INTRODUCTION

In this multi-week experiment, you will synthesize a compound and then analyze
it to determine its empirical formula. The substance you will prepare is a vividly
colored coordination compound of copper. Based on the reagents used in the
synthesis procedure, you can assume that the final compound contains copper,
ammonia, sulfate, and water. In your analysis, you goal is to figure outthe mole
ratio of each component in the final compound. In other words, you will solve for
x, y, z and a in the formula Cu x (NH3) y (SO4) z. a H2O
Based on the way the formula is written you can assume that ammonia and
sulfate are acting as ligands and counter-ions, respectively. The water, in
contrast, is water of hydration. That is, it is incorporated into the crystal lattice of
the solid compound in a non covalent manner, usually by hydrogen bonds, and
with a specific stoichiometry.
Synthesis
To prepare your own sample of the coordination compound, you’ll start with solid
copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4.5H2O. Once dissolved in water, the
copper ions take on water molecules as neutral ligands :copper(II) ions exist as
the hexaquacopper(ii) complex ion in aqueous solution. After adding
concentrated ammonia, NH3 ligands displace the water molecules covalently
bound in the original copper complex, and a dramatic color change occurs. The
copper(II) ammonia complex is a water-soluble ioN, in order to precipitate and
isolate the final product, an ionic compound, you need to decrease the solubility
of the compound. A convenient way of doing this is to add a large amount of
ethanol, CH3CH2OH, to the aqueous solution. EThanol is miscible with water but
is much less polar, and, as the amount of ethanol in the mixture increases, the
solubility of ionic compounds decreases. After the addition of ethanol, your
coordination compound will appear as a crystalline solid, and the synthesis
procedure ends with filtration, rinsing, and drying of the visually stunning
product. The next several parts of the lab involve analysis of your copper(II)
coordination compound to determine its empirical formula.

Why can we crystallize tetraamminecopper (II) sulfate from water when we add
ethanol?

The easiest way to view this is that ethanol dissolves in water and because of the
lower solubility of the complex in the new solvent, an ethanol-water mixture, the
complex then crystallizes. It is indirectly due to polarity, but directly due to
solubility.

This compound can be prepared by adding concentrated solution of ammonia to a saturated aqueous solution of copper sulfate followed by precipitation of the product with ethanol. This ion will combine with sulfate (SO4 2. to a saturated aqueous solution of copper sulfate [Cu(H2O)6]SO4 until all the copper(II) hydroxide that is initially formed redissolves into a deep blue solution. The Cu-N and Cu-O distances are about 210 and 233 pm. The deep blue crystalline solid tends to hydrolyse and evolve (release) ammonia upon standing in air. This dark blue solid is a metal complex.[1] The correct concentrations of ammonia and copper sulfate solution can be determined by colorimetry. which has a square pyramidal molecular geometry. NH3. In the solid state.Tetraamminecopper(II) sulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)n]SO4. with a +2 charge.) to make a neutral ionic compound [Cu(NH3)4]SO4. The formula is written [Cu(NH3)4]2+. The deep blue crystalline solid tends to hydrolyse and lose ammonia ligands upon standing in air. This compound can be prepared by treating concentrated ammonia solution. . the salt consists of the [Cu(NH3)4H2O]2+ cation. The combination of the correct concentrations will produce the highest absorbance read out on the colorimeter and as a result the formula of the complex can be verified. What is tetraamminecopper (II) sulfate monohydrate [Cu(NH3)4]SO4•H2O? The name “tetraamminecopper(II)” indicates that four ammonia molecules (called ammine in coordination compound ligo) molecules are covalently bonded to the copper(II) ion. The square brackets signify that the four ammonia molecules and the Cu2+ ion act as a group. and a dramatic color change occurs. This will be accomplished by adding concentrated ammonia (NH3) to copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate which will displace the water molecules bound in the original copper complex. we will synthesis the coordination compound tetraamminecopper (II) sulfate monohydrate [Cu(NH3)4]SO4•H2O. in which there is one molecule of water forming a hydrated In part A of the lab. This group will form part of the solid crystal [Cu(NH3)4]SO4•H2O.

rinsing. The Cu(OH)2(s) dissolves as additional quantities of ammonia are added in the second step to form the dark blue [Cu(NH3)4]2+ complex. to the aqueous solution. the solubility of ionic compounds decreases. A convenient way of doing this is to add a large amount of ethanol. In the first step. and drying of the product. After the addition of ethanol. CH3CH2OH. The equations for the process are below Reaction 1: [Cu(H2O)4]SO4•H2O (aq) + 2NH3 (aq) ⎯→ Cu (H2O)2(OH)2]SO4 •H2O (s) +2 NH4 + (aq) Reaction 2: Cu (H2O)2(OH)2]SO4 •H2O (s) + 2 NH4 + (aq) + 2 NH3 (aq) ⎯→ [Cu(NH3)4] SO4•H2O (aq) + 4 H2O (l) The overall net equation for the reaction is Cu(H2O)4]SO4•H2O (aq) + 4 NH3 (aq) ⎯→ [Cu(NH3)4]SO4•H2O + +4 H2O (l) The copper(II) ammonia complex is water-soluble. and as the amount of ethanol in the mixture increases. your coordination compound will appear as a crystalline solid. solid copper (II) hydroxide is formed which is light blue in color. Ethanol is much less polar than water. you need to decrease the solubility of the ionic compound. . In order to precipitate and isolate the final product.The reaction of ammonia with the copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate is a two-step process. The synthesis procedure ends with filtration.