AEIRC is a non-profit research institute which was established in the year 2008, conduct
basic/clinical research to develop healthier Pakistan. The main focus of the institution is to
identify the health status of Pakistani people by conducting basic/clinical research and to
provide Pakistani researchers, both young and experienced, the opportunities for personal
and professional development. This conference is yet another endeavor in order to provide
the researchers, scientists and students a platform to interact and build opportunities. This
conference intends to cover all the aspects of neurobiology from the biochemical basics to
diagnostic approaches and the status of mental health in Pakistan. The conference track will
follow two lecture sessions, each one of them consisting of presentations from notable scientists
and followed by a question answer session. It is advised to note down all your queries and use
the opportunity of the Q/A session.

AEIRC has been involved in various research projects & events to evaluate and raise the
awareness about the increasing neuro, psychosocial & physiological malfunctions in Pakistani
population specifically youngsters and we find it necessary to create an awareness about the
exaggerating psychosocial factors that can develop neurological disturbances. The team has
been working on psychophysiology that includes experiencing life stressors and their
neurobiological effects in young and adults. We target the need of Human behavioral genetic
research aimed at characterizing the existence and nature of genetic and environmental
influences on individual differences in cognitive ability, personality, interests, and
psychopathology that can lead to neurological alterations. As Depression is an etiologically
heterogeneous group of brain disorders characterized by a wide range of symptoms that
reflect alterations in cognitive, psychomotor and emotional processes. Affected individuals
differ remarkably regarding the profile of clinical features, severity and course of illness as well
as their response to treatment and reintegration efforts. We are thankful to Speakers,
participants & guests from SOCIO, PSYCHO & NEURO background who attended this
conference and shared variety of perspectives in order to provide everyone with a significant
perspective on the diagnosis, management and outcomes associated with depressive illness.
We appreciate to become a forum for the interaction and exchange of ideas among a variety
of professionals interested in neuropsychiatric issues where young neuroscientists,
neuropsychiatrists and basic scientists ensured the future success of this particular goal.

Conference venue:
Arts Council Karachi Pakistan.
13 March , 2015
Official language:
The official language is English.
Conference secretariat:
The conference Secretariat will be operating at the AEIRC for registration and information, as
 Program details and certificates (will be provided on the same day)
 Refreshments
 Tea and lunch breaks
Scientific Session:
Please read the Program section to get detailed information on the Poster area is located
adjacent to the Hall of the Auditorium. Please be punctual as the sessions will commence on
Certificate of attendance:
A certificate of attendance will be given to all the participants, at the Conference
Cell phone and pagers:
Please turn off your cell phones and pagers during all the official sessions.
In order to preserve the educational atmosphere of the conference, children are not
Please note the electricity in Pakistan is 220V.
All participants are strongly advised to carry the proper travel and health insurance, as the
AEIRC cannot accept liability for any accidents or injuries that may occur at the conference.
Conference premises are declared as strictly non-smoking zone.
Flash Photography:
No flash photography is allowed during scheduled scientific session

The Goals of this Conference are:
· To improve the mental health of women throughout the Pakistan.
· To expand the fund of knowledge about Women's Mental Health.
· To raise the understandings of female behaviors on neuropsychological basis
· To promote gender-sensitive and autonomy-enhancing mental health services for women.
· To advance collaboration between psychology and social science Societies and Sections
with neurosciences.
Issues to be discussed in Panel Session:
Issue # 1: Mental Health Issues in women
Issue # 2 : How to deal with neuropsychological issues of women?
Issue # 3: Mental health awareness for women? Is it possible?
Issue # 4 : Mental health Care Providers in the developing world: time for innovative thinking

Keynote Speaker
Dr. Sadaf Ahmed
Dr. Shershah Syed
Dr. Unaiza Niaz
Dr Hina Wahid Basheer
Dr Shifa Naeem
Dr. Kausar Khan
Ms. Sheema Kermani
Mr. Shamoon Noushad
Organizing Team
Ms. Huzaifa Sarfaraz
Ms. Amna Khan
Ms. Mahnoor Nadeem
Mr. Zeeshan Khan
Arts Council Karachi
3pm – 5pm
13th March 2015


