Internal Combustion Engine
The invention and development of the internal-combustion engine in the
nineteenth century has had a profound impact on human life. It’s these heat engines that
have really changed the world. The internal combustion engine has become an integral
part of the lives of every person on earth. Although the understanding of engine processes
has increased and new inventions as well as better materials have improved the design,
the basic engine principle is still the same. The internal-combustion engine offers a
relatively small, lightweight source for the amount of power it produces. Internal
combustion engines are devices that generate work using the products of combustion as
the working fluid rather than as a heat transfer medium. All these engines do is burn fuel
and convert its energy into work. To produce work, the combustion is carried out in a
manner that produces high-pressure combustion products that can be expanded through a
turbine or piston. Chemical energy of the fuel is first converted to thermal energy by
means of combustion or oxidation with air inside the engine. This thermal energy raises
the temperature and pressure of the gases within the engine and the high-pressure gas
then expands against the mechanical mechanisms of the engine. This expansion is
converted by the mechanical linkages of the engine to a rotating crankshaft, which is the
output of the engine. The crankshaft, in turn, is connected to a transmission and/or power
train to transmit the rotating mechanical energy to the desired final use. For engines this
will often be the propulsion of a vehicle.

1.1.1. Classification of IC Engines
Internal combustion engines can be classified in a number of different ways:
(a)Types of Ignition: Spark Ignition (SI), Compression Ignition (CI).
(b)Engine Cycle: Four-Stroke Cycle, Two-Stroke Cycle.
(c)Valve Location: I Head engine, L Head engine, F Head engine.
(d)Basic Design: Reciprocating, Rotary.
(e)Position and Number of Cylinders of Reciprocating Engines: Single Cylinder, In
Line, V Engine, Opposed Cylinder Engine.

1.1.2. Various Parts of an IC Engine

The following is a list of major components found in most reciprocating internal
combustion engines:
(a) Block: Body of engine containing the cylinders, made of cast iron or aluminum. In
many older engines, the valves and valve ports were contained in the block. The block of
water-cooled engines includes a water jacket cast around the cylinders. On air-cooled
engines, the exterior surface of the block has cooling fins.
(b) Camshaft: Rotating shaft used to push open valves at the proper time in the engine
cycle, either directly or through mechanical or hydraulic linkage .Most modern
automobile engines have one or more camshafts mounted in the engine head (overhead
cam). Older engines had camshafts in the crankcase. Camshafts are generally made of
forged steel or cast iron and are driven off the crankshaft by means of a belt or chain
(timing chain). To reduce weight, some cams are made from hollow shaft with the cam
lobes press-fit on. In four-stroke cycle engines, the camshaft rotates at half engine speed.
(c) Crankshaft: Rotating shaft through which engine work output is supplied to external
systems. The crankshaft is connected to the engine block with the main bearings. It is
rotated by the reciprocating pistons through connecting rods connected to the crankshaft,
offset from the axis of rotation. This offset is sometimes called crank throw or crank
radius. Most crankshafts are made of forged steel, while some are made of cast iron.
(d) Connecting rod: Rod connecting the piston with the rotating crankshaft, usually
made of steel or alloy forging in most engines but may be aluminum in some small
(e) Combustion chamber: The end of the cylinder between the head and the piston face
where combustion occurs. The size of the combustion chamber continuously changes
from a minimum volume when the piston is at TDC to a maximum when the piston is at
BDC. Some engines have open combustion chambers which consist of one chamber for
each cylinder. Other engines have divided chambers which consist of dual chambers on
each cylinder connected by an orifice passage.
(f) Cylinders: The circular cylinders in the engine block in which the pistons reciprocate
back and forth. The walls of the cylinder have highly polished hard surfaces. Cylinders

may be machined directly in the engine block, or a hard metal (drawn steel) sleeve may
be pressed into the softer metal block. Sleeves may be dry sleeves, which do not contact
the liquid in the water jacket, or wet sleeves, which form part of the water jacket. In a few
engines, the cylinder walls are given a knurled surface to help hold a lubricant film on the
walls. In some very rare cases, the cross section of the cylinder is not round.
(g) Carburetor: Venturi flow device which meters the proper amount of fuel into the air
flow by means of a pressure differential. For many decades it was the basic fuel metering
system on all automobile (and other) engines. It is still used on low-cost small engines
like lawn mowers, but is uncommon on new automobiles.
(h) Fuel injector: A pressurized nozzle that sprays fuel into the incoming air on SI
engines or into the cylinder on CI engines. On SI engines, fuel injectors are located at the
intake valve ports on multipoint port injector systems and upstream at the intake manifold
inlet on throttle body injector systems. In a few SI engines, injectors spray directly into
the combustion chamber.
(i) Exhaust manifold: Piping system which carries exhaust gases away from the engine
cylinders, usually made of cast iron.
(j) Intake manifold: Piping system which delivers incoming air to the cylinders usually
made of cast metal, plastic, or composite material. In most SI engines, fuel is added to the
air in the intake manifold system either by fuel injectors or with a carburetor. Some intake
manifolds are heated to enhance fuel evaporation. The individual pipe to a single cylinder
is called a runner.
(k) Piston: The cylindrical-shaped mass that reciprocates back and forth in the cylinder,
transmitting the pressure forces in the combustion chamber to the rotating crankshaft. The
top of the piston is called the crown and the sides are called the skirt. The face on the
crown makes up one wall of the combustion chamber and may be a flat or highly
contoured surface. Some pistons contain an indented bowl in the crown, which makes up
a large percent of the clearance volume. Pistons are made of cast iron, steel, or aluminum.
Iron and steel pistons can have sharper corners because of their higher strength. They also
have lower thermal expansion, which allows for tighter tolerances and less crevice


usually containing part of the clearance volume of the combustion chamber. Sometimes synthetic or composite materials are used for the body of the piston. with only the crown made of metal. This has resulted in lower emissions and better fuel economy. If the pump is in the tank or on the frame rail then it is electric and is run by your cars battery. most often being driven by the camshaft. Most modern engines have the valves in the head. They are most often made from a paper element.volume. Filters can be before or after the fuel pump. but a compression ignition engine do not need a spark plug at all. but can be stainless steel or synthetic material and are designed to be disposable in most cases. Some pistons have a ceramic coating on the face. spark ignition engines consists of a spark plug essentially. but sometimes the crankshaft. a computer controls when the fuel injectors open to let fuel into the engine. (l) Head: The piece which closes the end of the cylinders. The head is usually cast iron or aluminum. The head contains the spark plugs in SI engines and the fuel injectors in CI engines and some SI engines. Fuel pumps mounted to the engine use the motion of the engine to pump the fuel. sometimes both. Fuel injectors and carburetors have tiny openings which clog easily so filtering the fuel is a necessity. Aluminum pistons are lighter and have less mass inertia. Some performance fuel filters will have a washable mesh. (n) Fuel filter: Clean fuel is critical to engine life and performance. The fuel injector is basically a tiny electric valve which opens and closes with an electric signal. In general. and many have the camshaft(s) positioned there also (overhead valves and overhead cam). By injecting the fuel close to the cylinder head the fuel stays atomized (in tiny particles) so it will burn better when ignited by the spark plug. (p) Spark plug: A spark plug is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed 5 . In some less common engines. (m) Fuel pump: On newer cars the fuel pump is usually installed in the fuel tank. Older cars have the fuel pump attached to the engine or on the frame rail between the tank and the engine. (o) Fuel injectors: Instead of a carburetor to mix the fuel and air. which eliminated the need for replacement. and bolts to the engine block. the head is one piece with the block.

