Overview – LTE and Advanced LTE

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© 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd

Overview – LTE and Advanced LTE
Section 1- Comparison
between Release 8 &10

Section 4- Introduction to
LTE Release 10

Section 2- Self
Organizing Networks
(SON)

Section 3- Introduction to
LTE Release 9

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Section 2- Introduction to LTE Release 9
3GPP Rel-9 focuses on enhancements to HSPA+ and LTE

Rel 10- focuses on the next generation of LTE

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© 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd

LTE Release 9 Features
The Release includes a set of features that either were not
completed in release 8 or which provide some smaller
optimizations or improvements.
These are namely:

•Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (MBMS) for LTE
•LTE positioning
•PWS (Public Warning System)
•Home eNodeB specification (femto-cell)
•Self-Organizing Networks (SON)

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S-Criteria (3GPP Release 8) • Cell selection with the release 8 version of the specifications is based upon only RSRP • Cell selection S-criteria is satisfied when: Srxlev > 0 Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas – (Qrxlevmin + Qrxlevminoffset) . 0) Optional limit included in SIB1 5 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .Pcompensation Measurement from UE Minimum signal strength requirement from SIB1 (actual value = signalled value 2) Pcompensation = MAX(PEMAX – PPOWERCLASS.

System Information Block 1 • Cell selection with the release 8 version of the specifications is based upon only RSRP • Cell selection S-criteria is satisfied when: Srxlev > 0 Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas – (Qrxlevmin) Measurement from UE 6 Minimum signal strength requirement from SIB1 (actual value = signalled value 2) © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

onwards) • Cell selection with the release 9 version of the specifications is based upon both RSRP and RSRQ • Cell selection S-criteria is satisfied when: Srxlev > 0 AND Squal > 0 Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas – (Qrxlevmin + Qrxlevminoffset) .S-Criteria (3GPP Release 9. 0) Optional limit included in SIB1 7 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .Pcompensation Squal = Qqualmeas – (Qqualmin + Qqualminoffset) (actual value = signalled value) Pcompensation = MAX(PEMAX – PPOWERCLASS.

7 to 14 – MBMS data uses antenna port 4 8 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . 4x4 MIMO on the PDSCH uses antenna ports 0 to 3 – 3GPP release 10. 7 to 10 Positioning Reference Signals port 6 CSI Reference Signals port 15 to 22 Channel State Information (CSI) Reference Signals (Rel 10) • Application data is also transferred using specific antenna ports: – 3GPP release 8. 4x4 MIMO on the PDSCH uses antenna ports 7 to 10 – Beamforming uses antenna ports 5.Antenna Ports  Virtual ‘Antenna Ports’ are defined within the 3GPP specifications  Number of antenna ports is increasing as the specifications evolve  Different Antenna Ports are used for different Reference Signals      Cell Specific Reference Signals ports 0 to 3 MBSFN Reference Signal port 4 UE Specific Reference Signals ports 5.

Antenna Ports  Antenna Ports are mapped onto physical antenna elements  The number of antenna ports which can be used will be limited by the number of physical antenna elements • Antenna arrays become more practical at higher operating bands due to their smaller physical size 9 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

Antenna Ports  4 column X-polar can support the maximum of 8 antenna ports specified by 3GPP within release 10 • A single column X-polar can support only a subset of the antenna ports • Antenna ports with UE specific Reference Signals are intended for beamforming so require multiple columns of X-polar antenna elements 10 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

Cell Specific Reference Signals (ports 0 to 3) Logical PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MCCH MTCH Antenna 2 2+2 MIMO Antenna 1 BCCH Transport BCH PCH DL-SCH MCH PHYS.Cell Specific Reference Signals Antenna 4 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . PBCH PDSCH 4+4 MIMO PDCCH PCFICH PHICH 11 Antenna 1 Antenna 2 Antenna 3 PMCH REFERENCE SIGNALS.

