THE PRIVATE SCHOOLSREQUIRE PRESCHOOL OF KINDERGARTEN EDUCATION BEFOREADMISSION.STUDENTS RECEIVE A CERTIFICATE OF . FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THEPHILIPPINESSTRUCTURE OF FORMALEDUCATIONFORMALEDUCATIONAGE OF STUDENT NUMBER OFYEARSLEVELSElementary(Grade School)6 to 11 years old 6 Grade 1 to 6 (Public)Grade 1 to 7(for some privateschools)Secondary(High School)12 to 15 years old 4 1st. TRIFOCAL EDUCATION SYSTEM• DECS (DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. KINDERGARTEN AND PREPARATORYCLASSES. COVERING ATOTAL OF 14 YEARS FOR ELEMENTARY. SOME PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS AND SOME PUBLICSCHOOLS OFFER NURSERY. FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THEPHILIPPINESFORMAL EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES FOLLOWS THEEDUCATIONAL LADDER OF 6 + 4 + 4 STRUCTURE (I. FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THEPHILIPPINES• SECONDARY LEVELTHE SECONDARY LEVEL COVERS A PERIOD OF FOURYEARS WHICH INCLUDES LEARNING AND TRAINING IN BASICEMPLOYABLE SKILLS. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE PRESENTPERIOD• THERE ARE A NUMBER OF FOREIGN SCHOOLS WITH STUDYPROGRAMS SIMILAR TO THOSE OF THE MOTHER COUNTRY.  76. THE TRIFOCALEDUCATION SYSTEM   70. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE PRESENTPERIOD• PHILIPPINE EDUCATION IS PATTERNED AFTER THEAMERICAN SYSTEM. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE PRESENTPERIOD• SCHOOLS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO PUBLIC (GOVERNMENT) ORPRIVATE (NONGOVERNMENT). FORMAL EDUCATIONALIN THE PHILIPPINES  84. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION• RA 7796 . EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE PRESENTPERIOD• COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES FOLLOW THE SEMESTRALCALENDAR FROM JUNE-OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER-MARCH. IT IS DIVIDED INTO TWO CATEGORIES:PRIMARY LEVEL WHICH COVERS FIRST TO FOURTH GRADES AND THEINTERMEDIATE LEVEL WHICH COVERS FIFTH TO SIXTH GRADE OR UNTILTHE SEVENTH GRADE. PRE-PRIMARY LEVEL (NURSERY.E. 2nd. 96 % FORMALES AND 95. DIVISION.  83.  85. 3rd and 4th yearTertiary(College or University)16 – 20 or 21 years old 4 to 5 1st. 66.9PERCENT FOR THE TOTAL POPULATION IN 2003.  77. KINDERGARTEN ANDPREPARATORY) OFFERED IN MOST PRIVATE SCHOOLS. CULTURE ANDSPORTS) WAS RENAMED TO DEPED DEFINING THE ROLE OFFIELD OFFICES (REGIONAL. AS LONG AS EIGHT YEARS. FOUR YEARS OFSECONDARY EDUCATION AND FOUR YEARS OF HIGHEREDUCATION FOR A DEGREE PROGRAM). GOAL TO BASIC EDUCATION: PROVIDETHE SCHOOL AGE POPULATION AND YOUNG ADULTS WITHSKILLS. EDUCATION SYSTEM INTHEPRESENT PERIOD  75.  79.8 % FOR FEMALES. 117 – DECS STRUCTURE REMAINED UNCHANGEDUNTIL 1994 WHEREIN CHED (COMMISSION ON HIGHEREDUCATION) AND TESDA (TECHNICAL EDUCATION ANDSKILLS DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY) SUPERVISE TERTIARYDEGREE PROGRAMS AND NON-DEGREE TECHNICAL –VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS RESPECTIVELY. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ISREQUIRED FOR CHILDREN SIX TO ELEVEN YEARS OLD AND SOMEPRIVATE EXCLUSIVE SCHOOLS OFFER SEVEN YEARS OF ELEMENTARYEDUCATION.2.

. SECONDARY EDUCATION. PP. BATAS PAMBANSA 232• SECTION 22. ANDTHEREFORE THE MAIN INSTRUMENT FOR THEACHIEVEMENT OF THE COUNTRYS EDUCATIONAL GOALSAND OBJECTIVES.• 3. 14-16• HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN CARDONA. ISSUANCES AND OTHERMATERIALS. NATIONAL BOOKSTORE.THEOBJECTIVES OF TERTIARY EDUCATION ARE:• 1.7• AZARCON. BATAS PAMBANSA 232CHAPTER 1PRELIMINARY MATTERS• SECTION 1. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMSCHAPTER 1FORMAL EDUCATION• SECTION 19. MARIVIC B.  93. TO DISCOVER AND ENHANCE THE DIFFERENT APTITUDESAND INTERESTS OF THE STUDENTS SO AS TO EQUIP HIMWITH SKILLS FOR PRODUCTIVE ENDEAVOR AND/ORPREPARE HIM FOR TERTIARY SCHOOLING. TITLE .POST SECONDARY SCHOOLINGIS HIGHER EDUCATION LEADING TO A DEGREE IN A SPECIFICPROFESSION OR DISCIPLINE. 90. COVERAGE . BATAS PAMBANSA 232• SECTION 21. AND• 2. USUALLYCORRESPONDING TO FOUR YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL. AND LOVE FOR THE NATION ANDTHE PEOPLE TO WHICH HE BELONGS. BATAS PAMBANSA 232• 2. AND• 4. 2004. DECLARATION OF POLICY. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION. BATAS PAMBANSA 232III. -THE OBJECTIVES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION ARE:• 1. FORMAL EDUCATION PRIMARILYCONCERNED WITH PROVIDING BASIC EDUCATION ANDUSUALLY CORRESPONDING TO SIX OR SEVEN  94. TO PROVIDE THE KNOWLEDGE AND DEVELOP THESKILLS. BATAS PAMBANSA 232• SECTION 23. PP. 5 . .COM/IMAGES  101. MORAL INTEGRITY AND SPIRITUAL VIGOR. AND• 4. OBJECTIVES OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION -THE OBJECTIVES OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ARE:• 1. . BATAS PAMBANSA 232THE EDUCATION ACT OF1982  91. 2012. THE STATERECOGNIZES THAT FORMAL EDUCATION. AND VALUES ESSENTIAL TO PERSONALDEVELOPMENT AND NECESSARY FOR LIVING IN ANDCONTRIBUTING TO A DEVELOPING AND CHANGING SOCIALMILIEU. .  98. JOSE N. FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THEPHILIPPINES• TERTIARY LEVELTERTIARY EDUCATION PROVIDE COURSES OF STUDIESGEARED TOWARDS DEGREES IN ACADEMIC/TECHNICALDISCIPLINES AND PROFESSIONS. 2011.• 3. TO DEVELOP THE PROFESSIONS THAT WILL PROVIDELEADERSHIP FOR THE NATION. IT COVERS A WIDE SCOPEOF CURRICULUM FROM TECHNICAL/VOCATIONAL TOPROFESSIONAL DEGREE PROGRAMS.ORG/INDEX.THIS ACT SHALL BE KNOWN AS THE"EDUCATION ACT OF 1982. OR THE SCHOOLSYSTEM. BATAS PAMBANSA 232• 3.PH/COURSES/GRADUATE-STUDIES/• WWW.  99.COM . 1 -3• HTTP://EN. IN SOCIETYS PRIMARY LEARNING SYSTEM.  95. TO PROVIDE LEARNING EXPERIENCES WHICH INCREASETHE CHILDS AWARENESS OF AND RESPONSIVENESS TOTHE CHANGES IN AND JUST DEMANDS OF SOCIETY AND TOPREPARE HIM FOR CONSTRUCTIVE AND EFFECTIVEINVOLVEMENT. TO CONTINUE TO PROMOTE THE OBJECTIVES OFELEMENTARY EDUCATION. BATAS PAMBANSA 232• SECTION 20.THE FIRST STAGE OFCOMPULSORY. DEFINITION .PHP?TITLE=FORMAL_EDUCATION_IN_THE_PHILIPPINES• HTTP://WWW. TO PROVIDE A GENERAL EDUCATION PROGRAM THATWILL PROMOTE NATIONAL IDENTITY.• 2. BATAS PAMBANSA 232• 2. PP. TO ADVANCE KNOWLEDGE THROUGH RESEARCH WORKAND APPLY NEW KNOWLEDGE FOR IMPROVING THEQUALITY OF HUMAN LIFE AND RESPONDING EFFECTIVELYTO CHANGING SOCIETAL NEEDS AND CONDITIONS. IDENTIFICATION WITH."• SECTION 2.GRADUATION ORDIPLOMA FOR THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OFELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION. THE EDUCATION ACT OF THE PHILIPPINESANNOTATED WITH RELATED LAWS. OBJECTIVES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION. THETECHNICAL/VOCATIONAL PROGRAM IS USUALLY TAKENBETWEEN ONE TO THREE YEARS OF SCHOOLING WHILEPROFESSIONAL DEGREE PROGRAMS REQUIRES FOUR TOFIVE YEARS OF SCHOOLING.SLIDESHARE. FORMAL EDUCATION SHALLCORRESPOND TO THE FOLLOWING LEVELS:• 1. TO PROMOTE WORK EXPERIENCES WHICH DEVELOP THECHILDS ORIENTATION TO THE WORLD OF WORK ANDCREATIVITY AND PREPARE HIMSELF TO ENGAGE IN HONEST  97. MANDALUYONG CITY. THE EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY (TOPICALREPORT). TO PROMOTE AND INTENSIFY THE CHILDS KNOWLEDGEOF.TCMC.  96.  100.THIS ACT SHALL APPLY TO ANDGOVERN BOTH FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL SYSTEMS INPUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN ALL LEVELS OF THEENTIRE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM  92.NET/JAREDRAM55E-MAIL: JAREDRAM55@YAHOO. ATTITUDES."FORMAL EDUCATIONAL" REFERSTO THE HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED ANDCHRONOLOGICALLY GRADED LEARNING ORGANIZED ANDPROVIDED BY THE FORMAL SCHOOL SYSTEM AND FORWHICH CERTIFICATION IS REQUIRED IN ORDER FOR THELEARNER TO PROGRESS THROUGH THE GRADES OR MOVETO HIGHER LEVELS. TERTIARY EDUCATION.THE STATE OF FORMALEDUCATION FOLLOWING THE ELEMENTARY LEVELCONCERNED PRIMARILY WITH CONTINUING BASICEDUCATION AND EXPANDING IT TO INCLUDE THE LEARNINGOF EMPLOYABLE GAINFUL SKILLS.   89. OBJECTIVE OF TERTIARY EDUCATION.GOOGLE.WIKIPILIPINAS. REFERENCE• BATAS PAMBANSA 232 – THE EDUCATION ACT OF 1982• NOLLEDO. DOWNLOAD LINKHTTP://WWW. BOTH LEVELSARE PREREQUISITES FOR PURSUING TERTIARY EDUCATION. CULTURALCONSCIOUSNESS.EDU. TO TRAIN THE NATIONS MANPOWER IN THE SKILLSREQUIRED FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.