Controlling these high temperatures is the job of the cooling system. these explosions produce an enormous amount of heat and. before going through the engine’s oil passages and being dispersed to lubricate pistons. 1. springs. is connected by a heavily insulated wire to the output terminal of an ignition coil or magneto.2. (q) Lubricating system: The lubricating system addresses the need to properly lubricate an engine when it’s running. oil is drawn out of the oil sump through a wire mesh strainer that removes some of the larger pieces of debris from the oil. Failing to properly lubricate an engine will result in engine failure. The lubricating pump forces the motor oil through the passages in the engine to properly distribute oil to different engine components. (r) Cooling system: A typical 4 cylinder vehicle cruising along the highway at around 50 miles per hour. bearings. if not controlled. valve stems. There are two types of cooling systems found on motor vehicles: Liquid cooled and Air cooled systems. Obviously. Literature Review Hiwasea et. The flow made by the oil pump allows the oil to be distributed around the engine. will produce 4000 controlled explosions per minute inside the engine as the spark plugs ignite the fuel in each cylinder to propel the vehicle down the road. rings. which may contain a resistor. A spark plug has a metal threaded shell.fuel/air mixture by an electric [1] studied experimentally “Multidimensional Modeling of Direct Injection Diesel Engine with Spl Multiple Stage Fuel Injections”. Properly lubricating an engine not only reduces friction between moving parts but is also the main method by which heat is removed from pistons. and shafts. The central electrode. they found that At 6 . and more. electrically isolated from a central electrode by a porcelain insulator. will destroy an engine. In this system. oil flows through an oil filter and sometimes an oil cooler. The spark plug's metal shell is screwed into the engine's cylinder head and thus electrically grounded. while containing combustion pressure within the engine. In a common oiling system.

It supplies air fuel mixture in to the cylinder where it gets compressed and later 7 . The piston engine is known as internal combustion heat engine. It is also observed that a multiple injections with 25% fuel in the first pulse and 75% in second pulse can significantly reduce the NOx formation by 45% compared to the continuous fuel injection combustion. while in case of multiple injection. K. In the process of converting this thermal energy into mechanical work. This produces the useful mechanical work by converting the heat energy. the charge gets more homogeneous because of early injection in split form which enhances the mixing intensity till second stage fuel injection and the combustion temperature reduces drastically. This is because of the fact that in case of continuous fuel injection the charge is highly inhomogeneous due to insufficient time for thorough mixing that resulted in higher combustion temperature. In multiple fuel injections. which is performed by increase in pressure which generates forces to move piston connected to crank shaft by piton connecting rod.5 bar and 750 K [2] worked on “DESIGN AND WEIGHT s produce power by converting chemical energy of the fuel into heat energy. The fuel combustion occurs inside the cylinder so this process is called internal combustion. while in case of continuous injection it corresponds to 51 bar and 940 K respectively at the end of fuel injection and the combustion is initiated just 3o ignition delay after fuel injection due to auto ignition process delay leads to peak values of 135 bar and 2422 K respectively at 5o ATDC. The pressure and temperature at 700o crank angle are 3. It can be concluded from study that the combustion with split multiple stage fuel injection exhibits strong effects on combustion and provides controlled pressure and temperature inside the combustion chamber. Sunil Ratna Kumar” et. “Sarsi Kiran Prabhala1. the maximum average cylinder pressure and temperature occur at 360o of crank angle and that corresponds to 57 bar and 1050 K respectively. just after first stage of 25% fuel injection the pressure and temperatures are found out to be 29 bar and 800 K respectively.motored condition. while after second stage of 75% fuel injection it corresponds to 51 bar and 940 K respectively and the combustion is initiated just 3° ignition delay after fuel injection due to auto ignition process delay leads to peak value of 120 bar and 2276 K respectively at 8° aTDC. which is the most responsible factor for NOx formation. which is slightly lower than that predicted for the continuous injection case.

As the alcohol contains oxygen and more air is available in the turbocharging for combustion. In a conventional SI engine.Akbar Hussain” et.Sunil Kumar Reddy. Due to the complete combustion of alcohol at higher temperatures the smoke emissions are also [3] had worked on “Effect of Turbo charging On Volumetric Efficiency in an Insulated Di Diesel Engine For Improved Performance”. The higher temperature in the combustion chamber 8 . peak cylinder pressure occurs later in the expansion stroke and is reduced in magnitude. If the start of combustion process is progressively advanced before TDC. and then compressed during the compression stroke. Combined duration of the flame development and propagation process is typically between 30 and 90 CA degrees. Dr. These changes reduce the expansion stroke work transfer from cylinder gases to the piston. This is attributed to the higher latent heat of vaporization of alcohol. Though the higher temperatures are available in the combustion chamber due to insulation. The internal combustion engine are reciprocating type engines which are either spark ignition (SI) where the spark ignition engine are called as petrol engines or compression ignition (CI). Following inflammation. For the compensation of drop in volumetric efficiency of the insulated engine 4% intake boost pressure is required for turbocharging. S. where the compression engine are called as diesel engines. a turbulent flame develops. propagates through the premixed air-fuel mixture (and burned gas mixture from the previous cycle) until it reaches combustion chamber walls. the ignition delay is reduced. the increase in exhaust gas temperature is marginal. The optimum timing which gives maximum brake torque (called maximum brake torque or MBT timing) occurs when magnitude of these two opposing trends just offset each other. then it extinguishes. If the end of combustion process is progressively delayed by retarding the spark timing. They found that the increase in the intake boost pressure improves the brake thermal efficiency of the engine. compression stroke work transfer (from piston to cylinder gases) increases. Pandurangadu. combustion is initiated towards the end of compression stroke at the spark plug by an electric discharge. Combustion event must be properly located relative to the TDC to obtain max power or torque. fuel and air are mixed together in the intake system. Under normal operating conditions. V. inducted through the intake valve into the cylinder where mixing with residual gas takes place.P. “S.burnt resulting the power.

with respective to its function. 9 . Displacement and strains (strain is also having less value than previous model) are negligible. Replacing the steel components with aluminium components will reduce the weight but the strength is not enough so they are taking the aluminium alloy such that the aluminium alloy exhibits the strength like the steel because of its alloying material and own property of less weight. connecting rod and piston assembly is analyzed by using the standard forces acting on the piston of four stroke engine. By observing the analysis results of assemblies they can conclude that using aluminium alloy for both connecting rod and piston is more beneficial than using steel for piston. I C engine components like piston. we will take the particular component and optimization of weight is done i. Since the mileage of the automobile depends on the weight of the automobile and the major weight is engine. So that crankshaft life will be extended. Sunil Ratna Kumar” et. “Sasi Kiran Prabhala. By using steady state and modal analysis measure at different connection they obtained the forces acting on the connections with represent the movement of crank angle. as the engine is the assembly of many components. By changing the piston and connecting rod material we can reduce the load effect on crank shaft. steel products are manufactured in hot chamber castings). K. Design of engine crankshaft. Aluminium is having very less weight comparing to the steel so that we can conclude that modified assembly is having more mechanical efficiency and also we can reduce the cost of the product and production (Aluminium products are manufactured in cold chamber castings. the volumetric efficiency drop is compensated by turbo charging in the present experimental work. The degree of degradation of volumetric efficiency depends on the temperatures in the combustion chamber and it further increases the frictional horsepower due to thinning of lubricant. connecting rod crank shaft are made of steel because of its good strength. Therefore if as many as components are replaced then automatically overall weight is reduced therefore the power required to run itself by automobile is reduced resulting in the increase in the mileage.decreases the ignition delay and aids combustion but drops the volumetric efficiency. While comparing stresses of the modified assembly is having less stresses than previous [4] had worked on “DESIGN AND WEIGHT OPTIMIZATION OF IC ENGINE”. For improving the thermal efficiency of insulated engine.

Now-a-days internal combustion engines play an important role in automobile field. Part I: turbulence model”.at[5] worked on “Hierarchical 1D/3D approach for the development of a turbulent combustion model applied to a VVA turbocharged engine. In their paper. [6] worked on Effect of Fuel Injection Pressure on Performance of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine at Different Intake Manifold Inclinations”. to accurately estimate the temporal evolution of the in-cylinder turbulence according to the engine operating conditions. inlet manifold. In order to validate the turbulence model. Fabio Bozza” et. the 0D turbulence model is able to satisfactory fit the 3D findings for all the considered operating conditions. combustion rate. This demonstrates the capability of the model to sense both different flow conditions through the valves (according to the engine speed) and different strategies for the intake valve actuation. air fuel ratio. Growing demand on reduction of internal combustion engine fuel consumption with increase of its performance new designs and optimization of existing ones are introduced. 3D-CFD simulations of the motored flow field inside the cylinder are carried out for different engine speeds and largely different intake valve lift strategies. once tuned. S. The proposed turbulence model shows the capability. The model belongs to the K-k family and describes the energy cascade from the mean flow scale to the turbulence scale.Vijaya Kumar Reddy” et. Air motion in CI engine influences the atomization and distribution of fuel injected in the combustion chamber. Fuel injection pressure plays an important role in better atomization of injected fuel allows for a more complete burn and helps to 10 .S Deva Kumar.Drakshayani. especially during the compression and expansion strokes. and combustion chamber designs etc. Elena Severi. and quality of fuel. intake temperature and pressure and also based on piston design.“Vincenzo De Bellis. There are various factors that influence the performance of engine such as compression ratio. Boundary conditions for the 3D simulations are preliminary derived from the 1D code. Numerical analyses on a small twin-cylinder VVA turbocharged engine are presented. fuel injection pressure. The proposed methodology represents a successful example of integration of a refined 3D approach and a simplified 0D one. part I. atomization of fuel.L. Without any case-dependent tuning. Stefano Fontanesi. a 0D turbulence sub-model to be included in a phenomenological combustion model is presented. “M.