Kisa Fatima Altaf , Maria Altaf
Dow Institute of Medical Technology, DUHS.
Fatima Jinnah Dental College.
PURPOSE OF STUDY: To know what Cerebral Palsy (CP) is and correlating the causes of CP in relation to
maternal health and reducing the risks with prenatal care. INTRODUCTION: Cerebral Palsy is a group of
disorders that can involve brain and nervous system functions, such as movement, learning, hearing, seeing,
and thinking. Prenatal care is vital for the health of both the women and her unborn child. When the mother
develops an infection her unborn baby can suffer adverse effects, including permanent brain damage. The
diseases like rubella, chicken pox, cytomegalovirus, inflammatory pelvic disease, syphilis can cause birth
defects and have been especially associated with cerebral palsy. METHODS: The study design was
observational prospective study done at Dow Institute of Medical Technology in collaboration with Dow
Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation with sample size of 50 mothers having CP child. Data was
abstracted with the help of questionnaires and interviewing mothers about the problems faced by them in
their gestational period with peri-natal and post-natal problems. RESULTS: Prenatal causes (placenta previa,
hypertension, diabetes, seizures) accounted for majority of CP conditions. 22% mothers were found with
gestational diabetes, 44% with hypertension, 20% with seizures and 20% with placenta previa respectively.
CONCLUSION: Women with pregnancy induced diabetes (gestational diabetes) have a greater chance of
having a baby with birth defects. Gestational diabetes puts the fetus at greater risk of CP while women with
hypertension are also most likely to have a child with CP. Getting the proper prenatal care may reduce the
risks that can lead to some rare causes of CP.
Sadaf Ahmed, Shamoon Noushad,Neelam Barkat, Sidra Afzal, & Zeeshan Fatima
Advance Educational Institute and Research Center,
Department of Physiology UOK,
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, DUHS.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome is associated with number of metabolic disorder. We have conducted the study
that is based on preliminary data, by interview, biochemical evaluation and clinical examination. We evaluate
the correlation of family history of diabetes and obesity in women of reproductive age diagnosed with PCOS
in gynecology ward MOTHERCARE, in order to accurately determine the prevalence of PCOS, as defined by
current endocrinological criteria, among first-degree relatives of affected patients and to determine the
overall accuracy of proband-only and family member (self-report) interview for the detection of clinically
evident PCOS within families. A positive family history of diabetes and obesity was strongly associated with
metabolic characteristics associated with an increased risk for PCOS .Overall, our data suggests that PCOS is
a familial disorder, family history can be considered as an important factor determining the risk of developing
PCOS. Our preliminary data indicate that a woman's risk of developing PCOS is ∼90% if she had a family
history of diabetes and a woman's risk of developing PCOS is ~80% with obese family history. Suggesting that
the inheritance of PCOS may be preferentially paternal, although expanded clinical studies will be required
to confirm these findings. Considering PCOS to be a dominant genetic disorder with a high degree of
expressivity, we propose that the risk of developing the disorder is governed by family history and the
degree of exposure to the selected environmental and/or other genetic influences.

Neelam Barkat, Sidra Afzal, Zeeshan Fatima, Sadaf Ahmed, & Shamoon Noushad
Advance Educational Institute and Research Center,
Department of Physiology UOK,
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, DUHS.
Stein-leventhal syndrome now been known as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs when ovaries
unable to release eggs lead to an increase in testosterone. According to US statistics PCOS affects about 610% of women internationally, whereas in Pakistan approximately 5% of women (4 million women) have
PCOS. Mainly PCOS is diagnosed in women age ranges from 20-40, with lesser incidence among teenage girls
in their reproductive age. It has been reported frequently that PCOS affecting the lives of young unmarried
girls in terms of obesity as the key physical symptom with dietary patterns having immense impact on
development of PCOS as macronutrient intake causes abnormal weight gain along excessive stimulation of
hunger and carbohydrate craving. Other negative effects including hirsutism, psycho social pressure with
poor quality of life, higher level of depression , psychological morbidity , poor body image , feeling of
inferiority, embarrassment, socialphobia and less romantic contentment. These multiple clinical conditions
can be amended. Foods that contain anti-inflammatory compounds have impact on improvements in the
androgen profile of PCOS patients. PCOS reduces HRQoL, regardless of ethnicity and differences in the
normative baseline. HRQoL was worse in those with PCOS in the areas of general health perceptions,
behavior, physical functioning and family activity
Namrah Siddiqui, Sadaf Ahmed, Shamoon Noushad, Amna Khan
Advance Educational Institute & Research Center
University of Karachi
The purpose of the study was to inspect the possible mechanism through which women are more prone to
migraine and is much more severe during, before or after menstruation. The study on the symptoms and
causes in women migraineur and triggers that that provoke migraine in their reproductive years is of increase
significance. We sorted out those women whose migraine is targeted before onset of menstruation and
during menstruation. It was a cross sectional study questionnaire based study adapted from ICHD II criteria.
50 confirmed diagnosed female patients were interviewed. Our Age limit is reproductive year (>12 to
<50).Migraine have been found to be more common in these women, we found a stronger influence of
migraine in these women because of additional risk factor to which they are exposed i.e. fluctuating ovarian
hormones level in their every periodic cycle. Estrogen levels are key factors in causing migraine. As it is
reported that reduced estrogen level results migraine without aura whereas elevated estrogen level cause
Migraine with Aura, in some cases the recommended cure was supposed to be marriage.