P. Almazan.PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION FOR FILIPINOS: AN ANALYSIS Olongapo : Philippines | Jul 21. 1984). Olongapo City during School Year 2062007 then. PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION FOR FILIPINOS: AN ANALYSIS By ALFREDO BAUTISTA ANCHETA* About the Author: A licensed Professional Public School Teacher and former faculty member of Mondriaan Aura College with the rank of ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR 111 who handled courses both in the undergraduate and graduate levels. 2011 at 8:15 AM PDT BY dhreff 50 VIEWS: 6. He stumbled upon the existence of Rotary International and became a member of Rotary Club of Subic Bay in April. .600 1 of 1 THE WELLSPRING OF KNOWLEDGE NEVER RUNS DRY. Olongapo City and enjoys the blessings of a permanent appointment with the position of MASTER TEACHER 11. club secretary during the presidency of Sonny B. Angeles City. 2007 at Pulong Elementary School. Teaches full time at the Olongapo City National High School. 2009 and served as Editor-in-Chief of the Club’s weekly Bulletin. returned to O|CNHS in School Year 2007-2008 up to date. Served as Teacher-in-Charge at Sergia Soriano Esteban Memorial High School. Took and passed Principal Qualifying Examination on September 30. 1989) and earned 45 units Doctor of Education major in Educational Management(BSU-WLAC Consortium. club assistant secretary and eventually. Also. Holder of the degrees of Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Education(WLAC. The Freeport which prompted Dr Lamberto Castillo to describe him as an “acidic writer”. Kalaklan. then. RMTU). Master of Management major in Public Management(U.

to note that. which inculcates in the Filipino minds the unselfish commitment to servitude to the extent of sacrificing SELF for the welfare of OTHERS. Nationalism teaches the pupil/student patriotism. rather than on a holistic approach. through such a philosophy. It is a philosophy of education for the Filipino that will bring about an educational system capable of generating and tempering professionals who will be committed to serve in the country in order to help contribute in the achievement of various goals. a philosophy of education Filipinos is t correct and straighten out the seemingly distorted and corrupted Filipino behavior. programs and issuances as the needs arise fro time to time. Being as such. objectives. 60s. A philosophy that will breed an educational system for the Filipino that does not pay lip service to the cause of nationalism and at the same time makes the Filipino entertain and realize the aspirations cultivated. hear with his/her own ears and to understand with his/her own mind. 70s. A Philosophy that teaches the Filipino to become investigative and imbibe good sense of responsibility by doing away with blinding. he had interviewed certain personalities including Congresswoman Ma. Garcia. two of whom passed away at early ages and the one left Sara Zaynab Ancheta made him a grandfather for Sidfre’. COMPONENTS OF A PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION FOR FILIPINOS As to the components of a philosophy of education for Filipinos. uncaring man into the independent. objectives and programs for national development and prosperity. Quirino. the Filipinos are to be taught about all what they need as a people of a single nation and at the same time become keen and open to understand and accept concepts and ideas of foreign origins that will be of use for the promotion and enhancement of their well-being as a people be it. 90s. etc. 50s. It is not surprising therefore.s own capability of being able to support oneself economically/financially without dependence from anyone else. to untangle the Filipino minds out of their colonial molds and imprints. Diaz of the First and Second Districts of Zambales respectively. our educational programs apply to their respective clients/recipients on a piecemeal/fragmentary basis. smutted and mutated cultural. the purpose of a philosophy of education for Filipinos is to transform the KANYA-KANYA or “ME FIRST MENTALITY” into THINK-OTHRS. grasping. Milagros “Mitos” Habana Magsaysay and Congressman Antonio M. thus. This means that. 40s. indolent.He believes in the universality of humanity as ingrained in “The World is but One Country and Mankind its citizens”. I would like to present this as to the need for a “Philosophy of Education For Filipinos”. Love for work inculcates in the child the importance of being able to prepare oneself for life. making him desiring to find his fortunes in foreign lands in terms of brighter intellectual and greener economic horizons. policies and programs on education have been non cognizant of the negative consequences of the Filipino's blighted. The impregnation of the minds of students of “Philosophy of Education” with the thought of a felt need for” Philosophy of Education For Filipinos” is a clear indication that. National cultural identity makes the learner become aware of a culture common to all Filipinos which they must be proud about. With this fashion. Examples: Philippine Education during the Americans. BAGO ANG SARILI. and awareness about people/culture outside national boundaries. love of work. not with the eyes . Excellence in every endeavor makes the learner realize the great potentials in himself/herself and that he/she has to unleash such capabilities for his/her total human development. MAMAMAYAN MUNA. etc. 80s. PAKIKISA and AYOS and bring the Filipino to a sense of achieving anything within the standards of EXCELLENCE. A husband of only one wife. the following elements must be adequately provided for namely: nationalism national cultural identity. Philippine education is founded largely constitutional provisions on education which are fragmentally implemented through statutory and legislative actions in the forms of various laws. “that much sought pride and honor” of being a Filipino which many true Filipino heroes dead or alive have found the “worth of dying”. to reconcile situations/conditions typical of Filipinoswith new concepts and ideas resulting from the dynamism of an ever changing world. . I can say that. sense of excellence in every endeavor. the child is freed from blind following. Marcos. PURPOSES AND OBJECTIVES OF A PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION FOR FILIPINOS Certainly. historical past and heritage thus. thus. Pacita and fathered 3 children. value judgment and value action. he is a gracious father to Mona Liza and Jun and a grand daddy to their children. One that will inculcate in the Filipino minds the sense of national and making it the prima weave of their education. Almazan made him a stalwart exponent and Editor-in-Chief of Sunrise Zambales Today’s News. Such preparation will enable the learner to assume responsibilities fro productive and gainful occupation in his/her years ahead and enjoy the dignity attached to one. MEANING AND SIGNIFICANCE OF A “PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION FOR FILIPINOS” A philosophy of education for Filipinos means one that is meant “for Filipinos in their own national context” which suggests that. rather than planting just anything because it is a part of his life. Personal discipline and moral character instill in the child the necessity of good manners and right conduct be at home. Such laws. Secondly. ignorance and able to make use of his/her God-given faculties for understanding. A culture which makes and develops the personality distinct of Filipinos. there are purposes and objectives underlying the formulation of a philosophy of education for the Filipinos. it is a philosophy that will teach the Filipino people “how to live and love their own country”. Developing this liberal mode of thinking among the Filipinos will help them feel a deep sense of nationalism within a borderless outlook of internationalism. A philosophy that will educate the Filipino to become proud of his own capabilities and his achievements. Roxas. Macapagal. This means that. Commonwealth Educational Programs. educational programs carry the colors of the leaders responsible of carrying them out as well as they bear the post marks of the time they were put to test on their supposed products/or outputs. A philosophy that will teach the Filipino to find. personal discipline & moral character. behaving and valuing. hardworking and concerned ma”. His association and being a new found friend of Sonny B. INTRODUCTION: This philosophical analysis of a “Philosophy of Education For Filipinos” presents a reasonable breakdown of such a philosophy as to its meanings. in the final analysis makes the learner a peace-loving and law-abiding citizen. he is a member of the Baha'i Faith. patriotism. fertilized and watered with foreign ideologies. hears and minds of others. love of country good citizenship. It aims to “transform the Filipino from the selfish. Having this objective makes the Filipinos realize the need to evolve a national culture distinct of their own. acting. Thirdly. Also. Unfettered search for truth trains the learner to see with his/her own eyes. programs on education: or simply education during the 30s. individually or collectively. It is likened to a farmer who just plants or sows the seeds because his instincts dictate him so. imitation. A Philosophy that will erase from the Filipino minds the notions of PUWEDE NA or OKEY LANG. Magsaysay. Lastly. from a certain leadership to another. Our educational legislations were formulated only as palliatives rather than permanent cures for chronically diseased-educational system. if not living for it. there is no definite education philosophy upon which Philippine Education System is rested. school and community at large that. Firstly. policies. In the words of the Philippine Civil Service Commission. unfettered attitude to investigate/search for knowledge/or truth. mind veiling trail of AKALA KO response and irresponsible alibi of AKALA KO. components and the quality/ies of its desired product/output.

Special attention is given to the so-called “radical behaviorism” of B.. have minds with which to think. nevertheless. Elevazo. economically.When a philosophy of education such as this. Elevazo** pointed out. then. I consider contributions of behaviorism to the study of behavior. cannot be discounted in the whole process. morally and spiritually. education has achieved its goal which is to effect change and develop the child intellectually. This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2008) This article needs attention from an expert in psychology. *refers to and same dhreff of Central Luzon. socially. Philippines dhreff is based in Olongapo. substantive revision Tue Jul 27. the philosophy of Philippine education is meant to challenge Filipino educators to be clear. I outline reasons for and against being a behaviorist.INC. 2010 It has sometimes been said that “behave is what organisms do.” Behaviorism is built on this assumption. They are to liberate the creative energies of young minds to interact with the living present rather than. The roles of the educators in the realization of such a philosophy. Metro Manila. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. we can expect the product/output to be processed in th mold described in this commentary. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Skinner (1904–90). WikiProject Psychology (or its Portal) may be able to help recruit an expert. F. Skinner is given special attention because he is the behaviorist who has received the most attention from philosophers.the only proper subject for study and thatoften refuses to postulate any intervening mechanisms between thestimulus and the response 2Compare materialism See also mind-body .imprison them in outdated cells of thoughts from the dead past. In this entry I consider different types of behaviorism. educators are builders of the mind and life of growing boys and girls who. firsst of all. — n be'haviorist or behaviorism Behaviorism First published Fri May 26. National BookStore. the free encyclopedia For other uses. Please add a reason or a talkparameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. They are to open their innate curiosity to the unlimited possibilities of the present and the future. see Cognitivism (disambiguation). We can then. fellow scientists and the public at large. (June 2008) Psychology . 2000. Cognitivism (psychology) From Wikipedia. and its goal is to promote the scientific study of behavior. Philosophy of Philippine Education. He further explains. They should think with them rather than think for them. about the philosophy of what they do with the growth and development of the Filipino youth.problem the doctrine thatthe mind has no separate existence but that statements about themind and mental states can be analysed into stateme nts aboutactual and potential behaviour behaviorism or behaviorism —n be'haviourist or behaviorism — adj . is translated into a school curriculum and implemented properly. Philippines and is a Reported for ALLVOICES **Aurelio Elevazo & Rosita A. say that. Central Luzon behaviourist World English Dictionary behaviourism or behaviorism (bɪˈheɪvjəˌrɪzəm) —n 1a school of psychology that regards the objective observation ofthe behaviour of organisms (usually by means of automaticrecording devices) as . themselves.

referring to knowing and information. .[citation needed]. Methodologically. cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the 1950s. thus cognitive psychology is an information-processing psychology derived in part from earlier traditions of the investigation of thought and problem solving. [1][2] Behaviorists acknowledged the existence of thinking. Cognitive psychology is not a wholesale refutation of behaviorism. Cognitivists later argued that thinking is so essential to psychology that the study of thinking should become its own field. One of the most notable criticisms was Chomsky's argument that language could not be acquired purely through conditioning. Cognitivists argued that the way people think impacts their behavior and therefore cannot be a behavior in and of itself. one methodological. The movement was a response to behaviorism. [citation needed] The second is the belief that cognition consists of discrete.Outline History Subfields    Basic types               Abnormal Biological Cognitive Comparative Cultural Differential Developmental Evolutionary Experimental Mathematical Personality Positive Quantitative Social Applied psychology Applied behavior analysis Clinical  Community  Consumer  Counseling  Educational  Environmental  Evolutionary  Forensic  Health Human factors and ergonomics Industrial and organizational  Legal  Medical  Military  Music  Neuro  Occupational health  Political  Religion  School  Sport  Traffic     Lists           Disciplines Organizations Psychologists Psychotherapies Publications Research methods Theories Timeline Topics Psychology portal    V T E In psychology. Cognitive psychologists have attempted to shed some light on the alleged mental structures that stand in a causal relationship to our physical actions. and must be at least partly explained by the existence of internal mental states. which cognitivists said neglected to explain cognition. with the belief that individual components of mental function (the 'cognitive architecture') can be identified and meaningfully understood. replacing behaviorism as the most popular paradigm for understanding mental function. internal mental states (representations or symbols) whose manipulation can be described in terms of rules or algorithms. but rather an expansion that accepts that mental states exist. Cognitivism became the dominant force in psychology in the late-20th century. Cognitive psychology derived its name from the Latin cognoscere. the other theoretical.[citation needed] This is also largely a reductionist goal. but identified it as a behavior.[2] Contents [hide]  1 Theoretical approach  2 Criticisms of psychological cognitivism  3 See also  4 Further reading  5 References Theoretical approach[edit] Cognitivism has two major components. measurement and the scientific method. The main issues that interest cognitive psychologists are the inner mechanisms of human thought and the processes of knowing. cognitivism adopts a positivist approach and the belief that psychology can be (in principle) fully explained by the use of experiment. This was due to the increasing criticism towards the end of the 1950s of simplistic learning models.