The computed incylinder pressure. pollution levels reduce due to complete combustion of fuel.reduce pollution. at 180bar gives the maximum brake thermal efficiency. decreasing the bowl depth shows a higher amount of NOx emissions and a deep bowl depth combined with a shallow bowl centre depth is disastrous for fuel economy. They found that in cylinder flow structure is greatly influenced by the intake manifold inclination. By increasing fuel injection pressure. The main objective of this work is to study the effect of the fuel injection pressure on performance and pollution of the single cylinder diesel engine at different intake manifold inclinations. Zhijun Peng” et. “Raouf Mobasheri. a potential has been found to improve the NOx emission compared to the baseline injection case while the engine’s specific fuel consumption emissions remain approximately unchanged and soot formation could be slightly 11 . In addition. To study the effects of combustion chamber geometry. It is found that at 600 intakes manifold inclination. soot and NOx were firstly compared with experimental data under various ITs and good agreement between the predicted and experimental values was ensured the accuracy of the numerical predictions collected with the present work. This work improves both performance and fuel economy. The results showed that for shallower bowls. Different manifold inclinations compared to other pressures. thirteen different configurations were selected and analyzed compared to the original piston bowl geometry. They had conducted a CFD simulation to analyze the effects of combustion chamber geometry and pilot injection timing for optimization of engine performance and amount of pollutant emissions in a high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. They work a single cylinder 5HP diesel engine is used to investigate the performance [7] has worked on “CFD Investigation of the Effects of Re-Entrant Combustion Chamber Geometry in a HSDI Diesel Engine”. They finally got that emissions are reduced at 200 bar with engine at 600 manifold inclinations at 180 bars has given efficient performance and less pollution. By varying the manifold inclination we get better performance than normal one. and thus would have higher soot emissions but with slightly wider combustion chamber the optimum operating point could be obtained. It was also found that the narrower width of combustion chamber has a higher unburned fuel air mixture region.

“Tomasz LeĪaĔski. what will be resulted in performance improvement. so that the outflow occurs through the gap. allowed to interpret the phenomena occurring during combustion process. allowing the outflow from the prechamber into the main combustion chamber is achieved for the bigger value of crank angle. depending on engine operating parameters (especially the engine speed and load) and combustion system parameters (prechamber volume. starts when the piston is near TDC position (approximately ± 100 CA in relation to TDC). compression ratio. the amount of emission pollutants can be decreased while the other performance parameters of engine remain constant. thirteen different piston bowl configurations have been designed and [8] has worked on “RESEARCH OF FLAME PROPAGATION IN COMBUSTION SYSTEM WITH SEMI-OPEN COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR GASOLINE SI ENGINES”. diameter of the orifice in the partition. Piotr WolaĔski” et. In order to investigate the effect of combustion chamber. what will be reflected in the deterioration of the system performance. Janusz SĊczyk. They had made some conclusions. through the orifice in the partition. designed for SI engines. carried out using a rapid compression machine and an experimental visualization engine. squish bowl volume and the amount of injected fuel were kept constant to assure that variation in the engine performance were only caused by geometric parameters. which. The results showed that by changing the geometric parameters on piston bowl.increased. It was stated that the assumed mechanism of combustion in this system can be achieved only when the outflow of burning mixture and exhaust gases from the prechamber to the main combustion chamber. A key problem for the proper operation of the combustion system with semi-open combustion chamber is to choose the appropriate value of ignition advance angle. For all the studied cases. at the 12 . the cross-section area of the gap between the partition and the piston crown is much larger than the orifice area in the partition. A stream of burning mixture and exhaust gases outflowing from the prechamber to the main combustion chamber through the orifice in the partition should travel through the main combustion chamber with a velocity greater than the flame front velocity in the standard combustion chamber. ignition place).If the pressure difference between the prechamber and the main combustion chamber. They studied of flame propagation using the combustion system with semi-open combustion chamber.

namely the cold flow and the engine ignition. New innovations in engine combustions technology have been developed to tackle the challenges set by government and [9] worked on “CFD Analysis of Mixing and Combustion of a Scramjet Combustor with a Planer Strut Injector”. necessary for achieving positive results of the system operation.M. gas turbine. This illustrates that there exists the complex shock wave/shock wave interaction and the separation due to the interaction of the boundary layer and the oblique shock wave. the standard k-ε turbulence model and the finite-rate/eddy-dissipation reaction model are introduced to simulate the flow field of the hydrogen fueled scramjet combustor with a strut flame holder under different conditions. Here various types of combustion chambers in petrol engines. For improving engine efficiency and performance the combustion chambers of different shapes and sizes are being developed by Vehicle manufacturers to have a lead in the competition. and capture the shock wave system reasonably. The static pressure of the case under the engine ignition condition is much higher than that of the case under the cold flow condition due to the intense combustion process. They found that in order to investigate the flame holding mechanism of the planer strut in supersonic flow. diesel engines.Pandey and T. Visualization researches enable to determine the direction of changes in the design and structure of the system with semiopen combustion chamber. The amount of heat that is produced depends upon the shape and size of combustion chamber.Sivasakthivel” et. jet engines and steam engines and how they are different from each other in terms of their design. There are three obvious pressure rises on the top and bottom walls of the scramjet combustor because of the impingement of the reflected shock wave or the expansion wave on the walls. fluid flow characteristics and mechanisms had been studied. Ariz Ahmad et. is possible by experimental testing only.moment. “K. the two-dimensional coupled implicit RANS equations. He found that Combustion chambers play a vital role in internal combustion engine. He found some 13 .al [10] worked on “Analysis of Combustion Chambers in Internal Combustion Engine”. They observe that the numerical method employed in this paper can be used to accurately investigate the flow field of the scramjet combustor with planer strut flame holder.

Sometimes during cold weather an external device like glow plugs are required for ignition. On the basis of theoretical analysis and experimental results it has been calculated that the relative charge exchange work can achieve value up to 40 % at part load of the IC engine. 25%. can have a significant consequence in the whole process.3. loading of additional water into a [11] had worked on “IMPROVING OF IC ENGINE EFFICIENCY THROUGH DROPPING OF THE CHARGE EXCHANGE WORK”. force etc. recirculation of flue gases. in which the method of diminishing the emission of toxic substances suggests that combustion of lean air-fuel mixture. CFD flow simulation on pressure as well as surface plot and cut plot animations were done on can type and jet type combustion chambers.few limitations which are there can be a potential heat loss and pressure loss when fluid flows through large cross. Zbigniew Zmudka” et. Using the proposed solution (eco-cycle) in engines with combustion of lean air-fuel mixture the 3 way catalyst can be applied. multistage fuel injection. Here a new concept of theoretical thermodynamic cycle (also called eco-cycle) of IC engine is presented. This proposed solution leads to the diminishing of toxic substance emission and simultaneously to improving the engine efficiency 1. The main reason of this is the throttling process occurring in the inlet and outlet channels. which will be represented in future research. after burning of the combustible substances. Maintenance can be hazardous due to presence of residual fuel or gas during shut down. CFD flow simulations can further be done other parameters like viscosity. Design of Combustion Chamber of an IC Engine 14 . They found that regular growing of the relative work exchange load on IC engine causes dropping of the engine efficiency.section area of combustion chamber. As a consequence of the growing of the relative load exchange work is the regular and significant drop in the IC engine efficiency from 55% down to ca. “Stefan postrzednik. It is directly connected with the quantitative regulation method commonly used IC engines. Sometimes due to high pressures there can be potential cracks developments in the chamber which can interrupt the fluid flow thus.