Sana Jamal, Kisa F.Altaf, Hira Aafreen
Dow University of Health Sciences
To study the number of occurrences of anorexia nervosa in under graduate females in general population
aged 16-23 in Karachi city. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by refusal to maintain a
healthy body weight and an obsessive fear of gaining weight. It is often coupled with a distorted self-image
which may be maintained by various cognitive biases that alter how the affected individual evaluates and
thinks about her or his body and eating. Anorexia nervosa is more likely to occur in a person’s pubertal years,
especially for girls. Teen girls are learning from each other to consume low-fat foods and diet pills resulting
in lack of nutrition. The data was collected from different educational institutes. Cross-sectional study design
was used. The sample consists of 60 females of Karachi, Pakistan, the age group of 16 -23 years excluding
males. Data was abstracted by asking the questions provided in demographic performa. Study duration was
of 5 months. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 20.0. Out of 60 females, 35% females skip meals and starve
themselves, 21% do obsessive exercise. However 16.7% females were depressed about their weight. The main
cause of anorexia nervosa is starvation due to media influence of looking thin and smart which causes side
effects such as joints& legs pain, hair loss & dysmenorrhea. With the help of the above result, it is found that
starvation factor is higher among all three factors including depression and obsessive exercise. All these
factors were compared with age, starvation and obsessive exercise are increasing in females after teenage
whereas depression decreases as age increases.
Neelam Barkat, Sadaf Ahmed, Bharti Devi & Shamoon Noushad
Advance Educational Institute & Research Center
University of Karachi
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the occurrence of dysmenorrhea and their associated symptoms like
pelvic pain, mood swings, and change of body odor following with reported severity in adolescent girls
suffering from discomfort and pain during menstrual cycle. Reproductive aged females of 19-46 years
completed detailed questionnaires that were approached from different offices, schools, universities and
waiting areas of different gynae clinics. Females were investigated about the pain severity, type of blood
flow, symptom appear during pain, the most painful areas, occurrence of abdominal pain during periods,
problem of leucorrhea, changes in body odor and the mood swings. 100 females were included in the study
out which 75 females completely fill out the questionnaire and 25 resist to answer some questions. The most
reported complain of females having dysmenorrhea is the problem of leucorrhea observed in 74% of females,
58% of females mention the abdominal, back and thigh pain, while 61% of females state the mood swings and
bloating in tummy areas while 44% females report light changes in body odor. The prevalence of
dysmenorrhea is very common among these effected females which is highly correlated with emotional
mood swings and with the common complain of leucorrhea that highly indicates the poor hygiene

Sadaf Ahmed, Shamoon Noushad, Saima Khan & Mahnoor Khan
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre, Pakistan
The investigation of usual dietary patterns are of physiological significance including carbohydrate rich diet,
caffeine consumption, protein intake specifically red and white meat along with intake of dietary
supplements, milk and juices utilization as they have known to effect BMI and body fat distribution of those
with increasing body weight, underweight and normal weight. The study was carried out on 435 university
girls aged between 18 to 25 Years, we used the multiple logistic to investigate the relationship of dietary
habits, family history, BMI, waist-hip ratio and body fat distribution. The result showed that there is no direct
relation of body mass with dietary habits as the Girls with BMI <18 found to take the diet characterized by
decrease consumption of good diet (milk, juices, egg, mineral supplements) and increase consumption of
bad diet (junk food, fried and oil rich food), while girls with > 23 considered as overweight found diet
conscious and were taking healthy diet. The association of these dietary patterns with raised body fat
distribution, BMI and hip to waist ratio may specify the risk of developing health maladies but we conclude
that in our population the lean girls are taking more junk food and are prone to various diseases more than
the obese. We recommend that these unhealthy dietary patterns should be avoided as they may be a silent
cause of many health issues.
Hira Majeed, Syed Zain Azher, Huzaifa Sarfraz, Sadaf ahmed & Shamoon Noushad
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre
Background: Education plays the role of leadership in the society and in human capital formation. It raises
the productivity and efficiency of individuals and thus produces skilled manpower including girls. Education
for All (EFA) Dakar Framework for Action considers education as a basic human right and ensures good
quality education for all children, particularly girls, by year 2015. Pakistan is also a signatory of EFA document
but the target of achieving Education for All is still indefinable especially female gender is far behind the
target due to many social, cultural and financial hindrances. Purpose: The purpose of this research study is
to investigate the key issues, problems and the challenges of girl’s education in Karachi. Methodology:
metropolitan city survey of 80 Parents and 80 Students living in middle class settings of Karachi. The gender
priorities on education and Indicators were analyzed with reasons, perspectives and hurdles for girls in
getting education. Data was assessed using SPSS. Results: 42.50% (Parents) & 36.25% (Students) thought that
sons are bread earners, 52.50% (Parents) & 65% (Students) thought that parents are thinking education cause
delay in girl’s marriages. 50% (Parents) & 40% students thought the social norms are the major hurdles in girl’s
education. 56.25% (Parents) & 48.75% (Students) thought that career is more important than marriage for
girls. 73.75% (Parents) & 75% (Students) thought that a single wrong step or wrong decision of a girl results
in an obstacle for the education of all girls in the family. However because of awareness 88.75% (Parents) &
80% students thought that girls also need to be educated as much as boy's. Conclusion: it is concluded that
both parents and students showed positive attitude towards girl education and believe in its necessity for
survival in society but due to our socio-cultural norms don’t want their girls to opt professional careers. As
whole due to social and cultural hindrances there is a conflict between their ideologies and practices
regarding girl education.

