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**Flow Across Cylinders And Spheres
**

19-32C The local heat transfer coefficient is highest at the stagnation point ( = 0), and decreases with

increasing angle measured from the horizontal, reaching a minimum at the top point of the cylinder (

= 90).

19-33C At Reynolds numbers greater than about 10 5, the local heat transfer coefficient during flow across

a cylinder reaches a maximum at an angle of about = 110 measured from the stagnation point. The

physical phenomenon that is responsible for this increase is flow separation (the break-up of the boundary

layer) at this angle in turbulent flow, and the associated intense mixing.

19-34C For the laminar flow, the heat transfer coefficient will be the highest at the stagnation point which

corresponds to 0 . In turbulent flow, on the other hand, it will be highest when is between

90 and 120 .

19-35 A steam pipe is exposed to windy air. The rate of heat loss from the steam is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature of (T s + T)/2 = (90+7)/2 = 48.5C are

(Table A-22)

Pipe

D = 8 cm

Ts = 90C

k 0.02724 W/m.C

Air

V = 50 km/h

1.784 10 -5 m 2 /s

Pr 0.7232

T = 7C

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

**V D [(50 km/h)(1000 m/km)/(3600 s/h)](0.08 m)
**

6.228 10 4

5

2

1.784 10 m /s

**The Nusselt number corresponding to this Reynolds number is
**

hD

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

Nu

0.3

1/ 4

k

1 0.4 / Pr 2 / 3

Re

1

282

,

000

4/5

5/8

6.228 10 4

0.62(6.228 10 4 ) 0.5 (0.7232)1 / 3

0.3

1

2 / 3 1/ 4

282,000

1 0.4 / 0.7232

4/5

5/8

159.1

The heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer rate become

h

k

0.02724 W/m.C

Nu

(159.1) 54.17 W/m 2 .C

D

0.08 m

**As DL (0.08 m)(1 m) = 0.2513 m 2
**

2

2

Q

conv hAs (T s T ) (54.17 W/m .C)(0.2513 m )(90 - 7)C = 1130 W (per m length)

19-26

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-36 A hot stainless steel ball is cooled by forced air. The average convection heat transfer coefficient and

the cooling time are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The outer surface temperature of the ball is uniform at all times.

Properties The average surface temperature is (350+250)/2 = 300C, and the properties of air at 1 atm

pressure and the free stream temperature of 30C are (Table A-22)

k 0.02588 W/m.C

1.608 10 -5 m 2 /s

1.872 10

5

kg/m.s

5

kg/m.s

s , @ 300 C 2.934 10

Air

V = 6 m/s

D = 15 cm

Ts = 350C

T = 30C

D

Pr 0.7282

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

V D

(6 m/s)(0.15 m)

5.597 10 4

1.57 10 5 m 2 /s

The Nusselt number corresponding this Reynolds number is determined to be

Nu

hD

2 0.4 Re 0.5 0.06 Re 2 / 3 Pr 0.4

k

s

4 0.5

2 0.4(5.597 10 )

1/ 4

4

0.06(5.597 10 )

2/3

(0.7282)

0.4

1.872 10 5

2.934 10 5

1/ 4

Heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02588 W/m.C

Nu

(145.6) 25.12W/m2 .C

D

0.15 m

**The average rate of heat transfer can be determined from Newton's law of cooling by using average
**

surface temperature of the ball

As D 2 (0.15 m) 2 = 0.07069 m 2

2

2

Q

ave hAs (T s T ) ( 25.12 W/m .C)(0.07069 m )(300 - 30)C = 479.5 W

Assuming the ball temperature to be nearly uniform , the total heat transferred from the ball during the

cooling from 350 C to 250 C can be determined from

Qtotal mC p (T1 T2 )

where

m V

(0.15 m) 3

D 3

(8055 kg/m 3 )

14.23 kg

6

6

**Therefore, Qtotal mC p (T1 T2 ) (14.23 kg)(480 J/kg.C)(350 - 250)C = 683,249 J
**

Then the time of cooling becomes

t

Q

683,249 J

1425 s 23.75min

479.5 J/s

Q

19-27

145.6

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-37

"GIVEN"

D=0.15 "[m]"

T_1=350 "[C]"

T_2=250 "[C]"

T_infinity=30 "[C]"

P=101.3 "[kPa]"

"Vel=6 [m/s], parameter to be varied"

rho_ball=8055 "[kg/m^3]"

C_p_ball=480 "[J/kg-C]"

"PROPERTIES"

Fluid$='air'

k=Conductivity(Fluid$, T=T_infinity)

Pr=Prandtl(Fluid$, T=T_infinity)

rho=Density(Fluid$, T=T_infinity, P=P)

mu_infinity=Viscosity(Fluid$, T=T_infinity)

nu=mu_infinity/rho

mu_s=Viscosity(Fluid$, T=T_s_ave)

T_s_ave=1/2*(T_1+T_2)

"ANALYSIS"

Re=(Vel*D)/nu

Nusselt=2+(0.4*Re^0.5+0.06*Re^(2/3))*Pr^0.4*(mu_infinity/mu_s)^0.25

h=k/D*Nusselt

A=pi*D^2

Q_dot_ave=h*A*(T_s_ave-T_infinity)

