# Chapter 19 Forced Convection

Flow in Tubes
19-58C The number of transfer units NTU is a measure of the heat transfer area and effectiveness of a
heat transfer system. A small value of NTU (NTU < 5) indicates more opportunities for heat transfer
whereas a large NTU value (NTU >5) indicates that heat transfer will not increase no matter how much
we extend the length of the tube.
19-59C The logarithmic mean temperature difference Tln is an exact representation of the average
temperature difference between the fluid and the surface for the entire tube. It truly reflects the
exponential decay of the local temperature difference. The error in using the arithmetic mean temperature
increases to undesirable levels when Te differs from Ti by great amounts. Therefore we should always
use the logarithmic mean temperature.
19-60C The region of flow over which the thermal boundary layer develops and reaches the tube center is
called the thermal entry region, and the length of this region is called the thermal entry length. The region
in which the flow is both hydrodynamically (the velocity profile is fully developed and remains
unchanged) and thermally (the dimensionless temperature profile remains unchanged) developed is called
the fully developed region.
19-61C The heat flux will be higher near the inlet because the heat transfer coefficient is highest at the
tube inlet where the thickness of thermal boundary layer is zero, and decreases gradually to the fully
developed value.
19-62C The heat flux will be higher near the inlet because the heat transfer coefficient is highest at the
tube inlet where the thickness of thermal boundary layer is zero, and decreases gradually to the fully
developed value.
19-63C In the fully developed region of flow in a circular tube, the velocity profile will not change in the
flow direction but the temperature profile may.
19-64C The hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths are given as Lh  0.05 Re D and Lt  0.05 Re Pr D

for laminar flow, and L h  Lt  10 D in turbulent flow. Noting that Pr >> 1 for oils, the thermal entry
length is larger than the hydrodynamic entry length in laminar flow. In turbulent, the hydrodynamic and
thermal entry lengths are independent of Re or Pr numbers, and are comparable in magnitude.
19-65C The hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths are given as Lh  0.05 Re D and Lt  0.05 Re Pr D

for laminar flow, and L h  Lt  10 Re in turbulent flow. Noting that Pr << 1 for liquid metals, the
thermal entry length is smaller than the hydrodynamic entry length in laminar flow. In turbulent, the
hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths are independent of Re or Pr numbers, and are comparable in
magnitude.
19-66C In fluid flow, it is convenient to work with an average or mean velocity Vm and an average or
mean temperature Tm which remain constant in incompressible flow when the cross-sectional area of the
tube is constant. The Vm and Tm represent the velocity and temperature, respectively, at a cross section if
all the particles were at the same velocity and temperature.
19-67C When the surface temperature of tube is constant, the appropriate temperature difference for use in
the Newton's law of cooling is logarithmic mean temperature difference that can be expressed as

Tln 

Te  Ti
ln(Te / Ti )

19-68 Air flows inside a duct and it is cooled by water outside. The exit temperature of air and the rate of
heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the duct is constant. 3 The
thermal resistance of the duct is negligible.

19-55

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
Properties The properties of air at the anticipated average temperature of 30C are (Table A-22)
  1.164 kg/m 3
C p  1007 J/kg.C

Te

Analysis The mass flow rate of water is

 D 2
  Ac Vm  
m
 4

 (1.164 kg/m 3 )

 Vm

(0.2 m) 2
(7 m/s) = 0.256 kg/s
4

As  DL   (0.2 m)(12 m) = 7.54 m

2

12 m
5C
Air
50C
7 m/s

The exit temperature of air is determined from

Te  Ts  (Ts  Ti )e

 Cp )
 hAs /( m

 5  (5  50)e

( 9.09 )( 7.54 )
( 0.256 )(1007 )

 8.74 C

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the rate of heat transfe r are

Te  Ti

Tln 

 T s  Te 

T

T
i 
 s

ln

8.74  50
 16.59C
5  8.74 

ln

 5  50 

Q  hAs Tln  (85 W/m 2 .C )(7.54 m 2 )(16.59C)  10,6333.41 10 4 W  10,633 W  10.6 kW

19-56

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-69 Steam is condensed by cooling water flowing inside copper tubes. The average heat transfer
coefficient and the number of tubes needed are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the pipe is constant. 3 The
thermal resistance of the pipe is negligible.
Properties The properties of water at the average temperature of (10+24)/2=17C are (Table A-15)
  998.7 kg/m 3
C p  4184.5 J/kg.C

Also, the heat of vaporization of water at 30C is h fg  2431 kJ/kg .

Steam, 30C

Analysis The mass flow rate of water and the surface area are

 D 2 

  Ac Vm  
m
 4  Vm

Water
10C
4 m/s

(0.012 m) 2
(4 m/s) = 0.4518 kg/s
4
The rate of heat transfer for one tube is
 (998.7 kg/m 3 )

24C
D = 1.2 cm

L=5m

 m
 C p (Te  Ti )  (0.4518 kg/s )(4184.5 J/kg.C )(24  10C)  26,468 W
Q

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the surface area are

Te  Ti

Tln 

 Ts  Te
 Ts  Ti

ln

24  10
 11.63C
 30  24 
ln

 30  10 

As  DL   (0.012 m)(5 m) = 0.1885 m 2
The average heat transfer coefficient is determined from

Q  hAs Tln    h 

Q
26,468 W
 1 kW   12.1 kW/m 2 .C

2
As Tln
(0.1885 m )(11.63C)  1000 W 

The total rate of heat transfer is determined from

 cond h fg  (0.15 kg/s )(2431 kJ/kg)  364.65 kW
Q
total  m

Then the number of tubes becomes

Q
364,650 W
N tube  total 
 13.8

26,468 W
Q

19-57

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-70 Steam is condensed by cooling water flowing inside copper tubes. The average heat transfer
coefficient and the number of tubes needed are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the pipe is constant. 3 The
thermal resistance of the pipe is negligible.
Properties The properties of water at the average temperature of (10+24)/2=17C are (Table A-15)
  998.7 kg/m 3
C p  4184.5 J/kg.C

Also, the heat of vaporization of water at 30C is h fg  2431 kJ/kg .