Shamoon Noushad, Sadaf Ahmed & Hina Hazrat
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre, Pakistan
According to recent Pakistan Demographic Health survey (PDHS) 2012-13, more than half of currently married
women and two-fifths of currently married men preferred family planning for their family and own wellbeing. Despite being acceptance within the country for utilizing various family planning methods, population
growth rate is very high. A pilot study was conducted from April to June 2014. The study was carried out on
35 women living in Koohi Goth & Rehri Goth, Karachi aged between 15 to 35 Years; we used the multiple
logistic to investigate the relationship between education of reproductive health awareness & birth spacing
while data was also collected to see, age at first pregnancy, birth spacing and methods use for family
planning. The status was found that women in these areas on average at age of 14.35 years know about
sexual health and reproductive issues. Average age of first pregnancy was 17.86 years, while it was seen the
median birth interval is 12 months however, it the study is in process as mostly women were found under
physical stress during 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy with many of them are practicing unhealthy
practices like tobacco chewing, huqqah, multiple family planning measures and concepts about pregnancy
and birth control.
Amna Khan, Sadaf Ahmed & Saima Khan
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre, Pakistan
Objective: The purpose of this study is to know the level of trust and reliance regarding reproductive health
concerns among early married females. Introduction: Many females around the globe are subjected to early
marriage with immature minds and bodies, and they are forced to shoulder heavy duties, early pregnancies,
harsh family behaviors, family disputes, behavioral problems and understanding problems. Early pregnancies
and other health problems have a great impact on their self esteem, confidence level and their trust on elders
to share their problems with. When females are married at early age, they are not only deprived of their
education but they are also not aware of the health consequences and their solutions. Self esteem in
marriage matters a lot as it gives strength to the female to share her thoughts, problems and other things
with spouse or family. Regarding their health concerns females mostly rely on their mothers and lady doctors
and many few approaches mid-wives. At young age girls are not much aware of domestic responsibilities
and they are susceptible to many other issues including physical and mental health along with psychological
threats, fear, lack of trust and isolation. Methods: A questionnaire based study was designed to conduct a
cross sectional observational survey among married and unmarried females by using SPSS version 7 & for
the analysis of data having sample size 100. Results: From the study we found that 41.98% of the unmarried
girls relied on lady doctors for their reproductive health problems whereas 37.50% of married girls
approached mothers and few talked to lady doctors while most of them were not sharing theirs obstacles
with anyone. Conclusion: it is concluded that education of females plays a vital role in thee awareness of
such problems. Marriage shall not be a forced relation anyone, friendly behavior can help building a good
level of trust in females and they may not hesitate in sharing their problems, they should be given premium
protection and surety that their problems will not be ignored. Yet these early married females can be
educated or guided about family relations and problems and their ways to tackle them as they need learn so
to be safe from marriage dissolution and other health threats.