G. 24–28. Such an argument presupposes the controversial notion of a private language. ISBN 978-1-84540073-6 References[edit] 1. much of early cognitive psychology. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. The idea that mental functions can be described as information processing models has been criticised by philosopher John Searle and mathematician Roger Penrose who both argue that computation has some inherent shortcomings which cannot capture the fundamentals of mental processes. described or interpreted by an observer. Pearson.. therefore programs (hence cognitivism) cannot explain understanding. is his 'syntax is not physics' argument—nothing in the world is intrinsically a computer program except as applied. refute cognitivism. (eds) (1987) Cognitive Psychology in Question. A.[citation needed] Both points.Criticisms of psychological cognitivism[edit] In the 1990s. Searle claims. distributed cognition. ^ Jump up to:a b Lilienfeld. ISBN 0-7108-1057-1  Searle. which Searle now prefers but is less well known. while understanding requires semantics. pp. the first (well known through his Chinese room thought experiment) is the 'syntax is not semantics' argument—that a program is just syntax. The second. so either everything can be described as a computer and trivially a brain can but then this does not explain any specific mental processes.dynamicism. Davies. (2010). embodied cognition. and that the brain-computer analogy can be a perfectly useful model if there is a strong isomorphism between the two. Is the brain a digital computer APA Presidential Address  Wallace. or there is nothing intrinsic in a brain that makes it a computer (program). 339-353 2. London: Imprint Academic.B. any sufficiently strong system of axioms will also be incomplete) and Turing's halting problem (which states that there are some things which are inherently non-computable) as evidence for his position. and the work of many currently active cognitive psychologists does not treat cognitive processes as computational. Ross. A. Psychology: A Framework for Everyday Thinking.  Searle has developed two arguments. B . (2002). S. 38.. J. Some of these new approaches. R.. (eds) (2007) The Mind. Namy.  Penrose uses Gödel's incompleteness theorem (which states that there are mathematical truths which can never be proven in a sufficiently strong mathematical system. N. J. Origins of the cognitive (r)evolution. Some thinkers working in the field of artificial life (for example Rodney Brooks) have also produced non-cognitivist models of cognition. often influenced by phenomenological and post-modernist philosophy. S. the Body and the World: Psychology after Cognitivism. and Anderson T. include situated cognition. various new theories emerged and challenged cognitivism and the idea that thought was best described as computation. A. Detractors of this argument might point out that the same thing could be said about any concept-object relation. J. Woolf. and Still. Cognitivists have offered a number of arguments to refute these attacks. On the other hand. Lynn.. L... [clarification needed] See also[edit] Wikiversity has learning materials about Cognitivism (psychology)  Cognition  Cognitive psychology  Cognitive science  Computationalism  Consciousness  Critical psychology  Educational psychology  Enactivism  Phenomenology  Postcognitivism  Symbol grounding  Important publications in cognitivism Further reading[edit]  Costall.. Another argument against cognitivism is the problems of Ryle's Regress or the homunculus fallacy. Jump up^ Mandler. Brighton: Harvester Press Ltd. ISBN 978-0-205-65048-4 [hide]    V T E Psychology    Basic psychology Abnormal Affective science Affective neuroscience Behaviorism Behavioral neuroscience Cognitive Cognitive neuroscience Comparative Cultural Developmental Differential Evolutionary Experimental Intelligence History Portal Psychologist .

Hull William James Carl Jung Jerome Kagan Kurt Lewin Ivar Lovaas Abraham Maslow .Mathematical Neuropsychology Personality Psycholinguistics Psychophysics Psychophysiology Social Theoretical Applied psychology Methodologies Orientations Notable psychologists Anomalistic Applied behavior analysis Assessment Clinical Community Consumer Counseling Educational Feminist Forensic Health Industrial and organizational Legal Media Military Music Occupational health Pastoral Political Psychometrics Religion School Sport and exercise Suicidology Systems Traffic Animal testing Archival research Behavior genetics Behavior epigenetics Case study Content analysis Experiments Human subject research Interviews Mindfulness Neuroimaging Observation Qualitative research Quantitative research Self-report inventory Statistical surveys Adlerian Analytical Behaviorism Cognitive behavioral therapy Cognitivism Descriptive Ecological systems theory Existential therapy Family therapy Feminist therapy Gestalt psychology Humanistic Logotherapy Narrative therapy Philosophy Psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic theory Psychodynamic psychotherapy Rational emotive behavior therapy Transpersonal Alfred Adler Gordon Allport Albert Bandura Aaron Beck Hubert Benoit John Bowlby Raymond Cattell Kenneth and Mamie Clark Albert Ellis Erik Erikson Hans Eysenck Leon Festinger Viktor Frankl Sigmund Freud Harry Harlow Donald O. Hebb Clark L.

and media psychology are emerging dimensions of the field.g. cognitivism and self-regulated learning. provide psychologists with the best information from which to understand human behavior. Behavior potential designates the possible behavior of an individual. etc. F.. online learning. the free encyclopedia This article needs attention from an expert in Psychology. Neurosciences have provided important insights into learning. The main assumption behind all learning psychology is that the effects of the environment. Skinner Edward Thorndike John B. Distance learning. Watson Wilhelm Wundt Lists Counseling topics Disciplines Important publications Organizations Outline Psychologists Psychotherapies Research methods Schools of thought Timeline Topics   Wiktionary definition Wiktionary category  Wikiso Psychology of learning From Wikipedia. As opposed to short term changes in behavior potential (caused e. Major research traditions are behaviorism. Miller Neal E. eLearning. blended learning. WikiProject Psychology (or its Portal) may be able to help recruit an expert. conditioning. reinforcement. Learning theories try to better understand how the learning process works.learn? 2 reviews  . too. not actual behavior. Miller Walter Mischel Ivan Pavlov Jean Piaget Carl Rogers Stanley Schachter B. Learning is a process that depends on experience and leads to long-term changes in behavior potential. The Psychology of Learning -.David McClelland George A. (November 2008) The psychology of learning is a theoretical science. How do we make connections among them? How do we. Please add a reason or a talkparameter to this template to explain the issue with the article.. learning implies changes related directly to experience. As opposed to long term changes caused by aging and development. Media psychology is a newer addition among the learning theories because there is so much technology now included in the various types of learning experiences. even when using much simpler organisms than humans (aplysia). by fatigue) learning implies long term changes.A Video Textbook It's a world full of "stimuli" and "responses".

reinforcement and punishment) People interested in learning more about why people do what they do o CURRICULUM  SECTION 1: What's Learning All About?  1 What's Learning. or related topics o o Anyone interested in a deeper understanding of classical conditioning (e.. focusing on a definition of learning and why it might not be what you'd expect it to be.." and what's the field of learning all about?  2 .g.g... Take this Psychology of Learning course and discover how we learn... events you experience) and responses (i. </p> Category: Social Sciences  What am I going to get from this course? o Over 51 lectures and 5 hours of content! o Provides a framework for understanding concepts. non-associative form of learning. Learning and Memory. Why?  SECTION 2: Simple Forms of Learning  4 Habituation 05:52 A relatively simple.  3 Research 08:19 To explain learning phenomena.   203 students enrolled You could see the world as nothing but randomly appearing stimuli (i.. we need experiments. 13:37 What's "learning. To test theories. How do you learn that one stimulus is associated with another (classical conditioning)? How do you learn that your own behavior can make something in your environment change (operant conditioning)? And how do classical and operant conditioning change the way you behave? As it turns out. phenomena. Pavlov's dogs) and operant conditioning (e.and What's it Not? 11:48 A summary of the first lecture. we need theories.e. but you don't.  Messing With Stimuli 5 . these two forms of learning--and what they tell you about the predictability of your world--can change your behavior in surprising ways. and theories from the field of learning o Illustrates the field's key ideas using film clips and other popular media o Explains important topics rarely covered at length in Learning textbooks  What is the target audience? Those taking (or preparing to take) courses in Introductory Psychology. your own behaviors).e..

and address a few common errors people make in thinking about Classical Conditioning... .. it's convenient to slap certain stimuli together--ones that will produce clear. relating it to real life can be confusing unless you keep a few things in mind. Facilitation. This video will reinforce what you've probably already read about the basic Pavlovian procedure. the change in a behavior that's 'habituating') when characteristics of the stimuli that are causing it are varied?  6 Opponent-Process Theory 08:49 What might make habituation happen? There are numerous theories.one becomes a CS.  11 Suppression.  14 Latent Inhibition 03:49 .  SECTION 3: Classical Conditioning Basics  8 The Mechanics 05:46 Slapping stimuli together is always classical conditioning.and another reason is latent inhibition..  13 Overshadowing 04:23 Billions and billions of stimuli. But to study animals.  9 A Few Things Worth Keeping in Mind 08:50 Although the basic idea behind classical conditioning is pretty straightforward.. Second-Order Conditioning 06:29 Suppression and facilitation can be used as measures of Pavlovian learning. obvious behaviors.. Why? One answer is overshadowing. even when nothing spectacular (or even noticeable) happens. but they mostly look like opponent-process theory.  12 Sensory Preconditioning 03:37 Maybe classical conditioning doesn't always have to involve obvious CRs and URs.07:56 What happens to the rate of learning (in this case. another simple form of learning.  10 Real-Life Illustrations 08:29 Classical conditioning comes up in real life in significant ways. and higher-order conditioning can extend the reach of classical conditioning into your life.  7 Sensitization 02:33 Briefly.

S..I. 21  Preparatory-Response Theory 09:50 Why do CRs sometimes mimic URs. not all the details.? There's a solution for that.. 20  Rescorla-Wagner Illustrations 09:29 The Rescorla-Wagner Model in action (so to speak).I. but sometimes seem to compensate for URs?  22 An Overview of Stimulus-Substitution Theory 04:27 What sort of association gets learned during classical conditioning?  23 Stimulus Substitution (First Order) 02:23 First-order associations? .  SECTION 4: Classical Conditioning Theories 17  An Overview of Classical-Conditioning Theories 03:41 What is it about classical conditioning that needs explaining? 18  An Overview of the Rescorla-Wagner Model 05:43 What sort of change can you expect from your CR as the result of the CS showing up? 19  Details of the Rescorla-Wagner Model 11:24 Well.and if other stimuli are around that are already CSs? 16  Contiguity and Filler Stimuli 02:25 Is your I. just three little things allow you to predict two little things (and to get a sense of how the model works). too B.G.15  Blocking and Conditioned Inhibition 07:24 .

Decaf?  SECTION 5: Operant Conditioning Basics  27 Operant Conditioning vs. Signals.. Mono... Signals. Substitutes. L. Bi. Substitutes. Skinner's Three-Term Contingency 02:08 Ouch. Thorndike had a few ideas about what got learned during operant conditioning procedures.  32 Superstitious Behavior 08:08 "Well. Bi.. Mono. the CS2 will. so.if you eliminate the response to the US. Signals. Bi. Signals..  31 Fuzzy Stuff 04:32 A few things to keep in mind as you sort out what's what with operant conditioning. Thorndike 04:51 E. 24 Stimulus Substitution (Higher Order) 05:36 So.. Substi... How was he right? How was he wrong?  29 B..  26 Sometimes-Opponent Process Theory 03:16 Mono."  Shaping 33 . Mono. Substitutes. but.  30 Operant Consequences 05:19 Looks pretty simple. Bi.. Mono. Bi. I walked under a ladder and nothing bad happened. Smack-down.what?!  25 Substitutes? Or Signals? 05:36 Substitutes. Mono. L. Bi. Classical Conditioning 02:58 How does operant conditioning differ from classical conditioning?  28 E.. F..

07:21 "Daddy. Probably not..no. I don't. Spontaneous Recovery.  40 The Post-Reinforcement Pause 03:34 Maybe pigeons are smarter than they seem.  38 Premack 's Principle 04:23 Just the time.  41 The Avoidance Paradox 04:29 Why avoid something that doesn't happen (anymore)?  Two-Factor Theory and the Safety-Signal Hypothesis 42 .  37 Physiological-ish Theories Of Reinforcement 03:43 Needs and arousal. Oh. but maybe.  35 Extinction. wait a minute.. relatively speaking.  39 Equilibrium Theory 07:15 Balance. where do new behaviors come from?"  34 Reinforcement Schedules 12:15 Sometimes can be better than all the time. and Resurgence 06:02 Everybody s-t-r-e-t-c-h now!  SECTION 6: Operant Conditioning Theories  36 Why Theories Of Reinforcement? 04:08 I know what feels good and I know what feels bad.

nobody's perfect. Questions?  45 Generalization 05:27 Well. prior learning influences current learning.  43 Trouble in Two-Factor Town 02:05 And they were looking so good.  48 The Intermediate-Size Problem 01:22 What's going to happen?  49 Theories of Discrimination 04:48  50 Behavioral Contrast 04:29 Prior learning influences current learning.  44 One-Factor and Cognitive Theories 04:01 Two hard. One easy.  46 Discrimination Training 05:35 Learning to get better.06:37 Avoidance isn't avoidance...  47 Transposition 01:39 Discriminating involves more than it might seem.  51 Transfer of Learning 03:20 At the risk of repeating myself. PREVIEW THIS COURSE FOR FREE! .

clips.REVIEWS  2  0  0  0  0 AVERAGE RATING NUMBER OF RATINGS 2  Jeff Jay a year ago Great course! I signed up for this course because I was taking Intro Psych at my school and was having trouble figuring out the differences between classical and operant conditioning. remember that all of these ideas about children. but explained things using lots of visual illustrations. as well as . I watched most of the rest of the videos just because they were interesting (and sometimes pretty funny). like movie and t. You need this basic knowledge the minute you enter the classroom. about subject matter.A Video Textbook (84)Free  The Psychology of Personality -. and about teaching are filtered through your network of personal beliefs (Calderhead.A Video Textbook (3)$39  Social Psychology -. you'll have already acquired considerable knowledge about the characteristics of students. Great stuff! Preview This Course For Free!     30 day money back guarantee! Lifetime Access. No Limits! Mobile Accessibility Certificate of Completion  Add To Wishlist STUDENTS WHO VIEWED THIS COURSE ALSO VIEWED:  Introductory Psychology -. how do you think students learn? Your answer will have a lot to do with the methods and materials you select. Before we discuss the various types of knowledge that you need. I like that they weren’t just videotapes of some guy’s lectures (even though they were obviously made for an actual class). how to teach. Watching the first few of these videos cleared that up. So much easier to understand than the textbook we had in Intro. which isn't to say that you won't add to it as you gain teaching experience and probably take graduate courses to pursue your goal of being the best teacher you can be. You have acquired this knowledge over many years from personal experiences and formal education.v. 1996). For example.A Video Textbook WHAT TEACHERS NEED TO KNOW When you first enter a classroom. and what to teach.