Steam, 30C

Analysis The mass flow rate of water is

 D 2 

  Ac Vm  
m
 4  Vm

Water
10C
4 m/s

(0.012 m) 2
(4 m/s) = 0.4518 kg/s
4
The rate of heat transfer for one tube is
 (998.7 kg/m 3 )

24C
D = 1.2 cm

L=5m

 m
 C p (Te  Ti )  (0.4518 kg/s )(4184.5 J/kg.C )(24  10C)  26,468 W
Q

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the surface area are

Te  Ti

Tln 

 Ts  Te
 Ts  Ti

ln

24  10
 11.63C
 30  24 
ln

 30  10 

As  DL   (0.012 m)(5 m) = 0.1885 m 2
The average heat transfer coefficient is determined from

Q  hAs Tln  

h 

Q
26,468 W
 1 kW   12.1 kW/m 2 .C

2
As Tln
(0.1885 m )(11.63C )  1000 W 

The total rate of heat transfer is determined from

 cond h fg  (0.60 kg/s )(2431 kJ/kg)  1458.6 kW
Q
total  m

Then the number of tubes becomes

Q
1,458,600 W
N tube  total 
 55.1

26,468 W
Q

19-58

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-71 Combustion gases passing through a tube are used to vaporize waste water. The tube length and the
rate of evaporation of water are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the pipe is constant. 3 The
thermal resistance of the pipe is negligible. 4 Air properties are to be used for exhaust gases.
Properties The properties of air at the average temperature of (250+150)/2=200C are (Table A-22)
C p  1023 J/kg.C
R  0.287 kJ/kg.K

Also, the heat of vaporization of water at 1 atm or 100C is h fg  2257 kJ/kg .
Analysis The density of air at the inlet and the mass flow rate of exhaust gases are



Ts=110C

P
115 kPa

 0.7662 kg/m 3
RT
(0.287 kJ/kg.K)( 250  273 K)

150C

Exh. gases
250C
5 m/s

 D 

  Ac Vm  
m
 4  Vm

2

(0.03 m) 2
(5 m/s) = 0.002708 kg/s
4
The rate of heat transfer is
 (0.7662 kg/m 3 )

D =3 cm

L

 m
 C p (Ti  Te )  (0.002708 kg/s )(1023 J/kg.C )(250  150C )  276.9 W
Q

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the surface area are

Te  Ti

Tln 

 Ts  Te
 Ts  Ti

ln

Q  hAs Tln  

150  250
 79.82C
 110  150 
ln

 110  250 

 As 

Q
276.9 W

 0.02891 m 2
hTln
(120 W/m 2 .C)(79.82C)

Then the tube length becomes

As  DL    L 

As
0.02891 m 2

 0.3067 m  30.7 cm
D
 (0.03 m)

The rate of evaporation of water is determined from
Q
(0.2769 kW)
 evap h fg    m
 evap 
Q  m

 0.0001227 kg/s = 0.442 kg/h
h fg
( 2257 kJ/kg)

19-59

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-72 Combustion gases passing through a tube are used to vaporize waste water. The tube length and the
rate of evaporation of water are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the pipe is constant. 3 The
thermal resistance of the pipe is negligible. 4 Air properties are to be used for exhaust gases.
Properties The properties of air at the average temperature of (250+150)/2=200C are (Table A-22)
C p  1023 J/kg.C
R  0.287 kJ/kg.K

Also, the heat of vaporization of water at 1 atm or 100C is h fg  2257 kJ/kg .
Analysis The density of air at the inlet and the mass flow rate of exhaust gases are



Ts =110C

P
115 kPa

 0.7662 kg/m 3
RT
(0.287 kJ/kg.K)( 250  273 K)

150C

Exh. gases
250C
5 m/s

 D 

  Ac Vm  
m
 4  Vm

2

(0.03 m) 2
(5 m/s) = 0.002708 kg/s
4
The rate of heat transfer is
 (0.7662 kg/m 3 )

D =3 cm

L

 m
 C p (Ti  Te )  (0.002708 kg/s )(1023 J/kg.C )(250  150C )  276.9 W
Q

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the surface area are

Te  Ti

Tln 

 Ts  Te
 Ts  Ti

ln

Q  hAs Tln  

150  250
 79.82C
 110  150 
ln

 110  250 

 As 

Q
276.9 W

 0.05782 m 2
hTln
(60 W/m 2 .C)(79.82C)

Then the tube length becomes

As  DL    L 

As
0.05782 m 2

 0.6135 m  61.4 cm
D
 (0.03 m)

The rate of evaporation of water is determined from
Q
(0.2769 kW)
 evap h fg    m
 evap 
Q  m

 0.0001227 kg/s = 0.442 kg/h
h fg
( 2257 kJ/kg)

19-60

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-73 Water is to be heated in a tube equipped with an electric resistance heater on its surface. The power
rating of the heater and the inner surface temperature are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The surface heat flux is uniform. 3 The inner surfaces of
the tube are smooth.
Properties The properties of water at the average temperature of
(80+10) / 2 = 45C are (Table A-15)
  990.1 kg/m 3