Unzela Ayub, Shamoon Noushad, Syed Zain Azher, Sadaf Ahmed & Zeenat Rafiq
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre
Pakistan In recent era regular physical activity and its healthy outcomes is one of the most known benefits
for general well-being and quality of life among populace of metropolitan cities. However mostly women are
unable to practice it on regular basis due to busy lifestyle along with the non-popular practices in our cultural
environment. The purpose of the study was overview the trend of obesity in both married and unmarried
females and to find out its relation with their physical activity and dietary habits. A cross-sectional survey
was conducted as pilot project and the data of 50 married and 50 unmarried middle class women was
collected with the help of self-designed questionnaire. The results showed that married females were more
in over weight category when compared with unmarried females who were mostly underweight however
the pattern and believes regarding physical activity of both the groups were same. No relation was found
between net weight gain after marriage and lack of physical activity while the difference in both groups was
also found in use of household chores and traveling means. All the subjects were not engaged in any kind of
physical activity beside the fact that they were well equipped with the knowledge of work out benefits.
Frequently reported barriers to exercise from both groups include lack of time, lack of interest, and lack of
safe environments in which to workout. It is concluded that marital status was not significantly associated
with fatness or obesity among women and the lack of physical activity is more of a psychosocial barrier that
can be overcome with proper life style management.
Huzaifa sarfaraz, Zain Azher, Shamoon Noushad & Sadaf Ahmed
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre, Pakistan
INTRODUCTION: Gender discrimination is a global phenomenon, but this phenomenon generally advocates
discrimination with female gender. In developing countries women even do not realize that they are facing
discriminatory behavior and if they grasp the reality they do not seek for better conditions, because cultural
practices in society make discriminatory behavior firm and part of life and gradually it become the
component of unconscious ideologies and tradition of society, but situation is opposite in developed
countries. Pakistan is a developing country with rigid male dominated culture. Karachi is the most populated
and mobilized city of Pakistan with large no of educated population. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the impact of
education, mobilization and advancement in molding the discriminatory ideologies and practices in culture.
METHOD: Data was collected from 250 citizens of Karachi from both genders, through random sampling
method via questionnaire. Questions were asked about their perception on female gender discrimination,
role of culture in promoting male dominancy and do they raise voice against gender discrimination among
their family members. RESULTS: Results showed, both genders agreed that females experience more gender
discrimination but ratio of female respondents was positively high in this regard with 52.4%. Females also
showed more positive response about male dominancy in society with 55.3%. Ratio of male population was
negatively high about the role of culture in promoting male dominancy with 71.6% and females showed more
positive response towards the practice of raising voice against gender discrimination with 50.4%.
CONCLUSION: Study proved that education and mobilization with advancement can make people capable
of critically analyzing their cultural rigid and discriminatory ideologies; making people competent enough for
molding those practices and ideologies.

Mahnoor Nadeem
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre
The idea of wellness is vast and can be based upon various aspects. It is not just the physical being that has
to be fit. Being healthy means having a perfectly fit body (a healthy body in general that is free from injuries
and is able to carry out physical tasks of daily routine efficiently), a sound mind and a peaceful soul. In true
essence, the well-being of a person is dependent on all three aspects that are Mind, Body and Soul. In terms
of studying the health psychology and psychoneuroimmunology, the linking of mind and body have gained
widespread popularity. While spiritual wellness has been found to be associated with behavioral
development towards successfully tackling distress (1). Mind, body and soul are three interlinked aspects of
health and an imbalance in any one of these can be injurious to the other two. This could be understood by
the effect of mental stress on the physical health. As a result of chronic stress the blood pressure and heart
rate are affected which is a state of imbalance to the physical health. Similarly, any physical injury (those
resulting from accidents for instance) can cause a person to be distressed and emotionally burdened or
depressed. The third key component in the health determining parameters is soul (can also be linked to
spirituality or religiousness). A content soul leads a person to feel happy and this in itself is a relief to many
aspects of physical and emotional stress. The inter-dependency of these three components is crucial to
understand in order to impress a state of better health.
To foster the wellbeing of women is the dire need of every society as women are the backbone of every
family. It is not only their role in home making and taking care of the family, they are the ones who actually
build a family. Health awareness in general is the basic need and right of every woman as being aware and
having access to healthcare system would ensure their safety and wellness in general as well as in the
reproductive stages. Taking a glance at the status of wellbeing of women in Pakistani population, it is
observed that poor health is a condition more associated with women in contrast to men. This is a major
blow to the health status of our society. As the idea of mothers with poor health, giving birth to perfectly
sound babies sounds a bit far-fetched. As stated in one of WHO's reports, one reason for poor health status
in women may be due to domestic torture or sexual abuse. This may lead to conditions such as anxiety and
depression (2).
According to studies carried on the Pakistani population, the prevalence of depression is much higher in
woman as compared to men. An overall 33% of woman of our population suffer from depression. There is
also a figure of 25% pregnant females being depressed. Such conditions have been found to have adverse
effects on the neonates. Infant malnutrition, diarrhea and poor immunity are among the reported diseases
found in babies of such mothers who stay depressed and emotionally distressed (3).
The utilization of healthcare facilities is a tough task for women in our society, due to lack of education and
awareness. One more reason is the social and financial dependency of women on men. In most households
it is men who decide and determine the need of seeking healthcare for women (4).
Not only the physical and reproductive aspects of health, but the mental and emotional well-being is also
highly important in determining health as a whole. Psychological illnesses such as choking feelings, sinking
heart, palpitations and uneven breathing patterns are among the most commonly observed cases in women
who describe themselves as socially burdened and tortured. Such cases are much worse in the rural settings,
where early marriages, physical violence and sexual abuse are common. The major reasons of emotional
stress include various societal pressures such as forced marriages, not being permitted to seek education or

