Creating the Charter of Athens: CIAM and the Functional City, 1933-43

Author(s): John R. Gold
Source: The Town Planning Review, Vol. 69, No. 3 (Jul., 1998), pp. 225-247
Published by: Liverpool University Press
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TPR, 69 (3) 1998

JOHN R. GOLD

Creating

the

Charter

of

Athens

CIAM and thefunctional city, 1933-43
The Athens Charter,supposedlyproducedby the Fourth Congressof the
a1'
Architecture
Moderne(CIAM IV) in 1933,is regarded
CongresInternationaux
as an importantwatershedin defininga functionalapproachto moderncity
planning.There are,however,reasonsfor questioningthe validityof published
versions.Using neglectedprimarydocumentation,this paperexaminesthe
origins, revisionsand final versionsof the Athens Charterproducedbetween
1933and 1943. It also considersthe events that led to CIAM IV, the historyof
the publicationssubsequentlyassociatedwith that meeting, and the elements
involvedin shapingthe findingsin those documents.

In July 1933, a select band of European modern architects gathered on the
quaysideat Marseillesto boardthe cruise ship SS Tatris IF en routeto Athens.
They were members of the CongresInternationauxd'ArchitectureModerne
(CIAM), a multinationalbody formed in 1928 to discuss matters of shared
interestto the nationalgroups that were its members.From the outset, CIAM
was unusual among architecturalorganisationsfor the fact that its proceedings
addressed town planning issues. Its first three Congresses (CIAM I- III)
presentedthe architect'scredentialsfor being concernedwith urban problems
and emphasisedthe value of functional approachesin resolving housing and
associated land use problems. Now, during the sea voyages and land-based
symposiain Athens, CIAM IV would addressthe wider scale of the 'Functional
City'. Eighteen member groups supplied analyses of cities within their own
countries. Each designed their exhibits to a common brief and classification
system to permit comparisons.
Conventional wisdom insists that the Congress's deliberations then led
directlyto a documentknownas the 'Athens Charter'.Certainlyits statusas the

John R. Gold is Professorof Urban Geographyat Oxford BrookesUniversity, Gipsy Lane
Camous,Headineton,OxfordOX3 OBP.
PapersubmittedDecember1996;revisedpaperreceivedNovember1997and acceptedJanuary
1998.
225

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He suggested that the sheer bulk of exhibits meant there had been very little time for such a document to This content downloaded from 86. (Harvey.226 JOHN R. 270).134. for example. GOLD authentic product of the 1933 Congress was already part of the official history of CIAM by the early 1940s. then a member of the French delegation. there was a broad consensus in the official history of CIAM about the radical vision set out in the Athens Charter.. Looking back to the interwar period. denied that a statement of principles was forthcoming from that meeting. 1989.208 on Wed. . the control of urban functions . 18). 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Despite the stridency of these statements.7. in short. questioning whether CIAM IV ever produced a single consensual document known as the 'Athens Charter'. 6) Writers outside the ranks of CIAM widely accepted the idea that this radical vision of urban functional order was a consensual expression of the discussions at CIAM IV. 1994. 32) Similarly. These included some participants in CIAM IV. In his study of postmodernity. for instance. The archivist Jan Bosman. rhetorical and ultimately destructive document to come out of CIAM' (Frampton. (Bosman. the transformation of a previously empirically developed urban conglomeration into an organised. for example. working. 70). circulation and leisure' (Curtis. he described the 'Charter of Athens' as 'the conclusive outcome of a period of concrete and fruitful work' (Newman. A similar view was expressed by Oscar Newman when introducing the proceedings of a subsequent Congress. 1992. Others found the Athens Charter a convenient landmark around which to base their critiques of the limitations and arrogance of early modernist thinking about the city. 1967. Leonard Currie wrote about the '1933 proclamation which had served effectively as a guide in the development of contemporary architecture and urban planning' (Currie. David Harvey argued that the powerful Congress of International Modern Architects (CIAM) came together to adopt its celebrated Athens Charter of 1933. 40). a charter that for the next thirty years or so was to define broadly what modernist architectural practice was to be about. Kenneth Frampton described the Athens Charter as the 'most Olympian. for example. 1993. argued that the 'excellent studies' prepared for CIAM IV made it possible to 'lay down the principles of contemporary city planning in the Athens Charter' (1941. flawlessly hygienic and structurally transparent urban machine. 699). 11) carried out at CIAM IV. The organisation's Secretary-General Sigfried Giedion. stated that the Athens Charter summed up the 'grand-slam urban theories of the 1930s . sketched its character as integrating everything contained in the Taylor-Ford conception of the beautiful new world: a comprehensively coordinated growth model conducive to the attainment of a balance between the city and the country. 1989. 1961. Moreover. there remain other commentators who cast doubts on the factual basis of these interpretations. Erno Goldfinger. Curtis. Echoing the words of the late Reyner Banham (1966. . with their mechanical separation of living..

While this materialremains central to the arguments advancedin this paper. and reflects on the reasons for the changes that were made. 1983. 1972a. few have yet made use of these sources.particularlythe Frances Loeb Libraryat HarvardUniversity. There was a large exhibition. and Steinmann (1979). Auke van der Woud hinted at the ideological dimension of that process. wrote this Charte d'Athenes. 1973). This is followed by contextual background concerning CIAM's early Congresses. additionalinsights are availablefrom other archive sources in Britain and North America. The final sections consider in great depth the nature of and reasons for the textual changes made from the findings (Constatations) of CIAM IV that originally emerged in late 1 Most previousstudies rely on archivematerialavailablefrom the FondationLe Corbusier in Parisand the CIAM archiveat the Swiss FederalInstituteof Technologyin Zurich. He noted that the 'lustre of the fourth congress would certainly be dimmed' without the notion of the Athens Charter since 'it suggests a binding agreement. 1984). 11). a member of the English delegation. who had already gone to the United States. Their views gain support from historians using archives containing primary sources relating to CIAM. largely agreed.134. shortly before landing in Marseilles' (Steinmann. a policy. In doing so. 1986. The first considers the malleable notion of 'functionalism' and its application in the early discourse of modern architects. but there was insufficient time to do so. Le Corbusier in Paris and Sert. a coherent programme. the Royal Institute of British Architects in London. pointed to the lengthy process of evolution from 'the preliminary results of the discussion on the last day of the Congress. 1997. 1978. 2) Maxwell Fry (1986.7. analysis of the proceedings of CIAM IV. for instance. and discussion of the events and actors involved in creating the Athens Charter. There was never any question of any such document when we were in Athens. He stressed that there may have been genuine intention to produce a statement of principles of town planning. Gerosa (1978). This content downloaded from 86. 56-77) to substantiate and develop this line of argument. 39) to the document known as The Athens Charter published by Le Corbusier (1943. but that is all. Using previously under-utilised primary documentary sources.1 it traces the tortuous stages in the history of the publications associated with CIAM IV. Martin Steinmann (see also Hilpert. and the Canadian Centre for Architecture in Montreal. it shows how the crusading Athens Charter was effectively as much a product of its time as a simple extension of the milder statements of 10 years earlier. The ensuing paper contains six sections. 74). (Goldfinger. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This paper builds on previous work (Gold.in short something on which the fourth congress had only made an early start' (van der Woud.THE CHARTER OF ATHENS 227 emerge and that retrospective attempts to produce an Athens Charter did not do justice to the proceedings of CIAM IV: Seven or eight years later.the most significantelementsof which have alreadybeen placed in the public domainby Trebbi (1976).208 on Wed.With the notableexceptionof Eric Mumford(1992).

