Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/5/2014

Medical Author:
Andrew A. Dahl, MD, FACS
Medical Editor:
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, Chief Medical Editor
Next Page:
Diabetic Eye Disease Treatment»
http://www.emedicinehealth.com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em.htm#diabetic_ey
e_disease_diagnosis

Diabetic Eye Disease Causes
Patient Comments Share Your Story
Over many years, high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and other abnormalities in metabolism
found in people with diabetes may damage the blood vessels in the body. This damage to the
blood vessels leads to poor circulation of the blood to various parts of the body. Since the
function of the blood is to carry oxygen and other nutrients, this poor circulation causes
decreased oxygen delivery to tissues in different parts of the body and subsequent damage to
those tissues.
Some of the most sensitive tissues to decreased blood flow and oxygen delivery include the
brain, heart, kidneys, and the eyes. Lack of adequate oxygen delivery to these areas causes
strokes, heart attacks, kidney failure, and vision loss.
Feet and Lower Legs
The feet and lower legs can also suffer from poor blood circulation and oxygen delivery,
resulting in symptoms of:

Numbness and tingling

Poor healing of even minor wounds

Ulceration and infection

Not infrequently, the need for amputation of a toe, a foot, or the lower leg.

The Retina
The primary part of the eye affected by diabetes is the retina.
The retina can be thought of as the film in a camera. If the film in a camera is faulty, the resulting
picture will be blurry. In a similar manner, if the retina of the eye is swollen, wrinkled, or
Daftar pustaka :
Dahl, Andrew A. “diabetic eye disease”21 Januari 2014.
http://www.emedicinehealth.com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em.htm#diabetic_ey
e_disease_diagnosis

this vision loss may be permanent. potentially leading to bleeding inside the eye (called vitreous hemorrhage) and usually resulting in severe vision loss. repeated swelling of this type is thought to damage the lens and cause it to become cloudy. resulting in tractional retinal detachments. The new blood vessels are extremely leaky and fragile.com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em. thus changing the focal point of the eye and resulting in blurring of the vision. new blood vessels may begin to grow. a particularly severe form of glaucoma. causing neovascular glaucoma." forming what are called microaneurysms.htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis . they may cause scarring inside the eye.  In people with diabetes. o Many people with diabetes may notice that their vision becomes blurry when they have fairly large. changes in the walls of the small blood vessels in the retina are caused by blood sugar abnormalities. as well as leak fluid (called edema) and blood (called dot and blot hemorrhages) into the retina.com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em. This temporary blurring is because the sugar in the blood can diffuse into the lens of the eye and cause it to swell. resulting in a cataract.  As a response to decreased oxygen delivery to the retina. MD. considering that the old blood vessels are damaged.Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/5/2014 Medical Author: Andrew A. o In cases of severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy. If not treated appropriately. the change in vision will range from minimal to severe and be temporary or permanent. the new blood vessels are actually more harmful than beneficial. Dahl.emedicinehealth. a process called proliferative diabetic retinopathy. These small blood vessels may begin to "balloon. the vision in that eye will be blurry.emedicinehealth. Andrew A. Although new blood vessels may sound like a good thing. as well as leak fluid (called microaneurysms. MD. Depending on the type. rapid shifts in their blood sugar levels. This process is called background diabetic retinopathy or nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. new blood vessels may grow on the surface of the iris. and extent of damage in the retina. “diabetic eye disease”21 Januari 2014. Chief Medical Editor Next Page: Diabetic Eye Disease Treatment» http://www. FACS Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler. which is another cause of permanent vision loss. Daftar pustaka : Dahl. Over time.htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis otherwise structurally damaged. http://www. o If the new blood vessels are extensive. the process is called diabetic macular edema. If fluid accumulates in the central part of the retina (called the macula) and causes swelling there. location.

“diabetic eye disease”21 Januari 2014. MD. Chief Medical Editor Next Page: Diabetic Eye Disease Symptoms» Daftar pustaka : Dahl. This high pressure inside the eye can damage the optic nerve and cause permanent vision loss. http://www. the lens.Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/5/2014 Medical Author: Andrew A.com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em. Chief Medical Editor Next Page: Diabetic Eye Disease Treatment» http://www.htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis o The high blood sugar levels may also eventually damage the cells lining the trabecular meshwork toward the front of the eye. the fluid cannot flow out of the eye properly and the pressure inside the eye can increase. Dahl. This process is called glaucoma. If the trabecular meshwork does not function correctly. MD. FACS Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler. Diabetic eye disease can cause a wide range of problems that affect the eyes. MD. the trabecular meshwork cannot function correctly. where the fluid (called aqueous humor) flows out from within the eye.emedicinehealth. and the trabecular meshwork. Dahl.com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em. Andrew A. Picture of the structures of the eye Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/5/2014 Medical Author: Andrew A. FACS Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler.htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis . MD. in particular the retina.emedicinehealth. When these cells are damaged.

