CHAPTER

Construction Planning, Equipment,
and Methods

Sixth Edition

SCRAPERS
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

7

By
Dr. Ibrahim Assakkaf
ENCE 420 – Construction Equipment and Methods
Spring 2003
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park

Slide No. 1

CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS

TRACTORS-PULLED
SCRAPERS

ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

Tractor-pulled scrapers are
designed to load, haul, and
dump loose materials.
The advantage of tractorscraper combinations is their
versatility.

1

CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS

Slide No. 2
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

SCRAPERS
CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS

APPLICATIONS

Slide No. 3
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

Dozer: short haul, less than 300ft

Scraper: medium haul up to 3,000 ft

2

CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS

TRACTORS-PULLED
SCRAPERS

Slide No. 4
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

They can be used in a wide range
of material types (including shot
rock) and are economical over a
wide range of haul lengths and haul
conditions.
To the extent that they can selfload, they are not dependent on
other equipment.

CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS

TRACTORS-PULLED
SCRAPERS

Slide No. 5
ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf

If one machine in the spread
experience a temporary breakdown
it will not shut down the job, as
would be the case for a machine
which is used exclusively for
loading. If the loader breaks down,
the entire job must stop until repairs
can be made.

3

primarily classified according to the number of powered axles or by the method of loading. SCRAPERS TRACTORS-PULLED SCRAPERS Slide No. For off-highway situations having hauls of less than a mile. although in the past a few machines as large as 100 cu yd have been offered. scrapers ability both to load and haul gives them an advantage. 6 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Scrapers are available with looseheaped capacities up to about 44 cu yd. CHAPTER 7. 4 .CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS TYPES OF SCRAPERS Slide No. 7 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf There are several types of scrapers. Scrapers are all wheel-tractorpulled machines.

SCRAPERS TYPES OF SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Available types include: 9Push-loaded (conventional) ƒ Single-powered axle ƒ Tandem-powered axles 9Self-loading ƒ Push-pull. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CONFIGURATIONS Conventional (push-loaded) Single engine 5 . tandem-powered axles ƒ Elevating ƒ Auger Slide No. 9 CHAPTER 7. 8 CHAPTER 7.Slide No.

SCRAPERS TYPES OF SCRAPERS Slide No. bears on the drive wheels.CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS TYPES OF SCRAPERS Slide No. For the singlepowered axle scraper only a portion. 10 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Many models can achieve speeds up to 30 mph when fully loaded. This extends the economic haul distance of the units. on the order of 50-55% of the total loaded weight. Push-loaded scrapers are at a disadvantage when it comes to individually providing the high tractive effort required for economical loading. CHAPTER 7. 11 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Conventional (push-loaded) single engine scrapers become uneconomical when: Haul grades > 5% Return grades > 12% 6 .

• Can work alone in the cut. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CONFIGURATIONS Elevating scrapers are good for short hauls and in favorable material. 7 .Slide No. 13 CHAPTER 7. • Cost more initially & to operate • Elevator adds weight & takes power. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CONFIGURATIONS Elevating Slide No. 12 CHAPTER 7.

SCRAPERS Slide No. 8 . SCRAPERS TYPES OF SCRAPERS Slide No. Owning and operating cost are about 25% higher. 15 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Tandem powered (twin engine) scrapers are good for jobs having adverse grades and poor footing. 14 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CONFIGURATIONS Tandem powered twin engine CHAPTER 7.CHAPTER 7.

SCRAPERS Slide No. SCRAPERS TYPES OF SCRAPERS Slide No. 17 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Push-Pull scrapers can work as a team or can operate individually with a pusher. 16 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CONFIGURATIONS Push-Pull CHAPTER 7. 9 . Tire wear will increase in rock or abrasive materials because of more slippage from the four-wheel drive action.CHAPTER 7.

SCRAPERS Slide No. 18 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CONFIGURATIONS Auger CHAPTER 7. 19 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CONFIGURATIONS Auger 10 .CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS Slide No.

The auger adds weight to the scraper during travel and it is more costly to own and operate than a conventional scraper. The struck capacity is the volume that a scraper would hold if the top of the material were struck off even at the top of the bowl. 20 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Auger scrapers can self-load in difficult conditions. laminated rock or granular materials. 21 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf The volumetric load of a scraper may be specified as either the struck or heaped capacity of the bowl expressed in cubic yards. 11 . SCRAPERS VOLUME OF A SCRAPER Slide No. CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS TYPES OF SCRAPERS Slide No.CHAPTER 7.

SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf BOWL The load-carrying part of a scraper. 22 CHAPTER 7. 12 . manufacturers usually specify the slope of the material above the sides of the bowl with the designation SAE. ejector CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS VOLUME OF A SCRAPER Slide No. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) specifies a repose slope of 1:1 for scrapers. 23 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf In specifying the heaped capacity of a scraper.Slide No.