Q_total=m_ball*C_p_ball*(T_1-T_2)

m_ball=rho_ball*V_ball

V_ball=(pi*D^3)/6

time=Q_total/Q_dot_ave*Convert(s, min)

Vel [m/s]

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

8

8.5

9

9.5

10

h [W/m2.C]

9.204

11.5

13.5

15.29

16.95

18.49

19.94

21.32

22.64

23.9

25.12

26.3

27.44

28.55

29.63

30.69

31.71

32.72

33.7

time [min]

64.83

51.86

44.2

39.01

35.21

32.27

29.92

27.99

26.36

24.96

23.75

22.69

21.74

20.9

20.14

19.44

18.81

18.24

17.7

19-28

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

35

70

30

60

h

50

20

40

15

30

time

10

5

1

20

2

3

4

5

6

Vel [m/s]

19-29

7

8

9

10

10

time [min]

2

h [W/m -C]

25

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-38E A person extends his uncovered arms into the windy air outside. The rate of heat loss from the

arm is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The arm is treated as a 2-ft-long and 3-in.-diameter cylinder with insulated

ends. 5 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature of (T s + T)/2 = (86+54)/2 = 70F are

(Table A-22E)

k 0.01457 Btu/h.ft.F

Air

V = 20 mph

T = 54F

0.1643 10 -3 ft 2 /s

Pr 0.7306

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

**V D (20 5280/3600) ft/s (3/12) ft
**

4.463 10 4

3

2

0.1643 10 ft /s

Arm

D = 3 in

Ts = 86F

**The Nusselt number corresponding this Reynolds number is determined to be
**

hD

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

Nu

0.3

1/ 4

k

2/3

0.4

1

Pr

Re

1

282,000

4/5

5/8

4.463 10 4

0.62( 4.463 10 4 ) 0.5 (0.7306)1 / 3

0.3

1

1/ 4

282,000

2/3

0.4

1

0.7306

4/5

5/8

129.6

Then the heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer rate from the arm becomes

h

k

0.01457 Btu/h.ft.F

Nu

(129.6) 7.557 Btu/h.ft 2 .F

D

(3 / 12) ft

**As DL (3 / 12 ft)(2 ft) = 1.571 ft 2
**

2

2

Q

conv hAs (T s T ) (7.557 Btu/h.ft .F)(1.571 ft )(86 - 54)F = 379.8 Btu/h

19-30

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-39E

"GIVEN"

T_infinity=54 "[F], parameter to be varied"

"Vel=20 [mph], parameter to be varied"

T_s=86 "[F]"

L=2 "[ft]"

D=3/12 "[ft]"

"PROPERTIES"

Fluid$='air'

k=Conductivity(Fluid$, T=T_film)

Pr=Prandtl(Fluid$, T=T_film)

rho=Density(Fluid$, T=T_film, P=14.7)

mu=Viscosity(Fluid$, T=T_film)*Convert(lbm/ft-h, lbm/ft-s)

nu=mu/rho

T_film=1/2*(T_s+T_infinity)

"ANALYSIS"

Re=(Vel*Convert(mph, ft/s)*D)/nu

Nusselt=0.3+(0.62*Re^0.5*Pr^(1/3))/(1+(0.4/Pr)^(2/3))^0.25*(1+

(Re/282000)^(5/8))^(4/5)

h=k/D*Nusselt

A=pi*D*L

Q_dot_conv=h*A*(T_s-T_infinity)

T [F]

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

Q conv [Btu/h]

790.2

729.4

668.7

608.2

547.9

487.7

427.7

367.9

308.2

248.6

189.2

129.9

70.77

Vel [mph]

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

36

38

40

Q conv [Btu/h]

250.6

278.9

305.7

331.3

356

379.8

403

425.6

447.7

469.3

490.5

511.4

532

552.2

572.2

591.9

19-31

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

800

700

Qconv [Btu/h]

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

T [F]

600

550

Qconv [Btu/h]

500

450

400

350

300

250

10

15

20

25

30

Vel [mph]

19-32

35

40

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-40 The average surface temperature of the head of a person when it is not covered and is subjected to

winds is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 One-quarter of the heat the person generates is lost from the head. 5 The head

can be approximated as a 30-cm-diameter sphere. 6 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm pressure and the free stream temperature of 10C are (Table A22)

k 0.02439 W/m.C

1.426 10 -5 m 2 /s

Air

V = 35 km/h

1.778 10 5 kg/m.s

s , @ 15C 1.802 10 5 kg/m.s

T = 10C

Pr 0.7336

D = 0.3 m

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

Head

Q = 21 W

**V D (35 1000/3600) m/s (0.3 m)
**

2.045 10 5

5

2

1.426 10 m /s

The proper relation for Nusselt number corresponding to this Reynolds number is

hD

Nu

2 0.4 Re 0.5 0.06 Re 2 / 3 Pr 0.4

k

s

1/ 4

1.778 10 5

5

1.802 10

2 0.4( 2.045 10 5 ) 0.5 0.06( 2.045 10 4 ) 2 / 3 (0.7336) 0.4

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02439 W/m.C

Nu

(344.7) 28.02 W/m 2 .C

D

0. 3 m

Then the surface temperature of the head is determined to be

As D 2 (0.3 m) 2 = 0.2827 m 2

Q hAs (T s T )

T s T

Q

(84/4) W

10 C +

12.7 C

hAs

(28.02 W/m 2 .C)(0.2827 m 2 )

19-33

1/ 4

344.7

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-41 The flow of a fluid across an isothermal cylinder is considered. The change in the rate of heat

transfer when the freestream velocity of the fluid is doubled is to be determined.