UE Specific Reference Signalsports 5. 7 to 10 • Antenna ports with UE specific Reference Signals are intended for beamforming so require multiple columns of X-polar antenna elements 12 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

UE Specific Reference Signals  Applicable to beamforming  Only included within Resource Blocks allocated to  13 specific UE Relatively large overhead © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

Positioning Reference Signals  Positioning Reference Signals port 6  Introduced within the release 9 version of the specifications 14 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

Positioning Reference Signals  Introduced within the release 9 version of the specifications  Allow UE to complete measurements for location based services  Intended to improve the ‘hearability’ of neighbour cells  Only transmitted during specific subframes 15 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

PBCH PDSCH PDCCH PCFICH PHICH 16 PMCH REFERENCE SIGNALS.CSI Reference Signals Used for channel quality measurements (similar to Cell specific Reference Signals) Intended to provide a better measure of channel quality because they are transmitted in Resource Elements used by the PDSCH Logical Transport BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MCCH MTCH BCH PCH DL-SCH MCH PHYS.Cell Specific Reference Signals © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

Channel State Information (CSI) Reference Signals  Used for channel quality measurements (similar to Cell specific Reference  17 Signals) Intended to provide a better measure of channel quality because they are transmitted in Resource Elements used by the PDSCH  Resource Elements used by the Cell specific Reference Signal can experience different interference compared to Resource Elements used by the PDSCH © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service) MBSFN Reference Signal 18 port 4 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

5 KHz supported Only transmitted within the data section of MBSFN subframes © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .MBSFN Reference Signal  Only applicable when MBMS is used (3GPP    19 release 9) Only extended cyclic prefix is supported Subcarrier spacings of 15 and 7.

(Broadcast/Multicast Service Centre) RNC. Each burst may contain up to two megabits of data (including parity bits).(Broadcast/Multicast Service Centre) Responsible for providing •Authorization for terminals requesting to activate an MBMS service. •MBMS session announcement © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . RNC SGSN GGSN BM-SC Content Provider •DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting – Handheld) •IP datagrams are transmitted as data bursts in small time slots. BM-SC.Radio Network Controller GGSN-Gateway GPRS Support Node SGSN-Serving GPRS Support Node 20 BM-SC. •Scheduling of broadcast and multicast sessions. Integrity and confidentiality protection of MBMS data.MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service) •Specified with 3GPP Release 6 •The goal with MBMS is to provide network operators with the possibility to broadcast over their cellular network.

FLUTE Broadcast and multicast are one-way transmissions REAL TIME Transmission control protocol (TCP) cannot be employed because it requires a bidirectional unicast connection NON REAL TIME FLUTE File delivery over Unidirectional Transport (FLUTE). FLUTE also employs forward error correction (FEC) 21 UDP TCP IP IP Layer 2 Layer 2 PHY PHY © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

Multicast services can only be received by users having subscribed to the service and having joined the multicast group associated with the service. Multicast The Broadcast service can be received by any subscriber located in the area in which the service is offered. Both this services are unidirectional point-to-multipoint transmissions 22 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . Broadcast b.MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service) MBMS in real provide two different services a.

23 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . An eNB transmitting only in single-cell service is not required to comply with the stringent timing requirements indicated by SYNC protocol. the cells and content are Synchronized to enable for the terminal to soft-combine the energy from multiple transmissions MBMS transmissions single-cell MBMS transmissions multi-cell transmissions In the case of multi-cell transmission.MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service) In E-UTRAN. This concept is also known as Single Frequency Network (SFN). In the case of multi-cell transmission. MBMS transmissions may be performed as single-cell transmissions or as multi-cell transmissions. the cells and content are Synchronized to enable for the terminal to soft-combine the energy from multiple transmissions.

MBSFN operation not supported in Rel-8 Evolved MBMS (eMBMS). 24 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .Release 9 The goal is to increase spectral efficiency at the cell edge up to 1bps/Hz while realizing a Single Frequency Network (SFN). Single Frequency Network (SFN).MBMS in LTE (3GPP Release 9) MBMS in UMTS/WCDMA (Release 6) offers 6 mobile TV channels at a data rate of 128 kbps in a 5 MHz channel.