comparing the characteristics of buildings with those of machines and likening the architect's search for functional buildings to the engineer's quest for mechanical This content downloaded from 86. 1992. convenience and propriety' (Pugin. 1957). emotional and spiritual as well as physical aspects of the use of a building (Ligo. the sculptor Horatio Greenough looked to functionalism as a means of fostering an indigenous American approach to design that might be independent of European traditions (Bletter. 1957. 1982. Sullivan declared in 1896 that 'form follows function'. 1996. concluded that everything in a building needed to have a structural purpose (Peter. Sullivan. The meanings of functionalism Although commonly treated as virtually synonymous with early twentiethcentury European modernism. 10). 1927. 116) in which architecture should be trying to force the functions of every sort of building into one general formula (De Zurko. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .134. or that a building's form could be derived from knowing fully the purpose to which it would be put (Sullivan. see Twombly. 1988.7. a restorer of ancient French chateaux. for example. GOLD 228 1933 into the more forceful versions produced by Jose-Luis Sert and Le Corbusier. 1928). A fuller and more influential statement of such principles was supplied by the Chicago-based architect Louis H.JOHN R. Labrouste stressed the importance of function in architecture and argued that there was a close relationship between fitness for purpose and beauty in that 'The beauty of a monument resides in the expression of a harmony between needs and means used to satisfy them' (Zanten. In nineteenth-century England. As such. 1996. Elements of functionalism . 10). Viollet-le-Duc.were present in the works of the classical Roman writer Vitruvius and were restated in fifteenth-century Florence by Leon Battista Alberti. 15). Comparable ideas appeared in midnineteenth-century France. notably in the writings of Eugene-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc and Henri Labrouste. 840). Pugin claimed that 'there should be no features about a building which are not necessary for construction. Functionalism also gained adherents in the USA. Many German architects interpreted the term in a narrower fashion. always used the word 'function' to mean intellectual. Sullivan. Blundell Jones. 1994. Greenough drew upon observations of nature to argue for 'primal law of unflinching adaptation of form to function' (Behrendt. Meyer. 'functionalism' has older roots and far wider cultural references. In 1843. 232). 1896. functionalism represented the intersection of brute facts of utility with objective design methodologies and standardised means of production (Hays. 11). 1984. although it always embraced 'a rich hierarchy of primary and ultimate values' (De Zurko. Influenced by Darwinist evolutionary theory. Functionalism gained a strong intellectual foothold as modern architects struggled to come to terms with the implications of new technology.which is understood as the doctrine that claims that form is somehow predicated by function. 594). 1938. most notably in Germany with the Neues Bauen (New Building) movement (Behne. 1841. 111).208 on Wed.

so too the methods of constructionlead to the organisationof the entire city' (quoted in Tafuri and Dal Co. see the developmentof the idea in the early worksof Le Corbusier(for example 1923) and commentariesby Banham(1955).7. with the apparent disqualificationof a winning entry by Le Corbusierin a competitionto design the new League of Nations' building in Zurich. 1941).208 on Wed. Opinionvaried. F. manyof its memberswere sympatheticto modern archtecture. functionalism could also be applied to the architect's work at varying scales.that truly functionalarchitecture would come to share the form and look of the machine. 1984. 3 It would be unfairto Giedionnot to point out that his earlysupportof a purelyrationaland functionalapproachto architecturewas latercounteredby his pioneeringcriticismof the sterility of such approaches(for examplesee Giedion. Other theoreticalworks. Moreover. however.2Others. with notable theoretical exercises in plan makingby Ludwig Hilberseimerand others (Larsson.Interpretingthat incidentas being due to attackfrom reactionaryforces. For more on the 'machineaesthetic5and associatedissues. Holgate (1992) and Trommler(1995).4 suggestedholding a meeting of Europeanmodern architectsto discuss matters 2 It is not possible here to develop a relatedtheme. such as the early writings of Giedion (1928) offereda more simplistic and mechanistic belief that 'Just as the individual cell of habitationleads to the organisationof the methods of construction. like Le Corbusier. 4 The Werkbundwas formed in 1907 to promote synthesis between creative design and industry. it had promoted an exhibition of industrialisedarchitectureat Stuttgartthat gave rise to the WeissenhofSiedlung.THE CHARTEROF ATHENS 229 efficiency. The Modern Movement espoused the idea that the scope of modern architecture could extend from design of household artefacts and interiordesign to the city and region. 192) and the doctrine of functionalismbecame just another justificationfor passingoff the ModernMovement'sown stylisticpreferencesas an expressionof rationaldesign. often arguedthat in reality most modern architectsknew in their mind's eye beforehandwhat form they wanted (Richards.Bach. secretaryof the Swiss chapter of the Deutscher Werkbund. 219). Hilberseimerconstruedthe city as a molar machine. would both subscribe to and oppose variousconceptionsof functionalismduring the course of their careers. 1972.134.3 Beyond housing international contacts between modern architects had steadily Although in the the immediate stimulus for the foundationof CIAM 1920s.as to the natureof the relationshipbetweenthe individualunits and the city as a whole.however. 1994) brought awareness of how innovative functional dwellings could be incorporatedinto plannedestatesof workerhousing (Siedlungen).Experimentsin socialhousing (Zukowsky. namely. which representedmore than the sum of its componentparts.one of the most importantpublic displaysof earlymodernarchitecture. 1992).Hays.Althoughnot a 'modernist'groupingas such.one of the bastions of functionalistthought in the 1920s. developed came in 1927. 1976. For example. This content downloaded from 86. T.In 1927. 1989. althoughan advocateof the multiplicationof standardisedforms.In 1926 town planning was added to the curriculumof the Bauhaus. Gubler. Critics. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