) affecting the combustion chamber efficiency which in turn affect the engine performance and also their optimizations. Moreover. Here in this paper we will study the various factors (like detonation. greater brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and maximum cylinder pressure. requiring two cram shafts. technology or engine used in present or in future. which in turn increases the engine performance. exhaust and emission smoke etc.A Combustion Chamber is a part in which combustion of fuel or propellant. Hence study of combustion chamber is of prime importance. carbon monoxide (CO). in the near future. smoke. Combustion chamber is one of the most important components of the internal combustion engine. 1. is initiated in internal combustion engine. The turbulence can be guide by the shape of the combustion chamber hence there is necessity to study the combustion chamber geometry in detail. in particular. (b) L-Head type: A modification of T-head type combustion chamber is the L Head type which provides 2 valves on the same side of the cylinder and the valves are operated by a single camshaft. 15 .Head type: This configuration provides 2 valves on either side of the cylinder.1. The most important role of IC engine combustion chamber is to enhance the fuel-air mixing rate (swirl) in short possible time. volumetric efficiency. engine speed.head type: It is also called overhead valve combustion chamber in which both the valves are located on the cylinder head. nozzle position and spray behavior plays a predominant role in the engine performance. scavenging. fuel air ratio. whatever is the type of fuel. we need a combustion chamber which will produce better fuel economy. Different types of combustion chamber used in petrol or gasoline engines are: (a) T . Types of Combustion Chamber There different types of combustion chambers of different shapes and sizes. power is generated. Since there is a strong necessity of research and innovation in combustion chamber design as with advent of new technologies in engine and fuel type innovations. So. combustion will be always there as through combustion of fuel only. The piston bowl geometry. (c) I .3. lower hydrocarbons (HC) emissions. this is indispensable.

in this type of combustion chamber. The main disadvantage is high fuel injection pressure and necessity of accurate metering of fuel by the injection system. There are two types of injection used namely: (a) Direct injection: Also called as open combustion chamber. The depth to diameter ratio for this chamber can be varied to given any desired a squish to give better performance. Different types of Direct Injection combustion chambers are:  Shallow depth chamber: The depth of the cavity in the piston is quite small. This chamber is adopted for large engines running at low speeds.  Toroidal chamber: It has such a shape so as to provide a powerful squish along with the air movement within the toroidal chamber. Mask needed for inlet valve is very small so as to provide the powerful squish. (b) Indirect injection: This type of combustion chamber the combustion space is divided into 2 parts one is the main cylinder and other is the cylinder head.  Hemispherical chamber: The chamber gives a small squish. specific fuel consumption is high because of loss of pressure. Drawbacks are cold starting problems because of this we require heater plugs. Combustion chamber in which one valve is in the cylinder head and the other on the cylinder block are known as F-head combustion chamber. the entire volume of the combustion chamber is located at the main cylinder and the fuel is injected into this volume the main advantage is minimum heat loss during compression because of lower surface area to volume ratio and no cold starting problems. 16 . The main advantage is that the injection pressure required is low.  Cylinder chamber: It is a form of truncated cone with a base angle of 30 degrees.(d) F-Head type: This arrangement is a compromise between L-head and I head types. In diesel engine the combustion chambers are divided based on the injection type used.Squish can also be varied by varying the depth. Different types of Indirect Injection combustion chambers are:  Swirl chamber: Chamber in which swirl is generated. The swirl was produced by making the inlet valve for nearly 180 degrees of circumference .  Pre-combustion chamber: Chamber in which combustion swirl is induced.

There was violent detonation even at compression ratio of 4. This was also because the average octane number of petrol available at that time was 45-50.3. however. B. In the side valve engines. Air cell chamber: Both combustion and compression are induced. valves are placed side by side and are in the block.3 Combustion Chamber Design Principles  To achieve high volumetric efficiency the largest possible inlet valve should be accommodate with ample clearance round the valve heads. In the period 1910-30 the side valve engine was commonly used in petrol engines. In this original form. Exhaust valve being a very hot surface should not be in the end gas 17 .2 Historic View of Combustion Chamber A.3. T-Head Combustion Chamber. 1. it gave a poor performance because of the following main defects:  Lack of turbulence as the air had to take two right angle turns to enter the cylinder and in doing so lost much of this initial velocity. The side valve design also affords a neat and compact layout.  Again. I-Head or Side valve Combustion Chamber. the distance across the combustion chamber was long.  Extremely prone to detonation due to large flame length and slow combustion process due to lack of turbulence. 1. and the detachable head can be removed for decarbonizing without disturbing either the valve gear or the main pipe work.  Being very prone to detonation. This consideration involves the location of sparkling plug. The T-Head had the disadvantage of  Having two camshafts. the position of the valves and the shape of the combustion chamber. to reduce the possibility of denotation there should not be a hot surface in the end gas region. It is easy to enclose and lubricate the valve mechanism. A side valve engine has an advantage both from a manufacturing and maintenance point of view. Ford utilized this design in his famous model ‘T’ introduced in 1908.  To prevent detonation the length or flame travel from the sparkling plug to the farthest point in the combustion space should be as short as possible.

In other words ‘quench space’ should be formed in the end gas region.  There should be sufficient cooling of the sparkling plug by high velocity water stream around it to avoid pre-ignition effects at the large throttle openings. Thickness of the walls should be uniform for uniform expansion. For minimum heat flow the surface-volume ratio should be least. A low surface-volume ratio also gives less air pollution. A slight pocketing     of the plug greatly increases electrode and decreases fouling. It means working should be near the borderline of 18 . There should be good scavenging of the exhaust gases. On manufacturing grounds.  The shape of the chamber should be such that the greatest mass of the charge burns as soon as possible after the ignition (consistent with a smooth application of force) with progressive reduction in the mass of charge burnt towards the end of combustion. It means that the exhaust valve should be near the sparkling plug.  In the end gas region surface-volume ratio should be large so that there should be good cooling in the ‘detonation zone’. A hemispherical shape provides minimum surface volume ratio.  Because of the hot surface it presents. To achieve maximum thermal efficiency for a given grade of fuel the highest possible compression ratio must be employed. Turbulence created by squish is better as it does not adversely affect the volumetric efficiency. The other method of producing turbulence is by ‘squish’.  In other word to be able to extend the mixture range as far as possible on the weak side and more especially on reduced load.  To ensure high thermal efficiency and satisfactory initial combustion conditions the heat flow should be minimum in the zone around the sparkling plug. it is desirable to employ a plain flat topped piston.region.  The exhaust valve head should be well cooled by a high velocity water stream around it as it is the hottest region of the combustion chamber. Proper turbulence may be created by suitable positioning the inlet valve and design of inlet passage and streamlining of combustion chamber. the exhaust valve should be kept small.  Short combustion time is the prime consideration in all SI combustion chamber designs. It would also avoid surface ignition. it is essential that the sparkling plug shall be positioned that it will be scoured of any residual exhaust products by the incoming charges. This is achieved by creating the highest flame front velocity through the creation of correct amount of turbulence. but to compensate for this high lift should be employed.

CHAPTER 2 IC ENGINE COMBUSTION CHAMBER ANALYSIS 19 .detonation but detonation or rough working should not occur under all running conditions.

1. we study about the different effects on internal combustion engine such as effects of super-charging. inefficient operation. Factors Affecting IC Engine (a) Detonation and Knocking: Knocking. depending on the composition of the fuel. Knocking can cause overheating of the spark-plug points. Here we are studying about different problems that arise in internal combustion engines. but the most common method is to burn gasoline of higher octane number. In a properly functioning engine. and rough. erosion of the combustion chamber surface. The diesel engines with highly advanced injection timings allows air fuel mixture to burn with enough time creating uneven pressure on cylinder wall resulting in hammering effect which is termed as knocking . in an internal-combustion engine. Both the phenomenon occurs due to excessive rise of cylinder pressure in engine cylinder. In addition to that. some of the charge may spontaneously ignite ahead of the flame front and burn in an uncontrolled manner. 2. Detonation (generally caused by fuel with a low octane rating) is the tendency for the fuel to pre-ignite or auto-ignite in an engine's combustion chamber. DIFFERENT APPROACH TO IC ENGINE ANALYSIS In this topic we are going thorough study on the analysis of combustion in IC Engine.2. Severe detonation can break pistons and destroy engines. However. The resulting knock/ping is the sound of the pistons slamming against the cylinder walls. It can be avoided by adjusting certain variables of engine design and operation. such as compression ratio and burning time. The different problems which we may encounter in an IC Engine are discussed below. turbulence etc. This early (before the spark plug fires) ignition of fuel creates a shock wave throughout the cylinder as the burning and expanding fuel air mixture collides with the piston that is still traveling towards top-dead-center. is sharp sounds caused by premature combustion of part of the compressed air-fuel mixture in the cylinder. Generally knocking is observed in diesel engines and detonation is observed in petrol engines.In petrol engines sometimes the air fuel mixture is burned due to the in cylinder temperatures or the cylinder wall temperatures which is called as pre-ignition 20 . the charge burns with the flame front progressing smoothly from the point of ignition across the combustion chamber. at high compression ratios. These pressure waves force parts of the engine to vibrate. which produces an audible knock. producing intense high-frequency pressure waves.