(Resistance heater)

Water
10C
3 m/s

k  0.637 W/m.C
   /   0.602  10 -6 m 2 /s
C p  4180 J/kg.C

D = 2 cm
80C
L

Pr  3.91

Analysis The power rating of the resistance heater is
  V  (990.1 kg/m 3 )(0.008 m 3 /min )  7.921 kg/min  0.132 kg/s
m
 m
 C p (Te  Ti )  (0.132 kg/s )(4180 J/kg.C)(80  10)C  38,627 W
Q

The velocity of water and the Reynolds number are
V
(8  10 3 / 60) m 3 / s

 0.4244 m / s
Ac
 (0.02 m) 2 / 4

Vm 

Re 

Vm D h
(0.4244 m/s)(0.02 m)

 14,101

0.602  10  6 m 2 /s

which is greater than 4000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this case are roughly

Lh  Lt  10 D  10(0.02 m)  0.20 m
which is much shorter than the total length of the duct. Therefore, we can assume fully developed
turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu 

hD h
 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4  0.023(14,101) 0.8 (3.91) 0.4  82.79
k

Heat transfer coefficient is

h

k
0.637 W/m.C
Nu 
(82.79)  2637 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.02 m

Then the inner surface temperature of the pipe at the exit becomes
  hA (T
Q
T )
s

s ,e

e

2

38,627 W  ( 2637 W/m .C)[ (0.02 m )(7 m )](Ts  80)C
T s ,e  113.3C

19-61

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-74 Flow of hot air through uninsulated square ducts of a heating system in the attic is considered. The
exit temperature and the rate of heat loss are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth. 3 Air is an
ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The pressure of air is 1 atm.
Properties We assume the bulk mean temperature for air to be 80C since the mean temperature of air at
the inlet will drop somewhat as a result of heat loss through the duct whose surface is at a lower
temperature. The properties of air at 1 atm and this temperature are (Table A-22)

  0.9994 kg/m 3
k  0.02953 W/m.C

Te

  2.097  10 -5 m 2 /s
C p  1008 J/kg.C
Pr  0.7154

Analysis The characteristic length that is the hydraulic
diameter, the mean velocity of air, and the Reynolds number are
Dh 

10 m
70C

4 Ac 4a 2

 a  015
. m
P
4a

Vm 

Re 

Air
85C
0.1 m3/min

V
0.10 m 3 /s

 4.444 m/s
Ac
(0.15 m) 2

Vm D h (4.444 m/s)(0.15 m)

 31,791

2.097  10 5 m 2 /s

which is greater than 40000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this case are roughly

L h  Lt  10 D h  10(0.15 m)  1.5 m
which is much shorter than the total length of the duct. Therefore, we can assume fully developed
turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu 

hDh
 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.3  0.023(31,791)0.8 (0.7154)0.3  83.16
k

Heat transfer coefficient is

h

k
0.02953 W/m.C
Nu 
(83.16)  16.37 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.15 m

Next we determine the exit temperature of air,

As  4 aL  4(0.15 m)(10 m) = 6 m 2
  V  (0.9994 kg/m 3 )(0.10 m 3 /s) = 0.09994 kg/s
m
Te  T s  (T s  Ti )e

 Cp )
 hA /( m

 70  (70  85)e

(16.37 )(6 )
( 0.09994 )(1008)

 75.7C

Then the logarithmic mean temperature difference and the rate of heat loss from the air becomes

Te  Ti

Tln 

 T s  Te 

 Ts  Ti 

ln

75.7  85
 9.58C
70  75.7 

ln

 70  85 

Q  hAs Tln  (16.37 W/m 2 .C)(6 m 2 )(9.58C)  941 W
Note that the temperature of air drops by almost 10C as it flows in the duct as a result of heat loss.
19-75

19-62

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
"GIVEN"
T_i=85 "[C]"
L=10 "[m]"
side=0.15 "[m]"
"V_dot=0.10 [m^3/s], parameter to be varied"
T_s=70 "[C]"
"PROPERTIES"
Fluid\$='air'
C_p=CP(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)*Convert(kJ/kg-C, J/kg-C)
k=Conductivity(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
Pr=Prandtl(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
rho=Density(Fluid\$, T=T_ave, P=101.3)
mu=Viscosity(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
nu=mu/rho
T_ave=1/2*(T_i+T_e)
"ANALYSIS"
D_h=(4*A_c)/p
A_c=side^2
p=4*side
Vel=V_dot/A_c
Re=(Vel*D_h)/nu "The flow is turbulent"
L_t=10*D_h "The entry length is much shorter than the total length of the duct."
Nusselt=0.023*Re^0.8*Pr^0.3
h=k/D_h*Nusselt
A=4*side*L
m_dot=rho*V_dot
T_e=T_s-(T_s-T_i)*exp((-h*A)/(m_dot*C_p))
DELTAT_ln=(T_e-T_i)/ln((T_s-T_e)/(T_s-T_i))
Q_dot=h*A*DELTAT_ln

19-63

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
V [m3/s]
0.05
0.055
0.06
0.065
0.07
0.075
0.08
0.085
0.09
0.095
0.1
0.105
0.11
0.115
0.12
0.125
0.13
0.135
0.14
0.145
0.15

Te [C]
74.89
75
75.09
75.18
75.26
75.34
75.41
75.48
75.54
75.6
75.66
75.71
75.76
75.81
75.86
75.9
75.94
75.98
76.02
76.06
76.1