was always regarded as the most important of the four functions.. with a group of socialist architects5 taking the leading role in creating the closing 'Declaration' on 28 June. Le Corbusier supported the idea of a meeting and took the lead in writing the agenda for the Preparatory International Congress on Modern Architecture (later known as CIAM I). He argued that the meeting would not make progress unless it had firm objectives and framed six questions in a short brochure as the basis for its proceedings. its essence is functional order (author's emphasis). including the virtues of standardisation and rationalisation in the production of built forms. the links between architecture and the wider economic order. CIAM Archive. a local dignitary. a small Vaudois town near Lausanne. Frances Loeb Library. Inspired by the German delegation. however. HarvardUniversity. sociological. . industrial. Boesinger and Stonorow. HannesMeyer and Hans Schmidt. It featured strongly in the 'Declaration of La Sarraz' (Steinmann. it embraces the countryside as well as the cities . 1 and II.6 Town planning. This content downloaded from 86. 1979. legislation and regulation of traffic. . These mirrored his own current preoccupations.7 Subsequent clauses mapped out four key functions of the city: dwelling.208 on Wed. the only group with sufficient 5 PrincipallyMart Stam. with the opening clause leaving no doubt about the centrality of a functional approach: Town planning is the organisation of the functions of collective life.7. and the significance for architects of addressing town planning (Steinmann. Folder Bl. work. For CIAM. ecclesiastical or wealthy private clients.2. Town planning cannot be determined by the claims of a pre-existing aestheticism. GOLD involving mutual support and interest. At a stroke his schedule prescribed rationality. 6 Author's translationfrom the 'Declaration'of the Congres Preparatoired'Architecture Moderne. Nevertheless. The key mechanisms for carrying out town planning were identified as control over land use. as a possible venue. Helene de Mandrot. standardisation. leisure. geometric form. 1979. was critical to that endeavour. In the event. Five of the 23 statements in the Declaration addressed town planning.2. Instead it was now relocated 'in its true sphere which is economic. 175). offered her chateau at La Sarraz. in turn. the Congress resisted Le Corbusier's more blatant attempts to impose his conceptions on the meeting.230 JOHN R. and altogether at the service of humanity'. 1964. and circulation (transport and communications). 7 Ibid. clauses II. the strong interest in town planning persisted.134. architecture's realm extended well beyond traditional preoccupations with the design of specialised buildings or estates for commercial. 'Dwelling'. 12-21) and left an indelible imprint on the outlook of the new association. Quoted from typescriptversion. functionalist architecture and an explicit concern for town planning as starting points for the discussions of the three-day meeting in June 1928. 1221. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

work and recreational areas.208 on Wed. 1930) again visited a city closely associated with social housing. These were prepared by the Dutch group and were presented to an Extraordinary Congress of CIAM at Berlin in June 1931 and. collection of data relating to social and economic conditions but other areas of potential interest. walk ups and high-rise flats. in turn. partly based on the Geddesian sequence of survey-analysis-plan. functional dwelling units for lower income groups that made the best possible use of space. This content downloaded from 86. in revised form. That effectively committed them to a specific type of plan making. At this point Le Corbusier and others succeeded in persuading CIAM to broaden its discussions so that housing estates were not seen in isolation from their urban context.7. the traffic network. comprising the delegates of the accredited national delegates to CIAM. 1942. The second was a set of standardised cartographic conventions. 8 The imposingly named Le Comite International pour la Realisation des Problemes de VArchitecture Contemporaine(CIRPAC) was effectively a ruling council. analysis was shaped by the requirement of mapping data into the four functional categories and reporting general features of needs and wants on that basis. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The first was the functional classification of urban elements decided at La Sarraz. Extensive survey work was retained.THE CHARTER OF ATHENS 231 critical mass and coherence to sustain the new association. such as civic and cultural life. Meeting in Frankfurt (1929) at the invitation of its Chief Architect. They had two main elements. but information gathered was prescribed by the needs of the exercise. weighing the relative merits of laying out areas with terraced houses.134. Member delegations were given instructions about the format for collection of written information in questionnaire form and for preparing plans that would show. CIAM II examined the 'minimum habitation' (Existenzminimum)small. That. but with each state constrained by the predetermined functional approach. CIAM III (Brussels. colour scheme and symbols. Delegates at Brussels therefore agreed to devote their next Congress to the subject of the 'Functional City'. respectively: residential. for example. Its remit sought to consolidate the theme of the previous Congress by discussing how to organise whole groups of dwellings into planned neighbourhoods. Moreover it was decided to create a set of guidelines so that analytical plans of existing cities prepared by member groups could be directly compared with one another. Ernst May. including scale. By accident or design. a prominent innovator in the design of social housing. to a meeting of CIRPAC8 at Barcelona in March 1932. Similarly. and the relationship between the city and its surrounding region. which were broadly accepted as an a priori element in CIAM's thinking about town planning. were largely neglected. 7-9). There was. would inevitably affect any broader principles that might emerge from the resulting plan. the Guidelines specified both the approach and method of execution of the task. that were first devised for the Plan for Greater Amsterdam (Sert. the early Congresses focused on mass housing.

Bandoeng (Java).208 on Wed.Zurich and Geneva. primarily functioning through six committees appointed at the start of the Congress.232 JOHN R. Cornelius van Eesteren on the Greater AmsterdamPlan. Stockholm. It was a major achievementto hold a Congress at all in the light of the political turbulence then decimating modern movements in Germany.Utrecht and The Hague.The ResolutionsCommittee.7.Prague. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Superficially. Brussels and Charleroi.for instance. Budapest and Zagreb. the SS Tatris IF. When the Moscow organisersrequested a further postponementuntil 1934. CIAM IV.Resolutionsand Publications. with closing sessions in Marseilles (14 August). These included Le Corbusier on 'Air. in Athens (2-4 August) and the return leg to Marseilles (10-13 August). and the Austrian statisticianOtto Neurath on his graphical system of representingsocial statistics. The PublicationsCommitteewas requiredto look to the longerterm.Madrid and Barcelona.134.Oslo. some of which measuredover 100 squarefeet in area. CIAM IV was a considerable success.9While in Athens.Los Angeles. Rome. mixed together formal sessions with vacation visits to the Greek islands and official receptions.Rotterdam.the leadershipchartered a Greek-owned cruise vessel. This content downloaded from 86.Warsaw. the Soviet Union and 9 The plans exhibitedwere Dessau. together with other works that individualmembers wished to display. 1930. Frankfurt. Amsterdam. Originally scheduledfor Moscow in 1932.Paris. the member groups took turns to present and discuss the exhibits that they had prepared. the plans. had responsibility for the short-term task of preparingthe closing communiqueand drawingup summarylists of the common threadsof interest that emergedfrom considerationof the city plans and associatedquestionnaires. There was also a series of lectures by major participants that interspersed these sessions. Statistics.were displayedalongsideone anotherin the Hall of the Institute of Technology. Acting on a suggestionmade by MarcelBreuer. The plates of the 33 urbananalysesare housed at the CIAM Archivein Zurich. Light'. Athens.dealingrespectivelywith the Press. politicaland logisticaldifficultiescausedit to be postponed until June 1933. The four remaining committeeswere establishedwith remits that specificallyreflectedthe collective wish to ensurea tangibleoutcometo the Congress.Cologneand Berlin. London. Dalat (French Indo-China). CIAM's leadership quickly decided to seek a new venue. Genoa and Verona. CIAM IV proved a difficult event to stage. preparing the ground for creationof a conferencevolume similarto those producedafter earlierCongresses(CIAM. for a round trip between Marseillesand Athens with an eight-day stop over in the Greek capital. During the working sessions (Fig. Two were specifically charged with making arrangementsfor the Athens Exhibition and reviewing CIAM's own protocol. Como. The plenary sessions were paralleled by smaller groupings. 1931). GOLD CIAM IV and the 'Constatations* From the outset. 1). Baltimoreand Detroit. Its officialproceedingswere held duringthe outwardleg of the sea voyage(29 July1 August). Sound. held between 29 July-14 August 1933. Littoria.