Good (1990) identified several topics with which you should be comfortable enough to use almost automatically in assessing your teaching. Although some teaching techniques will appeal more to you than others. If you are familiar with this rich teacher knowledge base. We're not concerned here with how you teach a particular subject. and an understanding of what makes the learning of specific topics easy or difficult: the conceptions and preconceptions that students of different ages and backgrounds bring with them to the learning of those most frequently taught topics and lessons. Each of these three categories tells a story in itself. Conversely. media. in the course of writing this book. Our final concern regarding teaching knowledge relates to learners and learning. Am I sufficiently prepared in this subject to know the best way to introduce it? What is the best way to teach its core elements? What is the best way to evaluate my students? To answer these questions. you must have usable knowledge about teaching. and what they understand and remember. a story that helps to refine your personal skills. Do you have any underlying assumptions about teaching? For example. this constructivist view of learning sees learning as a student-mediated process. you no doubt have certain ideas about how students think and learn. Another aspect of teaching knowledge is that of instructional strategies. what learners judge to be relevant or important. detailing facts about its surface. our first consideration should be the knowledge base of teaching. For example. etc. classroom management is critical. one's knowledge base is a scaffold that supports the construction of all future learning.). acquire familiarity with the ideas. 1996). How comfortable am I with this subject? Can I answer students' questions accurately and in a relaxed manner? For example. think about the following questions that help to shape your personal style (H. As a result of observations and your own education.  Astronauts walk in space as if it were the natural thing for us all to do. and thus their students will not see the whole picture (Dill.  The Mars probe has resulted in a series of remarkable pictures. assume that you are teaching one of Faulkner's stories and your students are having difficulty. your students' needs.  The Hubble telescope has sent back a series of amazing pictures of the universe. or workbooks. beliefs. facts. However. 89) In analyzing the basic data teachers need. have a unique opportunity to acquire learning that will shape their future as never before. You can do this. in the midst of this marvel of discoveries. In a thoughtful essay. 1996)." The management style in this school is quite different from that of another school in which the principal wants to hear the hum of activity as a sign of learning. their home situation.how you interact with your students.  Computer technology is opening new vistas that are as startling as they are ingenious. If you feel shaky about material." while keeping in mind the uniqueness of all the learners we might interact with in a classroom. or do you search for an outside interpretation? To help you organize your thoughts about how to teach various subjects. teaching subject matter knowledge means the ways of representing and formulating the subject that make it comprehensible to others. We'll have much more to say about this process and the topic of constructivism throughout the book. Teachers who are less knowledgeable in subject matter may avoid presenting critical material if they are uncomfortable with it. Students. etc.). know the basic ideas of a subject. you may well ask. and the overarching philosophy of the school. Truly. almost as if knowledge that has been forced below our level of consciousness has burst through restraining barriers and. or that the strategy you had decided on just isn't reaching your students. Students are active problem solvers who will take the data available. that's not your only consideration. and researchers are closing in on the elusive genetic causes of breast cancer. Nevertheless. According to Shulman (1986. you may do too much with your pupils. Teaching Knowledge Teaching knowledge refers to how the basic principles and strategies of a subject are best acquired and retained. and students (Borko & Putnam. 9). Subject Matter Knowledge Subject matter knowledge refers to a teacher's comprehension of a subject when compared with that of a specialist. and what they mean for truly understanding the subject (Borko & Putnam. and the various ways of teaching. As you can see. and with your guidance and their own view of the world will give learning their own interpretations based on your efforts. think of recent events that have captured our headlines:  The Human Genome Project has resulted in the discovery of the genes that cause cystic fibrosis and Huntington's disease. has exploded before our eyes. But. you may attempt to brush by it quickly. 1986. "Why?" "Why can't I just use what works for me?" The answer to these questions cuts to the heart of what makes a good teacher. you can then use it while your lesson is in progress. For example. p. as if to make up for lost time. about the subjects you're teaching. What seems to be essential here is that you should know more than the facts of a subject. you'll find that you need an arsenal of strategies to meet the widely varied needs of your students. What do you do? Do you yourself turn to the story and attempt to clarify themes. Some refer to this as pedagogical knowledge. unfortunately. she liked to "hear the clock ticking. you'll find yourself using many different approaches to reach them. a very real force to be reckoned with. structures. At this point. and teaching subject matter knowledge (how you make a subject understandable to others). 1996). We'll use three categories to sort out the kinds of information you'll need to become an outstanding teacher: teaching (pedagogical) knowledge (managing the classroom. motivation. however. and how you can use these ideas to further their learning. and to the wishes of your principal. their friends. p. but keep in mind that positive classroom functioning depends on many things. Our focus is to urge you not to be content with the basic facts and information of a subject. These include pertinent data from developmental psychology. subject matter knowledge (facts. On and on it goes. Teaching Subject Matter Knowledge Teaching subject matter knowledge refers to the most appealing manner in which you organize and present content-telling. and learning and learning strategies (topics that are at the heart of this book). Your task then is to keep a group of twenty to twenty-five students working together and focused on classroom tasks within the boundaries established by your unique personality. one of us visited a school where the principal casually remarked that when she went by a classroom. Different subjects demand different strategies. (p. how that information is perceived. if you have depth of knowledge. perhaps most importantly on your personality. For example. and to be prepared to answer all kinds of questions about what you teach. you might decide that things aren't going as well as you had anticipated and you determine that motivation may be the reason." Try to keep up with the results of current research. Grossman. 26)? The best advice is to know as much as possible about your subject. that is. Questions like the following are about pedagogical knowledge. how you structure activities in your classroom (Borko & Putnam. would you use the same methods for teaching algebra as you would in teaching Hamlet? Also. You'll have to adapt to the philosophy of your school. learning. 1990): . instructional techniques. What style of management are you most comfortable with? You'll soon discover what's best for you. You can then make changes during the lesson. teacher expectations. in the middle of your lesson. and once that happens you'll steadily improve your management strategies. you should understand how facts and ideas interrelate. classroom management. Rather. and their own personal bank of experiences. do you believe good teaching is a matter of presenting pertinent facts to students. or do you think good teaching is a matter of guiding students in their learning? Let's turn to some specific examples of the kinds of knowledge that teachers need and use in their quest for "good teaching. In other words. and using texts. it all comes down to one fundamental question: How much and what should teachers know of what they teach (Shulman. computers. and how they are organized. Does your knowledge of a subject affect how you teach it? Subject matter knowledge cuts both ways. For example. and concepts of a subject. and how these ideas are "put together. their personalities. but with your knowledge of the various subjects. only if you are completely at ease with your ideas about your students. to present it as dynamically as possible. 1990). As Alexander (1996) noted: One of the most powerful and consistent findings to emerge from the research in cognitive psychology over the past several decades is the realization that what knowledge learners possess is a powerful force in what information they attend to. guiding. if you're to be a facilitator of meaningful learning for your students. research indicates that knowledgeable teachers can better detect student difficulties and seize opportunities for meaningful learning.

In a complex and technological society. Incorporated. Given the knowledge that we have acquired about the nature of instruction and about the methods of inquiry into any discipline. example. 17) We hope you share our belief that teachers and schools that teach and assess understanding as an outcome of instruction can make a significant difference in students' lives. You have already made a commitment that reflects a love of study and pleasure in working with youth. for them. to searching for materials for their research projects. Frequently monitor the classroom atmosphere so that it remains challenging but not overwhelming. pressure from competition. In fact. 2. they were "originals. You. you recognize the stages in any task that are necessary for mastery. 4. As Bruer (1994) reminded us: The world didn't need Isaac Newton to know that apples fell off trees." These innovative. the teaching strategies you'll use. we simply can't afford this type of thinking any longer. but be sure it is both specific and deserved. use teaching techniques and materials that are appropriate for the level (emotional as well as cognitive) of your students. What do we mean by "understanding"? To answer this question." Don't count on them understanding the complex reasons that led to our involvement in Vietnam. and don't use praise carelessly. They may understand fractions. and what researchers are discovering at the frontiers of the discipline. To devote hours of study beyond the demands of duty requires a commitment to a discipline and the company of the young. If you're comfortable with the subject you're teaching. here are several principles of learning. that is. which they constantly modified. Encourage as much student activity as possible. and representing the topic in new ways. You'll conclude just what student behavior is to be assessed and then the best means of measuring it. finding evidence and examples. provide reinforcement. you'll be able to relate the various kinds of teacher knowledge to your daily classroom work: Your task is to help students learn as much as they can. etc. we believe that teachers must be part scientist and part artist. Knowing why leads to other discoveries. Why are you teaching what you're teaching? In other words. For example. ranging from reading a text with comprehension. to seek constantly for improvement. pressure from you. You don't want to plead ignorance on too many of your students' questions. pp. Identifying the problem. You'll find that you. and further refinements. Considering teaching strictly as an art. adopt-and adapt-the scientific method in your work. students usually understand that George Washington was our first president and the "father of our country. that will help you to use your knowledge most effectively. Formulating a logical series of steps to reach a goal. Guard against student anxiety. Teaching as an Art and Science You must know your subject. and do short division. These categories actually mirror two basic themes that are at the heart of this book: the teacher as a professional and the teacher as a person. or simulation is best suited for the needs of your students? Do you have to adapt your model to satisfy the individual differences in your class? What Does All of This Mean for You? If you remember one guiding principle. we should explore the notion that teaching also be considered a science. Gathering the data. what do you think is important for your students to know? Your decisions on what to teach will influence the objectives you want your students to achieve. and encourage the use of learning strategies. A quick rundown on your role of teacher-as-scientist will include the following four steps: 1. You'll adopt the role of experimenter as you try new instructional methods and classroom procedures (even something as simple as changing the seating arrangement).  How much do you know about curriculum and curricular materials? Do you know the range of materials-texts and other instructional materials-available for teaching a particular topic? You should also understand how the topics and ideas of a subject are organized horizontally (within a course or grade level) and vertically (kindergarten through grade 12). demonstration. From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate(r) Dictionary. both of which can be provocative masters. Particularly interesting was her finding that they were not locked into any single teaching style. but also the core of the subject. which implies that you grasp not only the material that you currently are presenting in class.  Have you thought about the strategies and representations you could use for particular topics? Our concern here is that you give considerable attention to the best way of representing a particular subject or topic. Interpreting the data. What model. You'll decide not only which topic to present but how you'll do it. this list serves as an advanced organizer for much of what we cover in depth in the remaining twelve chapters in this book. subtract. just be sure it is appropriate. you'll find yourself doing independent study to prevent personal obsolescence. They master facts. Let's examine this idea for a moment. effective styles. but totally misunderstand the division of fractions. that is. As Cohen noted. illustration. Remember that tried-and-true cliche: Match the mix. will avoid such work unless you like your subject and enjoy interacting with students. Tenth Edition (c)1998 by Merriam-Webster. artist: a skilled performer scientist: a scientific [knowledgeable] investigator By permission. For example. Following are definitions of artist and scientist found in Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. . It did need Newton to give us a general theory that explains why apples fall off trees. keep clearly defined objectives in sight at all times. to discussing topics in class. and any teacher. new applications.  What are your students' typical understandings and misunderstandings of a subject? For example. why do skates need to be sharp if you are to skate well? What are the pros and cons of a superpower's invasion of a small country to restore order? Remember that students very often don't understand what they learn. computer programs. Teach for understanding. they never lost the perspective of a novice: always wanting to try something new. and the materials you'll select (texts. but their comprehension lags far behind. In many ways. Perkins and Blythe (1994. Cohen (1992) described the lives of five veteran secondary school teachers and concluded that common to them all was a passion and enthusiasm for the subjects they taught. pupils can't do long division until they can add. however. Changing these conditions is a difficult task for many reasons. In this way. Be sure you know what you want to accomplish. 5-6) stated that understanding is being able to do a variety of thought-demanding things with a topic-explaining. Students need encouragement. Musing about the art of teaching. however. You'll judge if your students' performance has achieved the desired goal. To be more specific. As they become engaged. on how many sheer facts they have mastered. 3. knowingly or not. is too limiting. but far too often we're more interested in how students do on standardized tests. You must decide exactly what you want your students to learn. Students will be-should be-engaged in multiple activities.). In an age devoted to empirical research. videos. (p. agreed upon by almost all educational psychologists. you're also aware of the progressive stages that students need to master. They had developed their own unique and. flexible teachers undoubtedly performed as artists in their classrooms. Knowing why apples fall off trees has allowed us to go to the moon and to see television images of the planets. 10th edition. which can have many causes: pressure from home. To accomplish this. applying.