Analysis The rate of heat transfer between the fluid and the cylinder is given by Newton's law of cooling.

We assume the Nusselt number is proportional to the nth power of the Reynolds number with 0.33 < n <

0.805. Then,

Q 1 hAs (Ts T )

k

Nu As (Ts T )

D

k

Re n As (Ts T )

D

n

k V D

As (Ts T )

D

V n

k D

D

n

As (Ts T )

**When the freestream velocity of the fluid is doubled, the heat transfer rate becomes
**

k D

Q 2 ( 2V ) n

D

n

A(T s T )

Air

V 2V

Taking the ratio of them yields

Q 2 ( 2V ) n

2n

n

Q 1

V

19-34

Pipe

D

Ts

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-42 The wind is blowing across the wire of a transmission line. The surface temperature of the wire is to

be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties We assume the film temperature to be 10C. The

properties of air at this temperature are (Table A-22)

1.246 kg/m 3

k 0.02439 W/m.C

1.426 10 -5 m 2 /s

Pr 0.7336

Wind

V = 40 km/h

Analysis The Reynolds number is

T = 10C

Re

**V D (40 1000/3600) m/s (0.006 m)
**

4674

1.426 10 5 m 2 /s

Transmission

wire, Ts

D = 0.6 cm

**The Nusselt number corresponding this Reynolds number is determined to be
**

hD

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

Nu

0.3

1/ 4

k

1 0.4 / Pr 2 / 3

0.3

Re

1

282

,

000

0.62( 4674) 0.5 (0.7336)1 / 3

1 0.4 / 0.7336

2 / 3 1/ 4

5/8 4/5

4674

1

282

,000

4/5

5/8

36.0

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02439 W/m.C

Nu

(36.0) 146.3 W/m 2 .C

D

0.006 m

**The rate of heat generated in the electrical transmission lines per meter length is
**

W Q I 2 R (50 A) 2 (0.002 Ohm) = 5.0 W

The entire heat generated in electrical transmission line has to be transferred to the ambient air. The

surface temperature of the wire then becomes

**As DL (0.006 m)(1 m) = 0.01885 m 2
**

Q hAs (Ts T )

T s T

Q

5W

10C +

11.8C

2

hAs

(146.3 W/m .C)(0.01885 m 2 )

19-35

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-43

"GIVEN"

D=0.006 "[m]"

L=1 "[m], unit length is considered"

I=50 "[Ampere]"

R=0.002 "[Ohm]"

T_infinity=10 "[C]"

"Vel=40 [km/h], parameter to be varied"

"PROPERTIES"

Fluid$='air'

k=Conductivity(Fluid$, T=T_film)

Pr=Prandtl(Fluid$, T=T_film)

rho=Density(Fluid$, T=T_film, P=101.3)

mu=Viscosity(Fluid$, T=T_film)

nu=mu/rho

T_film=1/2*(T_s+T_infinity)

"ANALYSIS"

Re=(Vel*Convert(km/h, m/s)*D)/nu

Nusselt=0.3+(0.62*Re^0.5*Pr^(1/3))/(1+(0.4/Pr)^(2/3))^0.25*(1+

(Re/282000)^(5/8))^(4/5)

h=k/D*Nusselt

W_dot=I^2*R

Q_dot=W_dot

A=pi*D*L

Q_dot=h*A*(T_s-T_infinity)

Vel [km/h]

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

Ts [C]

13.72

13.02

12.61

12.32

12.11

11.95

11.81

11.7

11.61

11.53

11.46

11.4

11.34

11.29

11.25

19-36

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

14

13.5

Ts [C]

13

12.5

12

11.5

11

10

20

30

40

50

Vel [km/h]

19-37

60

70

80

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-44 An aircraft is cruising at 900 km/h. A heating system keeps the wings above freezing temperatures.

The average convection heat transfer coefficient on the wing surface and the average rate of heat transfer

per unit surface area are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The wing is approximated as a cylinder of elliptical cross section whose minor

axis is 30 cm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature of (T s + T)/2 = (0-55.4)/2 = -27.7C

are (Table A-22)

k 0.02152 W/m.C

1.106 10 -5 m 2 /s

Pr 0.7422

**Note that the atmospheric pressure will only affect the kinematic viscosity. The
**

atmospheric pressure in atm unit is

P (18.8 kPa)

18.8 kPa

V = 900 km/h

T = -55.4C

1 atm

01855

.

atm

101.325 kPa

**The kinematic viscosity at this atmospheric pressure is
**

(1.106 10 5 m 2 /s)/ 0.1855 5.961 10 5 m 2 /s

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

**V D (900 1000/3600) m/s(0.3 m)
**

1.258 10 6

5

2

5.961 10 m /s

**The Nusselt number relation for a cylinder of elliptical cross-section is limited to Re < 15,000, and the
**

relation below is not really applicable in this case. However, this relation is all we have for elliptical

shapes, and we will use it with the understanding that the results may not be accurate.