252 *NOTE* Horsepower will always equal torque at 5. In a typical low compression engine. (c) Power and mechanical efficiency: The amount of work an engine exerts is measured in foot * pounds of torque. Using inertia effects requires high air speeds in the induction system. and many different parts of an engine that you can rate the efficiency. There are many different ways to find the efficiency of an engine. torque will always be greater than horsepower under 5. Such phenomena results in high combustion pressures due to uneven distribution ignition flames resulting in detonation. for example as found in many modern motorcycles.252 rpm. and horsepower will always be greater than torque over 5. Resonance and inertia effects are normally only used in high speed sports engines. utilizing resonance in the induction pipe (by selecting the induction pipe length according to the rotation speed at which maximum VE is desired) as well as the inertia of the air mass in the induction piping. much of the losses can be reduced to an acceptable level. The amount of air taken inside the cylinder is dependent on the volumetric efficiency of an engine and hence puts a limit on the amount of fuel which can be efficiently burned and the power output. which is normally accompanied by high flow losses. 1 horsepower = (550 FT * LB) / Sec = 746 Watts = 2.also. Thermal efficiency is the percentage of energy taken from the combustion which is actually converted to mechanical work.252 rpm. Naturally aspirated engines can have volumetric efficiencies of more than 100% by using properly designed induction piping. the thermal 21 . (b) Volumetric efficiency: It is the ratio of the actual volume of the charge drawn in during the suction stroke to the swept volume of the piston. The amount of power that an engine can do is measured in horsepower or watts. but for engines with forced induction it may be more than 100 percent. The value of volumetric efficiency of a normal engine lies between 70 to 80 percent. By careful design and streamlining of the inlet port and valves.252 rpm.545 BTU / Hour To convert torque into horsepower: (Torque * RPM) / 5.

This formula is written as pounds of fuel per hour of thrust. of the engine. There are different types of SFC: TSFC. The formula for measuring BSFC is the fuel rate over power. compared to what the engine would put out with no power loss. found in most vehicles today. This means that for a stock engine. (d) Specific fuel consumption: Specific fuel consumption. or power. only 20% of the power in fuel combustion is effective. The most fuel efficient engine may not always be the best choice. compares the ratio of the fuel used by an engine to a certain force such as the amount of power the engine produces.efficiency is only about 26%. There are disadvantages to this formula. and thus be a better choice even if a heavier engine has a lower TSFC. brake specific fuel consumption. Most engines are about 94% mechanically efficient. The reciprocating engine is a type of engine that uses pistons to create the motion that powers the engine. The fuel rate is expressed as the fuel consumption of the engine in grams per second and power is expressed as the 22 . It allows manufacturers to see which engine will use the least fuel while still producing a high amount of power. A more lightweight engine may cut down on the need for more fuel to power it. thrust specific fuel consumption. In a highly modified engine. for example. are two of the most common. It allows engines of all different sizes to be compared to see which is the most fuel efficient. however. The most common type is an internal combustion engine. TSFC is expressed in the amount of fuel needed to provide a certain thrust over a period of time. Mechanical efficiency is the percentage of energy that the engine puts out after subtracting mechanical losses such as friction. TSFC looks at the fuel consumption of an engine with respect to the thrust output. and BSFC. BSFC is used to calculate and compare how fuel efficient a reciprocating engine is. Airplane engines. abbreviated SFC. such as a race engine. can be compared to see which will produce the most thrust while using the least amount of fuel. the thermal efficiency is about 34%.

amount of power the engine produces written in watts. For the DESIGN of high speed engines. ozone (O3). EGT is also a measure of engine health. from unburnt fuel. there a is large amount of loss of energy in the form of heat energy going out through the exhaust gases of the combustion chamber. gasoline/petrol. nitrogen oxides (NOx) from excessive combustion temperatures. It is discharged into the atmosphere through an exhaust pipe. While it allows engines of all sizes to be compared. hydrocarbons (HC). resulting in a chart that shows the most efficient engine. it has its disadvantages as well. While specific fuel consumption has its advantages. it can also leave out other important factors. and particulate matter (mostly soot). They also contain a very infinitesimal amount of Lead (Pb) and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is important to the functioning of the catalytic converter of an internal combustion engine. Through mixing leads to efficient combustion. (f) Turbulence: If the explosive charge (mixture of air and fuel) is quiescent prior to ignition. it is necessary to mix air and fuel thoroughly. after combustion. This exhaust smoke is basically consist of nitrogen (N2). and where it will be used all affect the engine's performance and specific fuel consumption can only make an educated guess at which engine will perform the best. (e) Exhaust and smoke emission: Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas. and carbon dioxide (CO2). diesel fuel. so in order to reduce this loss the exhaust gases are recirculate and also turbocharger is used to recover the exhaust losses by boosting the intake pressure. The final answer for calculating BSFC is typically expressed in grams per kilowatt-hour. It may be measured by an exhaust gas temperature gauge. In spark-ignition engines the gases resulting from combustion of the fuel and air mixture are called exhaust gases. (g) Scavenging of Engine: Scavenging is the process of pushing exhausted gas-charge out of the cylinder and drawing in a fresh draught of air or fuel-air mixture for the next 23 . The mixing of fuel with air is known as turbulence which may be caused by the velocity of the gases through the inlet valve and by the shape of cylinder head. water vapor (H2O). The engine design. combustion will not be efficient. carbon monoxide (CO) from incomplete combustion. flue gas stack or propelling nozzle. fuel oil or coal. Since. what it will be used for.

However. it does not follow that at this point at whole of the heat of the fuel has been liberated. thus reducing its scavenging potential. etc. it is more difficult to achieve in two-stroke engines.If the contains of the cylinder were at rest. thus presenting far greater surface area from which heat is radiated. (b) Propagation. So. 2.cycle. gradually at first. The rate at which the flame front travels in dependent primarily on the degree of turbulence. (c) After burning. To increase the scavenging potential. The acceleration and deceleration of this exhaust gas is what will hinder the scavenging potential. If scavenging is incomplete.There grows up. to increase the scavenging potential the air must maintain a positive linear acceleration curve. In the actual engine cylinder. This process is essential in having a smooth running internal combustion engine. the entire path from intake to exhaust to tailpipe must be tuned in sync with each other. hence its advance is speeded up enormously. much in the manner of a soap bubble. and what is 24 . but its general direction of movement that of radiating outwards from the ignition point.2 Combustion in SI Engine 2.Although the completion of the flame travel. It is also equally important for both petrol and diesel engines.1 Stages of combustion (a) Ignition lag. the following stroke will mix with a mix of exhaust fumes rather than clean air. for even after the passage of the flame.2. it is not much affected. This will ensure that the air flow is never interrupted. Scavenging is equally important for both two-stroke and four-stroke engine. For example – fast flowing heads and a tunnel ram intake combined with a poorly planned camshaft and exhaust system will cause the system to ‘slow down’ and ‘speed up’ through its journey. a small hollow nucleus of flames. this flame bubble would expand with steadily increasing speed until extended throughout the whole mass. however the mixture is not at rest inject it is at high turbulence breaks the fundamental of flame into a ragged front. Some further chemical adjustments due to reassociation. This may be inadequate for proper combustion which leads to poor running condition.