THE CHARTER OF ATHENS 233 Fig. 1 A working session on the promenade deck of the SS Tatris II' (source: photograph by Laszlo MoholyNagy.7.134. Reproduced by permission of Harvard University) This content downloaded from 86. Harvard University. Frances Loeb Library.208 on Wed. Sert Archive. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

van Eesteren. 29 August 1993. 'Do this' (with work presented. Part of the problem lay in the logistical.7.MARS.Scandinavian. 12 The firstversionwas presentedon 10 August 1933.208 on Wed. GOLD elsewhere. Three separate drafts were produced. with other adherents) 3. except to publish it as quickly as possible without further analytical research. 'Say Something' (not necessarily connected with work presented to Congress. 4-5.10 The Congress's proceedings expressed a measure of that 'fissiparousness'. the Anglo. 11 Ibid. and others). Yet despite these positive points. This content downloaded from 86. with their sections relating to housing. organisational and procedural problems surrounding a hastily rearranged Congress. It is reproducedin Le Corbusier(1935. Related to this were profound disagreements about the type of publication that should come from the Congress. came to nothing.134. Giedion and most of the Swiss Group. Lacking the coordinating abilities of the absent German delegation. central European and Mediterranean. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . work. In addition. Although some member groups believed that functionalism was an end in itself. The functional classification and cartographic conventions did provide a common basis for presentation of analyses of the 33 city plans. might then talk to one another rather than retain the existing pattern of unified international gatherings. British ArchitecturalLibrary (henceforthBAL). and lead to further work.11 These divergences immediately expressed themselves in failure to achieve unanimity with regard to a final communique.Le Corbusier) 2. Yugo. leisure and transport. Wells Coates noted that opinion among participants divided into roughly three parties. These groups. others held quite different conceptions of the meaning of functional analysis and how it might be applied to the experience of the cities that they were analysing. Spaniards. 4. Reports about the possible establishment of a rival organisation of left-wing architects by Andre Lurgat. file SaG/94/1. The Congress managed to work through a large number of presentations while still allowing time for social activities. The Congress finished 10 MARS CircularLetter II. 1966.Slavs.. This resulted in sharp exchanges about principle and strategy that were unresolvable precisely because they began from different initial premises.12 but none proved acceptable to the assembly. it proved difficult to exrract real consensus from the meeting. with various intermediate positions. the meeting was beset by divisions and rumours of schism. a founder member of CIAM. discussion revealed the extent of 'different theoretical and circumstantial points of view' (Morales. Yet such was the poor record of inter-group cooperation that the Finnish architect Alvar Aalto tentatively suggested reorganising CIAM into three 'temperamentally similar' geographical groups. These were: 1. Identification of points of agreement was also facilitated by consideration of the completed written questionnaires. 1989).234 JOHN R. 'Do nothing' (with work presented. 187-89).

Terminology was changed and the document became considerably longer. especially regarding its closing resume. the Constatations mostly stated ideas that were common currency at that time. 1972a). then in German in 1934 (CIAM. Moreover.15 They were published in relatively obscure outlets. CIAM Archive. 1934) and subsequently in other European languages (Steinmann. Significantly the definitive version dropped the clause and thereby circumvented the differing political connotations of the rival terms. This was then sent to Le Corbusier in Paris for changes and modifications. Piero Bottoni and WalterGropius(Gerosa. Giedion and his Swiss colleagues Werner Moser and Rudolf Steiger set to work to produce the final Declaration. the Zurich version called for the 'expropriation' of land and the French for its 'mobilisation'. items were omitted where they revealed disagreement between the parties involved. 146-59). 13 It comprisedseven individuals:Giedion (as Secretary-General). that buildings were worth conserving if they truly represented the past. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 15 The latterterm is used here. with a first draft completed in German and in French translation by 4 September 1933. textual differences (Steinmann. but recognised that this would only be reached after further discussion. there was a section on conservation of historic buildings that was added at the insistence of the Italian group. 1979.HarvardUniversity. apart from statements that envisaged modern technology reshaping street patterns. if they did not constitute a health hazard and if they neither stood in the way of developing the transport system nor affected the organic growth of the city. 75). It was argued. FrancesLoeb Library. 16 The length varied with the languageconcerned. largelydue to its suggestionof the findingsof an enquiry. 1933). New clauses were added on the role of the architect and the relationship of private to public interest. Despite the iconoclastic reputation of modernism. sometimes pronounced. There was broad commitment to a functional analysis but few specific statements about the nature of its application.van Eesteren. In many places.Coates.THE CHARTER OF ATHENS 235 by affirming that it was necessary for a declaration to be found that would meet with the common approval of members. Folder B3. for instance. for example.but amountedto around seven pages of printedtext.Jose-Luis Sert. Le Corbusier. They offered little more than the gentle reformism that would have typified many groups. Comparison between the preliminary drafts produced by the two sides shows subtle. Perhaps the most surprising feature of these brief documents16 was their mild tone and contents.14 The results were known as Feststellungen (Statements) in German and Constatations (Conclusions) in French. A group was therefore established to undertake the necessary consultations in the next few months.7. When discussing the implementation of town planning. typescript version.13 Immediately after the Congress. This content downloaded from 86. modernist or otherwise.134. the text incorporated elements of both texts. interested in social improvement through redesigning the built environment.208 on Wed. first in Greek and French in November 1933 (CIAM. 1978. At other points. 14 Quoted material here from 'La Ville Fonctionelle: Constatationsdu IVme Congres International(sic) d'ArchitectureModerne'.