Q [W]
509
554.1
598.6
642.7
686.3
729.5
772.4
814.8
857
898.9
940.4
981.7
1023
1063
1104
1144
1184
1224
1264
1303
1343

76.2

1400
1300

75.9

1200

Te

Te [C]

75.7

1000
900

Q

75.3

800
700

75.1

600
74.8
0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1
3

V [m /s]

19-64

0.12

0.14

500
0.16

Q [W]

1100

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-76 Air enters the constant spacing between the glass cover and the plate of a solar collector. The net
rate of heat transfer and the temperature rise of air are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the spacing are smooth. 3 Air is
an ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.
Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and estimated average temperature of 35C are (Table A-22)

C p  1007 J/kg.C

  1.146kg/m 3
k  0.02625 W/m.C

Pr  0.7268

  1.655  10 -5 m 2 /s

Analysis Mass flow rate, cross sectional area, hydraulic diameter,
mean velocity of air and the Reynolds number are

Glass
cover
20C

  V  (1.146 kg/m 3 )(0.15 m 3 /s )  0.1719 kg/s
m

Ac  (1 m)(0.03 m)  0.03 m 2
Dh 

4 Ac
4(0.03 m 2 )

 0.05825 m
P
2(1 m  0.03 m)

V
0.15 m 3 / s
Vm 

 5 m/s
Ac
0.03 m 2

Re 

Air
30C
0.15 m3/min

60C
Collector plate
(insulated)

V m D h (5 m/s)(0.05825 m)

 17,606

1.655  10 5 m 2 /s

which is greater than 4000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this case are roughly

Lh  Lt  10 Dh  10(0.05825 m)  0.5825 m
which are much shorter than the total length of the collector. Therefore, we can assume fully developed
turbulent flow in the entire collector, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu 
and

h

hDh
 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4  0.023(17,606 )0.8 (0.7268)0.4  50.45
k

k
0.02625 W/m.C
Nu 
(50.45)  22.73 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.05825 m

The exit temperature of air can be calculated using the “average” surface temperature as

As  2(5 m)(1 m)  10 m 2
Ts,ave 

60  20
 40 C
2

hAs
Te  T s ,ave  (Ts ,ave  Ti ) exp 

m
Cp

  40  (40  30) exp  22.73  10   37.31C

 0.1718  1007 

The temperature rise of air is
T  37.3C  30C  7.3C
The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the heat loss from the glass are

Tln, glass 

Te  Ti
37.31  30

 13.32C
T s  Te
20  37.31
ln
ln
20  30
Ts  Ti

2
2

Q
glass  hAs Tln  (22.73 W/m .C)(5 m )(13.32C) = 1514 W

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the heat gain of the absorber are

19-65

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

Tln,absorber 

Te  Ti
37.31  30

 26.17C
T s  Te
60  37.31
ln
ln
60  30
Ts  Ti

Q absorber  hATln  (22.73 W/m 2 .C)(5 m 2 )(26.17C) = 2975 W
Then the net rate of heat transfer becomes

Q
net  2975  1514  1461 W

19-66

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-77 Oil flows through a pipeline that passes through icy waters of a lake. The exit temperature of the oil
and the rate of heat loss are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the pipe is very nearly
0C. 3 The thermal resistance of the pipe is negligible. 4 The inner surfaces of the pipeline are smooth. 5
The flow is hydrodynamically developed when the pipeline reaches the lake.
(Icy lake, 0C)

Properties The properties of oil at 10C are (Table A-13)
  893.5 kg/m 3 ,
  2.325 kg/m.s,
C p  1838 J/kg.C,

k  0.146 W/m.COil
10C
  2591  10 -6 m 2 /s
0.5 m/s
Pr  28750

D = 0.4 m

Analysis (a) The Reynolds number in this case is

Te

L = 300 m

V D
(0.5 m/s)(0.4 m)
Re  m h 
 77.19

2591 10 6 m 2 /s
which is less than 2300. Therefore, the flow is laminar, and the thermal entry length is roughly

Lt  0.05 Re Pr D  0.05(77.19)(28750)(0.4 m )  44,384 m
which is much longer than the total length of the pipe. Therefore, we assume thermally developing flow,
and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu 

hD
0.065( D / L) Re Pr
 3.66 
 3.66 
k
1  0.04 ( D / L) Re Pr  2 / 3

h

and

 0 .4 m 
0.065
 (77.19)(28,750)
 300 m 
  0 .4 m 

1  0.04  
 (77.19)(28,750)
  300 m 

k
0.146 W/m.C
Nu 
(24.47)  8.930 W/m 2 .C
D
0.4 m

Next we determine the exit temperature of oil

As  DL   (0.4 m)(300 m) = 377 m 2
 D 2 
 (0.4 m) 2
 Vm  (893.5 kg/m 3 )
  V  Ac Vm   
m
(0.5 m/s) = 56.14 kg/s
 4 
4

Te  Ts  (Ts  Ti )e

 Cp )
 hAs /( m

 0  (0  10)e

(8.930 )( 377 )
( 56.14 )(1838 )

 9.68 C

(b) The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the rate of heat loss from the oil are

Te  Ti

Tln 

 Ts  Te 

 Ts  Ti 

ln

9.68  10
 9.84C
 0  9.68 
ln

 0  10 

Q  hAs Tln  (8.930 W/m 2 .C)(377 m 2 )(9.84C)  3.31 10 4 W  33.1 kW

19-67

2/3

 24.47

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-78 Laminar flow of a fluid through an isothermal square channel is considered. The change in the
pressure drop and the rate of heat transfer are to be determined when the mean velocity is doubled.
Assumptions 1 The flow is fully developed. 2 The effect of the change in Tln on the rate of heat transfer is
not considered.
Analysis The pressure drop of the fluid for laminar flow is expressed as
P1  f