Nu

hD

0.248 Re 0.612 Pr 1 / 3 0.248(1.258 10 6 ) 0.612 (0.724)1 / 3 1204

k

The average heat transfer coefficient on the wing surface is

h

k

0.02152 W/m.C

Nu

(1204) 86.39 W/m 2 .C

D

0 .3 m

Then the average rate of heat transfer per unit surface area becomes

q h(Ts T ) (86.39 W/m 2 .C)[0 - (-55.4)] C 4786W/m2

19-38

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-45 A long aluminum wire is cooled by cross air flowing over it. The rate of heat transfer from the wire

per meter length when it is first exposed to the air is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature

of (Ts + T)/2 = (370+30)/2 = 200C are (Table A-22)

k 0.03779 W/m.C

3.455 10 -5 m 2 /s

370C

Pr 0.6974

Aluminum wire

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

V D

(6 m/s)(0.003 m)

521.0

3.455 10 5 m 2 /s

V = 6 m/s

T = 30C

**The Nusselt number corresponding this Reynolds number is determined to be
**

hD

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

Nu

0.3

1/ 4

k

1 0.4 / Pr 2 / 3

0.3

Re

1

282

,

000

0.62(521.0) 0.5 (0.6974)1 / 3

1 0.4 / 0.6974

2 / 3 1/ 4

5/8 4/5

521.0

1

282,000

4/5

5/8

11 .48

Then the heat transfer coefficient and the heat transfer rate from the wire per meter length become

h

D = 3 mm

k

0.03779 W/m.C

Nu

(11.48) 144.6 W/m 2 .C

D

0.003 m

**As DL (0.003 m)(1 m) = 0.009425 m 2
**

2

2

Q

conv hAs (T s T ) (144.6 W/m .C)(0.009425 m )(370 - 30)C = 463.4 W

19-39

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-46E A fan is blowing air over the entire body of a person. The average temperature of the outer surface

of the person is to be determined for two cases.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The average human body can be treated as a 1-ft-diamter cylinder with an

exposed surface area of 18 ft2. 5 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties We assume the film temperature to be 100 F . The

properties of air at this temperature are (Table A-22E)

k 0.01529 Btu/h.ft. F

0.1809 10

-3

Person, Ts

300 Btu/h

V = 6 ft/s

2

ft /s

T = 85F

Pr 0.7260

Analysis The Reynolds number is

D = 1 ft

V D

(6 ft/s)(1 ft)

Re

3.317 10 4

0.1809 10 3 ft 2 /s

The proper relation for Nusselt number corresponding this Reynolds number is

hD

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

Nu

0.3

1/ 4

k

1 (0.4 / Pr) 2 / 3

Re

1

282,000

4/5

5/8

3.317 10 4

0.62(3.317 10 4 ) 0.5 (0.7260)1 / 3

0.3

1

1/ 4

282,000

1 (0.4 / 0.7260) 2 / 3

4/5

5/8

107.84

The heat transfer coefficient is

k

0.01529 Btu/h.ft.F

Nu

(107.84) 1.649 Btu/h.ft 2 .F

D

(1 ft)

Then the average temperature of the outer surface of the person becomes

h

300 Btu/h

hA (T T ) T T Q 85F +

Q

95.1F

s

s

s

hAs

(1.649 Btu/h.ft 2 .F)(18 ft 2 )

If the air velocity were doubled, the Reynolds number would be

Re

V D

(12 ft/s)(1 ft)

6.633 10 4

3

2

0.1809 10 ft /s

**The proper relation for Nusselt number corresponding this Reynolds number is
**

hD

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

Nu

0.3

1/ 4

k

1 (0.4 / Pr) 2 / 3

Re

1

282

,

000

4/5

5/8

6.633 10 4

0.62(6.633 10 4 ) 0.5 (0.7260)1 / 3

0.3

1

1

/

4

282,000

1 (0.4 / 0.7260) 2 / 3

4/5

5/8

165.95

Heat transfer coefficient is

k

0.01529 Btu/h.ft.F

Nu

(165.95) 2.537 Btu/h.ft 2 .F

D

(1 ft)

Then the average temperature of the outer surface of the person becomes

Q

300 Btu/h

Q hAs (Ts T ) Ts T

85F +

91.6F

hAs

(2.537 Btu/h.ft 2 .F)(18 ft 2 )

h

19-40

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-47 A light bulb is cooled by a fan. The equilibrium temperature of the glass bulb is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 3 The

light bulb is in spherical shape. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm pressure and the free stream temperature of 25C are (Table A22)

k 0.02551 W/m.C

1.562 10 -5 m 2 /s

Lamp

100 W

= 0.9

Air

V = 2 m/s

1.849 10 5 kg/m.s

T = 25C

s , @ 100C 2.181 10 5 kg/m.s

Pr 0.7296

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

V D

(2 m/s)(0.1 m)