pursue jobs. All such social pressures compel women to spend their lives in abusive environment which
causes their mental health to be led towards complete chaos (5). Violence and harassments have the
potential of causing various injuries and ailments. Mental and emotional stress can give rise to various health
consequences such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic pains and conditions such as anxiety and fear
associated fits and seizures and fainting (6).
It is a dire need to understand that wellness has a very wide perspective. Along with physical fitness the
wellness of mind is also essential. Women seeking health need to understand that in order to be healthy,
mental and emotional stability are of great importance. As majority of diseases stem from stress, which may
include mental and emotional stress as well. Such conditions are linked to declining health status.
The interrelation of mind and body has been pointed in various studies. However, the importance of soul
wellness cannot be denied in defining health and it is an idea currently being explored far and wide. In a study
on women suffering from breast cancer, it was reported that emotional stress has been found to be linked
to shorter life span in patients. Exercises for the strengthening of physical health and a peaceful mind have
proved to be a positive approach. Also, the importance of tending to spiritual needs has been found to have
a major role in building a positive approach and towards leading a meaningful life (7).
Wellness of women is the need of the society as women play a major role in the nurturing of the new
generations and also are the ones to bring them to life. All three aspects of health, that is; Mind, body and
soul should be burden free and in perfectly healthy state in order to be sure of the good state of health. As
reproductive phase brings many changes, the mind and soul should be healthy and burden free in order to
be considered stress relieved and so a number of diseases can be kept at bay and the infant would be better
immunized and healthy. Even the health in general should be taken into consideration as women are humans
as well and have every right to seek healthcare. Awareness and education can determine and carry forth the
idea of wellness of women. The backward ideas and traditions of keeping women restricted to homes and
making them completely dependent on men should be revised in order to make sure that our society is
human enough to at least not deprive women of their basic health needs. Societal burdens and tormented
environments are a major risk factor towards health consequences and should be looked into in order to
build a society of healthy living for women.
 Glenis Tabetha Mark, Antonia C Lyons. "Majori healer's views on wellbeing: The importance of mind,
body, spirit, family and land" Social Science and Medicine, 70 (2012)
 Khabir Ahmed, Tazeen H Jafar and Nish Chaturvedi "self rated health in Pakistan: results of a
national health survey." BMC Public Health, Volume 5
 Atif Rahman, Abid Malik, Siham Sikander, Christopher Roberts, Francis Creed "Cognitive behavior
therapy based intervention by community health workers for mothers with depression and their
ifants in rural Pakistan: a culture based randomised control trial." The Lancet, Vol 372
 Babar T. Shaik and Juanita Hatcher " Health seeking behavior and health service utilization in
Pakistan: challenging the policy makers" Journal of Public Health Vol 27, No 1.
 Unaiza Niaz "Women's mental health in Pakistan" World Psychiatry, Vol 3(1)
 Jacquelin C Campbell "Health consequences of intimate partner violence" Violence against women
 Carolyn K. Kinney, Dennis M. Rodgers. Kathleen A. Nash "Holistic Healing for women with breast
cancer through a mind, body and spirit self -empowerment program" Journal of Holistic nursing Vol
21 (3)

Huzaifa Sarfraz
Psychophysiology Research Division,
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre– AEIRC
“Can I ask you a favor? Could you spare a moment? I could do with some help please!”
Being women we often use these sentences in our daily life routine, especially outside the home or at work
place; we need such help from our opposite gender (male). Females are the one who have to face this misery
of life. Women are dependent on their family, friends, colleagues and some time even strangers. This
scenario is known as dependency. Dependency is the state of being relied on someone for any concern or
matter. Nature has created human in two equal fractions but one from the two genders is facing the tragedy
of dependency. It is being observed that the main contributor to dependency is culturally constructed
gender roles. Genders are the prescribed role for being of any sex (males/females); what we do, what we
wear, where should we work, what should be our activities, describes our specific gender. Characteristics of
one gender are greatly influenced by the cultural socialization pattern of that society (Crespi,2004). From
centuries ago female gender is the one who demand support and backing from the male gender; they need
food, shelter, security and finance from their family. Even though today in the age of globalization; women
are in need of aid and sponsorship, because the culture in developing societies is masculine by it’s nature;
this is because of the gender roles which are greatly control by poverty, security, education and patriarchy
and in developing societies patriarchal culture is in grip. Males and females both are socialized in different
ways (Ridgeway, 2004) ;men are taught and are socialized in a way to lead and to support their families; they
are trained to be leaders, on the other hand women have to rely on men because they are taught to be
followers; they cannot make decisions by their own; it is family’s responsibility to take decision for female
members of the family and after marriage that authority is pass on to their husbands and in laws relationships
(Bryan, 2008), these difference between both genders are largely the product of social norms,(Holmes,
2007). Women in developing societies even do not get the chance to be educated at higher level (Afzal,
2013). In this position females get total dependent on their family; they lose their self nations; women are
less dependent on males; they are getting equal chance to get education, equal right to take their decision
and equal right to raise their voice against any unfavorable deed, there, male and females both are playing
equal part in all walks of life because world today demands information technology; physical power is getting
unimportant; male and females both are competing in financial market with great zeal. This difference is
possibly due to the high Level of development, mobility and education in developed nations (Afzal, M., et al,
2013). To confirm the relationship between high level of mobility, advancement and education and
independence of women in society; we did a cross cultural study between Karachi and Hyderabad; as both
are the metropolitan cities of Pakistan but somehow Karachi is more developed and mobilized than
Hyderabad, so we assume that this difference may possibly bring change in dependency ratios in both
The Study was titled as “Ratio of Gender Dependency in Karachi and Hyderabad’s Populace”. Data of 500
respondents was collected through survey via questionnaire; respondents were selected through simple
random sampling method technique, data was collected from the middle class people of both cities, aged 25
to 40. Results showed that in both Hyderabad and Karachi the ratio of dependency was high in female
citizens and in the case of females; females of Karachi showed high level of independency in managing things
outside home and in making interaction with unknown people without any hesitation but the ratio of females
who make decisions independently and who feel themselves safe outside the home without opposite gender
was high in Hyderabad’s female respondents; as the ratio of highly educated and working female
respondents was higher in Hyderabad than Karachi.( Sarfraz, al,2014). These results clearly interpret the