L Vm 2 64 L Vm 2
64  L Vm 2
L

 32 Vm 2
D 2
Re D 2
Vm D D 2
D

When the freestream velocity of the fluid is doubled, the pressure drop becomes
P2  f

L (2 Vm ) 2 64 L 4 Vm 2
64  L 4 Vm 2
L

 64 Vm 2
D
2
Re D 2
2 Vm D D 2
D
L

Their ratio is
P2 64

2
P1 32

Laminar flow
Vm

The rate of heat transfer between the fluid and the walls of the channel is expressed as

k
k
Q 1  hAs Tln 
NuAs Tln 
2.98 As Tln
D
D
When the effect of the change in Tln on the rate of heat transfer is disregarded, the rate of heat transfer
remains the same. Therefore,

Q 2
1
Q
1

Therefore, doubling the velocity will double the pressure drop but it will not effect the heat transfer rate.

19-68

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-79 Turbulent flow of a fluid through an isothermal square channel is considered. The change in the
pressure drop and the rate of heat transfer are to be determined when the mean velocity is doubled.
Assumptions 1 The flow is fully developed. 2 The effect of the change in Tln on the rate of heat transfer is
not considered.
Analysis The pressure drop of the fluid for turbulent flow is expressed as

P1  f

L Vm 2
L Vm 2
V 0.2 D 0.2 L Vm 2
 0.184 Re 0.2
 0.184 m  0.2
D 2
D 2
D 2

D

 

 0 .2

0.092Vm1.8 

L
D

When the freestream velocity of the fluid is doubled, the pressure drop becomes

P2  f

L  (2Vm ) 2
L  4Vm 2
(2Vm ) 0.2 D 0.2 L  4Vm 2
 0.184 Re 0.2
 0.184
D
2
D
2
D
2
  0.2
 D

  

 0.368( 2) 0.2 Vm1.8 

 0.2

L
D

L

Their ratio is

P2 0.368(2) 0.2 Vm 1.8

 4(2) 0.2  3.48
1
.
8
P1
0.092V m

Turbulent flow
Vm

The rate of heat transfer between the fluid and the walls of the channel is expressed as

  hAT  k NuAT  k 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr1 / 3 AT
Q
1
ln
ln
ln
D
D
0.8

 D

 0.023Vm 0.8 

  

k
Pr1 / 3 ATln
D

When the freestream velocity of the fluid is doubled, the heat transfer rate becomes
  0.023( 2V )0.8  D 
Q
2
m
  

0.8

k
Pr1 / 3 ATln
D

Their ratio is
Q 2 (2 Vm ) 0.8

 2 0.8  1.74
Q 1
Vm 0.8
Therefore, doubling the velocity will increase the pressure drop 3.8 times but it will increase the heat
transfer rate by only 74%.

19-69

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-80E Water is heated in a parabolic solar collector. The required length of parabolic collector and the
surface temperature of the collector tube are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The thermal resistance of the tube is negligible. 3 The
inner surfaces of the tube are smooth.
Solar absorption,
350 Btu/h.ft

Properties The properties of water at the average temperature
of (55+200)/2 = 127.5F are (Table A-15E)
  61.59 lbm/ft 3
k  0.374 Btu/ft.F
   /   0.5683  10
C p  0.999Btu/lbm.F

(Inside glass tube)
-5

2

ft /s
Water
55F
4 lbm/s

Pr  3.368

D = 1.25 in

200F

Analysis The total rate of heat transfer is
L
 m
 C (T  T )  ( 4 lbm/s)(0.999 Btu/lbm.F)( 200  55)F
Q
p

e

i

 579.4 Btu/s = 2.086  10 6 Btu/h

The length of the tube required is

Q
2.086  10 4 Btu/h
L  total 
 5960 ft

350 Btu/h.ft
Q
The velocity of water and the Reynolds number are

Vm 

Re 

m

Ac

4 lbm/s
(1.25 / 12 ft ) 2
(61.59 lbm/m ) 
4

 7.621 ft/s

3

Vm D h
(7.621 m/s)(1.25/12 ft)

 1.397  10 5

5
2

0.5683  10 ft /s

which is greater than 4000. Therefore, we can assume fully developed turbulent flow in the entire tube,
and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu 

hDh
 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4  0.023(1.397  104 )0.8 (3.368)0.4  488.4
k

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k
0.374 Btu/h.ft.F
Nu 
( 488.4)  1754 Btu/h.ft 2 .F
Dh
1.25 / 12 ft

The heat flux on the tube is

q 

Q
2.086  10 4 Btu/h

 1070 Btu/h.ft 2
As
 (1.25 / 12 ft )(5960 ft )

Then the surface temperature of the tube at the exit becomes

q  h(Ts  Te )  

 Ts  Te 

q
1070 Btu/h.ft 2
 200F +
 200.6F
h
1754 Btu/h.ft 2 .F

19-70

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-81 A circuit board is cooled by passing cool air through a channel drilled into the board. The maximum
total power of the electronic components is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat flux at the top surface of the channel is
uniform, and heat transfer through other surfaces is negligible. 3 The inner surfaces of the channel are
smooth. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 5 The pressure of air in the channel is 1 atm.
Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and estimated average temperature of 25C are (Table A-22)
Electronic components,
50C