The higher the selfignition temperature of the fuel. (b) Mixture Ratio.2. measured in mille seconds. (c) Initial Temperature and Pressure.Ignition lag is not much affected by turbulence intensity turbulence is directly proportional to engine speed. (b) Compression ratio-A higher compression ratio increases the pressure and temperature of the working mixture and decreases the concentration of residual gases. These favorable conditions reduce the ignition advance is needed.The ignition lag is smallest for the mixture ratio which gives the maximum temperature.2. (d) Electrode Gap. all reduce the ignition lag.Increasing the intake temperature and pressure increasing the compression ratio and retarding the spark. Very with rich mixtures have incomplete combustion (some C only burns to CO and not to CO2). 2. will is a greater or less degree continues throughout the expansion stroke.The electrode gap is important from the point of view of the establishment of the nucleus of flame. quenching of the flame nucleus may occur and the range of fuel air ratio for the development of flame nucleus is reduced. (e) Turbulence. the velocity of flame diminished.2. Therefore increase in engine speed does not affect much the ignition lag. 2. If the gap is too small.generally referred to as after burning. Scan mixtures release less thermal energy resulting in lower flame temp and flame speed. the longer is the ignition lag. When the mixture is made leaner or is enriched and still more. since it increases the heat transfer from the combustion zone and leads to unstable development of the nucleus of flame.The ignition lag depends on the chemical nature of the fuel. the higher the electrode gap is required. The lower the compression ratio. High pressure 25 . which results in decrease of less thermal energy and hence flame speed is low. Effect of Engine Variables on Ignition Lag (a) Fuel.3. Excessive turbulence of the mixture in the area of the spark plug is harmful. The mixture ratio is somewhat richer than the stoichiometric ratio. Effect of Engine Variables on Flame Propagation (a) Fuel-air ratio-With hydrocarbon fuels the maximum flame velocity accrue when mixture strength is 10% richer than stoichiometry.

The increase of flame speed due to turbulence reduces the combustion time and hence minimizes the tendency to detonate. 26 .temperature of the compressed mixture also speed up the second phase of combustion increase in compression ratio increases the chances of engine to detonate. spark knock.3 Knocking in SI Engines Knocking (also called knock. (c) Intake temperature and pressure-Increase in initial temperature and pressure increases the flame speed. detonation. Excessive turbulence results in the more rapid pressure rise and the high rate of pressure causes the iron shaft to spring and rest of the engine vibrate with high periodicity. (d) Engine load-With increase in engine load. the cycle pressures increases. (f) Engine size-The number of crank degrees required for frame travel will be about the same irrespective of engine size provide the engines are similar. resulting in rough and vesting running of engine. pinging or pinking) in sparkignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder starts off correctly in response to ignition by the spark plug.hence turbulence allows the ignition advance to be reduced and therefore weak mixtures can be burnt. Turbulence increases the heat flow to the cylinder wall and in the limit excessive turbulence way extinguishes the flame. 2. (e) Turbulence-Turbulence accelerates chemical action by intimate mixing of fuel and O 2 . but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front. Hence the flame speed increases poor combustion at low loads and necessity of the mixture enrichment are among the main disadvantage of SI engines which causes wastages of fuel and discharge of large amount of products of incomplete combustion like CO and poisonous products.

In a properly functioning engine. Knocking can cause overheating of the spark-plug points. and at a precise point in the piston's stroke. sharp sounds caused by premature combustion of part of the compressed air-fuel mixture in the cylinder. 2. Knocking.1. the charge burns with the flame front progressing smoothly from the point of ignition across the combustion chamber. namely. time factors and composition factors: (a) Temperature factors. Effects of engine knocking range from inconsequential to completely destructive. Various effect of engine variables on knock or detonations are as follow(a) A low temperature (b) A low density (c) A long ignition delay (d) A non-reactive composition Thus the various engine variables affecting detonation can be classified under four factors. such as compression ratio and burning time. and cylinder pressure increases dramatically. These pressure waves force parts of the engine to vibrate.The fuel-air charge is meant to be ignited by the spark plug only. inefficient operation. The shock wave creates the characteristic metallic "pinging" sound. the temperature factors. and rough. erosion of the combustion chamber surface. depending on the composition of the fuel. some of the charge may spontaneously ignite ahead of the flame front and burn in an uncontrolled manner. Knock occurs when the peak of the combustion process no longer occurs at the optimum moment for the four-stroke cycle. at high compression ratios. producing intense highfrequency pressure waves. the temperature of the unburned mixture is increased by all the following factors: 27 . However.3. in an internal-combustion engine.increasing the temperature of the unburned mixture by a factor in design or operation will increase the possibility of knock in the SI engine because all combustion reaction leading to lower delay periods and grater formation of chemical species are accelerated by an increase in temperature loss. which produces an audible knock. but the most common method is to burn gasoline of higher octane number. It can be avoided by adjusting certain variables of engine design and operation. density factors.

Increasing the compression ratio increases both the temperature and pressure (density of the unburned mixture). 28 . vi) Raising the temperature of the cylinder and combustion chamber walls. ii) Supercharging-It also increases both temperature and density.The temperature o the end gas depends on the design of combustion chamber. iv) Raising the coolant temperature-delay period decreases. If in a given engine the fuel quality is changed and knock takes place. v) Increasing the load (opening the throttle)-An increase in the load increases the temperature of the cylinder and combustion chamber walls thereby raising mixture and end gas temperatures. velocity of flame travel increases. Hence in tendency to knock increases. but it will also reduce the engine power. burning gas is compressed by the rising piston and therefore both temperatures and pressure (density) are increased.i) Raising the compression ratio. By retarding the spark timings the peak pressures are reached farther down on the power stroke and are thus of lower magnitude. However hot spot may develop because of poor circulation of the coolant or improper distribution of the metal. Thus tendency to knock increases with advanced spark timing and decreases with retarded spark timings. Increases in temperature as well as increase in pressure both lead to greater collisions of molecules resulting in greater formation of chemical species responsible for knocking.Increase in temperature reduces the delay period of the end gas. retarding the ignition may eliminate the knock. For a given engine setting and fuel there will be a critical compression ratio above which knock occurs. Materials with high heat conductivity coefficients such as aluminum alloys are desirable for high compression cylinder heads since a cool combustion chamber wall is essential for high compression without knock. vii) Advancing the spark timing-When the spark is advanced. This compression ratio is called the highest useful compression ratio. Hence. iii) Raising the inlet temperature-Delay period decreases. the tendency to knock increases. Sparking plug and exhaust valve are two hottest parts in the combustion chamber and hence end gas should not be compressed against these. Also the pressure of the charge is increased.

However flame requires a longer time to travel across the combustion chamber of the large engine. i) Increase the compression ratio. v) Advancing the spark timings.  Engine size-The delay period is not very much affected by the size of the cylinder. i) Increasing frame travel distance. with increased pressure tendency to detonate always increases.  Location of spark plug –A plug which is centrally located in the combustion chamber has minimum tendency to knock as the flame travel is minimum. The high pressure in the end gas decreases the delay period which increases the tendency of the charge detonate. engine size). However n increase in the inlet pressure increases the flame velocity.(b) Density factors-Increase the density of the unburned mixture by any of the following methods will increase the possibility of knock in the engine.the possibility of knock is increased by increasing the distance the flame has to travel in order to traverse the combustion chamber. (c) Time factors-Increasing the time of exposure of the unburned mixture to autoignition conditions by any of the following factors will increase the possibility of knock in SI engines. but the first effect always predominates. The flame travel can be reduced by using two or more spark plugs. spark plug position. Turbulence depends on the design of combustion chamber and one engine speed.In general. 29 . which would reduce the tendency to detonate. the combustion rate is high and consequently combustion time is reduced. the more compact the combustion chamber.(combustion chamber design. generally limited to 100 mm bore. ii) Decreasing the turbulence of mixture. the better will be its anti-knock characteristics. since the flame travel and combustion time will be shorter. Further if the combustion chamber is highly turbulent. The large engines therefore have a greater knocking tendency than smaller engines. this further reduces the tendency to knock.  Combustion chamber shape.decreasing the turbulence of the mixture decreases the flame speed and hence increases the tendency to knock.  Location of exhaust valve-The exhaust valve should be located close to the spark plug so that it is not in the end gas region. ii) Opening the throttle (increase the load) iii) Supercharging the engine iv) An increase in the inlet pressure increases the overall pressure during cycle. otherwise there will be a tendency to knock. The SI engine is therefore. Therefore.