24 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf The SAE standard for other haul units and loader buckets is 2:1. the swell is usually less than that for material dropped into a truck by a hoe or loader. SCRAPERS VOLUME OF A SCRAPER Slide No. CHAPTER 7. The capacity of a scraper. Actual repose slope will vary with the type of material handled. can be approximated by multiplying the loose volume in the scraper by an appropriate swell factor. 25 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Because of the compacting effect on the material in a push-loaded scraper. resulting from the pressure required to force additional material into the bowl. expressed in cubic yards bank measure (bcy).CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS VOLUME OF A SCRAPER Slide No. 13 .

305 1.800 3.89 0.87 0.88 0.200 2.240 2.542 1.075 2. Slide No.895 1.980 2. When computing the bank measure volume for an elevating scraper.895 1.475 1.000 2.80 0.71 14 .800 3.74 0.580 2.490 2. well blasted Sand.470 35 35 25 25 20 12 14 60 60 15 15 40 0.87 0.630 1.480 1.780 1.63 0.500 1.200 2. 26 CHAPTER 7. dry Sand. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SWELL FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL Table 1 Bank weight Loose weight Material lb/cu yd kg/m3 lb/cu yd kg/m3 Percent swell Swell factor Clay. no correction is required for the factors specified by the tables.660 2.Slide No.575 1. SCRAPERS VOLUME OF A SCRAPER ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Tests indicate that the swell factors specified in tables should be increased by approximately 10% for material push-loaded into a scraper.185 1.528 1.325 1.600 1.74 0.dry Clay.000 2.765 1.360 2.400 1.700 3.400 4.600 2.340 1.490 1. dry Gravel. 27 CHAPTER 7.610 2.200 2.020 2.750 2.565 1.660 1. wet Earth and gravel Gravel. wet Limestone Rock.63 0.640 2.260 2.200 3. wet Earth.700 3.400 4. dry Earth. wet Shale 2.600 2.80 0.600 2.83 0.

As the scraper moves forward. At the same time. which is attached to and extends across the width of the bowl enters the ground. This is continued until the bowl is filled. 29 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf A scraper is loaded by lowering the front end of the bowl until the cutting edge. at which point the cutting edge is raised and the apron is lowered to prevent spillage during the haul. SCRAPERS Slide No. 15 .5 cu yd x (0. the calculated bank measure volume will be 22. SCRAPERS SCRAPER OPERATION Slide No. the front apron is raised to provide an open slot through which the earth can flow into the bowl.8 x 1. a horizontal strip of material is forced into the bowl.CHAPTER 7.5 cu yd and the swell factor from the previous table (Table 1) is 0. 28 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SWELL FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL Example If a push-loaded scraper hauls a heaped load measuring 22.1) = 19.8.8 bcy Note: 10% increase in for swell factor CHAPTER 7.

SCRAPERS Slide No. and then forcing the material out by means of a movable ejector mounted at the rear of the bowl. 30 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf The dumping operation consists of lowering the cutting edge to the desired height above the fill. 16 . 31 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CUTTING AND LOADING For maximum production both single. SCRAPERS SCRAPER OPERATION Slide No. raising the apron. CHAPTER 7.CHAPTER 7.and tandemengine scrapers need the assistance of a push tractor.

33 CHAPTER 7. Slide No. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CUTTING AND LOADING Ejector Dirt enters horizontally and rolls back to fill corners. 17 . 32 CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf HAULING Apron lowered to capture the material. Keeping the bowl low enhances stability. Curved ejector top keeps load “boiling” to heap high.Slide No.

Slide No. volume of material to move and maneuver room. 35 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Three main factors: 9Job size. SCRAPERS SCRAPER SELECTION Slide No. 18 . 9Job conditions. 9Scraper configuration. rolling resistance and material type. grades. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf SPREADING THE LOAD Dumping and spreading is one continuous operation. CHAPTER 7. 34 CHAPTER 7.

SCRAPERS SEVERITY OF CONDITIONS ECONOMIC ZONES OF APPLICATION Slide No. SCRAPERS SCRAPER SELECTION Slide No. 37 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf HAUL DISTANCE 19 .CHAPTER 7. 36 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf COST: Cost must consider all hourly cost for the entire pusher-scraper fleet. CHAPTER 7.

SCRAPERS CYCLE TIME FOR A SCRAPER Slide No. haul. 38 PE RF OR CH M AR AN T CE ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf CHAPTER 7.CHAPTER 7. turn. SCRAPERS Slide No. 39 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf The cycle time for a scraper is the time to load. return. dump. and turn back into position to pick up another load: Ts = loadt + hault + dumpt + turnt + returnt + turnt (1) 20 .