1.280 10 4

5

2

1.562 10 m /s

The proper relation for Nusselt number corresponding to this Reynolds number is

hD

Nu

2 0.4 Re 0.5 0.06 Re 2 / 3 Pr 0.4

k

s

1/ 4

1.849 10 5

5

2.181 10

1/ 4

2 0.4(1.280 10 4 ) 0.5 0.06(1.280 10 4 ) 2 / 3 (0.7296) 0.4

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02551 W/m.C

Nu

(68.06 ) 17.36 W/m 2 .C

D

0.1 m

**Noting that 90 % of electrical energy is converted to heat,
**

Q (0.90)(100 W) = 90 W

The bulb loses heat by both convection and radiation. The equilibrium temperature of the glass bulb can

be determined by iteration,

As D 2 (0.1 m ) 2 0.0314 m 2

**Q total Q conv Q rad hAs (Ts T ) As (Ts 4 Tsurr 4 )
**

90 W (17.36 W/m 2 .C)(0.0314 m 2 )Ts (25 273)K

(0.9)(0.0314 m 2 )(5.67 10 -8 W/m 2 .K 4 ) Ts 4 (25 273 K ) 4

Ts 406.2 K 133.2C

19-41

68.06

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-48 A steam pipe is exposed to a light winds in the atmosphere. The amount of heat loss from the steam

during a certain period and the money the facility will save a year as a result of insulating the steam pipe

are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 3 The

plant operates every day of the year for 10 h a day. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature

of (Ts + T)/2 = (75+5)/2 = 40C are (Table A-22)

Wind

V = 10 km/h

k 0.02662 W/m.C

1.702 10

-5

T = 5C

2

m /s

Steam pipe

Ts = 75C

D = 10 cm

Pr 0.7255

Analysis The Reynolds number is

= 0.8

V D (10 1000/3600) m/s(0.1 m)

Re

1.632 10 4

5

2

1.702 10 m /s

**The Nusselt number corresponding this Reynolds number is determined to be
**

hD

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

Nu

0.3

1/ 4

k

1 (0.4 / Pr) 2 / 3

Re

1

282

,000

4/5

5/8

1.632 10 4

0.62(1.632 10 4 ) 0.5 (0.7255)1 / 3

0.3

1

1

/

4

282,000

1 (0.4 / 0.7255) 2 / 3

4/5

5/8

71.19

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02662 W/m.C

Nu

(71.19) 18.95 W/m 2 .C

D

0.1 m

The rate of heat loss by convection is

As DL (0.1 m )(12 m) 3.77 m 2

**Q hAs (T s T ) (18.95 W/m 2 .C)(3.77 m 2 )(75 - 5)C = 5001 W
**

The rate of heat loss by radiation is

Q rad As (Ts 4 Tsurr 4 )

** (0.8)(3.77 m 2 )(5.67 10 -8 W/m 2 .K 4 ) (75 273 K ) 4 (0 273 K ) 4 1558 W
**

The total rate of heat loss then becomes

Q total Q

conv Qrad 5001 1558 6559 W

**The amount of heat loss from the steam during a 10-hour work day is
**

5

QQ

total t (6.559 kJ/s )(10 h/day 3600 s/h ) 2.361 10 kJ/day

The total amount of heat loss from the steam per year is

5

7

Qtotal Q

day ( no. of days) ( 2.361 10 kJ/day)(365 days/yr) 8.619 10 kJ/yr

Noting that the steam generator has an efficiency of 80%, the amount of gas used is

Qtotal

8.619 10 7 kJ/yr 1 therm

105,500 kJ 1021 therms/yr

0.80

0.80

Insulation reduces this amount by 90 %. The amount of energy and money saved becomes

Q gas

**Energy saved (0.90)Q gas (0.90)(1021 therms/yr) = 919 therms/yr
**

Money saved ( Energy saved)(Unit cost of energy) = (919 therms/yr)($0.54/therm) $496

19-42

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-49 A steam pipe is exposed to light winds in the atmosphere. The amount of heat loss from the steam

during a certain period and the money the facility will save a year as a result of insulating the steam pipes

are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 3 The

plant operates every day of the year for 10 h. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature

of (Ts + T)/2 = (75+5)/2 = 40C are (Table A-22)

Wind

V = 10 km/h

k 0.02662 W/m.C

T = 5C

1.702 10 -5 m 2 /s

Steam pipe

Ts = 75C

D = 10 cm

Pr 0.7255

Analysis The Reynolds number is

= 0.8

V D (10 1000/3600) m/s(0.1 m)

Re

1.632 10 4

1.702 10 5 m 2 /s

**The Nusselt number corresponding this Reynolds number is determined to be
**

hD

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

Nu

0.3

1/ 4

k

1 (0.4 / Pr) 2 / 3

Re

1

282,000

4/5

5/8

1.632 10 4

0.62(1.632 10 4 ) 0.5 (0.7255)1 / 3

0.3

1

282,000

2 / 3 1/ 4

1 (0.4 / 0.7255)