Frances Loeb Library.208 on Wed.9-12 September1936. CIAM Archive. as well as an innovative catalogue of excuses from members about why no materials had been sent. Le Corbusier. BAL.28 July 1936. This content downloaded from 86.7. This was seeminglyreconstituted under the chairmanshipof van Eesteren during the meeting with a membershipthat now comprisedGiedion. revealed continual problems. 18 Listed as Giedion. for example. the Constatations effectively offered a ready-made structure for a conference volume. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Wells Coates. led by Rudolf Steiger and assisted by Wilhelm Hess. Yet. Recommendations for improving flows included creation of multi-level crossing points and separation of pedestrian routes from roads used by cars. looked at another way. it was a permissive document. Available correspondence with the English group. tackle poor sanitation. Weissmann. rush-hour congestion and business districts having no room to expand.236 JOHN R. Steiger and Jose Torres Clave. Gropius. Publication history The first phase of the publication task saw the Swiss group. Clauses about 'work' highlighted its locational mismatch with dwelling as expressed in lengthy journeys to work.La Sarraz. attempt to collate materials from the national groups.134. 17 In particular. Folder Cl.HarvardUniversity. All that was apparently necessary was for an individual or group to flesh that structure with a selection of the wealth of empirical material available from the conference presentations. especially recognising the different speeds of movement and varying functions of traffic within networks. In many respects.17 After more than two years a CIRPAC meeting at La Sarraz (September 1936) supplied an opportunity to take stock. and the possibility of using land reclamation to increase the supply of leisure space. BAL. Gropius. the Constatations was a pale shadow of what some of CIAM's protagonists would have wished. Sert.Minutesof the CIRPACmeeting. and separate dwellings from corridors carrying heavy traffic. GOLD Observations about 'dwelling' emphasised the relationship between buildings and open space and indicated the importance of zoning laws to improve supply of open space.Stam. the need to protect green space by land use controls. with Steiger inviting other members of the Publications Committee18 to assemble several days before the formal meeting to discuss progress. The findings on 'leisure' pointed to the inadequate supply of green space and leisure facilities for most of the city's inhabitants. Observations about 'circulation' argued for rigorous analysis to regulate and organise the transport network. and overcrowding. pollution. File SaG/91/1.see an extraordinaryand occasionallyvitriolic exchangeof letters between Steiger and variousMARS membersabout packagesplaced in the chargeof emissariesfor safe keepingand then lost: file SaG/94/1.Perriand. The Constatations argued for locating industrial areas close to major road and rail transport routes while ensuring there was no erosion of open space between residential and industrial areas. This proved a difficult exercise. In laying out a list of principles. BenjaminMerkelbach. What no-one could then have realised is that the process of producing that volume would take a full decade to complete (see Table 1). Stam and Steigerin a letter sent to other membersof the Committeeby Steiger.

Perriandreportedthat the Frenchgrouphad completeda dummyversionof the popularedition. with 19 1937. Sert moves to exile in USA (June). This content downloaded from 86. edited respectively by French/ Catalan and Dutch Groups.includingexamplesof the originalmaps exhibitedat CIAM IV. took responsibilityfor a fuller. Le Corbusier edits popular version as The Athens Charter. take charge of main publication. which would contain revised versions of the maps accompanied by reflective commentary. The book 19 There is a suggestion by Serenyi (1968).Le Corbusier. January Some initial progresswas made.208 on Wed. Publication of Can Our Cities Survive?. Swiss Group.60 per cent of which would be photographsor maps and blocks.THE CHARTER OF ATHENS 237 Table 1 Brief history of publications associated with CIAM IV Date 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 History of publications CIAM IV (29 July-14 August). Rapid publication of a popular edition would provide at least some tangible result to emerge from CIAM IV. the meeting decided to produce two publications rather than one. Swiss Group encounter difficulties in getting cooperation from national Groups in collation tasks. CIRPAC meeting (September): decision to split book project into popular and substantive editions. based on an interview with Sert. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . led by van Eesterenand Stam. Both book projects stalled. while recognising that more time was required for the main volume. This would draw on initial manuscriptsand materials collectedby Steiger. It was scheduled for publication'well before' CIAM V in 1937. The French and Cataloniangroups. There is.Weissmann and Sert took charge of the popular edition under the working title 'Town Building in Creation'. Sert obtains contract from Harvard University Press. First official use of term 'La Charte d'Athenes'. Publication of Constatations (November). Publication of La Charte d'Athenes by Le Groupe CIAM-France. As a means of expediting publication. This too was intended for early a commitment to complete the main preparationtasks by publication. led by Steiger. scientificedition called 'The Functional Town'. no other verification of this suggestion. By October 1936.134. The book would containaround200 foolscappages 'openinglengthwise'. Publication of Festellungen. led by CharlottePerriand. CIAM V produces volume Logis et Loisirs. Sert attempts to find US publisher for substantive volume. CIAM Reunion (July): book titles changed to 'Resolutions of the Congress of Athens' (popular version) and 'Analysis of Towns' (technical volume). that these two projects were based on separate French and English versions of the final declaration which emerged during the return sea voyage of CIAM IV. however. The Dutch group. CIAM VI (Liege. September) cancelled.7.

technical public. 1993). new thinking had to be accommodated.7. time had run out for any formal publications to appear before Europe slid into the Second World War. Yet perhaps the most indicative signs of new thinking were the subtle changes in the terminology applied to CIAM IV.208 on Wed. Plans were also initiated for CIAM VI in Liege between 15 and 19 September 1939. Sert (CIAM. File SaG/93/3. Greenery)'. BAL. Minutes of a Reunion conference in Brussels in July. it was to concentrate on 'Open Space (Air. Brussels. Increasingly. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . CIAM VI was abruptly cancelled. 22 Minutes of the CIAM Reunionfor Preparationof CIAM VI. the minutes of a meeting in London revealed that both books remained stalled. too. with mounting indecision about the titles and purpose of the books readily apparent. Part of that new thinking was generated by more recent developments in architectural theory and practice. 1937. but part also reflected the need to accommodate CIAM's own activities. intended as the third Congress on the Functional City. 10 July 1938. 20 Letter from CharlottePerriandto Wells Coates. 30 November 1937. stated that: Sert showed the model of the small publication 'Resolutions of the Congress of Athens' which was approved. 1937. 21 Minutes of the MARS Group.however. BAL. 1-2. Folder C2. Seen as a chance to extend the 'Functional City' theme.22 for example. and will be published in English this summer. held concurrently with the Paris International Exposition. Frances Loeb Library.HarvardUniversity. and lack of funds. 14). file SaG/93/3. GOLD would be trilingual. Van Eesteren showed the model of the big book 'Analysis of Towns' intended for a non. were doomed to failuregiven the MARS Group'sown parlousfinancesat that time (see Gold. CIAM V brought together a new set of exhibits linked by a loose functionalist theme and had itself generated a lowbudget conference volume (CIAM.238 JOHN R. 1951). 115) made the first official mention of the 'Athens Charter' when he referred to the possibility of CIAM working towards implementation of the conclusions of 'la Charte d'Athenes'. with English now added to the official languages of German and French.134. Giedion. there was the problem of a steadily ageing project. had taken place in July 1937 on the theme of 'Logis et Loisirs' (Housing and Leisure). van Eesteren suggested that a 'Charter of Town Planning' had been formulated from the city plans at the previous Congress (CIAM. No matter how much the leadership wanted publications that portrayed CIAM IV as a defining moment in architectural thinking about town planning. CIAM Archive. This content downloaded from 86. 1937. Light. the perennial problem of gathering material from members.21 By mid-1938. 16 October 1936. CIAM V. held up by inability to find a publisher. plans were still fluid.20 Yet more than a year later. However. Members' plans would each receive some four pages of text. During his Presidential address to CIAM V. for example. It was suggested that Sert could come to London in January1938duringthe time thatthe MARS Group's'New Architecture'Exhibitionwas open to explain the work of CIAM and appeal for funds. All such appeals. In another contribution.