SCRAPERS CYCLE TIME FOR A SCRAPER Slide No.Slide No. Both haul and return times depend on the distance traveled and the scraper speed. 40 CHAPTER 7.85 min. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf WORK CYCLE LOAD HAUL RETURN DUMP CHAPTER 7. 41 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Average load time for push-loader scrapers in common earth is 0. 21 .

42 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Dump times vary with scraper size but project conditions will affect the duration. SCRAPERS CYCLE TIME FOR A SCRAPER Slide No.30 25 to 34 0.CHAPTER 7. Department of Transportation. Average values for dump time are presented in tables.30 min and on the fill the average time is 0.37 0.26 35 to 44 0.21 min. Scraper Dump Cycle Times (U. The average turn time in the cut is 0. SCRAPERS CYCLE TIME FOR A SCRAPER Slide No.44 0.28 22 . 43 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Table 2. CHAPTER 7.S. FHWA) Scraper Type Scraper Size Single Engine Tandem-powered (cu yd) (min) (min) <25 0.

57 min 1.52 min Slide No. 45 CHAPTER 7.9 trips per hour 23 .Slide No.500 ft 200 ft 0.52 min (Example 1) could be maintained for a period of 60 min.23 min @ cut 0.000 ft: accelerate @ 6 mph steady @ 18 mph decelerate @ 10 mph Turnt 0.85 min 2.37 min @ fill 2.01 min 0.52 = 10. Ts = loadt + hault + dumpt + turnt + returnt + turnt Loadt Hault 0.28 min 1.000 ft: Dumpt accelerate @ 6 mph steady @ 12 mph decelerate @ 8 mph 31 cu yd (Table 2) Turnt Returnt 300 ft 1. the unit would make 60/5.28 min 0. 44 CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS OPERATING EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTION ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf If the scraper cycle time of 5.21 min 200 ft 1.42 min 0. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 1 Calculate the total time required for a single-engine 31-cu-yd scraper to complete a 2.000-ft haul cycle.600 ft 200 ft 0.30 min Total Cycle Time 5.

Delays occur on the job. machines break down.CHAPTER 7. 47 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf • 50 min-hr efficiency 24 . SCRAPERS EFFICIENCY FACTOR Slide No. 46 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf The volume of material hauled would equal the product of the number of trips and the average volume per load. SCRAPERS OPERATING EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTION Slide No. CHAPTER 7. Reality is different from this perfect production. men stop for water. or machines cluster causing a queue in the cut for the pusher.

9 X 0. SCRAPERS OPERATING EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTION Slide No.69 = 7. such as a ditch. 48 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Studies of scraper operations suggest that the average productive time is 69% of a perfect 60-min hour (excluding weather delays to the job). a 55-min hour may be appropriate. The actual number of trips in the real world would be 10. SCRAPERS OPERATING EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTION Slide No.CHAPTER 7. 25 . 9If the cut involves a tight area.5 trips per work hour CHAPTER 7. the estimator should consider a 45-min hour. 49 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf The estimator should always try to visualize the work site before applying a factor: 9If the pit will not be congested and if the dump area is wide open.

CHAPTER 7. Push tractor assistance will reduce the loading-time duration. If either the pusher or the scraper must wait for the other. 50 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf If push-loaded tractor scrapers are to attain their volumetric capacities. 51 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf When using push tractors. SCRAPERS PUSH TRACTORS REQUIRED Slide No. 26 . we should match the number of pushers with the number of scrapers available at a given time. they need the assistance of a push tractor during the loading operation. and thereby will reduce the total cycle time. CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS PUSH TRACTORS REQUIRED Slide No. operating efficiency is lowered and production costs are increased.

by the formula Tp = 1. 40% of load time. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf PUSHER CYCLE TIME Caterpillar recommends calculating backtrack push-tractor cycle time. 0. 53 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf The formula is based on the concept that pusher cycle time is a function of four components: 9Load time of the scraper 9Boost time. SCRAPERS PUSHER CYCLE TIME Slide No.25 (2) where Lt is the scraper load time (pusher contact time). 27 .15 min. Tp. 9Positioning for contact time. 52 CHAPTER 7. 0.4Lt + 0.10 min.Slide No. time assisting the scraper out of the cut. 9Maneuver time. CHAPTER 7.

SCRAPERS Slide No. 55 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf ROLLING RESISTANCE AND SCRAPER PRODUCTION Rolling resistance varies with haulroad conditions. CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS PUSHER CYCLE TIME Slide No. 54 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf The number of scrapers that a push tractor can serve is the ratio of the scraper cycle time to the pusher cycle time: T N= s (3) Tp where N is the number of scrapers per one pusher. A well maintained haul road permits faster travel speeds and reduces the costs of maintenance and repairs for the scrapers.CHAPTER 7. 28 .