“diabetic eye disease”21 Januari 2014. Jika film ini mengalami kerusakan maka akan member efek pada penglihatan yang buram. timbulnya sikatrik kerutan pada retina dan kerusakan struktur pada retina. Dahl. Retina dapat diibaratkan sebagai film dari sebuah kamera. Kerusakan endotel pada pembuluh darah yang terjadi di pasien diabetes mellitus tentu akan memberikan efek hipoksia ke jaringan yang akan berakhir dengan kerusakan jaringan tersebut.emedicinehealth. RETINA Efek primer dari diabetes pada organ mata ditemukan pada retina. Berdasarkan tipe. Kelainan lain yang menyebabkan penglihatan menjadi buram dapat juga berupa pembengkakan pada retina. MD.emedicinehealth. lokasi dan bentuk kerusakannya pada retina derajat kebutaan bisa ringan sampai berat. FACS Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler. http://www. Beberapa jaringan tubuh sangat sensitive terhadap keadaan hipoksia ini jaringan tersebut adalah jaringan pada otak.Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/5/2014 Medical Author: Andrew A.com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em. jantung. Andrew A. Hipoksia pada jaringan mata akan menyebabkan kebutaan.htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis Efek penyakit diabetes pada mata. Chief Medical Editor Next Page: Diabetic Eye Disease Treatment» http://www.htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis .com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em. Kelainan metabolism yang terjadi pada diabetes antara lain peningkatan kadar gula darah dalam jangka panjang dapat merusak endotel pembuluh darah di tubuh. Daftar pustaka : Dahl. (patofisiologis) sumber di header note. ginjal dan mata. MD.

htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis .com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em. Untuk merespon keadaan hipoksia jaringan. Andrew A.htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis  Orang dengan diabetes akan mengalami perubahan mikrovaskular oleh karena kadar gula darah yang abnormal. MD. o Komplikasi lain yang bisa terjadi setelah terbentuk pembuluh darah yang baru adalah jika pertumbuhan pembuluh darah ini jumlahnya terlalu banyak maka akan menyebabkan luka pada Daftar pustaka : Dahl. MD. http://www. dan jika pasien pada fase ini tidak mendapatkan pertolongan yang tepat dapat terjadi kebutaan permanent.emedicinehealth.com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em. maka terbentuklah pembuluh darah yang baru. Chief Medical Editor Next Page: Diabetic Eye Disease Treatment» http://www. Pembentukan pembuluh darah baru yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan oksigenasi jaringan ini adalah justru awal dari sebuah fase yang bahaya. Jika terjadi akumulasi di bagian  makula disertai edem makula fase ini disebut makular edema. FACS Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler. Dahl. karena pembuluh darah yang baru ini sangat rentan dan dapat berpotensi menjadi penyebab dari vitreus hemoragik yang biasanya akan berujung penurunan visus yang berat. “diabetic eye disease”21 Januari 2014. fase ini disebut proliferatif.Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/5/2014 Medical Author: Andrew A. Kerusakan mikrovaskular yang terjadi biasanya diawali dengan proses balloning atau mikroaneurisma yang menyebabkan terjadinya rembesan cairan atau edem dan perdarahan pada retina keadaan ini disebut sebagai fase nonproliferatif diabetik retinopati.emedicinehealth.

com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em. Kebanyakan orang dengan diabetes mungkin mengalami penurunan ketajaman penglihatan. Efek dari edem pada lensa adalah perubahan fokus lensa yang turut serta mengubah ketajaman penglihatan. Kadar gula darah yang tinggi juga dapat merusak jaringan trabekula yang berada di bagian mata depan.Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/5/2014 Medical Author: Andrew A. Penurunan ketajaman mata pada pasien diabetes ini terjadi karena kadar gula darahnya yang tinggi dapat berdifusi ke lensa mata dan menyebabkan lensa tersebut menjadi membengkak. Andrew A. pembuluh darah dapat juga terbentuk di permukaan iris menyebabkan glaukoma  neurovaskular.emedicinehealth.htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis bagian dalam mata sehingga retina bisa terlepas . Tekanan intraokular yang meningkat dalam mata dapat Daftar pustaka : Dahl. Seiring dengan waktu jika keadaan ini terjadi terus menerus dan berulang maka akan merusak lensa mata menjadi  tampak berkabut seperti pada katarak.emedicinehealth. MD. “diabetic eye disease”21 Januari 2014. sehingga berakhir menjadi buta permanen o Pada keadaan proliferatif diabetik yang berat. Chief Medical Editor Next Page: Diabetic Eye Disease Treatment» http://www. Dahl. ketika kadar gula darahnya cukup tinggi. http://www. MD. jaringan ini mengalirkan aquos humor keluar dari mata.com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em. FACS Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler.htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis . jika jaringan ini rusak maka aliran aquos humor akan terganggu sehingga terjadi peningkatan tekanan intraokular.

htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis .Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/5/2014 Medical Author: Andrew A. MD. “diabetic eye disease”21 Januari 2014.emedicinehealth. MD. http://www.htm#diabetic_ey e_disease_diagnosis merusak saraf optik mata dan menyebabkan kebutaan permanen. Dahl. Chief Medical Editor Next Page: Diabetic Eye Disease Treatment» http://www.emedicinehealth. Andrew A.com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em.com/diabetic_eye_disease/page4_em. FACS Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler. Keadaan ini disebut glaukoma Daftar pustaka : Dahl.