importance of development, mobility side by side with female education for the independency and
sovereignty of women, so that women can also lead an independent and self-reliant life without depending
on others; as it is also the demand of time.
Just as Voltaire quoted:
“It is not inequality which is real misfortune, it is the dependency!”
 Crespi, I. (2004). Socialization and gender roles within the family: A study on adolescents and their
parents in Great Britain. MCFA Annals, 3.
 Afzal, M., Butt, A. R., Akbar, R. A., & Roshi, S. (2013). Gender Disparity in Pakistan: A Case of Middle
and Secondary Education in Punjab. Journal of Research & Reflections in Education (JRRE), 7(2).
 Alonso–Arbiol, I., Shaver, P. R., & Yárnoz, S. (2002). Insecure attachment, gender roles, and
interpersonal dependency in the Basque Country. Personal relationships, 9(4), 479-490.
 Ridgeway, C. L., & Correll, S. J. (2004). Unpacking the Gender System A Theoretical Perspective on
Gender Beliefs and Social Relations. Gender & Society, 18(4), 510-531.
 Holmes, M. (2007). What is gender?: Sociological approaches. Sage.
 Bryan, E. (2008). Strategies for Promoting Gender Equity in Developing Countries: Lessons,
Challenges, and Opportunities. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
 Shah, N. M. (1986). Pakistani women: a socio-economic and demographic profile. Pakistan Institute
of Development Economics.
 Sarfraz, H. , Noushad, S,., Ahmed,S.,Azher, Z. (2014). “Ratio of Gender Dependency”, A Comparative
Study Between Karachi and Hyderabad’s Populace. 2nd International Conference On Endorsing
Health Science Research. Abstract Book, p:17.
 Jayaweera, S. (1997). Women, education and empowerment in Asia. Gender and Education, 9(4),
 Williams, C. L. (1992). The glass escalator: Hidden advantages for men in the" female" professions.
Social problems, 253-267.

Saima Khan
Health Science Research Division,
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre– AEIRC
I wish to impress on you that no nation can rise to the heights of glory unless your women are side by side
with you.
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Founder of Pakistan
Address at the Muslim University, Aligarh, March 10, 1944
Pakistan lies in the zone of the world, embracing 75% of the world’s illiterate population, majority of whom
are women. In the educational sector, the country is faced with that dilemma since its independence.
Unfortunately education of women is not considered a mean for social change or a process by which they
can learn to question, think and become an individual that brings out change. Denial of access to basic
education to girls and women is not only a matter of gender discrimination but also a bad economics and
bad social policy.
The issue of female education is one of the main issue of Pakistan which is not very oftenly discussed. There
are several problems related to female education. The main problem in this issue is poverty as many of the
parents can’t afford their children’s education fees, as a result children loose the opportunity of getting
education. In our society co-education is not considered good especially for girls and most of the families
don’t allow girls to go in such institutes for acquiring education. It is not possible to have separate schools in
poorer areas of Pakistan, due to which if there exists only co-educational institutes then people don’t allow
females to go to schools and colleges. In our society women going out of houses is not considered good and
people think this act as a loss of honor so they do not allow or are not in favor of girls education.
Daughters are victims of self-fulfilling prophecy; as they are traditionally expected to do more chores at
home than sons. Mostly people have the concept that female children are for doing household work and it
is the only necessity for females therefore they should only be good at this. Girl can only be a modest
domesticated housewife. Due to that belief parents don’t allow girls to attend school, thinking that they
might avoid their household work. The opportunity cost for them seems higher to parents so they are kept
at home. In some parts of Pakistan, there are many extremists groups who are against female education and
do not let female.