The knocking characteristics of a fuel can be decreased by adding small amounts of additives called dopes ii) Fuel-air ratio.iii) Decreasing the speed of the engine-A decrease in the engine speed decreases the turbulence of the mixture resulting in reduced flame speed. Also lower the engine speed. for most hydrocarbons a more compact molecular structure is associated with a lower tendency to detonate. The following is the general relationship between molecular structure of the puffins and    knocking tendency. In aliphatic hydrocarbon. unsaturated compounds show lower lesser knocking tendency that the saturated hydrocarbons. acetylene and propylene. The most important effect of fuel. The naphthene series comes in between the two. Paraffin series have the maximum and aromatic series the minimum tendency to knock.  Lengthening of side chains increases the knocking tendency whereas branching of side chains decreases the knocking tendency. longer is the absolute time for the flame to traverse the cylinder which increases the time available for per flame reaction.The tendency of an engine to knock is very much affected by the properties of the fuel used. In general. i) Octane rating of the fuel.  With increasing double bond the knocking tendency reduces. Hence the tendency to knock is increased at lower speeds. In general. the greater the tendency to knock.air ratio is on the reaction time or ignition delay. once the compression ratio and the engine dimensions are selected. Octane number is the measure of resistance to knock. thus acetylene (C≡C) knocks much more rapidly than ethane (C-C). When the mixture. lower the self-ignition temperature of the fuel or greater its pre-flame reactivity. When the mixture is nearly 10% richer than 30 . Increasing the length of the carbon chain increases the knocking tendency. (d) Composition – The properties of the fuel and the fuel air ratio are the primary means for controlling knock. Centralizing the carbon atoms decreasing the knocking tendency.  Napthenes have grater knocking tendency than the corresponding aromatics. with the exceptions of the ethylene. Napthenes and aromatic show the following general relationship between molecular structure and knocking tendency. Adding methyl group (CH3) to the side of the carbon chain in the centre or position to decreasing the knocking tendency.

Combustion chamber with highly polished surfaces have a greater knocking tendency than those coated with light carbon deposits which increases the heat absorption characteristics.08)the tendency to knock is decreased.Mild noise is seldom audible and is not harmful. ii) Mechanical Damage In most cases of knocking a local and a very rapid pressure rise is observed with subsequent waves of large amplitude. and transferred back to the fresh charge.3. The presence of vibratory motion causes crankshaft vibrations and the cylinder runs rough. (At this point the power is maximum). The former effect. In other words the octane requirement of the engine rises. Also by reducing the clearance volume to deposits increases the compression ratio. A too rich mixture is especially effective in decreasing or eliminating the knock due to longer delay and lower temperature of compression. iii) Humidity of air-increasing atmospheric humidity decreases the tendency to knock by decreasing the reaction time.2 Effects of Detonation i) Noise and Roughness.stoichiometric (fuel-air ratio=0. very much predominates and the knocking tendency is found to be maximum. iv) Effect of deposits –incomplete combustion of fuel lead to deposit of ash on the walls of the combustion chamber. which re later on augmented by dirt in air.08) ignition lag of the end gas is minimum and the velocity of flame propagation is maximum. 2. 31 . When the intensity of the knock increases a loud pulsating noise is produced due to the development of a pressure wave which vibrates back and forth across the cylinder. With a given fuel. and by unscavenged additive products. The trends of the most of the above factors upon the knocking tendency of an engine gives the summary of variables affecting detonation is the SI engine and shows whether the various factors can be controlled by the operator. however. but appreciable carbon deposits increase knocking tendency as explained above. This gives rise to increased rate of wear. The proportion of combustion heat which normally flows through the chamber walls may be largely absorbed by these deposits. the tendency to knock will increase withy the time as the deposits build up and become increasingly effective.By making the mixture leaner or richer (than F/A~0.

( ρV )=0 ∂t 32 . occurs. The inactive layer of gas normally reduces the heat transfer by protecting the combustion chamber walls and piston crown from direct contact with the flame. The minor reason is that the maximum temperature in a detonating engine is about 150˚C higher than in a non-detonating engine. It may cause local overheating. The cylinder head and valves may also be pitted. in a manner similar to that of marine propeller blades by cavitation. due to rapid complete of combustion. Governing Equations (a) The continuity equation ∂ρ +∇ . such as in aero-engines it is difficult to detect knocking noise and hence corrective measures cannot be taken. but in large high duty engines. which may reach a temperature high enough to ignite the charge before the passage of spark.4.knocking is accompanied by increase in the rate of heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls. especially of the sparkling plug.  Detonation is very dangerous in engines having high noise level. thus causing pre-ignition. vi) Pre-ignition. The increase in heat transfer is due to two reasons.Detonation results in increased carbon deposits.Erosion of piston crown. iv) Increase in heat transfer. A n engine detonation for a long period would most probably lead to preignition and this is the real danger of detonation.the increase in the rate of heat transfer to the walls has yet another effect.due to increase in the rate of heat transfer the power output as well as efficiency of detonating engine decreases. Hence severe detonation may persist for a long time which may ultimately result in complete wreckage of the piston. iii) Carbon deposits. The major reason for increased heat transfer is the scouring away of protective layer of inactive stagnant gas on the cylinder walls due to pressure waves. v) Decrease in power output and efficiency. In small engines the knocking noise is easily detected and the corrected measures can be taken. 2.

Direction) [( )] [( )] ∂( ρu) ∂(ρ u2 ) ∂( ρuv) ∂( ρuw ) −∂ P ∂ ∂u ∂ ∂v ∂u ∂ ∂u ∂w + + + = + λ ∇ . ⌊ ρ e+ V ⌋ =ρ q´ + k + k + k −p + + +λ ∂t 2 2 ∂ x ∂ x ∂ y ∂ y ∂ z ∂z ∂x ∂ y ∂z ∂ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 33 ) ( .(b) The conservative form of momentum equation (X. V +2 μ + μ + + μ + ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂ z ∂x ∂ x ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ( ) (c) The Conservation Form of the Energy Equation 2 2 ´ ∂ V V ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂u ∂v ∂w ∂u ⌊ ρ e+ ⌋ + ∇ . V +2 μ + μ + + μ + ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂y ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂ y ∂z ∂z ∂ y ( ) [( )] [( )] [( )] (Z-direction) 2 [( ∂(ρw ) ∂(ρuw ) ∂( ρvw) ∂(ρ w ) −∂ P ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂u ∂ ∂v ∂w + + + = + λ ∇ . V +2 μ + μ + + μ + + ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y ∂z ∂z ∂ x ( ) (Y-direction) ∂(ρv) ∂(ρuv) ∂( ρ v 2) ∂(ρvw ) −∂ P ∂ ∂v ∂ ∂ v ∂u ∂ ∂v ∂w + + + = + λ ∇ .

34 . In this electromagnetic braking is done as small motors absorb the energy and convert it into battery energy.2. refer to engine knocking). it also allows for lower quality fuel to be burnt. Variable Injection Timing: This is already used in Maritime engines. higher volumetric efficiency is achieved by using resonators integrated with the inlet manifold design. when used in high compression internal combustion engines. regenerative braking is ideal method when you want to brake your vehicle to control speed (like when going downhill). (c) For Improving Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency and power: The practical methods and new technology that help in increasing the efficiency of the internal combustion engines are as follows:  Regenerative braking: As braking a car or automobile wastes the kinetic energy in the form of heat. has a tendency to knock "engine knocking" (also called "pinging" or "pinking") and/or to ignite early before the correctly timed spark occurs (pre-ignition. This not only increases the efficiency of the engine as the scavenge pressure is maintained. For naturally aspirated engines. (b) For volumetric efficiency: With the use of the Helmholtz resonator improvement in the volumetric efficiency of the engine is done and also to help with engine sound attenuation. the injection is advanced allowing same mean effective pressure to be maintained. This is possible due to the special features of the Helmholtz resonator designs. Optimization of process parameter: In optimization of process parameter we will discuss the methods to reduce the effect of process parameter which are mentioned above in IC engine performance.5. Also turbocharged engines can easily achieve a volumetric efficiency over 100%. The mixture known as gasoline. The methods adopted for optimization of process parameters are: (a) For Knocking: An antiknock agent is a gasoline additive used to reduce engine knocking and increase the fuel's octane rating by raising the temperature and pressure at which auto-ignition occurs. At  low loads and speeds.

some fuel remains unburnt as ejected before the flame front can reach it. as viscous oil can result in losses due to friction. the fuel was mixed with air and injected. Variable valve timing: In this method the exhaust and inlet valves opening and closing time can be varied.  Integrated starter and generator systems: In this system the engine is immediately stopped when idling and started when the accelerator is pressed. causing better combustion. In a twin spark plug cylinder two flame fronts are created. It cannot be done on small engines as the engine would become rough. This method can increase the efficiency by 4 to 5%.  Cutting off cylinders: In large engines in cruising or going downhill. (d) For Emissions: To Increase engine efficiency some after treatment technologies are used to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions.  Using the correct viscosity of lubricating oil. All engines that enter the vehicle market must comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's emissions regulations. It increases efficiency by 11 to 13%.  Turbochargers: A turbocharger is an exhaust gas recovery device that increases boost air pressure thereby optimizing combustion. affecting the efficiency of the engine.  Direct Fuel Injection: In previous engines. but nowadays fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber and mixing takes place according to the profile of the combustion chamber.  Twin spark plugs and multiple injectors: As the flame front starts from the spark plug and proceeds outward. half of the cylinders can be cut off thus reducing fuel demand. It increases efficiency by 7 to 8%. Harmful pollutants in these emissions include:  Carbon monoxide  Nitrogen oxides  Unburned hydrocarbons  Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)  Particulate matter 35 .