PMCH is designed for „singlefrequency network‟ operation.Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) The basic structure of the Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) is very similar to the PDSCH. PMCH IP Multicast can be used for distributing the traffic from the E-MBMS gateway to the different e-NodeB © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . whereby multiple cells transmit the same modulated symbols with very tight timesynchronization 25 PDSCH MBMS Gateway PMCH PMCH MBMS Gateway is responsible for distributing the traffic to the different eNodeBs of the MBSFN area.

dynamic link adaption. dynamic and semi-persistent resource allocation Physical channels 26 Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) PDSCH © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . including both control and traffic data.Down Link Channels logical channels DTCH DCCH CCCH Transport channels DL-SCH BCCH Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH): Used for transmitting the downlink data. It supports H-ARQ. and thus it is associated with both logical control and logical traffic channels.

NO RLC repletion Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) •The PMCH is designed for a single-frequency •No MIMO for the PMCH. all belonging to one MBSFN area •The PMCH is transmitted in specific dedicated subframes where the PDSCH is not transmitted. As the same data is transmitted by several LTE base station. There is always one MCCH per MBSFN area. Multicast Channel (MCH) Downlink ONLY No HARQ. 27 Transmitted in a Sub-frame Sub-frame allocation MTCH MCCH logical channels Transport channels MCH Physical channels PMCH © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .Channels for Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (MBMS) The Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) carries data corresponding to a certain MBMS service. The Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) provides necessary control information including subframe allocation and used Modulation Coding Scheme (MCS).

© 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . The MBMS traffic is going to share the same carrier with the uncast traffic or be sent on a separate carrier. Single cell Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (MBMS) 28 PMCH is designed for „single-frequency network‟ operation.Channels uncast traffic Both the MCCH and the MTCH are mapped to the MCH transport channel in MBSFN mode or to the normal Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) transport channel in single-cell mode.

This improves the accuracy of the channel estimate which can be achieved for the longer delay spreads. specific reference signals are used. R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 non-MBSFN data transmission R0 R0 The Reference Signal (RS) pattern is modified compared to non-MBSFN data transmission.Channels In the case of sub-frames carrying MBMS SFN data. 29 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

modulation and coding scheme.Channels Downlink Control Information (DCI): It carries information related to downlink/uplink scheduling assignment. logical channel PCCH PCH Transport channels Packet Scheduler Physical channels PDCCH R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 30 R0 Format Carried Information Format 0 Uplink scheduling assignment Format 1 Downlink scheduling for one codeword Format 2 Downlink scheduling for UEs configured in closedloop spatial multiplexing mode Format 2A Downlink scheduling for UEs configured in openloop spatial multiplexing mode Format 3 TPC commands for PUCCH and PUSCH with 2-bit power adjustments R0 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . and is sent over the Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH). and Transmit Power Control (TPC) command.

Layer 1 ( DL: OFDMA. A transport channel is basically characterized by how and with what characteristics data is transferred over the radio interface. the channel coding scheme. © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .Channels NAS Protocol(s) Application Layer (Attach/TA Update/…) IP / TCP | UDP | … (E-)RRC (Radio Resource Control) PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol) RLC RLC RLC (Radio Link (Radio Link (Radio Link Control) Control) Control) PDCP … … RLC RLC (Radio Link (Radio Link Control) Control) Logical Channel Medium Access Control (MAC) Transport Channels FDD | TDD . Each logical channel is defined based on the type of information it carries Transport Channels: The transport channels are used by the PHY to offer services to the MAC. and antenna mapping. the modulation scheme. that is. UL: SC-FDMA ) 31 PDCP (Packet Data(Packet Data Convergence Convergence Protocol) Protocol) Logical Channels: Logical channels are used by the MAC to provide services to the RLC.

32 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .MBMS The PMCH is transmitted in specific dedicated subframes where the PDSCH is not transmitted.

MBSFN area Router 1 256 different MBSFN areas defined MBMS Gateway Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH). The remaining 28 bits identify the multicast "group" the datagram is sent to 33 Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH). that are supposed to transmit the same content need to be synchronized. © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .MBSFN. Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH). This is understood as Multimedia Broadcast Single Frequency Network (MBSFN). Every IP datagram whose destination address starts with "1110" is an IP Multicast datagram. MBSFN area To support the broadcast effect required for MBMS radio cells.