Faiza ahmed
Health Science Research Division,
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre– AEIRC
The tale is as old as time, and we are living with it. We have made laws but they are not as immense as nobility
of a family. and when it comes to honor, our system is gender biased, it’s mostly women who sacrifice their
lives. According to the annual report of Human Rights Commission Pakistan 913 girls and women, including
99 minors, were killed in the name of honor in 2012. The report said 604 were killed after being accused of
having illegal relations with men. Around 191 were reported slain for marrying their own choice of husbands
and going against their families' wishes.
Few ago news ran through my eyes that a pregnant woman Farzana has been killed because she married the
man she loved; I read it thought it was kind of brutal act and scrolled down. The next day on BBC I saw a
report on the same issue and a turn in the case, BBC showed a totally different picture of our country and I
was astonished to see people saying that it was a right act, a woman like her (who has disgraced her family
deserves to die). Then I read the husband had killed his first wife to marry Farzana, it was a moment of
perplexity for me. People really have lost the importance of human life, Farzana was killed in the name of
honor but why was the man’s wife became the victim?
If a man of the family kills the woman who has dishonored the family, they think the honor of the family has
been restored. Women are a victim of honor in every caste of the country; however there is no honor in
killing your mother, daughter or wife whatsoever.
Our country was the first to have a woman as Prime Minister in Islamic World. We hoped the dreadful ritual
and traditions would soon be put to an end, a woman would help another woman in trouble. But the
situation got even worst, every year the number of cases of honor killing, rape, domestic violence, acid
throwing are increasing but there is no enforcement. Some private and non government organizations are
working on women empowerment which is like a drop in the ocean.
Until our men and whole society won’t act, we will never be able to change the system. Farzana was killed
inside the High Court, where people are given justice; many lawyers were present there too. However when
asked they gave lame reasons like; I was out at that time or I was late that day. When the law keepers will
back out from something that is one of the biggest issues of our country, then who will give us justice? It’s
their right to live a life of her own and by her choice, and not become a victim by anyone if she chooses so.
 in
'Social Issues & Current Events' started by Surenas, Apr 5, 2013.

(A vicious and un-ethical do)
Sadaf ahmed
Advance educational institute & research Centre (AEIRC)
Abortion is immoral; it is the homicide of a new being. It’s stopping a process, terminating a life, but the big
question is that how far and why still it is justifiable? There are many circumstances that may allow it to be
professed as more unethical or more ethical, but that's not anyone's dealing but the woman involved. Unless
of course, it is being done in an unsafe manner, used repeatedly as a main source of birth control usually
done in the 3rd trimester without the proper circumstances leading to life or death, severe deformities.
Basically, everyone really needs to band together to make abortion less needed - better sex education, easy
and affordable birth control, etc. Ignorance is not bliss. I do believe abortion is unethical; it is a medical
procedure that has many hazards. The best thing we as health literate and responsible person, can do is to
empower women in control of their own bodies, by teaching them when they are young the importance of
control responsibly so that they know how to avoid an unwanted pregnancy. Then they won't abort a
baby……. Undeniably one of the major controversial issues in the our country today is 'abortion' that has
ignited many minds but yet debatable in terms of ‘YES’ for abortion or a ‘BIG NO’ for it! I want to highlight
here the requirement of strict actions for outlawing this illegal practice. Violence of skilled knowledge,
expertise and human rights is objectionable behavior: Any registered medical/dental practitioner found
guilty of causing an illegal abortion is liable to be suspended or have his/her name removed from the Register
(Ethical Standards of Professional Competence, Care and Conduct, The Pakistan Medical and Dental Council).
The origin of illegitimate abortion health centers or private clinics are a nuisance to our society. According to
research conducted by an international non-profit NGO, Pakistan has an expected rate of 29 abortions per
1,000 women of reproductive age regardless of the procedure being illegal. It is estimated that almost
900,000 abortions carry out yearly in Pakistan. Many pregnant females opt abortion by visiting illegal clinics
run by midwives and 23 percent of women who have unskilled providers perform their abortions are later
hospitalized due to health complication. Many skilled gynecologists in even metropolitan cities found
occupied in this illegal act, with the prime concern being financial put on. This has escort the burgeon
expansion of these consulting centers with almost no verification and consultation by the appropriate
management and government bodies. The issue never was honestly and openly discuss because of religious
concerns and society’s taboo. It’s time to face the reality and bring the issue out in the open for debate with
the aim to improve the healthiness and reproductive wellbeing of the existing and upcoming generation.
“Let me give you a definition of ethics: It is good to maintain and further life it is bad to damage and destroy
Albert Schweitzer