Toward this end. and to unify all Filipinos into a free and just nation. — The educational system aim to: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary 1. technological. Declaration of Basic Policy." chanrobles virtual law library Sec. moral and spiritual values in a changing world. — This Act shall apply to and govern both formal and non-formal systems in public and private schools in all levels of the entire educational system. Provide for a broad general education that will assist each individuals in the peculiar ecology of his own society. traditions. teaching is both art and science. socio-economic status. and 3. Coverage. and develop moral character. 2. to (a) attain his potentials as a human being. The State shall promote the right of every individual to relevant quality education. GENERAL PROVISIONS CHAPTER 1 Preliminary Matters chanrobles virtual law library Section 1. chanrobles virtual law library Sec. and 4. adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development. the educational system shall reach out to educationally deprived communities. devise strategies. and (c) acquire the essential educational foundation of his development into a productive and versatile citizen. Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions of the nation through a system of educational planning and evaluation. interest and belief. regardless of sex. and pursuant to the Constitution. political or other affiliation. and communicate their results. physical and mental conditions. within the context of a free and democratic system. and vocational efficiency. Towards the realization of these objectives. A collection of Philippine laws. Train the nation's manpower in the middle-level skills for national development. develop and promote desirable cultural. chanrobles virtual law library 2. chan robles virtual law library chan robles virtual law library I. chanrobles virtual law library Furthermore. To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and social progress.By following the "scientific method" in instruction and by your involvement at various levels of scientific inquiry. age. customs. you'll act as a scientist: you'll identify objectives. Title. — This Act shall be known as the "Education Act of 1982. personal discipline. . creed. chanrobles virtual law library The state shall promote the right of the nation's cultural communities in the exercise of their right to develop themselves within the context of their cultures. chan robles virtual law library BATAS PAMBANSA BILANG 232 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF EDUCATION. To achieve and strengthen national unity and consciousness and preserve. to enrich their civic participation in the community and national life. The State shall therefore promote and maintain equality of access to education as well as the enjoyment of the benefits of education by all its citizens. 3. in order to give meaningful reality to their membership in the national society. racial or ethnic origin. Declaration of Objectives. Thus. To ensure the maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of such growth. 3. 2. maximum contribution of the educational system to the attainment of the following national developmental goals: 1. — It is the policy of the State to established and maintain a complete. (b) enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in the basic functions of society. statutes and codes not included or cited in the main indices of the Chan Robles Virtual Law Library This page features the full text of Batas Pambansa Bilang 232 "Education Act of 1982" AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF EDUCATION. all educational institutions shall aim to inculcate love of country. a needed combination for today's changing classrooms and for enacting effective teaching-learning interactions. teach the duties of citizenship. Develop the profession that will provide leadership for the nation in the advancement of knowledge for improving the quality of human life. 4. and scientific. and recognizes education as an instrument for their maximum participation in national development and in ensuring their involvement in achieving national unity. gather and evaluate their data. the government shall ensure. chanrobles virtual law library CHAPTER 2 Declaration of Basic State Policy and Objectives chanrobles virtual law library Sec.

4. primarily through competent instruction. 2. 2. chanrobles virtual law library Sec. except in cases of academic deficiency. 3. 3. and between the community and other sectors of society. d." or those enrolled in and who regularly attend and educational institution of secondary or higher level of a person engaged in formal study. THE EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY CHAPTER 1 Preliminary Provisions chanrobles virtual law library Sec. Promote and safeguard the welfare and interest of the students by defining their rights and obligations. relevant quality education in line with national goals and conducive to their full development as person with human dignity." or all other school personnel not falling under the definition and coverage of teaching and academic staff. and communicate information and suggestions for assistance and support of the school and for the promotion of their common interest. — "Educational community" refers to those persons or groups of persons as such or associated in institutions involved in organized teaching and learning systems." or all persons engaged in actual teaching and/or research assignments. in the realization that only in such an atmosphere can be true goals and objectives of education be fulfilled. "Students. and student and pupils in all schools shall enjoy the following rights: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary 1. 5. Sec. 8. school administrators and academic non-teaching personnel. define their obligations. Sec. "Parents" or guardians or the head of the institution or foster home which has custody of the pupil or student. Aid and support the natural right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth through the educational system. The right to publish a student newspaper and similar publications. "Non-academic personnel. librarians. The right to freely chose their field of study subject to existing curricula and to continue their course therein up to graduation. diplomas. 2. b." are those who regularly attend a school of elementary level under the supervision and tutelage of a teacher. research assistants. "Teaching or academic staff. which includes the following: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary a. Moreover. the State shall: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary 1." or institutions recognized by the State which undertake educational operations. chanrobles virtual law library Representatives from each subgroup of the educational community shall sit and participate in these bodies. "Pupils. transfer credentials and other similar documents within thirty days from request." or all persons occupying policy implementing positions having to do with the functions of the school in all levels. The right of access to his own school records. and similar staff. research aides. Rights of Parents. 2. such as registrars. chanrobles virtual law library . — It is likewise declared government policy to foster. 3 "School personnel. grades. Community Participation. The right to access to any official record directly relating to the children who are under their parental responsibility. 9. at all times. all parents who have children enrolled in a school have the following rights: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary chanrobles virtual law library 1. transcript of records. chanrobles virtual law library 6. and encouraging the establishment of sound relationships between them and the other members of the school community. the rules and procedures of which must be approved by them and duly published. chanrobles virtual law library 4. a spirit of shared purposes and cooperation among the members and elements of the educational community. c. "Academic non-teaching personnel. as well as the right to invite resource persons during assemblies. 6." or those persons holding some academic qualifications and performing academic functions directly supportive of teaching. Declaration of Policy and Objectives. — In addition to other rights. Definition and Coverage. "School administrators. chan robles virtual chan robles virtual law librarylaw library CHAPTER 2 Rights chanrobles virtual law library Sec. — Every educational institution shall provide for the establishment of appropriate bodies through which the members of the educational community may discuss relevant issues. and for ensuring the full cooperation of parents and teachers in the formulation and efficient implementation of such programs. 7. Promote the social economic status of all school personnel. and subject to the limitation prescribed by law and regulations. chanrobles virtual law library 4. uphold their rights. according them privileges. and improve their living and working conditions and career prospects. — In addition to other rights under existing laws. 5. The right to organize by themselves and/or with teachers for the purpose of providing a forum for the discussion of matters relating to the total school program. students and school personnel seek to attain their educational goals. symposia and other activities of similar nature. "Schools. The right to receive. Right of Students in School. the confidentiality of which the school shall maintain and preserve. The right to the issuance of official certificates. or violation of disciplinary regulations." or all persons working for an educational institution.II. Extend support to promote the viability of those institutions through which parents. The members and elements of the educational community are: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary chanrobles virtual law library 1. in all levels of the educational system. The right to school guidance and counseling services for decisions and selecting the alternatives in fields of work suited to his potentialities. either on full-time or part-time basis.

compassionate and orderly society. 15. Parents shall cooperate with the school in the implementation of the school program curricular and co-curricular. when charged in an administrative. The right to be free from compulsory assignments not related to their duties as defined in their appointments or employment contracts. The right of their governing boards or lawful authorities to provide for the proper governance of the school and to adopt and enforce administrative or management systems. Duties of Parents. 2. 4. or to form. — In addition to other rights provided for by law. Sec. every member of the teaching or academic staff shall enjoy the following rights and/or privileges: 1. Special Rights and/or Privileges of Teaching or Academic Staff— Further to the rights mentioned in the preceding Section. civil and/or criminal proceedings by parties other than the school or regulatory authorities concerned for actions committed directly in the lawful discharge of professional duties and/or in defense of school policies. cultural. chanrobles virtual law library 4. Exert his utmost to develop his potentialities for service. 16. Special Rights of School Administration. therefore. Duties and Responsibilities of Students. particularly in the social. The right to intellectual property consistent with applicable laws. chanrobles virtual law library 2. Teachers shall be accorded the opportunity to choose alternative career lines either in school administration. conformably to existing law. establish. Parents shall be obliged to enable their children to obtain elementary education and shall strive to enable them to obtain secondary and higher education in the pursuance of the right formation of the youth. who may teach. in classroom teaching. — In addition to other rights provided for by law. in accordance with existing laws. The right for institutions of higher learning to determine on academic grounds who shall be admitted to study. spiritual and physical growth and development. and what shall be subjects of the study and research. 5. The right to form. The right to free expression of opinions and suggestions. chanrobles virtual law library 2. Sec. regulations and policies of the Ministry of Education. and to effective channels of communication with appropriate academic and administrative bodies of the school or institution. 4. — School administrators shall. The right to free expression of opinion and suggestions. Teachers shall be deemed persons in authority when in the discharge of lawful duties and responsibilities. chanrobles virtual law library Sec. Sec.7. chanrobles virtual law library 3. and shall therefore be accorded due respect and protection. the teaching and academic staff and other school personnel. The right to establish. endeavor to achieve academic excellence and abide by the rules and regulations governing his academic responsibilities and moral integrity. and through the school authorities concerned in the case of private school personnel. 8. shall help carry out the educational objectives in accordance with national goals. be accorded due respect and protection. and by exerting efforts to attain harmonious relationships with fellow students. chanrobles virtual law library CHAPTER 3 Duties and Obligations chanrobles virtual law library Sec. 11. every student shall: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary 1. Teacher's Obligations. goals. 2. unless compensated therefor. Exercise his rights responsibly in the knowledge that he is answerable for any infringement or violation of the public welfare and of the rights of others. Parents. Sec. and shall. through the school systems. chanrobles virtual law library School administrators shall be deemed persons in authority while in the discharge of lawful duties and responsibilities. in order that he may become an asset to his family and to society. Uphold the academic integrity of the school. schools shall enjoy the following: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary 1. 12. establish.chanrobles virtual law library 2. 10. Perform his duties to the school by discharging his responsibilities in accordance with the philosophy. — In addition to those provided for under existing laws. particularly by undergoing an education suited to his abilities. 14. and objectives of the school. The right to be provided with free legal service by the appropriate government office in the case of public school personnel. 3. economic and cultural development of his community and in the attainment of a just. join and maintain organizations and societies for purposes not contrary to law. Participate actively in civic affairs and in the promotion of the general welfare. Rights of all School Personnel. Promote and maintain the peace and tranquility of the school by observing the rules and discipline. 13. — Every teacher shall: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary 1. 9. Sec. The right to be free from involuntary contributions. — In addition to those provided for under existing laws. Culture and Sports. The right to be free from involuntary contributions except those imposed by their own organizations. for purposes of career advancement. join and participate in organizations and societies recognized by the school to foster their intellectual. except those approved by their own he organizations or societies. chanrobles virtual law library 3. Rights of Schools. individually or collectively. all parents shall have the following duties and obligations: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary 1. or others. the following rights shall be enjoyed by all school personnel: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary 1. and to effective channels of communication with appropriate academic channels and administrative bodies of the school or institution. join and maintain labor organizations and/or professional and self-regulating organizations of their choice to promote their welfare and defend their interests. 3. library chanrobles virtual law . be accorded sufficient administrative discretion necessary for the efficient and effective performance of their functions.