The remaining 28 bits identify the multicast "group" the datagram is sent to Class A B C D E 34 Network. Every IP datagram whose destination address starts with "1110" is an IP Multicast datagram.Multicast traffic The one which concerns us is the "Class D Address".Host High Order Bits N H H H 00000000 N N H H 10000000 N N N H 11000000 Multicast 1110 0000 Reserved 11110000 1st Byte 1-126 128-191 192-223 224-239 240-255 Nets 126 16K 2M - Hosts 16M 65K 254 - © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

not feasibles for multicast traffic.Host N H H H N N H H N N N H Multicast Reserved High Order Bits 00000000 10000000 11000000 11100000 11110000 Physical Layer 1st Byte 1-126 128-191 192-223 224-239 240-255 Nets 126 16K 2M - Hosts 16M 65K 254 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . Layer 3 Multicast traffic Layer 2 Layer 1 Class A B C D E 35 Network.Multicast traffic NRT Application layer RT Transport layer Layer 4 Multicast traffic is handled at the transport layer with UDP. as TCP provides point-to-point connections.

Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) The synchronised radio interface transmission from the cells controlled by different eNBs requires a SYNC-protocol support between the BM-SC and the eNBs. As part of the SYNC-protocol procedures the BM-SC shall include within the SYNC PDU packets a time stamp which tells the timing based on which the eNB sends MBMS data over the air interface eNB UE UDP RTP SYN FLUTE RLC IP UDP MAC Layer 2 IP PHY PHY MBMS Gateway (MBMS GW) MBMS PACKET RTP BM-SC FLUTE RLC MAC eNB PHY UDP UDP SYN SYN IP IP IP Layer 2 Layer 2 MAC Layer 2 PHY PHY PHY PHY RLC 36 UDP © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

The M1 user plane interface provides non guaranteed delivery of user plane PDUs between the eNB and the MBMS GW. MBMS Gateway M3 M1 M2 eNB MCE USER PLANE DATA MBSFN area GTP-U eNB UDP IP Layer 2 PHY M1 User Plane Protocol Stack 37 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .M1 Interface MME M1 User Plane The M1 user plane interface is defined between the eNB and the MBMS GW.

MBMS Gateway M3 M1 M2 MCE MBSFN area allocation of the radio resources used by all eNBs in the MBSFN area 38 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . the modulation and coding scheme.Multi-cell/multicast Coordination Entity (MCE): Multi-cell/multicast Coordination Entity (MCE): allocation of the radio resources used by all eNBs in the MBSFN area for multicell MBMS transmissions using MBSFN operation MME Besides allocation of the time/ frequency radio resources this also includes deciding the further details of the radio configuration e.g.

M1 M2 MCE MBSFN area The channel uses Radio Link Control (RLC) Unacknowledged Mode (UM) for data transmission. that there is no feedback in the uplink from a terminal in form of ACK/NACK due to the broadcast nature of the transmission .Multi-cell/multicast Coordination Entity (MCE): Multi-cell/multicast Coordination Entity MME (MCE): MBMS Gateway M3 It is the task of the MCE to ensure that the RLC/MAC layers at the eNodeBs are appropriately configured for MBSFN operation. eNB RLC MAC PHY 39 UE RLC MAC PHY © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . Reason being.

MBMS Session Stop. M1 M2 eNB MCE M2AP MBSFN area eNB The M2 interface provides the following functions: MBMS Session Handling Function: MBMS Session Start.M2 Control Plane The M2 control plane interface is defined between the eNB and the MCE M2 Interface MME MBMS Gateway M3 The SCTP layer provides the guaranteed delivery of application layer messages. MBMS Session Update. 40 SCTP IP Layer 2 PHY M2 Control Plane Protocol Stack © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

“M3” Interface MBMS Session Start and Stop “M3” Interface: MCE – MME: MME An Application Part is defined for this interface between MME and MCE. MBMS Gateway M3 M1 M2 eNB MCE MBSFN area allocation of the radio resources used by all eNBs in the MBSFN area 41 SCTP is used as signalling transport i. Point-to-Point signalling is applied eNB © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .e. The procedures comprise e. MBMS Session Start and Stop.g.