  1.184 kg/m 3
k  0.02551 W/m.C

  1.562  10 -5 m 2 /s
C p  1007 J/kg.C

Air
15C
4 m/s

Pr  0.7296

Te

L = 20 cm
Air channel
0.2 cm  14 cm

Analysis The cross-sectional and heat transfer surface areas are

Ac  (0.002 m )(0.14 m )  0.00028 m 2
As  (0.14 m )(0.2 m )  0.028 m 2
To determine heat transfer coefficient, we first need to find the Reynolds number,

Dh 

4 Ac
4(0.00028 m 2 )

 0.003944 m
P
2(0.002 m + 0.14 m)

Re 

Vm D h (4 m/s)(0.003944 m)

 1010

1.562  10 5 m 2 /s

which is less than 2300. Therefore, the flow is laminar and the thermal entry length is

Lt  0.05 Re Pr D h  0.05(1010)(0.7296 )(0.003944 m) = 0.1453 m < 0.20 m
Therefore, we have developing flow through most of the channel. However, we take the conservative
approach and assume fully developed flow, and from Table 19-1 we read Nu = 8.24. Then the heat transfer
coefficient becomes

h

k
0.02551 W/m.C
Nu 
(8.24 )  53.30 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.003944 m

Also,

  VAc  (1.184 kg/m 3 )(4 m/s )(0.00028 m 2 )  0.001326 kg/s
m
Heat flux at the exit can be written as q  h(Ts  Te ) where Ts  50 C at the exit. Then the heat transfer
  q A  hA (T  T ) , and the exit temperature of the air can be
rate can be expressed as Q
s
s
s
e
determined from

 C p (Te  Ti )
hAs (T s  Te )  m
(53.30 W/m 2 .C)(0.028 m 2 )(50C  Te )  (0.001326 kg/s )(1007 J/kg.C)(Te  15C)
Te  33.5C
Then the maximum total power of the electronic components that can safely be mounted on this circuit
board becomes

 C p (Te  Ti )  (0.001326 kg/s )(1007 J/kg.C )(33.5  15C )  24.7 W
Q
max  m

19-71

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-82 A circuit board is cooled by passing cool helium gas through a channel drilled into the board. The
maximum total power of the electronic components is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat flux at the top surface of the channel is
uniform, and heat transfer through other surfaces is negligible. 3 The inner surfaces of the channel are
smooth. 4 Helium is an ideal gas. 5 The pressure of helium in the channel is 1 atm.
Properties The properties of helium at the estimated average temperature of 25C are (Table A-16)
Electronic components,
50C

  0.1635 kg/m 3
k  0.1565 W/m.C

Te

  1.233  10 - 4 m 2 /s
C p  5193 J/kg.C

He
15C
4 m/s

Pr  0.669

L = 20 cm
Air channel
0.2 cm  14 cm

Analysis The cross-sectional and heat transfer surface areas are

Ac  (0.002 m )(0.14 m )  0.00028 m 2
As  (0.14 m )(0.2 m )  0.028 m 2
To determine heat transfer coefficient, we need to first find the Reynolds number

Dh 

4 Ac
4(0.00028 m 2 )

 0.003944 m
P
2(0.002 m + 0.14 m)

Re 

Vm D h (4 m/s)(0.003944 m)

 127.9

1.233  10  4 m 2 /s

which is less than 2300. Therefore, the flow is laminar and the thermal entry length is

Lt  0.05 Re Pr D h  0.05(127.9)(0.669)(0.003944 m) = 0.01687 m << 0.20 m
Therefore, the flow is fully developed flow, and from Table 19-3 we read Nu = 8.24. Then the heat transfer
coefficient becomes

h

k
0.1565 W/m.C
Nu 
(8.24)  327.0 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.003944 m

Also,

  VAc  (0.1635 kg/m 3 )(4 m/s )(0.00028 m 2 )  0.0001831 kg/s
m
Heat flux at the exit can be written as q  h(Ts  Te ) where Ts  50 C at the exit. Then the heat transfer
  q A  hA (T  T ) , and the exit temperature of the air can be
rate can be expressed as Q
s
s
s
e
determined from

 C p (Te  Ti )  hAs (T s  Te )
m
(0.0001831 kg/s )(5193 J/kg.C)(Te  15C)  (327.0 W/m 2 .C)(0.0568 m 2 )(50C  Te )
Te  46.7C
Then the maximum total power of the electronic components that can safely be mounted on this circuit
board becomes

 C p (Te  Ti )  (0.0001831 kg/s )(5193 J/kg.C )( 46.7  15C )  30.2 W
Q
max  m

19-72

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-83
"GIVEN"
L=0.20 "[m]"
width=0.14 "[m]"
height=0.002 "[m]"
T_i=15 "[C]"
Vel=4 "[m/s], parameter to be varied"
"T_s=50 [C], parameter to be varied"
"PROPERTIES"
Fluid\$='air'
C_p=CP(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)*Convert(kJ/kg-C, J/kg-C)
k=Conductivity(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
Pr=Prandtl(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
rho=Density(Fluid\$, T=T_ave, P=101.3)
mu=Viscosity(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
nu=mu/rho
T_ave=1/2*(T_i+T_e)
"ANALYSIS"
A_c=width*height
A=width*L
p=2*(width+height)
D_h=(4*A_c)/p
Re=(Vel*D_h)/nu "The flow is laminar"
L_t=0.05*Re*Pr*D_h
"Taking conservative approach and assuming fully developed laminar flow, from
Nusselt=8.24
h=k/D_h*Nusselt
m_dot=rho*Vel*A_c
Q_dot=h*A*(T_s-T_e)
Q_dot=m_dot*C_p*(T_e-T_i)

19-73

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
Vel [m/s]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Q [W]
9.453
16.09
20.96
24.67
27.57
29.91
31.82
33.41
34.76
35.92