17. — the state of formal education following the elementary level concerned primarily with continuing basic education and expanding it to include the learning of employable gainful skills. — "Formal Educational" refers to the hierarchically structured and chronologically graded learning organized and provided by the formal school system and for which certification is required in order for the learner to progress through the grades or move to higher levels. 6. 3. Objectives of Elementary Education. Render adequate reports to teachers. Secondary Education. Refrain from making deductions in students' scholastic rating for acts that are clearly not manifestations of poor scholarship. — The State recognizes that formal education. Culture and Sports. identification with. and parents or guardians. — Every school administrator shall: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary 1. 7. privacy. and 4. — The objectives of secondary education are: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary 1. academic non-teaching personnel and non-academic staff on their actual performance in relation to their expected performance and counsel them on ways of improving the same. To provide learning experiences which increase the child's awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in and just demands of society and to prepare him for constructive and effective involvement. teachers. Maintain adequate records and submit required reports to the Ministry of Education. and 2. usually corresponding to four years of high school. 20. To promote and intensify the child's knowledge of. — The objectives of elementary education are: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary chanrobles virtual law library 1. chanrobles virtual law library 3. fairness. To develop the professions that will provide leadership for the nation. goals and objectives of the school. or the school system. Assume and maintain professional behavior in his work and in dealing with students. 2. in society's primary learning system. 5. Formal education shall correspond to the following levels: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary chanrobles virtual law library 1. Elementary Education. Assume. and to harmonious and progressive school-personnel relationship. 2. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS CHAPTER 1 Formal Education chanrobles virtual law library Sec. Sec. attitudes. To continue to promote the objectives of elementary education. To discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of the students so as to equip him with skills for productive endeavor and/or prepare him for tertiary schooling. Declaration of Policy. Sec. cultural consciousness. chanrobles virtual law library Sec.2. Obligations of Academic Non-Teaching Personnel. chanrobles virtual law library 2. To train the nation's manpower in the skills required for national development. intellectual. and values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing social milieu. 21. 5. To advance knowledge through research work and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life and responding effectively to changing societal needs and conditions. moral integrity and spiritual vigor. 2. 3. Develop and maintain a healthy school atmosphere conducive to the promotion and preservation of academic freedom and effective teaching and learning. Be accountable for the efficient and effective administration and management of the school. — Academic non-teaching personnel shall: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary 1. chanrobles virtual law library Sec. To provide the knowledge and develop the skills. 3. and 4. Definition. 19. including pre-school programs. academic non-teaching personnel. and love for the nation and the people to which he belongs. Objectives of Secondary Education. moral. Promote and maintain an atmosphere conducive to service and learning. and therefore the main instrument for the achievement of the country's educational goals and objectives. Observe due process. formal education primarily concerned with providing basic education and usually corresponding to six or seven grades. 3. economic. 2. administrative staff. Objective of Tertiary Education. cultural and political change in his school and the community within the context of national policies. 4. Sec. chanrobles virtual law library chanrobles virtual law library III. — post secondary schooling is higher education leading to a degree in a specific profession or discipline. School Administrators' Obligations. promote and maintain an atmosphere conducive to service and learning. 22. Tertiary Education. — The objectives of tertiary education are: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary chanrobles virtual law library 1. Participate as an agent of constructive social. Sec. — the first stage of compulsory. To promote work experiences which develop the child's orientation to the world of work and creativity and prepare himself to engage in honest and gainful work. To provide a general education program that will promote national identity. Perform his duties to the school by discharging his responsibilities in accordance with the philosophy. 18. Improve himself professionally be keeping abreast of the latest trends and techniques in his profession. Assume the responsibility to maintain and sustain his professional growth and advancement and maintain professionalism in his behavior at all times. Be accountable for the efficient and effective attainment of specified learning objectives in pursuance of national development goals within the limits of available school resources. 3. 23. constructiveness and consistency in disciplining his teachers and other personnel. chanrobles virtual law library 4. promptness. Render regular reports on performance of each student and to the latter and the latter's parents and guardians with specific suggestions for improvement. . 6.

Culture and Sports and other agencies aimed at attaining specific learning objectives for a particular clientele. as the case may be. and c. mentally. or three year certificates in preparation for a group of middle-level occupations. services to meet special needs of certain clientele. — The Ministry shall encourage programs of voluntary accreditation for institution which desire to meet standards of quality over and above minimum required for State recognition. 2. within the context of the formal education system. "Public Schools" are educational institutions established and administered by the government. and/or operation thereof in violation of the terms of recognition. In all other case the rules and regulations governing recognition shall be prescribed and enforced by the Ministry of Education. 24. "Non-formal Education. regional. chanrobles virtual law library Sec. 30. To eradicate illiteracy and raise the level of functional literacy of the population. recognition of educational programs and/or operations shall be deemed granted simultaneously with establishment. chanrobles virtual law library Government assistance to such schools for educational programs shall be used exclusively for that purpose. subject to limitations provided by law. emotionally. title or diploma. Establishment of Schools. Personnel Transactions. That any private school proposed to be established must incorporate as an non-stock educational corporation in accordance with the provisions of the Corporation Code of the Philippines. Operation of schools and educational programs without authorization. It shall entitle the students who have graduated from said recognized course or courses to all the benefits and privileges enjoyed by graduates in similar courses of studies in all schools recognized by the government. whether local. "Schools" are duly established institutions of learning or educational institutions." as a program of basic education which aims to develop the right attitudes towards work. Sec. Voluntary Accreditation. which shall be guided by the basic policies of the State embodied in the General Provisions of this Act. This requirement to incorporate may be waived in the case of family-administered pre-school institutions. Sec. The establishment of new national schools and the conversion of existing schools from elementary to national secondary or tertiary schools shall be by law: Provided. It transforms the temporary permit to a permanent authority to operate. community and national development. 29. chanrobles virtual law library Sec. 26. These specific types. Punishable Violations. In private schools. distinct from and outside the regular offerings of the formal school system. — All schools shall be established in accordance with law." the education of persons who are physically. providing for a permit system. "Work Education. To provide unemployed and underemployed youth and adults with appropriate vocational/technical skills to enable them to become more productive and effective citizens. "Special Education. 32. Governing Board. Recognition of Schools. budgetary and compensation laws and rules. Sec. — Each school shall establish such internal organization as will best enable it to carry out its academic and administrative functions. In the case of government operated schools. include: chanrobles virtual law library chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary 1. Culture and Sports defining therein who are qualified to apply. 25. and chanrobles virtual law library 3. stating the conditions for the grant of recognition and for its cancellation and withdrawal. — The issuance of a certificate of recognition to a school shall have the following effects: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary 1. and "technical-vocational education. a certificate. especially the illiterates and the out-of-school youth and adults. — The terms used in this Chapter are defined as follows: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary 1. b. chanrobles virtual law library Each school establish such arrangements for the peaceful settlement of disputes between or among the members of the educational community. chanrobles virtual law library chanrobles virtual law library Sec. 2. To develop among the clientele of non-formal education proper values and attitudes necessary for personal. 27." post-secondary but non-degree programs leading to one. CHAPTER 3 Establishment of Schools chanrobles virtual law library Sec. and their special roles in . — The State further recognizes its responsibility to provide. and providing for related matters. are hereby declared punishable violations subject to the penalties provided in this Act." or "Practical Arts. two. socially. It entitled the school or college to give the students who have completed the course for which recognition is granted. Specialized Educational Service. Organization of Schools. — Every government college or university as a tertiary institution and every private school shall have a governing board pursuant to its charter or the Corporation Code of the Philippines. or culturally different from the so-called "normal" individuals that they require modification of school practices/services to develop them to their maximum capacity. chanrobles virtual law library 3. That in view of the special employment status of the teaching and academic non-teaching personnel. and shall be affected by recognition. — The educational operations of schools shall be subject to their prior authorization of the government. CHAPTER 4 Internal Organization of Schools Sec. "Private Schools" are educational institutions maintained and administered by private individuals or groups. Effects of Recognition. chanrobles virtual law library 28." any organized school-based educational activities undertaken by the Ministry of Education. 2. The objectives of non-formal education are as follows: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary chanrobles virtual law library a. dispute arising from employer-employee relations shall fall under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Labor and Employment as provided for by law regulations: Provided.CHAPTER 2 Non-Education and Specialized Educational Services chanrobles virtual law library Sec. — The terms and conditions of employment of personnel in government schools shall be governed by the Civil Service. 31. and 3. Definition of Terms. or national.

Presidential Decree No. adjustments or allowance of any form or nature whatsoever. 45. 46. chanrobles virtual law library Furthermore. passive investment income and income from other sources. Sec. 39. chanrobles virtual law library 43. 35. institution. Relating to Gifts or Donations to Schools. Government Assistance. donation. foundation. — It is hereby declared to be the policy of the State that the national government shall contribute to the financial support of educational programs pursuant to goals of education as declared in the Constitution. Towards this end. That fifty percent of the additional one percent tax on real estate property provided for under Republic Act 5447. and extension service in the community. Funding of Private Schools. standards set or promulgated jointly by the Ministry of Education. Sec. Declaration of Policy. inter alia. Income from Other Sources. grants. That local governments shall be encouraged to assume operation of local public schools on the basis of national fund participation and adequate revenue sources which may be assigned by the national government for the purpose. when the outstanding balance thereof shall be subject to tax. legacies. Tuition and other School Fees. 37. Special Education Fund. Sec. — Provinces. and their application or use authorized. That all the proceeds from the payment thereof shall accrue to a special private education fund which shall be managed and disbursed by a local private school board which shall be constituted in each municipality or chartered city with private educational institutions with the mayor or his representative as chairman and not more than two representatives of the institutional taxpayers. Culture and Sports and the Ministry of the Budget. C. Culture and Sports and by the Ministry of Labor and Employment shall be applied by the Ministry of Labor and Employment: Provided. — The proceeds from tuition fees and other school charges. Culture and Sports. chanrobles virtual law library 44. and 2. — Public school shall continue to be funded from national funds: Provided. loans. — Private schools may be funded from their capital investment or equity contributions. National Funds. Sec. Financial Aid Assistance to Public Secondary Schools. trust of philanthropic organization. Institutional Funds. corporation. — The proceeds of the Special Education Fund accruing to local governments shall be used exclusively for the purposes enumerated in Section 1 of Republic Act No. Furthermore. the government shall: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary 1. improvement of instructional. if said earnings are actually used to fund additional scholarship grants to financially deserving students shall be exempt from tax until the scholarship fund is fully liquidated. B. including laboratory. student-pupil scholarships. Sec. 33. subject to rules and regulations promulgated by the Ministry of Education. — Government-supported educational institution may receive grants. subsidies. That such gifts or donations shall be for improvement of classrooms and laboratory of library facilities. director. FUNDING OF REPUBLIC SCHOOLS Sec. Relating to School Property. teachers. Sec. — Each private school shall determine its rate of tuition and other school fees or charges. may provide aid to the programs of private schools in the form of grants or scholarships. Share of Local Government. or owner or owners of the school. 38. INCENTIVES TO EDUCATION Sec. 477. Sec. Provided. cities and municipalities and barangays shall appropriate funds in their annual budgets for the operation and maintenance of public secondary schools on the basis of national fund participation. Said proceeds shall be considered a local fund and shall be subject to Presidential Decrees No. A. and.the advancement of knowledge. — Real property. — All earnings from the investment of any duly established scholarship fund of any school recognized by the government. in whole or in part. gift. That every private school shall establish and implement an appropriate system within the school for the prompt and orderly settlement of provisions of Articles 262 and 263 of the Labor Code. That such programs meet certain defined educational requirements and standards and contribute to the attainment of national development goals. chanrobles virtual law library 36. 5447. chanrobles virtual law library CHAPTER 5 School Finance and Assistance Sec. college or university recognized by the Government shall not be subject to tax. Tuition and Other Fees. Culture and Sports and the Commission on Audit. shall accrue to the special private education fund: Provided. directly and exclusively for educational purposes shall be subject to the real property tax based on an assessment of fifteen per cent of the market value of such property: Provided. library books and periodicals acquisition. 41. including barangay high schools. official. such as lands. not more than two residents of the municipality or chartered city who are alumni of any of the institutional taxpayers as members: Provided. private schools are authorized to engage in any auxiliary enterprise to generate income primarily to finance their educational operations and/or to reduce the need to increase students' fees. pupils and students. finally. and/or from contributions or other resources assigned to said fund by the school. Sec. and in accordance with rules and regulations issued by the Ministry of Education. The private school board shall adopt its own rules which shall enable it to finance the annual programs and projects of each institutional taxpayer for the following purposes. Income from other Sources. under joint management for the purpose of generating additional financial resources. chanrobles virtual law library 47. facilities and/or equipment. — Any private school duly recognized by the government. — The national government shall extend financial aid and assistance to public secondary schools established and maintained by local governments. in order to improve facilities or to accommodate more students. in recognition of their complementary role in the educational system. — Secondary and post-secondary schools may charge tuition and other school fees. shall be treated as institutional funds. tuition fees and other school charges. as well as other income of schools. Adopt measures to broaden access to education through financial assistance and other forms of incentives to schools. FUNDING OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS Sec. further. and shall not inure to the benefit of any officer. or loans from government financial institutions: Provided. 40. Relating to Earnings from Established Scholarship Funds. the members of the private school board shall be increased to not more than fourteen members determined proportionately by the Minister of Education. — All gifts or donation in favor of any school. Encourage and stimulate private support to education through. or research institution or organization as may be authorized by law. except in support of faculty and/or professorial chairs. bequest or devise from any individual. Culture and Sports. buildings and other improvements thereon used actually.chanrobles virtual law library Sec. The rates and charges adopted by schools pursuant to this provision shall be collectible. income generated from production activities and from auxiliary enterprises may be retained and used for schools concerned in accordance with rules and regulations jointly issued consistently with pertinent appropriation and budgetary laws by the Ministry of the Budget. 34. — It is the policy of the State in the pursuit of its national education development goals to provide an incentive program to encourage the participation of the community in the development of the educational sector. Declaration of Policy. Sec. . or paid out as salary. in that order of priority. chanrobles virtual law library 42. likewise. donations and gifts for purposes allowed by existing laws. That in municipalities or chartered cities wherein the number of private institutions with individual enrollment of pupils and students over five thousand exceeds fifteen. constituted from gifts to the school. Sec. Sec. 48. may receive any grant and legacy. the Ministry of Education. further. 1375 and other applicable local budget laws and regulations. fiscal and other assistance measures. Schools may pool their institutional funds. — The government.