2. All geometry-specific options are described here. In geometry we can import and export geometry between different analysis process. edit or update the geometry model used for analysis. connections and mesh branches of the model definition. We can also create geometry in CAD and import them. not all will be available at all times.6. These grooves or channels or passages after ignition direct the flame front to cause multipoint ignition during the combustion cycle.These exhaust after treatment technologies include:  NOx absorbers and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to control oxides of nitrogen (NOx)  Oxidation catalysts to control hydrocarbons (HC). which will result quicker and complete clean burn combustion. channels and passages cause the air-fuel charge to be in a greater state of turbulence prior to ignition in the combustion chamber. When linking two systems. (b) Mesh: The Model cell in the Mechanical application analysis systems or the Mechanical Model component system is associated with the Model branch in the Mechanical application and affects the definition of the geometry.  Backflow or loop scavenging. Different features of ANSYS (a) Geometry: We use the Geometry cell to import. (e) For complete scavenging: To maximize scavenging three types of scavenging methods are used:  Cross flow scavenging.  Particulate filters to control particulate matter (PM). channels or passages through the squish areas will further enhance in-cylinder turbulence followed by multi flame front combustion. These options are in addition to the common options described in Common Context Menu Options and Transfer Context Menu Options. create. coordinate systems. (f) For improved turbulence: To improve the turbulence inside the combustion chamber by forming grooves. we 36 . The effects of the grooves.  Uniflow scavenging.

(e) Result: The Results cell indicates the availability and status of the analysis results (commonly referred to as post-processing). we can access the Solution branch of our application. We can define the loads. From the Results cell. We can generate a second system that is linked at the Model cell of the first system. The data from the application will then be incorporated in the project in ANSYS Workbench. Likewise. If we have an analysis running as a remote process. including connections between systems. (c) Setup: The Setup cell is used to launch the appropriate application for that system. boundary conditions. we will see the Solution cell in a pending state until the remote process completes. It can also be used to import an existing mesh file. but we cannot add a share after the second system has been created. (d) Solution: From the Solution cell. we cannot share data with any other system. and we can share solution data with other downstream systems (for instance. and otherwise can configure our analysis in the application. 37 . we cannot delete a link between the Model cells of two systems. we can specify the solution from one analysis as input conditions to another analysis). The Mesh cell in Fluid Flow analysis systems or the Mesh component system is used to create a mesh using the Meshing application.cannot create a share between the Model cells of two established systems.


The various engine parameters can only be assigned after installing ICE. engine speed of 39 .1. suction and compression while the others will be studied in later stage.gz. Geometry: We used geometry decomposition process in our work. Details of various geometry input parameters are Different engine parameters are given table 1. crank radius 20mm. Here we analyze only the variation of velocity of fuel air mixture inside the combustion chamber with respect to crank angle rotation. In this time we only study first two stroke i.msh.In our studies we used IC engines having parameters like connecting rod of length 200mm. so we opted for installing IC tutorial II. RESULT AND DISCUSSION In our project work we study a four stroke Internal Combustion engine combustion chamber. we have to understand the process of decomposition in Design Modeler. Since we do not have access to ICE in ANSYS. Before understanding how the geometry is decomposed into different sub volumes.3. 3.e.

Among these are: 40 . such as the k-ε model. Behavior for this body part it is set to soft. ch-invalve1–body. It has proven to be stable and numerically robust and has a well-established regime of predictive capability. Figure 7 shows the final geometry of the combustion chamber. provide good predictions for many flows of engineering interest.1800 rpm . Type is set to Element Size. Geometry of the upper face of piston body is selected as the input. Element Size is equal to Reference Size. which is set in the IC Mesh Parameters dialog box. One of the most prominent turbulence models is k-epsilon model. which is set in the IC Mesh Parameters dialog box. which is set in the IC Mesh Parameters dialog box. Meshing: The approaches for meshing the chamber region are given below. 4 cylinder faces . When we click on Face Sizing under Mesh in the Outline. Element Size is equal to Reference Size. By using geometry decomposition we have created a geometry having 5 faces namely 1 inlet face. minimum lift of 0. Element type is set to Element Size. it has been implemented in most general purpose CFD codes and is considered the industry standard model.we have used 2 types of valves namely InValve and ExValve . ch-lower. Boundary condition i) Model: We use k epsilon model in our study. Behavior for this body part it is set to hard.3. We have also used symmetry face option with 3 faces. 3. Geometry shows the number of bodies selected (ch-upper. we can see the details. ii) Valve meshing: Body Sizing of valve is done under Mesh. the k-ε model offers a good compromise in terms of accuracy and robustness. Element Size is equal to Reference Size.2 mm . For general purpose simulations. iii) Interface Between Piston And Chamber meshing: Face Sizing is the sizing method used for this part. 3. While standard two-equation models. there are applications for which these models may not be suitable. 1 outlet face.2. Behavior for this body part it is set to hard. i) Chamber Meshing: The chamber head-upper faces are selected as the input. ch-exvalve1–body). Type is set to Element Size.

So. The air and fuel mixture enters the combustion chamber via the inlet manifold through the inlet valve.    Flows with boundary layer separation. Flows in rotating fluids.e.03 m.4Result Discussion i) Actual Valve timing: The actual valve timing diagram is shown in the figure At 0 crank angle (CA) the piston is at top dead center (TDC) after compression. total temperature of the system is maintained at 300K. From the graph we see that the exhaust valve remains closed up to around 140 degree of crank angle rotation. then it closes at around 575 degrees of crank angle rotation. Flows with sudden changes in the mean strain rate. During this stroke the piston moves from TDC to BDC and the exhaust valve remains closed in ideal engine cycles during this time.03 m. But in actual engines due to valve 41 . we put turbulent intensity 5% and hydraulic diameter 0.. suction and compression. then it starts lifting up and reaches its peak round 250 degrees of crank angle rotation and after that it starts declining and closes at around 350 degrees. total temperature of the system is maintained at 300K. at 0 CA both intake and exhaust valves are closed as shown in Figure. This is called the suction stroke. and hereby we concentrate on the variations that occur in the first two strokes i. Similarly for the inlet valve it remains closed up to around 350 degrees of crank angle rotation and then starts lifting up and reaches the peak position at around 450 degrees of crank angle rotation. ii) Inlet boundary conditions: In the inlet boundary condition. Flows over curved surfaces. iii) Outlet boundary conditions: In the outlet boundary condition.In x-axis we plot crank angle in degrees and in y-axis we plot valve lift in mm. ii) Variation of velocity with different crank angle: We study the velocity variation of the air fuel mixture inside the combustion chamber of a four stroke engine with respect to crank angle rotation. Here the green coloured curve represents inlet valve lift and the black coloured curve represents exhaust valve lift. 3. we put turbulent intensity 8% and hydraulic diameter 0.

42 . The crank angle rotation occurs from 0˚ to 180˚ during the suction stroke. But increase in this valve overlap period causes the disadvantage that a small amount of fresh charge directly exits through the exhaust valve thus reducing the volumetric efficiency and increasing the unburnt hydrocarbon emissions. completing one rotation of the crankshaft. After the maximum intake of air fuel mixture into the combustion chamber.overlapping both the valves remain open together for better performance of the engine. thereby increasing the pressure and temperature of the combustible mixture to a maximum value sufficient for combustion to occur. In this stroke the crank angle moves through 180˚ to 360˚. the inlet valve is closed and this air fuel mixture is compressed by the piston moving from BDC to TDC.