Although several American publishing houses rejected the manuscript. this 250-page book was still unmistakably the product of CIAM IV. Sert used CIAM's 'Town Planning Chart'.FrancesLoeb Library. CAN OUR CITIES SURVIVE? Sert retained responsibility for the popular edition. 1973). Branded as unfit to follow his calling in his native Spain. 1943. x) stressed. Subsequent chapters then discussed dwelling. with direct quotations from it used to introduce many of the book's subsections. The European Modern Movement was scattered and CIAM's activities were suspended for the duration of the war. This content downloaded from 86. Can Our Cities Survive? (Sert. October 1941. Photographs depicting American cities and urban planning practices were 23 It bearsthis title on the Memorandumof Agreementbetweenthe authorand the Harvard University Press. much about the book that indicated it was a product of a specific time and place.208 on Wed. 1941. but did not justify. Sert had been given free rein to craft the book as he wished. The 15 individual chapters were arranged according to the sequence of topics in the Chart. if group undertakings were impossible. This and correspondencebetween Sert and the Press may be found in Folder Cl. As Giedion's introduction (1942. Commercial realities meant that it had to provide examples and illustrations relevant to a contemporary American audience regardless of whether these were discussed in 1933. The book closed with an appeal for a holistic view that could overcome barriers to large-scale planning and implement planned action to 'save our cities'.134. recreation. however. Once he had re-established his affairs. 1967.7. Working in completely separate milieux during wartime. the fourfold classification of urban functions. a lightly amended version of the Constatations. where he formed a practice with Paul Lester Wiener and Paul Schultz. Yet. suggested that they were unhappy with it.HarvardUniversity. now solely an English-language volume. he moved to exile in New York in June 1939. 720-27).23 Largely as a result. 1942) and The Athens Charter (Le Corbusier. Although that title clearly connected the book's contents to a prevailing debate about urban transformation versus deurbanism (Giedion. There was. In many respects.THE CHARTER OF ATHENS 239 although in reality few delegations were in a position to prepare appropriate exhibits. as the structuring device for the text. a handwritten note from Dumas Malone. Sert continued for several years to look for a publisher for the book. the title was changed to the enigmatic Can Our Cities Survive? when the book was finally published in 1942. Jose-Luis Sert and Le Corbusier would each produce a volume that had claims to be an authentic record of CIAM IV: namely. An initial chapter explained how the Chart was produced and presented. work and transport in turn before turning to the question of integrated planning. Director of the Harvard University Press. individuals could still act independently to complete the muchdelayed publication projects. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . his growing links with Harvard eventually helped him to secure a contract with its University Press in October 1941 for a book provisionally entitled Should Cities Survive?. Sert Archive.

engaged in painting and in producing abortive plans for housing and town planning schemes.208 on Wed. had spent much of CIAM IV engaged in 'airy superfoetations'. 26 Le Corbusier'sactivitiesduring the Second World War are a controversial. For an excellent study of this period of Le Corbusier'scareer.matterfor some historiansas can be seen by comparingthe treatmentin Jencks (1973.240 JOHN R. and air-raid defences. the reader was informed that after the 'two weeks of fervent work' came 'a precious result: The Athens Charter'. In style and format. was not a new phenomenon. nor did it carry Le Corbusier's name but instead attributed authorship to 'Le Groupe CIAM-France'.see Fishman(1977.definedthe excessivedensityof centraldistrictsof towns as 1025per hectare.File SaG/94/1. With regard to CIAM IV in particular.for instance.if not to say embarrassing. it gave every impression of sticking closely to the text of the Constatations.27 and had consistently tried to exert influence through his contributions to the groups working on the publications from CIAM IV. 29 August 1933. This content downloaded from 86.Due to havingto adjustto a differentsystemof measurement. the text comprised two main sections. It was always likely that if he had a free hand to recast the Constatations in a manner more of his choosing.See MARS CircularLetterII. 33-35). This unlocked 'all doors to the urbanism of modern times .24 THE A THENS CHARTER For his part. with photographs of London during the Blitz. Le Corbusier spent the war isolated in France. and ultimately abortive. . the result would not necessarily be an exercise in dispassionate historical scholarship. Le Corbusier was involved in lengthy.2 During 1941. 55). 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 3. Le Corbusier had failed to get the assembly to accept the key thrust of his ideas at La Sarraz in 1928.7. Nevertheless.standardisationand town planningwith an eye to forthcoming reconstruction. ASCORAL undertookconceptual studiesof housing. 1943. 1972b. BAL.prefabrication. 130-33) with that of Baudoui(1990. The advent of war in Europe brought at least an edgeways penetration of examples that addressed urban reconstruction. the book was not technically an 'official' CIAM publication (Steinmann. 25 Particularlyin collaborationwith ASCORAL (Assemblee de Constructeurspour une RenovationArchitecturale)in 1942-43. This. (and) in the hands of 24 The Constatations. 243-52). 27 A commentby Wells Coates. GOLD added to illustrations derived from CIAM IV. an enthusiastic admirer of Le Corbusier. negotiations with the unpredictable Vichy regime over projects such as the Algiers Plan. in itself. the time when he actually compiled The Athens Charter. The Athens Charter (Le Corbusier. The first provided a summary of CIAM since 1928 told from Le Corbusier's standpoint. .26 Given the sensitivities of the time. 1973) would become widely regarded as both the key expression of CIAM's views on town planning and an important statement of Le Corbusier's thought. Meeting in secret. The switch to non-metric systems of measurement also brought alterations to the few indices of density mentioned in the Constatations.this was reduced to an equivalentof 1000 per hectareto accordwith 400 per acre. for example. After an introduction by the playwright Jean Giraudoux.134.