4/5

5/8

71.19

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02662 W/m.C

Nu

(71.19) 18.95 W/m 2 .C

D

0.1 m

The rate of heat loss by convection is

As DL (0.1 m )(12 m) 3.77 m 2

**Q hAs (T s T ) (18.95 W/m 2 .C)(3.77 m 2 )(75 - 5)C = 5001 W
**

For an average surrounding temperature of 0 C , the rate of heat loss by radiation and the total rate of

heat loss are

Q rad As (Ts 4 Tsurr 4 )

** (0.8)(3.77 m 2 )(5.67 10 -8 W/m 2 .K 4 ) (75 273 K ) 4 (0 273 K ) 4 1558 W
**

Q total Q

conv Qrad 5001 1588 6559 W

If the average surrounding temperature is 20 C , the rate of heat loss by radiation and the total rate of

heat loss become

Q rad As (Ts 4 Tsurr 4 )

** (0.8)(3.77 m 2 )(5.67 10 -8 W/m 2 .K 4 ) (75 273 K ) 4 (20 273 K ) 4
**

1807 W

Q

total Qconv Qrad 5001 1807 6808 W

**which is 6808 - 6559 = 249 W more than the value for a surrounding temperature of 0 C. This
**

corresponds to

%change

Q difference

249 W

100

100 3.8% (increase)

6559 W

Qtotal,0C

If the average surrounding temperature is 25C, the rate of heat loss by radiation and the total rate of heat

loss become

19-43

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

Q rad As (Ts 4 T surr 4 )

4

(0.8)(3.77 m 2 )(5.67 10 -8 W/m 2 .K 4 ) (75 273 K ) 4 (25 273 K ) 4

1159 W

Q total Q conv Q rad 5001 1159 6160 W

**which is 6559 - 6160 = 399 W less than the value for a surrounding temperature of 0 C. This corresponds
**

to

%change

Q

399 W

difference

100

100 6.1% (decrease)

6559 W

Qtotal,0C

**Therefore, the effect of the temperature variations of the surrounding surfaces on the total heat transfer is
**

less than 6%.

19-44

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-50E An electrical resistance wire is cooled by a fan. The surface temperature of the wire is to be

determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties We assume the film temperature to be 200 F . The

properties of air at this temperature are (Table A-22E)

k 0.01761 Btu/h.ft.F

Air

V = 20 ft/s

T = 85F

0.2406 10 -3 ft 2 /s

Pr 0.7124

Resistance wire

D = 0.1 in

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

V D

(20 ft/s)(0.1/12 ft)

692.8

0.2406 10 3 ft 2 /s

**The proper relation for Nusselt number corresponding this Reynolds number is
**

hD

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

Nu

0.3

1/ 4

k

1 (0.4 / Pr) 2 / 3

0.3

Re

1

282,000

0.62(692.8) 0.5 (0.7124)1 / 3

1 (0.4 / 0.7124)

2 / 3 1/ 4

4/5

5/8

692.8

1

282,000

4/5

5/8

13.34

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.01761 Btu/h.ft.F

Nu

(13.34) 28.19 Btu/h.ft 2 .F

D

(0.1 / 12 ft)

Then the average temperature of the outer surface of the wire becomes

**As DL (0.1 / 12 ft )(12 ft) 0.3142 ft 2
**

Q hAs (Ts T )

T s T

Q

(1500 3.41214) Btu/h

85F +

662.9F

hA

(28.19 Btu/h.ft 2 .F)(0.3142 ft 2 )

**Discussion Repeating the calculations at the new film temperature of (85+662.9)/2=374 F gives
**

Ts=668.3F.

19-45

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-51 The components of an electronic system located in a horizontal duct is cooled by air flowing over

the duct. The total power rating of the electronic device is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature

of (Ts + T)/2 = (65+30)/2 = 47.5C are (Table A-22)

20 cm

k 0.02717 W/m.C

1.774 10 -5 m 2 /s

65C

Pr 0.7235

Air

30C

200 m/min

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

V D (200/60) m/s(0.2 m)

3.758 10 4

1.774 10 5 m 2 /s

Using the relation for a square duct from Table 19-1, the Nusselt number is determined to be

Nu

hD

0.102 Re 0.675 Pr 1 / 3 0.102(3.758 10 4 ) 0.675 (0.7235)1 / 3 112 .2

k

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02717 W/m.C

Nu

(112 .2) 15.24 W/m 2 .C

D

0 .2 m

Then the rate of heat transfer from the duct becomes

As ( 4 0.2 m )(1.5 m) 1.2 m 2

hA (T T ) (15.24 W/m 2 .C)(1.2 m 2 )(65 - 30)C = 640.0 W

Q

s

s

19-46

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-52 The components of an electronic system located in a horizontal duct is cooled by air flowing over

the duct. The total power rating of the electronic device is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature of (T s + T)/2 = (65+30)/2 = 47.5C are

(Table A-22)

k 0.02717 W/m.C

1.774 10 -5 m 2 /s

Pr 0.7235

**For a location at 4000 m altitude where the atmospheric pressure is
**

61.66 kPa, only kinematic viscosity of air will be affected. Thus,

101.325

5

5

2

(1.774 10 ) 2.915 10 m /s

61

.