Ts [C]
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

Q [W]
10.59
14.12
17.64
21.15
24.67
28.18
31.68
35.18
38.68
42.17
45.65
49.13
52.6

19-74

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

40
35

Q [W]

30
25
20
15
10
5
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Vel [m/s]
55
50
45

Q [W]

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
30

40

50

60

Ts [C]

19-75

70

80

90

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-84 Air enters a rectangular duct. The exit temperature of the air, the rate of heat transfer, and the fan
power are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth. 3 Air is an
ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The pressure of air in the duct is 1 atm.
Properties We assume the bulk mean temperature for air to be 40C since the mean temperature of air at
the inlet will drop somewhat as a result of heat loss through the duct whose surface is at a lower
temperature. The properties of air at this temperature and 1 atm are (Table A-22)
C p  1007 J/kg.C
  1.127 kg/m 3
k  0.02662 W/m.C
  1.702  10

-5

Pr  0.7255

Ts = 10C

2

m /s

Analysis (a) The hydraulic diameter, the mean velocity of air, and
the Reynolds number are
4 Ac
4(015
. m)(0.20 m)
Dh 

 01714
.
m
P
2 (015
. m) + (0.20 m)

V D
(7 m/s)(0.1714 m)
Re  m h 
 70,525

1.702  10 5 m 2 /s

Air duct
15 cm  20 cm

Air
50C
7 m/s

L=7m

which is greater than 4000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this case are roughly

L h  Lt  10 D h  10(0.1714 m)  1.714 m
which is much shorter than the total length of the duct. Therefore, we can assume fully developed
turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu 

hDh
 0.023 Re0.8 Pr 0.3  0.023(70,525)0.8 (0.7255)0.3  158.0
k

Heat transfer coefficient is

k
0.02662 W/m.C
Nu 
(158.0)  24.53 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.1714 m
Next we determine the exit temperature of air
h

As  2  7[(0.15 m) + (0.20 m)] = 4.9 m 2
Ac  (0.15 m)(0.20 m) = 0.03 m 2
  VAc  (1.127 kg/m 3 )(7 m/s)(0.03 m 2 ) = 0.2367 kg/s
m
Te  Ts  (Ts  Ti )e

 Cp )
 hAs /( m

 10  (10  50)e

( 24.53)( 4.9 )
( 0.2367 )(1007 )

 34.2C

(b) The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the rate of heat loss from the air are

Te  Ti

Tln 

 T s  Te 

 Ts  Ti 

ln

34.2  50
 31.42C
10  34.2 
ln

 10  50 

Q  hAs Tln  (24.53 W/m 2 .C)(4.9 m 2 )(31.42C)  3776 W

19-76

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-85
"GIVEN"
L=7 "[m]"
width=0.15 "[m]"
height=0.20 "[m]"
T_i=50 "[C]"
"Vel=7 [m/s], parameter to be varied"
T_s=10 "[C]"
"PROPERTIES"
Fluid\$='air'
C_p=CP(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)*Convert(kJ/kg-C, J/kg-C)
k=Conductivity(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
Pr=Prandtl(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
rho=Density(Fluid\$, T=T_ave, P=101.3)
mu=Viscosity(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
nu=mu/rho
T_ave=1/2*(T_i+T_e)
"ANALYSIS"
"(a)"
A_c=width*height
p=2*(width+height)
D_h=(4*A_c)/p
Re=(Vel*D_h)/nu "The flow is turbulent"
L_t=10*D_h "The entry length is much shorter than the total length of the duct."
Nusselt=0.023*Re^0.8*Pr^0.3
h=k/D_h*Nusselt
A=2*L*(width+height)
m_dot=rho*Vel*A_c
T_e=T_s-(T_s-T_i)*exp((-h*A)/(m_dot*C_p))
"(b)"
DELTAT_ln=(T_e-T_i)/ln((T_s-T_e)/(T_s-T_i))
Q_dot=h*A*DELTAT_ln
"(c)"
f=0.184*Re^(-0.2)
DELTAP=f*L/D_h*(rho*Vel^2)/2
W_dot_pump=(m_dot*DELTAP)/rho

19-77

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
Vel [m/s]
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10

Te [C]
29.01
30.14
30.92
31.51
31.99
32.39
32.73
33.03
33.29
33.53
33.75
33.94
34.12
34.29
34.44
34.59
34.72
34.85
34.97

Q [W]
715.6
1014
1297
1570
1833
2090
2341
2587
2829
3066
3300
3531
3759
3984
4207
4427
4646
4862
5076

19-78

Wpump [W]
0.02012
0.06255
0.1399
0.2611
0.4348
0.6692
0.9722
1.352
1.815
2.369
3.022
3.781
4.652
5.642
6.759
8.008
9.397
10.93
12.62

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

35

6000

34

5000

Te

4000

Q

32

3000

31

2000

30

1000

29
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0
10

8

9

Q [W]

Te [C]

33

Vel [m/s]
14
12

Wpump [W]

10
8
6
4
2
0
1

2

3

4

5

6

Vel [m/s]

19-79

7

10

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-86 Hot air enters a sheet metal duct located in a basement. The exit temperature of hot air and the rate
of heat loss are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth. 3 The thermal
resistance of the duct is negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 5 The pressure of air is 1
atm.
Properties We expect the air temperature to drop somewhat, and evaluate the air properties at 1 atm and
the estimated bulk mean temperature of 50C (Table A-22),
  1.092 kg/m 3 ;

k  0.02735 W/m.C

  1.797  10 -5 m 2 /s;