supervision and regulation of the educational system in accordance with declared policy. shall be encouraged to grant financial assistance to students. The main thrust of higher education is to achieve equity. Culture and Sports and the Ministry of Finance. Culture and Sports for a term of four years. transfer or disposition. 51. disposition or transfer of property. School Dispersal Program. or subsidized tuition rates in State colleges and universities. or the supply of teaching and non-teaching personnel. — The Minister of Education. Culture and Sports who shall be assisted by one or more Deputy Ministers. Organization of the Board of Higher Education. 50. 49. Culture and Sports in consultation with the Presidential Commission on Reorganization. Sec. the National Museum. Sec. Conversion to Educational Foundations. non-profit educational foundation. (d) Regional offices and field offices. — The administration of the education system and. Sec. business and industry. develop and implement programs and projects in education and culture. upon recommendation of the Minister of Education. 5. 2. grants-in-aid. Grant of Scholarship Pursuant to Existing Laws. and adopt long-range educational plans. D. (e) the National Scholarship Center and such other agencies as are now or may be established pursuant to law. and the intensification of research and extension services. with such comments and appropriate recommendations thirty (30) days before the opening of its regular session. 6. Declaration of Policy. real or personal. and the Institute of National Language. — All gains realized from the sale. Sec. All the above and similar assistance programs shall provide for reserve quotas for financially needed but academically qualified students from the national cultural communities. The Bureau of Higher Education shall provide the Board with the necessary technical and staff support: Provided. Recommend and study legislation proposed for adoption. and (f) the cultural agencies. Culture and Sports shall make an annual report to the Batasang Pambansa on the implementation of the national basic education plan. and the Services of the Ministry. — An educational institution may convert itself into a non-stock. the impact of education on the different regions. the third for a term of two years. personnel. especially those undertaking research in the fields of science and technology or in such projects as may be necessary within the context of national development. pursuant to the provisions of the Constitution. Coordinate the activities and functions of the school system and the various cultural agencies under it. Coordinate and work with agencies concerned with the educational and cultural development of the national cultural communities. Promulgate rules and regulations necessary for the administration. the second for a term of three years. Functions and Powers of the Ministry. THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION. all its net assets after liquidation of the liabilities and other obligations may be conveyed and transferred to any non-profit educational institution or successor non-profit educational institution or to be used in such manner as in the judgment of said court will best accomplish the general purposes for which the dissolved organization was organized. (b) the Board of Higher Education. That the Board may create technical panels of experts in the various disciplines as the need arises. chanrobles virtual law library IV. college. Government Assistance to Students. Culture and Sports. — The government shall provide financial assistance to financially disadvantaged and deserving students. which is hereby established. Assistance from the Private Sector. Sec. or university located in the dispersal site. — Higher education will be granted towards the provision of better quality education.Sec. and high quality in the institutions of higher learning both public and private. — The Ministry shall: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary 1. Report to the Batasang Pambansa. Culture and Sports. The four members shall have distinguished themselves in the field of higher education and development either in the public or private sector. of any duly established private school. The Board shall be composed of a Deputy Minister of Education. 54. Set up general objectives for the school system. The Director of the Bureau of Higher Education shall participate in the deliberation of the Board but without the right to vote. in accordance with the implementing rules to be issued jointly by the Ministry of Education. the Bureau of Secondary Education. the development of middle and high- level manpower. The organization of the Ministry shall consist of (a) the Ministry Proper composed of the immediate Office of the Minister. (c) the Bureau of Elementary Education. and the fourth for a term of one year. Sec. especially educational institutions. chanrobles virtual law library 60. Culture and Sports. records. — The Board shall: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary . and equipment are hereby transferred to the Office of the Minister of Education. 61. efficiency. — The private sector. Plan. 56. the concentration of low income groups. The National Board of Education is hereby abolished. the National Historical Institute. the Bureau of Higher Education. — Educational institutions shall be encouraged to grant scholarships to students pursuant to the provisions of existing laws and such scholarship measures as may hereafter be provided for by law. 59. Formulate general education objectives and policies. the first appointee shall serve for a term of four years. 4. chanrobles virtual law library 3. In the initial appointment of the non-ex officio members. Sec. in pursuance of a school dispersal program of the government or of the educational institution as approved by the government. Function of the Board of Higher Education. chanrobles virtual law library 55. Such assistance may be in the form of State scholarships. Sec. the current condition of the education programs. without prejudice to the provisions of the charter of any state college and university. — The Ministry shall be headed by the Minister of Education. ASSISTANCE TO STUDENTS Sec. CULTURE AND SPORTS CHAPTER 1 General Provisions Sec. and the Bureau of Continuing Education. so that together they will provide a complete set of program offerings that meet both national and regional development needs. Declaration of Policy. the Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education. 52. namely: the National Library. and its appropriations. shall be organized and staffed and shall function. Culture and Sports designated as Chairman and four other members to be appointed by the President of the Philippines upon nomination by the Minister of Education. the supervision and regulation of educational institutions are hereby vested in the Ministry of Education. chanrobles virtual law library CHAPTER 2 Board of Higher Education Sec. the adequacy or deficiency of the appropriations and status of expenditures. shall be considered exempt from tax if the total proceeds of the sale are reinvested in a new or existing duly established school. Sec. otherwise. or to the State. which are hereby established. 53. and 7. all taxes due on the gains realized from the transaction shall immediately become due and payable. assistance from the Educational Loan Fund. — The Board of Higher Education is reconstituted as an advisory body to the Minister of Education. chanrobles virtual law library In the case of stock corporations. chanrobles virtual law library 58. Organization. within one (1) year from the date of such sale. 57. the adequacy of academic facilities. subject to the approval of the President. college or university. Such of the above offices as are created or authorized to be established under this provision. the growth of enrollment. if for any reason its corporate existence as an educational institution ceases and is not renewed.

in the discretion of the court. 2. plans. the school head together with the person or persons responsible for the offense or violation shall be equally liable. efficiency. — The Bureau shall perform the following: 1. analyze and evaluate data on higher education. 67. Bureau of Higher Education. 3. Provide staff assistance to the Board of Higher Education in its policy formulation and advisory functions. Compile. and general management of these schools. and teacher training programs for elementary education. Collaborate with other agencies in the formulation of manpower plans. 3. 65. and 5. — A regional office shall: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary 1. rules and regulations of the Ministry or agency in the regional area. Develop. Functions. Serve as a means for expanding access to educational opportunities to citizens of varied interests. develop and evaluate programs and educational standards for secondary education. or any component thereof. or both. 64. Administrative Sanction. programs. Develop curricular designs. Serve as a means of meeting the learning needs of those unable to avail themselves of the educational services and programs of formal education. and chanrobles virtual law library 3. chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary chanrobles virtual law library 2. Sec. 62. Make policy recommendations regarding the planning and management of the integrated system of higher education and the continuing evaluation thereof. and formulate guidelines to improve the physical plant and equipment of post-secondary vocational-technical schools. Culture and Sports steps to improve the governance of the various components of the higher education system at national and regional levels. chanrobles virtual law library . Formulate the regional plan of education based on the national plan of the Ministry taking into account the specific needs and special traditions of the region. instructional materials. Develop curricular designs and prepare instructional materials. Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education. projects and educational standards for a higher education. prepare instructional materials. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS CHAPTER 1 Penal/Administrative Sanctions Sec.00) or imprisonment for a maximum period of two (2) years. Sec. and general management of these schools. Bureau of Elementary Education. Bureau of Continuing Education. develop and evaluate post-secondary vocational-technical programs and recommend educational standards for these programs. — Any person upon conviction for an act in violation of Section 28. — The Bureau shall perform the following functions: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary chanrobles virtual law library 1. 68. Perform other functions provided for by law.1. Penalty Clause. develop. Recommend to the Minister of Education.000. 2. teachers and employees. Fraud or deceit committed in connection with the application for Ministry permit or recognition. chanrobles virtual law library CHAPTER 3 The Bureaus Sec. Undertake studies necessary for the preparation of prototype curricular designs. Chapter 3. Failure to comply with conditions or obligations prescribed by this Code or its implementing rules and regulations. Implement education laws. Rule-making Authority. and prepare and evaluate programs to update the quality of the teaching and non-teaching staff at the secondary level. Title III above. 69. Provide opportunities for the acquisition of skills necessary to enhance and ensure continuing employability. Provide economical. shall be punished with a fine of not less than two thousand pesos (P2. policies. Unauthorized operation of a school or course. — The Minister Education. and 5. Conduct studies and formulate. chanrobles virtual law library chanrobles virtual law library 66. chanrobles virtual law library 3. chanrobles virtual law library 3. formulate and evaluate programs. Sec. 3. Assist the Minister of Education. 2. Culture and Sports charged with the administration and enforcement of this Act. chanrobles virtual law library CHAPTER 2 Administrative Provisions Sec. 4. prepare and evaluate programs to upgrade the quality of teaching and non-teaching staff. — The Minister of Education. Formulate guidelines to improve the secondary school physical plants and equipment. 2.000. chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary chanrobles virtual law library 2. productivity. Provide technical assistance to encourage institutional development programs and projects. Culture and Sports in making recommendation relatives to the generation of resources and their allocation for higher education. chanrobles virtual law library 2. Conduct studies and formulate. chanrobles virtual law library 3. formulate. Bureau of Secondary Education. chanrobles virtual law library If the act is committed by a school corporation. — As the main implementing arm of the non-formal education programs of the Ministry. Mismanagement of school operations. CHAPTER 4 Regional Offices Sec. shall promulgate the necessary implementing rules and regulations. efficient and effective education services to the people in the area. — The Bureau shall perform the following functions: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary 1. Conduct studies. chanrobles virtual law library V. and evaluate programs and educational standards for elementary education. chanrobles virtual law library 3. demographic characteristics and socio-economic origins or status. Gross inefficiency of the teaching or non-teaching personnel.00) nor more than ten thousand pesos (P10. the Bureau shall provide learning programs or activities that shall: chanroblesvirtualla wlibrary chanrobles virtual law library 1. Formulate guidelines to improve elementary school physical plants and equipment. or any violation of the requirement governing advertisements or announcements of educational institutions. 4. and competitiveness in the labor market. Sec. 2. — The Bureau of higher Education shall perform the following functions: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary 1. Sec. Sanctions against the schools shall be without prejudice to the interest of the students. Culture and Sports may prescribe and impose such administrative sanction as he may deem reasonable and appropriate in the implementing rules and regulations promulgated pursuant to this Act for any of the following causes: 1. 70. 63.