66

20 cm

@ 61.66 kPa

Air

30C

200 m/min

4

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

V D (200/60) m/s (0.2 m)

2.287 10

2.915 10 5 m 2 /s

Using the relation for a square duct from Table 19-1, the Nusselt number is determined to be

Nu

hD

0.102 Re 0.675 Pr 1 / 3 0.102(2.287) 0.675 (0.7235)1 / 3 80.21

k

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02717 W/m.C

Nu

(80.21) 10.90 W/m 2 .C

D

0.2 m

Then the rate of heat transfer from the duct becomes

As ( 4 0.2 m )(1.5 m) 1.2 m 2

hA (T T ) (10.90 W/m 2 .C)(1.2 m 2 )(65 - 30)C = 457.7 W

Q

s

s

19-47

65C

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-53 A cylindrical electronic component mounted on a circuit board is cooled by air flowing across it.

The surface temperature of the component is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties We assume the film temperature to be 50C. The

properties of air at 1 atm and at this temperature are (Table A-22)

k 0.02735 W/m.C

1.798 10

-5

2

m /s

Air

V = 150 m/min

T = 40C

Q

Resistor

0.4 W

D = 0.3 cm

Pr 0.7228

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

**V D (150/60 m/s)(0.003 m)
**

417.1

1.798 10 5 m 2 /s

**The proper relation for Nusselt number corresponding to this Reynolds number is
**

hD

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

Nu

0.3

1/ 4

k

1 (0.4 / Pr) 2 / 3

0.3

Re

1

282

,

000

0.62( 417.1) 0.5 (0.7228)1 / 3

1 (0.4 / 0.7228)

2 / 3 1/ 4

4/5

5/8

417.1

1

282

,000

4/5

5/8

10.43

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02735 W/m.C

Nu

(10.43) 95.09 W/m 2 .C

D

0.003 m

Then the surface temperature of the component becomes

**As DL (0.003 m )(0.018 m) 0.0001696 m 2
**

Q hAs (Ts T )

T s T

Q

0.4 W

40 C +

64.8C

2

hA

(95.09 W/m .C)(0.0001696 m 2 )

19-48

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-54 A cylindrical hot water tank is exposed to windy air. The temperature of the tank after a 45-min

cooling period is to be estimated.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The surface of the tank is at the same temperature as the water temperature. 5

The heat transfer coefficient on the top and bottom surfaces is the same as that on the side surfaces.

Properties The properties of water at 80C are (Table A-15)

971.8 kg/m 3

C p 4197 J/kg.C

**The properties of air at 1 atm and at the anticipated film temperature of 50C are (Table A-22)
**

k 0.02735 W/m.C

Water tank

D =50 cm

L = 95 cm

1.798 10 -5 m 2 /s

Pr 0.7228

Analysis The Reynolds number is

40 1000

m/s (0.50 m)

V D

3600

Re

309,015

5

1.798 10 m 2 /s

Air

V =40 km/h

**The proper relation for Nusselt number corresponding to this
**

Reynolds number is

Nu 0.3

0.3

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

1 0.4 / Pr

2 / 3 1/ 4

Re

1

282,000

5/8

0.62(309,015) 0.5 (0.7228)1 / 3

1 0.4 / 0.7228

2 / 3 1/ 4

T = 18C

4/5

309,015

1

282,000

4/5

5/8

484.9

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02735 W/m.C

Nu

(484.9) 26.53 W/m 2 .C

D

0.50 m

The surface area of the tank is

As DL 2

D2

(0.5)(0.95) 2 (0.5) 2 / 4 1.885 m 2

4

The rate of heat transfer is determined from

80 T2

Q hAs (T s T ) (26.53 W/m 2 .C)(1.885 m 2 )

18 C

2

(Eq. 1)

**where T2 is the final temperature of water so that (80+T2)/2 gives the average temperature of water during
**

the cooling process. The mass of water in the tank is

D2

L (971.8 kg/m 3 ) (0.50 m) 2 (0.95 m)/4 181.27 kg

4

The amount of heat transfer from the water is determined from

m V

Q mC p (T2 T1 ) (181.27 kg)(4197 J/kg.C)(80 - T2 )C

Then average rate of heat transfer is

(181.27 kg)(4197 J/kg.C)(80 - T2 )C

Q

Q

t

45 60 s

Setting Eq. 1 to be equal to Eq. 2 we obtain the final temperature of water

19-49

(Eq. 2)

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

(181.27 kg)(4197 J/kg.C)(80 - T2 )C

80 T2

Q (26.53 W/m 2 .C)(1.885 m 2 )

18 C

2

45 60 s

T2 69.9C

19-50

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-55

"GIVEN"

D=0.50 "[m]"

L=0.95 "[m]"

T_w1=80 "[C]"

T_infinity=18 "[C]"

Vel=40 "[km/h]"

"time=45 [min], parameter to be varied"