56 CHAPTER 7. 9 Poor haul roads are indicated by the upper boundary. 9 Good haul roads are indicated by the lower boundary. Capacity < 25 cy (U. Average Travel Times Single-powered Axle Scrapers. CHAPTER 7. 57 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf ROLLING RESISTANCE AND SCRAPER PRODUCTION Figure 1. Department of Transportation. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf ROLLING RESISTANCE AND SCRAPER PRODUCTION The following figure is from field study of scraper haul times: 9Shaded area represents the range of average travel times.S. SCRAPERS Slide No. FHWA) 29 .Slide No.

85 min → load of 96% of the capacity (Figure 2. what is the probable production of the scraper? Given that the total length of haul when moving from the cut to the fill is 4.200 +4% grade 1.10 Textbook) CHAPTER 7.000 ft as follows: 1. 59 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Figure 2 (for Example 2) 30 . 4-10. SCRAPERS Example 2 (cont’d) Slide No. or Figure 7.400 ft +2% grade 1. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 2 Based on the the scraper specified in the following figures (Figures 4-8. and for haul conditions as stated below. and 6-9 of the textbook).400 ft -2% grade Soil: Clay Rolling Resistance 3.Slide No. 58 CHAPTER 7.100 lb per bcy 80 lb per ton Assumptions: average load time = 0.

61 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Figure 4 (for Example 2) 31 .CHAPTER 7. 60 ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Figure 3 (for Example 2) CHAPTER 7. SCRAPERS Example 2 (cont’d) Slide No. SCRAPERS Example 2 (cont’d) Slide No.

100) = 75.Slide No.330 lb Weight of Scraper (empty) Gross Weight Rolling Resistance = = 96.1) = 24. SCRAPERS Example 2 (cont’d) ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Figure 5 (for Example 2) Slide No.880 lb (see Figure 3) = 172.3 bcy Weight of Load = 24.74 X 1.8 X (0. or Table 4-1 in Textbook) Load Volume in Bank Measure = 29.210 lb Rolling Resistance in lb/ton 80 = = 4% 20 lb/ton 20 32 .3 (3. SCRAPERS Example 2 (cont’d) ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Actual Load = 0.96 X 31 = 29. clay (Table 1.74. 62 CHAPTER 7.8 lcy Swell Factor = 0. 63 CHAPTER 7.

000-ft haul cycle.23 0.880 lb): 200 acceleration 1.19 1. Total Cycle Time = Ts = 7.06 min 33 .93 min Turnt = 0. SCRAPERS Example 2 (cont’d) ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Calculate the total time required for a single-engine 31-cu-yd scraper to complete a 4.21 min @ fill Returnt = 1.000 200 deceleration 2 2 -2 -4 -4 Distance (ft) Speed (mph) Travel Time (min) 8 8 6 2 2 5 10 15 30 12 Total 0.36 0.19 3.65 0.Slide No. Loadt = 0.200 1. 64 CHAPTER 7.02 1.85 min Hault = 3.40 6 6 2 0 0 10 21 32 32 12 Total 0.06 0. Haul and Return Speeds Grade (%) Total Resistance (%) R = rr + gr Haul (172.30 min @ cut Hence.40 min Ts = loadt + hault + dumpt + turnt + returnt + turnt Dumpt = 0.210 lb): 300 acceleration 900 1. 65 CHAPTER 7.68 1.93 Slide No.45 0.200 200 deceleration 4 4 2 -2 -2 Return (96.400 1.400 1.37 31 cu yd (Table 2) Turnt = 0. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 2 (cont’d) Table 3.50 0.

SCRAPERS Example 2 (cont’d) ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Alternatively.min hour = 24. then Production = 172 × 5 = 860 bcy . hr 34 .06 = = 4.44 min Number of Scrapers Required = Ts 7.4(0. Production = 172 × 4. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Example 2 (cont’d) Number of trips per 50 . the scraper had been thought to control.4 Lt + 0.3) = 843 50 = 34. 67 CHAPTER 7. this is wrong estimate.08 trips 7.9 ≈ 5 scrapers Tp 1. 66 CHAPTER 7.Slide No.44 Pusher Contacts per a 50 . mistakenly.3(7.min hour = 50 = 7.7 (24.06 Volume per scraper per 50 .min hour = Production = 34.08) = 172 bcy hr Pusher time = T p = 1.9 = 843 bcy hr If.7 contacts 1.44 bcy hr Slide No.25 = 1.85) + 0.25 = 1.