could createlargeamountsof open space and parks.1943. The clauses themselves broadly followed the same order as the Constatationswith small amounts of rearrangementand any 'adjustments'in terminologyare justifiedon the grounds that the text was 'the result of debates among the assembled representatives speakingten differentlanguages'. . 65). these appearto constitute a straightforwardrenditionof the Constatations. 1973.but less than ringingendorsement.the Athens Charteris the implementby which the destiny of cities will be set right' (Le Corbusier. The Constatationsgave mild support. The second dealt with the four urban functions. 40). The relevant portion of the Constatationswas rendered as 'The resources offered by modern techniques must be takeninto account. help to gauge this point. the searchfor the purest air and the most complete exposure to sunshine. and parkingplaces.Three examples. must free the ground for broad verdantareas' (Le Corbusier. correspondingto the resumeof the Constatations. The explanatorynotes stated that.208 on Wed. boosted the rhetoric. seemingly showing that good practice was already internationally recognised.THE CHARTEROF ATHENS 241 the authorities.(Le Corbusier.7.Switzerlandand the USA. The first concerned the use of high buildings in urban areas. The final section. Finland. annotated. by contrast. . Discussion Superficially.Denmark. 26). when widely spaced. however. (Sert. Only such treatment of dwellings will liberate the necessary land surface for recreationpurposes. 1973.albeit with each clause carrying an amplifying and often polemic explanatorynote. air and view. The remainderof the book presentedthe Charteritself as a 62-pagedocument divided into 95 numberedclauses. High buildings.offering'observations'and 'requirements'on each. community services. building tall blocks for housing could facilitate the choice of the most agreeableview. The clauses themselveswere grouped into three sections. 247) This point was illustratedin the text by monochromephotographsof housing schemesfrom France. sun.itemised. The first containeda short set of 'generalities'on the city and its region.there was little hint of just how far Le Corbusier'sversion had transformedthe Constatations. . At first glance. 1973. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . set far apartfrom one another. Le Corbusier. 1942. and finally.was devoted to 'conclusions' and 'main points of doctrine'.134.to the idea thatmoderntechnologymadepossible the constructionof high buildingswhich.1943.Sert's versionof the 'Town PlanningChart'elaboratedon this sentimentbut retained its broad spirit: Modern building technics should be employedin constructinghigh.clarifiedwith an adequateexplanation. the possibility of This content downloaded from 86. 1943. and provide dwellings with light. widely spacedapartmentblockswheneverthe necessityof housing high densitiesof population exists. provided the most suitableheight.

It is altogether disgusting! Why. As noted above. He noted that the urban unit: 'should be able to develop organically in all its different parts. an obsolete organ. 1943.7. providing extensive examples of recent practiceincluding parkways.within the immediate proximity of the dwelling. The street wears us out. He had long vilified the traditional rue corridorwith its rigid line of buildings and intermingling of traffic and pedestrians (Gold.208 on Wed. 196) In his version. 1942. 249). Le Corbusier went somewhat further. Sert broadly supported these provisions. 1998). it is a relic of the centuries: it is a non-functioning.aspirations which strive towards a better life and which have always impelled men to seek a community This content downloaded from 86.134. welfare centres.242 JOHN R. and playing fields. The Constatations used the notion of La Ville Fonctionelle sparingly and saw functionalist approaches as combining spiritual with material values. The problem of the street provides a second example of the freewheeling approach adopted towards the Constatations. classifying them according to vehicle speed and restricting them to their own channels. Multilevel road systems could be used 'to regularise certain heavy flows of vehicular traffic' (Le Corbusier. And each phase of its development should assure a state of equilibrium among its respective functions' (Sert. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Only structures of a certain height can satisfactorily meet these legitimate requirements (Le Corbusier. liberty with collective action. and related. 98). segregated expressways and clover-leaf intersections. recognising the different speeds of movement and varying functions of traffic within networks and recommending technological solutions to improve flows.school buildings. he argued for major functional transformations that would equip city and region with a road network: 'that incorporates modern traffic techniques and is directly proportionate to its purposes and usage'. recuperation and leisure. to form its extensions. the clauses on traffic were already the most radical aspects of the Constatations. 1973. 1973. particularly Lewis Mumford. example is the notion of the 'Functional City' itself. Sert had moved away from narrower materialistic approaches to functionalism to emphasise more organic interpretations. The modern road network would differentiate between various types of traffic. Influenced by comments from pre-publication readers. 1979. then. Use of height would also help matters. 65). the Athens Charter codified much of what would become the paradigm of post-war road policy. On that basis. 1943. Planning for the various urban functions must refer to the human scale. does it still exist? (Moos. The final.that were not necessarily part of the discussions at CIAM IV. GOLD establishing communal facilities. The cultural and spiritual dimensions were also emphasised: a city would not be functional unless it satisfied and stimulated the more noble aspirations of its people as well. claiming in an article in 1929 that: It is the street of the pedestrian of a thousand years ago. Sert proceeded in similar manner. Building high could free ground areas in order to 'recover the open land necessary for communications'. to the daily rhythm of work.

7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a subject that would exercise CIAM's attention in post-war Congresses but was not part of the agenda in 1933 (Gold. Le Corbusier (1943. after responsibility for publication had passed to two individuals. He emphasised the significance of civic centres in human affairs as 'visible expression of man's higher aspirations' (Sert. We saw how CIAM's Fourth Congress in 1933 was initially unable to agree on a set of closing resolutions. 1942. Its growth. Plans would 'determine the structure of each of the sectors allocated to the four key functions and they will also determine their respective locations within the whole'. effectively popularised both the name of 'The Athens Charter' and its reputation as an uncompromising statement of the modern architect's approach to town planning.134. For the next three years. Road networks. 228) At the same time.THE CHARTER OF ATHENS 243 existence. as noted above. Thereafter groups with constantly changing memberships and remits attempted to make progress on a pair of linked volumes. Subordinated to the needs of the region. The fact that it was possible for these heavily revised texts to maintain This content downloaded from 86. Eventually. 95-100) proceeded with less compromise. 1973. (Le Corbusier 1943. Le Corbusier argued that the city as a functional unit should be able to 'grow harmoniously' in all its different parts rather than the expression 'develop organically' used by Sert. the 'findings' of CIAM IV were represented to the wider world through Sert's illustrated sourcebook of planning practice and Le Corbusier's crusading manifesto. delegating the task to a small group of senior members. . . 230). instead of producing a catastrophe. As Le Corbusier explained: The city will take on the character of an enterprise that has been carefully studied in advance and subjected to the rigour of an overall plan . 1997. After three months and the exchange of contested drafts. 99-100) Conclusion the course of this During paper. assigned to provide a framework for the four key functions. (Sert. The cycle of daily functions would be regulated with the 'strictest emphasis on time saving'. 1973. we have seen how the process of creating the Athens Charter took 10 years to complete rather than being the immediate product of CIAM IV.208 on Wed. 215-19). in particular. will be a crowning achievement. the Swiss group attempted without success to collate a single volume. 1942. they produced the anodyne outline of principles known as the Constatations. would be reorganised according to the functional needs of the different types of traffic that they had to accommodate. Tellingly. His rationalist interpretation of the 'Functional City' held that the keys to urbanism were 'found in the four functions'. Sert drew attention to elements not covered by the Constatations. For these aspirations toward well being and spiritual perfection are enlarged and stimulated in the exchange of ideas which characterise civilisations. The latter.7. the city will no longer be the disorderly result of random ventures.