10533 Published: May 15. which he/she knows best. the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities. Basic education shall be delivered in languages understood by the learners as the language plays a strategic role in shaping the formative years of learners. area or place. Kindergarten education shall mean one (1) year of preparatory education for children at least five (5) years old as a prerequisite for Grade I. elementary and secondary education as well as alternative learning systems for out-of-school learners and those with special needs. — The enhanced basic education program encompasses at least one (1) year of kindergarten education. The entrant age to the junior and senior high school levels are typically twelve (12) and sixteen (16) years old. 2. the foundations for learning throughout life. 10533] AN ACT ENHANCING THE PHILIPPINE BASIC EDUCATION SYSTEM BY STRENGTHENING ITS CURRICULUM AND INCREASING THE NUMBER OF YEARS FOR BASIC EDUCATION. is identified as a native language user of by others. — Basic education is intended to meet basic learning needs which provides the foundation on which subsequent learning can be based. the capability to engage in autonomous. it is hereby declared the policy of the State that every graduate of basic education shall be an empowered individual who has learned. The regional or native language refers to the traditional speech variety or variety of Filipino sign language existing in a region. 4. Separability Provision. adequate. and critical thinking. 5. schools and communities through the appropriate languages of teaching and learning. the DepED shall coordinate with the CHED and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). — The State shall establish. instruction. 3. Secondary education includes four (4) years of junior high school and two (2) years of senior high school education. cognitive and cultural capacity.Sec. chanrobles virtual law library 72. 1982 Republic Act No. Secondary education refers to the third stage of compulsory basic education. and the capacity and willingness to transform others and one’s self. 2013. including mother tongue as a learning resource. mother language or first Language (LI) refers to language or languages first learned by a child. and (c) Make education learner-oriented and responsive to the needs. No. respectively. or uses most. the State shall: (a) Give every student an opportunity to receive quality education that is globally competitive based on a pedagogically sound curriculum that is at par with international standards. vocational and technical career opportunities as well as creative arts. as the case may chanrobles virtual law library Sec. This includes Filipino sign language used by individuals with pertinent disabilities. The Department of Education (DepED) shall formulate a mother language transition program from Grade 4 to Grade 6 so that Filipino and English shall be gradually introduced as languages of instruction until such time when these two (2) languages can become the primary languages of instruction at the secondary level. on Monday. The entrant age to this level is typically six (6) years old. skills and values for both life-long learning and employment. It consists of four (4) years of junior high school education and two (2) years of senior high school education. — The DepED shall formulate the design and details of the enhanced basic education curriculum. APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: SECTION 1. 71. the State shall create a functional basic education system that will develop productive and responsible citizens equipped with the essential competencies. It shall work with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) to craft harmonized basic and tertiary curricula for the global competitiveness of Filipino graduates. . No. Elementary education refers to the second stage of compulsory basic education which is composed of six (6) years. Repealing Clause. the competence to engage in work and be productive. through a program that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence. 73. SEC. SEC. Effectivity. two thousand twelve. For this purpose. — This Act shall be known as the “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013″. and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people. and six (6) years of secondary education. the circumstances and diversity of learners. in that sequence. It encompasses kindergarten. maintain and support a complete. Sec. [REPUBLIC ACT NO. SEC. be. For kindergarten and the first three (3) years of elementary education. Declaration of Policy. teaching materials and assessment shall be in the regional or native language of the learners. Enhanced Basic Education Program. the twenty-third day of July. the country and society-at-large. Short Title. In order to achieve this. SEC. 3286 H. To ensure college readiness and to avoid remedial and duplication of basic education subjects. S. Basic Education. chanrobles virtual law library Approved: September 11. 6643 Republic of the Philippines Congress of the Philippines Metro Manila Fifteenth Congress Third Regular Session Begun and held in Metro Manila. For purposes of this Act. Curriculum Development. — Any part or provision of this Act which may held invalid or unconstitutional shall not affect its remaining parts of provisions. Likewise. sports and entrepreneurial employment in a rapidly changing and increasingly globalized environment. — This Act shall take effect upon its approval. (b) Broaden the goals of high school education for college preparation. — All laws or parts thereof inconsistent with any provision of this Act shall be deemed repealed or modified. creative. which he/she identifies with. six (6) years of elementary education.

and a representative from the business chambers such as the Information Technology – Business Process Outsourcing (IT-BPO) industry association. engineering. the national student organizations. (c) Faculty of HEIs be allowed to teach in their general education or subject specialties in the secondary education: Provided. the TESDA. 8. Hiring of Graduates of Science. — Superintendents. with expertise in the specialized learning areas offered by the Basic Education Curriculum. 7836. the CHED. and other financial arrangements formulated by the DepED and the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) based on the principles of public-private partnership. as specified: (a) In-service Training on Content and Pedagogy — Current DepED teachers shall be retrained to meet the content and performance standards of the new K to 12 curriculum. Qualified LET applicants shall also include graduates admitted by foundations duly recognized for their expertise in the education sector and who satisfactorily complete the requirements set by these organizations: Provided. the PRC. Teacher Education and Training. That these graduates possess the necessary certification issued by the TESDA: Provided. administrative and community leaders. otherwise known as the “Guidance and Counselling Act of 2004″. mathematics. such professional development programs as those stated above shall be initiated and conducted regularly throughout the school year to ensure constant upgrading of teacher skills. shall be extended to qualified students enrolled under the enhanced basic education. shall conduct teacher education and training programs. principals. and must have satisfactorily served as a full-time HEI faculty. 8545. The DepED shall engage the services of private education institutions and non-DepED schools offering senior high school through the programs under Republic Act No. Henceforth.To achieve an effective enhanced basic education curriculum. but not limited to. and nongovernmental organizations. but not limited to. instructional materials and capable teachers to implement the MTB-MLE curriculum shall be available. Duly recognized organizations acting as TEIs. 8545. — To ensure that the enhanced basic education program meets the demand for quality teachers and school leaders. the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC). shall regularly conduct career advocacy activities for secondary level students. the DepED. (f) The curriculum shall adhere to the principles and framework of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) which starts from where the learners are and from what they already knew proceeding from the known to the unknown. industry. Provided. Mathematics. the DepED and the CHED. — The benefits accorded by Republic Act No. to upgrade their skills to the content standards of the new curriculum. Furthermore. the DepED and private education institutions shall hire. That they undergo a training program to be developed or accredited by the DepED. shall ensure that the curriculum of these organizations meet the necessary quality standards for trained teachers. Expansion of E-GASTPE Beneficiaries. The consultative committee shall oversee the review and evaluation on the implementation of the basic education curriculum and may recommend to the DepED the formulation of necessary refinements in the curriculum. shall ensure that the Teacher Education curriculum offered in these Teacher Education Institutes (TEIs) will meet necessary quality standards for new teachers. 7. 9258. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 27 of Republic Act No. The DepED shall ensure that private education institutions shall be given the opportunity to avail of such training. upon hiring. Career Guidance and Counselling Advocacy. otherwise known as the “Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994″. That they pass the LET within five (5) years after their date of hiring: Provided. Provided. in coordination with the DOLE. The DepED shall adhere to the following standards and principles in developing the enhanced basic education curriculum: (a) The curriculum shall be learner-centered. the CHED. That they teach on part-time basis only. (b) Training of New Teachers. For this purpose. shall be allowed to conduct career advocacy activities to secondary level students of the school where they are currently employed. the national teacher organizations. the parents-teachers associations and the chambers of commerce on matters affecting the concerned stakeholders. Engineering and Other Specialists in Subjects With a Shortage of Qualified Applicants. That if such graduates are willing to teach on part-time basis. and other relevant stakeholders. in coordination with the DepED. and (h) The curriculum shall be flexible enough to enable and allow schools to localize. SEC. SEC. indigenize and enhance the same based on their respective educational and social contexts. SEC. in coordination with the appropriate government agencies. the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). Curriculum Consultative Committee. (c) The curriculum shall be culture-sensitive. further. (d) The curriculum shall be contextualized and global. SEC. (e) The curriculum shall use pedagogical approaches that are constructivist. the TESDA and the CHED. career and employment guidance counsellors. shall determine the necessary qualification standards in hiring these experts. reflective. collaborative and integrative. (b) The curriculum shall be relevant. 6. in collaboration with relevant partners in government. the DepED shall undertake consultations with other national government agencies and other stakeholders including. — New graduates of the current Teacher Education curriculum shall undergo additional training. subject area coordinators and other instructional school leaders shall likewise undergo workshops and training to enhance their skills on their role as academic. That the faculty must be a holder of a relevant Bachelor’s degree. the provisions of LET shall no longer be required. That they undergo appropriate in-service training to be administered by the DepED or higher education institutions (HEIs) at the expense of the DepED. 9. (b) Graduates of technical-vocational courses to teach in their specialized subjects in the secondary education:Provided. or the “Expanded Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education Act”. The production and development of locally produced teaching materials shall be encouraged and approval of these materials shall devolve to the regional and division education units. the private and public schools associations. — To properly guide the students in choosing the career tracks that they intend to pursue. academe. inclusive and developmentally appropriate. in coordination with the DepED and relevant stakeholders. the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). . — There shall be created a curriculum consultative committee chaired by the DepED Secretary or his/her duly authorized representative and with members composed of. inquiry-based. the DOLE. Statistics. music and other degree courses with shortages in qualified Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) applicants to teach in their specialized subjects in the elementary and secondary education. (g) The curriculum shall use the spiral progression approach to ensure mastery of knowledge and skills after each level. further. the DepED. who are not registered and licensed guidance counsellors. 27 and 28 of Republic Act No. as may be relevant to the particular subject: (a) Graduates of science. Technical-Vocational Courses and Higher Education Institution Faculty. — Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 26. a representative each from the CHED. (c) Training of School Leadership. (d) The DepED and private education institutions may hire practitioners. 10. responsive and research-based. statistics. to teach in the secondary level. SEC.

14. the DepED. Moreover. — The Secretary of Education shall include in the Department’s program the operationalization of the enhanced basic education program. and sports. (b) retention rate. (b) classrooms. (f) adequacy of funding requirements. and (g) other learning facilities including. Republic Act No. Thereafter. the TVIs and the HEIs shall coordinate closely with one another to implement strategies that ensure the academic.) JUAN PONCE ENRILE President of the Senate This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. — The DepED shall endeavor to increase the per capita spending on education towards the immediate attainment of international benchmarks. AQUINO III President of the Philippines This entry was posted in Legislature. Transitory Provisions. The membership of the Committee for every House shall have at least two (2) opposition or minority members. the DepED Secretary. 15. — Within ninety (90) days after the effectivity of this Act. Mandatory Evaluation and Review. including Chairs of the Committees on Education. decrees. Commitment to International Benchmarks. —There is hereby created a Joint Oversight Committee to oversee. 9155 or the “Governance of Basic Education. \ . Appropriations. the same shall not affect the validity and effectivity of the other provisions hereof. executive orders and rules and regulations contrary to or inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.SEC.) EDWIN B. (d) completion rate. 17. Republic Act No. Effectivity Clause. 7836. 18. and all other laws. BELEN Acting Senate Secretary Approved: MAY 15 2013 (Sgd. the transition period shall be provided for in the implementing rules and regulations (IRR). 11. but not limited to. in this midterm report. the CHED Chairperson and the TESDA Director-General shall promulgate the rules and regulations needed for the implementation of this Act.) FELICIANO BELMONTE JR. SEC. the following key metrics of access to and quality of basic education: (a) participation rate. Republic Act No. the CHED and the TESDA shall formulate the appropriate strategies and mechanisms needed to ensure smooth transition from the existing ten (10) years basic education cycle to the enhanced basic education (K to 12) cycle. 16. financial. and partnerships between the government and other entities. music and arts. and (f) other shortages that should be addressed. manpower. Joint Congressional Oversight Committee on the Enhanced Basic Educational Program (K to 12 Program). Repealing Clause. and human resource capabilities of HEIs and TVIs to provide educational and training services for graduates of the enhanced basic education program to ensure that they are not adversely affected. The DepED shall include among others. (c) National Achievement Test results. Act of 2001″. 232 or the “Education Act of 1982″. physical. 6643 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on January 30. — If any provision of this Act is held invalid or unconstitutional. organizational and structural concerns. the DepED shall engage in partnerships with HEIs and TVIs for the utilization of the latter’s human and physical resources. For this purpose. Speaker of the House of Representatives (Sgd. The faculty of HEIs and TVIs allowed to teach students of secondary education under Section 8 hereof. Implementing Rules and Regulations. (c) textbooks. 19. Bookmark the permalink. — By the end of School Year 2014-2015. 13. 12. Modeling for senior high school may be implemented in selected schools to simulate the transition process and provide concrete data for the transition plan.) BENIGNO S. shall be given priority in hiring for the duration of the transition period. (e) toilets. SEC. SEC. — Pertinent provisions of Batas Pambansa Blg. monitor and evaluate the implementation of this Act. The Oversight Committee shall be composed of five (5) members each from the Senate and from the House of Representatives. SEC. SEC. To manage the initial implementation of the enhanced basic education program and mitigate the expected multi-year low enrolment turnout for HEIs and Technical Vocational Institutions (TVIs) starting School Year 2016-2017. computer and science laboratories. the amount necessary for the continued implementation of the enhanced basic education program shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. — The DepED.) MARILYN BARUA-YAP Secretary General House of Representatives (Sgd. and Finance of both Houses. (d) seats. the DepED shall conduct a mandatory review and submit a midterm report to Congress as to the status of implementation of the K to 12 program in terms of closing the following current shortages: (a) teachers. (Sgd. bridging models linking grade 10 competencies and the entry requirements of new tertiary curricula. the initial funding of which shall be charged against the current appropriations of the DepED. 3286 and House Bill No. 2013. the CHED. Republic Acts. SEC. libraries and library hubs. Separability Clause. 9258. Arts and Culture. (e) teachers’ welfare and training profiles. SEC. the TESDA. (Sgd. Approved. The strategies may cover changes in physical infrastructure. — This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official Gazette or in two (2) newspapers of general circulation. SEC.