MCE checks whether the radio resources are sufficient for the establishment of new MBMS service(s) in the area it controls. session attributes and the minimum time to wait before the first data delivery. or may pre-empt radio resources from other radio bearer(s) of ongoing MBMS service(s) according to ARP. MCE decides not to establish the radio bearers of the MBMS service(s) and does not forward the MBMS session start request message to the involved eNBs. UE eNB MCE start request start request message MME Response Response start . 42 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .Session Start procedure start request message MCE MME The MME sends MBMS session start request message to the MCE(s) controlling eNBs in the targeted MBMS service area. The message includes the IP multicast address. If not.

Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) Provided that the transmissions from the multiple cells are sufficiently tightly synchronized for each to arrive at the UE within the cyclic prefix at the start of the symbol. 43 Guard Period/ cyclic prefix Sampling Window Signals from different eNodeBs arrive within cyclic prefix at UE © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . there will be no InterSymbol Interference (ISI).

The extended Cyclic Prefix (CP) is used (16. The Reference Signal (RS) pattern is modified compared to non-MBSFN data transmission. 44 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .7 μs instead of 4.7 μs). As the differences in propagation delay from multiple cells will typically be considerably greater than the delay spread in a single cell. the longer CP helps to ensure that the signals remain within the CP at the UE receivers.MBSFN reference symbol pattern for 15 kHz subcarrier spacing. This improves the accuracy of the channel estimate which can be achieved for the longer delay spreads. thereby reducing the likelihood of ISI.

enabling the system to cope with path delay variations up to about 1.7 =5km 45 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .Cyclic Prefix Configurati on OFDM symbol SubCarrier Cyclic Prefix in uS Normal CP (15Khz) 7 12 4.7 μs for highly dispersive environments.3 For LTE. Variations up to about 5km 300m x 16. the normal CP length has been set at 4.4 km.5 kHz) 3 24 33.4km Extended cyclic prefix of 16.7 Extended CP (7.69 μs.000km/s) 300m× 4.7 Extended CP (15 kHz) 6 12 16. (radio waves travel at speed of light = 300.69 =1.

The Cyclic Prefix (CP) used for MBSFN is slightly longer.Cyclic Prefix In MBSFN. the transmission happens from a time-synchronized set of eNodeBs using the same resource block. There will be six symbols in a slot of 0.5 ms for non-SFN (Single Frequency Network) operation six symbols in a slot of 0.5 ms R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 46 R0 R0 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .5 ms for MBSFN operation versus seven symbols in a slot of 0. and this enables the UE to combine transmissions from different eNodeBs located far away from each other.

7 us Modulation schemes QPSK. 15. 16QAM.5 kHz) 3 24 33. 5. 10.Main characteristics of MBSFN Transmission scheme OFDM Channel bandwidths 1. 3. 20 MHz Carrier spacing 15 kHz Guard interval 16.7 Extended CP (15 kHz) 6 12 16. 64QAM MIMO scheme single antenna port Transport block transmission duration 1 ms Number of coded blocks per transport block Variable six symbols in a slot of 0.7 Extended CP (7.4.3 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .5 ms 47 Configurati on OFDM symbol SubCarrier Cyclic Prefix in uS Normal CP (15Khz) 7 12 4.

Cyclic Prefix When used with several cells.5 ms R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 48 R0 R0 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . six symbols in a slot of 0. MBMS transmissions may share the same carrier with unicast. or dedicated traffic. the reference symbols needed for MBMS reception are Identical in all cells to be considered for combining and transmission scheduling has to be such that received packets are received in a range substantially less than the cyclicprefix.

where transmissions which would otherwise have constituted inter-cell interference are translated into useful signal energy – hence the received signal power is increased at the same time as the interference power being largely removed.Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) This Single Frequency Network reception leads to significant improvements in spectral efficiency compared to UMTS Release 6 MBMS. as the MBSFN transmission greatly enhances the SINR. SINR = S I+N I = Iown + Iother This is especially true at the cell edge. 49 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

The remaining 28 bits identify the multicast "group" the datagram is sent to 50 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . each one with an own identity.MBSFN. MBSFN area 1 MBSFN area 2 MBSFN area 3 Cells can belong to more than one MBSFN area. Every IP datagram whose destination address starts with "1110" is an IP Multicast datagram. MBSFN area There could be up to 256 different MBSFN areas defined.