"PROPERTIES"

Fluid$='air'

k=Conductivity(Fluid$, T=T_film)

Pr=Prandtl(Fluid$, T=T_film)

rho=Density(Fluid$, T=T_film, P=101.3)

mu=Viscosity(Fluid$, T=T_film)

nu=mu/rho

T_film=1/2*(T_w_ave+T_infinity)

rho_w=Density(water, T=T_w_ave, P=101.3)

C_p_w=CP(Water, T=T_w_ave, P=101.3)*Convert(kJ/kg-C, J/kg-C)

T_w_ave=1/2*(T_w1+T_w2)

"ANALYSIS"

Re=(Vel*Convert(km/h, m/s)*D)/nu

Nusselt=0.3+(0.62*Re^0.5*Pr^(1/3))/(1+(0.4/Pr)^(2/3))^0.25*(1+(Re/282000)^(5/8))^(4/5)

h=k/D*Nusselt

A=pi*D*L+2*pi*D^2/4

Q_dot=h*A*(T_w_ave-T_infinity)

m_w=rho_w*V_w

V_w=pi*D^2/4*L

Q=m_w*C_p_w*(T_w1-T_w2)

Q_dot=Q/(time*Convert(min, s))

time [min]

30

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

180

195

210

225

240

255

270

285

300

Tw2 [C]

73.06

69.86

66.83

63.96

61.23

58.63

56.16

53.8

51.54

49.39

47.33

45.36

43.47

41.65

39.91

38.24

36.63

35.09

33.6

19-51

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

75

70

65

Tw2 [C]

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

0

50

100

150

200

time [min]

19-52

250

300

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-56 Air flows over a spherical tank containing iced water. The rate of heat transfer to the tank and the

rate at which ice melts are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm pressure and the free stream temperature of 25C are (Table A22)

k 0.02551 W/m.C

Air

V = 7 m/s

1.562 10 -5 m 2 /s

1.849 10 5 kg/m.s

s , @ 0C 1.729 10

5

Iced water

0C

T =25C

kg/m.s

D = 1.8 m

Pr 0.7296

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

V D

(7 m/s)(1.8 m)

806,658

1.562 10 5 m 2 /s

The proper relation for Nusselt number corresponding to this Reynolds number is

Nu

hD

2 0.4 Re 0.5 0.06 Re 2 / 3 Pr 0.4

k

s

1/ 4

1.849 10 5

5

1.729 10

2 0.4(806,658) 0.5 0.06(806,658) 2 / 3 (0.7296) 0.4

1/ 4

790.1

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02551 W/m.C

Nu

(790.1) 11.20 W/m 2 .C

D

1.8 m

Then the rate of heat transfer is determined to be

As D 2 (1.8 m) 2 = 10.18 m 2

hA (T T ) (11.20 W/m 2 .C)(10.18 m 2 )(25 0)C 2850 W

Q

s

s

The rate at which ice melts is

m

h fg

Q

(333.7 kJ/kg)

2.850 kW = m

19-53

** 0.00854 kg/s 0.512 kg/min
**

m

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-57 A cylindrical bottle containing cold water is exposed to windy air. The average wind velocity is to be

estimated.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 Heat transfer at the top and bottom surfaces is negligible.

Properties The properties of water at the average temperature of (T1 + T2)/2 = (3+11)/2 = 7C are (Table

A-15)

999.8 kg/m 3

C p 4200 J/kg.C

**The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature of (Ts + T)/2 = (7+27)/2 = 17C are (Table A-22)
**

k 0.02491 W/m.C

1.489 10 -5 m 2 /s

Air

V

Pr 0.7317

T = 27C

Analysis The mass of water in the bottle is

D2

L (999.8 kg/m 3 ) (0.10 m) 2 (0.30 m)/4 2.356 kg

4

Then the amount of heat transfer to the water is

m V

Q mC p (T2 T1 ) ( 2.356 kg)(4200 J/kg.C)(11 - 3)C = 79,162 J

The average rate of heat transfer is

Q

79,162 J

Q

29.32 W

t

45 60 s

The heat transfer coefficient is

**As DL (0.10 m)(0.30 m) = 0.09425 m 2
**

Q conv hAs (Ts T ) 29.32 W h(0.09425 m 2 )(27 - 7)C h 15.55 W/m 2 .C

The Nusselt number is

Nu

hD

(15.55 W/m 2 .C)(0.10 m)

62.42

k

0.02491 W/m.C

Reynolds number can be obtained from the Nusselt number relation for a flow over the cylinder

Nu 0.3

62.42 0.3

0.62 Re 0.5 Pr 1 / 3

1 0.4 / Pr

2 / 3 1/ 4

Re

1

282,000

0.62 Re 0.5 (0.7317 )1 / 3

1 0.4 / 0.7317

2 / 3 1/ 4

4/5

5/8

Re

1

282

,000

4/5

5/8

Re 12,856

Then using the Reynolds number relation we determine the wind velocity

Re

V D

V (0.10 m)

12,856

V 1.91 m/s

1.489 10 5 m 2 /s

19-54

Bottle

D =10 cm

L = 30 cm

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