ideology here needs to be interpreted from the standpoint of both the individual authors and CIAM. 103-04) was intended as a rallying cry. Thirdly.7. From the individual point of view. the Modern Movement was scattered. 16) among the leadership of CIAM. of course. and related. over the value and utility of the fourfold classification of urban elements or the failure to address the need for monumentality were submerged (Gold.244 JOHN R. economic and political circumstances. First. Doubts. CIAM had been dissolved and urban reconstruction was a distant dream. This content downloaded from 86. examples and alternative interpretations. for example. the contents of these books partly reflected personal projects. Its fragmentary nature left gaps that were an open invitation for others to fill with qualifications.208 on Wed. which began at La Sarraz and continued throughout the 1930s. bolstering the centrality of their own views within CIAM and. 1986. 35). Certainly Le Corbusier's ringing rhetoric that architecture 'presides over the destinies of the city' and was 'the key to everything' (Le Corbusier. went far beyond mere updating. 1997). in some measure. its negotiated and compromise character tended to flatten out diversity and rationalise the mutually contradictory experiences of CIAM IV: a characteristic that also permeated the books of Sert and Le Corbusier. GOLD continuity with the discussions of CIAM IV was due in no small measure to three characteristics of the Constatations. both authors stressed the importance of elements that signified consensus and common purpose rather than diversity and conflict. Essentially. 1966. That flexibility would remain. With little to gain from equivocation. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . with Sert and Le Corbusier similarly free to embrace philosophically divergent concepts of functionalism in their respective texts without difficulty. all that member groups were required to do when preparing their exhibits was to use the four 'urban functions' as a basis for mapping. it was a truly permissive document. Sert and Le Corbusier recognised that the post-war situation might present a historic opportunity for an erstwhile marginal group of architects to build a new future for themselves. both individuals also clearly saw their role as standard-bearers for CIAM and for modern architecture at a bleak moment in world history. The changes that were introduced. They were not tied to any specific concept of 'functionalism'. Le Corbusier with new statements of doctrine. In doing so. 1943. their position within the international Modern Movement. There is no doubt that there was a history of 'jockeying for position' (Drew. Sert and Le Corbusier were. Yet. as their texts clearly show. By rewriting the history of CIAM IV to promote their respective interpretations of the relationship between architecture and town planning.134. Sert filled many such gaps with illustrations of hopeful prototypes and case studies. 1932. Secondly. 1973. Sert and Le Corbusier were living precariously during wartime. In presenting their case. At the time when they compiled Can Our Cities Survive? and The Athens Charter. by extension. Those books were as much ideologicallymotivated attempts to adapt the Constatations in order to address current circumstances as they were efforts to complete long-standing publication tasks. The war had brought entirely different sets of social. To elaborate. the contents of the Constatations illustrated the notorious elasticity of 'functionalism' in architectural discourse (Hitchcock and Johnson.

Getty Research Institute tenzminimum. P. Turner(ed. (1989). (1996). (1966).Le Corbusier. Lloyd Wright. K.Bauenund Wohnen. The Modern FunctionalBuilding.New York. Die Wohnungfur das Exis.103Auswirkungenauf den Stadtebau'. thetic'. 'Das Bauhausund seine appendixto Schweizerischen Bauzeitung.Boulogne-surRaumforschung 33. Stuttgart. Cambridge. Sert and Le Corbusier had taken the opportunity to emphasise the legitimacy of the architect's credentials to participate in matters involving town planning and to help design the new housing. W. C.THE CHARTER OF ATHENS 245 they may well have reinforced an ideology that endowed 'architects with a model of action as flexible as it was already out of date' (Tafuri and Dal Co. Origins of Macmillan. would only be revealed by the experience of post-war urban development. (1989).Logiset Loisirs. Le Corbusier. (1993). For the meantime.London. Buildingin Ferroconcrete. UrbanUtopiasin the BLETTER. Modern DREW. R. 'Between regionalCURTIS. Sert. 11. Landscape. BEHNE. W. London. Behne. BAUDOUI. J. London.839-42. They stressed the continuing relevance of CIAM's thought at a time when CIAM itself faced extinction. (1955). 'Introduction'in TwentiethCentury:EbenezerHoward. 220). P. CIAM (1930).). O. UniversityPress. Time and CIAM (1931). Verlag. Werk. Building: Its Nature. BOESINGER. S. ModernArchitec83. GIEDION. (1927). 1-19. J. Macmillan. Rationelle Bebauungsweisen. 'Machine aes.Phaidon. DE ZURKO. DenysLasdun:ArchiRebuilding Europe'sBombedCities. Gold. undRaumplanung. however. ArchitecturalPress. (1990). personalinterviewwith vol. 'Introduction'in J.Weiterbauen. Space. alism'in J. There could be few more cogent reasons for bringing the unfinished business of CIAM IV to a close. CIAM (1933). BOSMAN.Leipzig. neighbourhoods and road systems of the future city.Architecture:The Growthof a New Tradition. L. A. for the History of Art and the Humanities. 30-35. The New Brutal.published 1929. J. 24 November. E. 1-19. W. 225-28.Hudson. Bauenin Frankreich: Bauenin Eisen. 'Function. Diefendorf (ed. MA. 'Editorial:functional (1995) as Buildingin France. (1996). MartinHopkinson. CIAM (1934). M. J. (1992). (1994).Santa Monica. P. Frank A. from 1940 to 1945' in J.). Le Corbusier:Ideas ism and functionalism:French reconstruction and Forms. ix-xi.Basingstoke.trans. S. 'Constatations'. CURRIE. BANHAM. (1964). Vol. Gold. G. J.Machu Picchu: the objectives and meaning'. Julius Hoffmann for the History of Art and the Humanities. FISHMAN. London. S. tecture. and STONOROW. (1986). HarvardUniversityPress. This content downloaded from 86. Neues Wohnen-Neues Functionalist Theory. Berry. 6-7. ture:A CriticalHistory. (1986). (1942). FRY. R. Thames and BLUNDELL JONES.4. CURTIS. Cambridge. city?'. personalinterviewwith J.Oxford. 7 Aug 2013 18:16:25 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . CA. REFERENCES BACH. M.Phaidon. (1977). GEROSA.Bauenin Eisenbeton. R.Seine.208 on Wed. Getty Research Institute Books. 24 November. London. P. L. H. 18-21. Basic Santa Monica. (1978).City. Columbia Bauen. 23. R. TheDictionaryof Art.117. (1928). R. ArchitecturalReview. R. Stuttgart. HarvardUniversityPress.134. 1 1910GIEDION. J. 'The Charter of BANHAM. Le Corbusierand PierreJeanneret:The Urbanismeet Mobility Basle. Birkhauser. Thames and Hudson. E. D.Les Annales GIEDION. ism.MA. (1957). CIAM (1937). (1941). (1986). Can Our Cities Survive?.Buildingin Iron.1FRAMPTON. Problemsand Forms.Julius HoffmannVerlag. New York. 'Feststellungen'. 44-46. Techniaues. Hesse und Becker. R. 1980.Oxford. That lesson. BEHRENDT.33-35. CompleteArchitecturalWorks. W.Berichtezur 04. (1938). CA. Cm. R.7. Editionsde l'Architectured'Aujoud'hui. 1183-88.

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