Its tasks are authentication. 51 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . eNodeB or eNB). charging and the overall configuration of the data flow through the core network. The remaining 28 bits identify the multicast "group" The MBMS Gateway (MBMS GW) is the logical node handling the multicast of IP packets from the BM-SC to all LTE base station (enhanced Node B.Broadcast/Multicast Service Center The BM-SC (Broadcast/Multicast Service Center) has been already introduced with 3GPP Release 6. authorizing content provider. BM-SC Content Provider (MBMS GW) Every IP datagram whose destination address starts with "1110" is an IP Multicast datagram.

Modes of Operation
Mixed mode of MBMS and unicast transmission. In this mode the subcarrier
spacing is 15 kHz and resources(subframes) are shared between MBMS
data and generic LTE i.e PMCH & PDSCH
SIB2 - With 3GPP Release 9 it has been
extended to provide also information on MBMS.
Which radio frames contain subframes, that can be
used for MBMS

SIB Type 2

Dedicated mode.
In this case a different subcarrier spacing of 7.5 kHz will be used, offering a
larger cyclic prefix of 33.3 µs which leads to a further improved broadcast
effect.

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Dedicated mode
Alternative:
7.5 kHz carrier spacing
Long guard interval of 33.3uS
Reference signal shown
This option NOT currently
available

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Carriers

This is also called single-cell scenario, where the
carrier is only used for MBMS data.
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Multimedia Broadcast Multicast
Services (MBMS) - Shared
10 ms
One Sub-frame
= 1 mS

SFN
0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

2

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

3

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

MBSFN is NOT transmitted in subframes 0,4,5 & 9
(FDD) & 0,1,2,5,6 (TDD)
The PMCH is transmitted in specific dedicated subframes where the
PDSCH is not transmitted.
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Multimedia Broadcast Multicast
Services (MBMS)
10 ms

0

1

2

3

4

Sub Frame
Number(SFN)

5

10 ms

6

7

8

9

10

Sub Frame
Number(SFN)

Sub Frame
Number(SFN)

0

Sub Frame
Number(SFN)

1

2

3

4

Sub Frame
Number(SFN)

5

6

7

8

9

10

Sub Frame
Number(SFN)

PERIOD

10/40ms repeat pattern
At maximum 6 subframes out of a radio frame can be used for MBMS

MBSFN is NOT transmitted in subframes 0,4,5 & 9
(FDD) & 0,1,2,5,6 (TDD)
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10.5. 64 QAM Transmission OFDMA Carrier Spacing 15Khz TTI 1ms Bandwidths 1. 16QAM.4. 3. 56 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (MBMS) MBMS Modulation QPSK.20 Mhz Transmit Power Typically 46dBm MBSFN reference signals 10 ms 0 1 2 3 4 Sub Frame Number(SFN) 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sub Frame Number(SFN) Sub Frame Number(SFN) 0 Sub Frame Number(SFN) 1 2 3 4 Sub Frame Number(SFN) 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sub Frame Number(SFN) PERIOD The PMCH is transmitted in specific dedicated subframes where the PDSCH is not transmitted. 15.

Transport channels How do we know configuration of MCCH? Where is the MCCH? MCH Physical channels PMCH 57 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . MTCH) are mapped to the Multicast Channel (MCH). control and traffic channel (MCCH.Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (MBMS) Transmitted in a Sub-frame Sub-frame allocation logical channels Both. MTCH MCCH (MCCH) contains information how the other channel (MTCH) is organized and how to access it.

control and traffic channel (MCCH. MTCH) are mapped to the Multicast Channel (MCH).MCCH Structure logical channels MTCH MCCH Both. •The MCCH is sent on MCH •MCCH consists of a single RRC message which lists all the MBMS services with ongoing sessions •MCCH is transmitted by all cells within an MBSFN Area multicast "group" Transport channels MCH Physical channels PMCH MBSFN area 1 MBSFN area 2 MBSFN area 3 (MBMS GW) 58 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . The following principles govern the MCCH structure: •One MBSFN Area is associated with one MCCH and one MCCH corresponds to one MBSFN Area.

which provides the following information : R0 • MBSFN identity (MBSFN ID) • Non-MBSFN region length (1. 2.NEW: SIB Type 13 Content Provider SIB Type 13 (MBMS GW) SIB Type 13 BM-SC Router 1 SIB Type 13 Router 2 SIB Type 13 R0 R0 SIB Type 13.3 OFDM symbols) •MCCH configuration 59 R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

13 (16QAM). 7 (both QPSK).NEW: SIB Type 13 Content Provider SIB Type 13 (MBMS GW) SIB Type 13 Router 1 SIB Type 13 Router 2 SIB Type 13 BM-SC SIB 13 Provides The MCCH configuration provides information on •the repetition period for the MCCH. •MCCH offset •actual subframe •MCS used . Its important to note that for the MCCH four modulation coding schemes are allowed: MCS index 2. 19 (64QAM). 60 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

61 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .configuration of MCCH SFN mod 32 Start 5 Selected repetition period of 32 means that every 32 radio frames the MCCH occurs in one of the MBSFN subframes.SIB 13.

62 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .SIB 13 One Radio Frame SFN SFN mod 8 Start 2 SFN mod 32 Start 5 Selected repetition period of 32 means that every 32 radio frames the MCCH occurs in one of the MBSFN subframes.

without interruption of the MBMSservice. as simultaneous service reception involving a dedicated carrier is only possible with a dual radio receiver. a UE can easily support simultaneous reception of unicast traffic and MBMS services with a single radio receiver. This is a major advantage of a mixed-carrier deployment.g. It also ensures the benefit of an uplink channel which can be used for interactive feedback. or data services) and MBMS services would be optional.voice or video calls. On a dedicated MBSFN carrier.Mixed MBMS/unicast carrier On a mixed MBMS/unicast carrier. the ability to receive simultaneously unicast traffic (e. 63 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

LTE positioning 64 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

Introduction. In a city centre. (Global navigation satellite system or GNSS). To estimate a position properly the receiver needs to have an unobstructed line of sight to at least four satellites. And exactly this is one of the drawbacks using GNSS only. (Assisted-)Global Navigation Satellite Systems Today the majority of all modern mobile devices. such as smart phones and tablets have an integrated GNSS receiver. 65 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . or cities with narrow alleys and especially indoors line of sight reception of the low power radio signals coming from the satellites is not guaranteed.

A-GPS (Aided/Assisted-GPS A-GPS (Aided/Assisted-GPS) and more recently its extensions. or impossible due to signal obstruction. have been introduced to substitute for missing satellite broadcast data when access is intermittent. 66 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . enabling “high sensitivity” modes. improving the performance in urban canyons and indoors. A-GNSS. difficult. and incidentally. It has expanded the capabilities of the traditional receiver in reducing the time to first fix. boosting the receiver‟s efficient use of power.

© 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . can be used to increase the accuracy fall-back methods OTDOA (Observed Time Difference of Arrival) • UE location can be tri-laterated with the knowledge of three or more eNB‟s –Transmit timings of the cells in the system and their geographical locations –Received time difference of at least two other cells vs. serving cell in the UE 67 3GPP Release 9 standardized positioning techniques for LTE The E-UTRAN may combine two or more of the supported UE positioning methods and perform a hybrid positioning estimation to achieve a better positioning accuracy.overview 3GPP Release 9 Must get GPS fix Assisted Satellite positioning (A-GPS.LTE Positioning Methods. etc) from 4 satellites • Network can provide assistance data for faster/more reliable fix fall-back methods Cell ID based positioning • Server knows the geographical locations of the cells • Timing Advance can be used to find the UE‟s distance from the eNB antenna • Neighbour cell measurements etc.

etc) Cell ID based positioning OTDOA (Observed Time Difference of Arrival) Location service (LCS) E-SMLC MME Provides GPS location E-SMLC – Evolved Serving Mobile Location Centre A-GPS performance very good when GPS fix successful • Urban/Indoor challenging for A-GPS 68 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .Location service (LCS) Assisted Satellite positioning (A-GPS.

OTDOA (Observed Time Difference of Arrival) Provides NL information Triangulates the UE position Measures OTDOA for each Neighbour relative to serving cell Location service (LCS) E-SMLC MME E-SMLC – Evolved Serving Mobile Location Centre 69 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

Mobility robustness optimisation Optimisation of cell reselection/ handover parameters to minimise radio link failures due to mobility. the following self-optimisation features are being discussed.Rel-9 SON features For Rel-9. 70 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .g. location information. radio link failure events. Coverage/ capacity optimisation Optimisation of system parameters to maximise (adjust to the desired balance between) system coverage and capacity Mobility load balancing Optimisation of cell reselection/ handover parameters to distribute traffic load across the network. Minimisation of drive tests Logging and reporting of various measurement data (e. throughputs) by the UE and collection of data in a server to minimise drive tests run by operators..

268. PWS shall be able to broadcast Warning Notifications to multiple users simultaneously with no acknowledgement required PWS capable UEs (PWS-UE) in idle mode shall be capable of receiving broadcasted Warning Notifications 71 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .Public Warning System (PWS) Public Warning System (PWS) is generalization of Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System (ETWS). The requirements for PWS has been defined in 3GPP Release 9 in 3GPP TS 22.

Home eNodeB specification (femtocell) 72 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

Home eNB (HeNB) Customer‐premises equipment that uses the operator‟s licenced spectrum. Femtocells and other microcells The Femtocells. Can be used to enhance network coverage/capacity 73 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . something comparable to plug and play. widely known as Home eNBs (HeNB) in LTE should have a simple deployment process.Home eNodeB specification (femto-cell) The need for SON came about as result of the need within LTE to be able to deploy many more cells.

Home eNodeB specification (femtocell) HeNB‐Gateway (HeNB GW) Optional and transparent gateway through which the HeNB accesses the core network . Addresses the issue of supporting a large number of S1 interfaces in the core network HeNB Gateway HeNB 74 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

Closed Subscriber Group (CSG) Three different access modes are defined for HeNBsClosed access mode: •HeNB provides services only to its associated Closed Subscriber Group (CSG) members •Hybrid access mode: HeNB provides services to its associated CSG members and to non‐members (CSG members are prioritized over non‐members) •Open access mode: HeNB appears as a normal eNB 75 HeNB Gateway HeNB © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

Closed Subscriber Group (CSG) Two categories of parameters are broadcast by HeNB cells operating in closed/hybrid access mode: Parameters to support the UE in the identification of closed/hybrid cellsCSG Indicator. HNB Name HeNB Gateway Parameters to support an efficient search of closed/hybrid cells at the UERange of Physical Cell‐IDs (PCIs) reserved for closed cells 76 HeNB © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . CSG Identity (CSG ID).

77 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .

widely known as Home eNBs (HeNB) in LTE should have a simple deployment process. something comparable to plug and play. Femtocells and other microcells The Femtocells. the Third Generation Partnership Programme has created the standards for SON 78 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . a network operator had to continuously monitor the network performance and alarms together with network settings. 3GPP.Self Organizing Networks (SON) The need for SON came about as result of the need within LTE to be able to deploy many more cells. Network configuration then had to be re-planned by human operator based on collected and analysis of the gathered data. Without SON features.

Physical Cell ID IP address GCID Physical Cell ID IP address GCID Automatic Neighbour Relation (ANR) function Automated configuration of Physical Cell ID (PCI) & GCID Self-configuration of enodeB 79 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd .Self Organizing Networks (SON) The main elements of SON include: Self configuration: The aim for the self configuration aspects of LTE SON is to enable new base stations to become essentially "Plug and Play" items.

a globally unique cell identifier (GID) 80 © 2012 AIRCOM International Ltd . non-unique there are 504 different PCIs in LTE mobile is required to measure the reference signal received power (RSRP) associated with a particular PCI PCI PCI It is important to detect and resolve local PCI conflicts Send Report Each eNB will have Physical Cell Identity. (there are 504 different PCIs in LTE).Physical Cell Identity (PCI). Physical Cell Identity (PCI). In addition. PCI.