Air duct
20 cm  20 cm

C p  1007 J/kg.C

Pr  0.7228
Analysis The surface area and the Reynolds number are

As  4 aL  4  (0.2 m)(12 m)  9.6 m
4 Ac 4a 2
Dh 

 a  0.2 m
p
4a

T = 10C

Air
60C
4 m/s

L = 12 m
 = 0.3

Vm Dh
(4 m/s)(0.20 m)

 44,509

1.797  10 5 m 2 /s

Re 

which is greater than 4000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this case are roughly

L h  Lt  10 D h  10(0.2 m)  2.0 m
which is much shorter than the total length of the duct. Therefore, we can assume fully developed
turbulent flow for the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu 

hDh
 0.023 Re0.8 Pr 0.3  0.023(44,509)0.8 (0.7228)0.3  109.2
k

and

h

k
0.02735 W/m.C
Nu 
(109.2)  14.93 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.2 m

The mass flow rate of air is

  AcV  (1.092 kg/m 3 )(0.2  0.2)m 2 (4 m/s)  0.1748 kg/s
m
In steady operation, heat transfer from hot air to the duct must be equal to the heat transfer from the duct
to the surrounding (by convection and radiation), which must be equal to the energy loss of the hot air in
the duct. That is,
Q  Q
 Q
 E
conv,in

hot air

Assuming the duct to be at an average temperature of Ts , the quantities above can be expressed as
Q
:
conv,in

Te  Ti

Q  hi As Tln  hi As

 Ts  Te 

 Ts  Ti 

ln

Te  60

 Q  (14.93 W/m 2 .C)(9.6 m 2 )

 Ts  Te 

 Ts  60 

ln

Q  ho As (Ts  To )  As  Ts4  To4  Q  (10 W/m 2 .C)(9.6 m 2 )(T s  10)C

+ 0.3(9.6 m 2 )(5.67  10 8 W/m 2 .K 4 ) (Ts  273) 4  (10  273) 4 K 4
E hot air :

 m
  (0.1748 kg/s)(1007 J/kg.C)(60  T )C
 C p (Te  Ti )  Q
Q
e

This is a system of three equations with three unknowns whose solution is
  2622 W, T  45.1C, and T  33.3C
Q
e
s

Therefore, the hot air will lose heat at a rate of 2622 W and exit the duct at 45.1C.

19-80

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-87
"GIVEN"
T_i=60 "[C]"
L=12 "[m]"
side=0.20 "[m]"
Vel=4 "[m/s], parameter to be varied"
"epsilon=0.3 parameter to be varied"
T_o=10 "[C]"
h_o=10 "[W/m^2-C]"
T_surr=10 "[C]"
"PROPERTIES"
Fluid\$='air'
C_p=CP(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)*Convert(kJ/kg-C, J/kg-C)
k=Conductivity(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
Pr=Prandtl(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
rho=Density(Fluid\$, T=T_ave, P=101.3)
mu=Viscosity(Fluid\$, T=T_ave)
nu=mu/rho
T_ave=T_i-10 "assumed average bulk mean temperature"
"ANALYSIS"
A=4*side*L
A_c=side^2
p=4*side
D_h=(4*A_c)/p
Re=(Vel*D_h)/nu "The flow is turbulent"
L_t=10*D_h "The entry length is much shorter than the total length of the duct."
Nusselt=0.023*Re^0.8*Pr^0.3
h_i=k/D_h*Nusselt
m_dot=rho*Vel*A_c
Q_dot=Q_dot_conv_in
Q_dot_conv_in=h_i*A*DELTAT_ln
DELTAT_ln=(T_e-T_i)/ln((T_s-T_e)/(T_s-T_i))
Q_dot_conv_out=h_o*A*(T_s-T_o)
sigma=5.67E-8 "[W/m^2-K^4], Stefan-Boltzmann constant"
Q_dot=m_dot*C_p*(T_i-T_e)

19-81

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
Vel [m/s]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Te [C]
33.85
39.43
42.78
45.1
46.83
48.17
49.25
50.14
50.89
51.53

Q [W]
1150
1810
2273
2622
2898
3122
3310
3469
3606
3726

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1

Te [C]
45.82
45.45
45.1
44.77
44.46
44.16
43.88
43.61
43.36
43.12

Q [W]
2495
2560
2622
2680
2735
2787
2836
2883
2928
2970

52.5

4000
3500

Te

48.5

Te [C]

Q
2500

40.5
2000
36.5

32.5
1

1500

2

3

4

5

6

Vel [m/s]

19-82

7

8

9

1000
10

Q [W]

3000
44.5

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

46

3000

45.5

2900

Q

2800

44.5

2700

Te

44

2600

43.5
43
0.1

2500

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

19-83

0.7

0.8

0.9

2400
1

Q [W]

Te [C]

45

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-88 The components of an electronic system located in a rectangular horizontal duct are cooled by
forced air. The exit temperature of the air and the highest component surface temperature are to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth. 3 The thermal
resistance of the duct is negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 5 The pressure of air is 1
atm.
Properties We assume the bulk mean temperature for air to be 35C since the mean temperature of air at
the inlet will rise somewhat as a result of heat gain through the duct whose surface is exposed to a
constant heat flux. The properties of air at 1 atm and this temperature are (Table A-22)

  1.146 kg/m 3
Air duct
16 cm  16 cm

k  0.02625 W/m.C

  1.654  10 -5 m 2 /s

90 W

C p  1007 J/kg.C
Pr  0.7268

Analysis (a) The mass flow rate of air and the exit
temperature are determined from

Air
32C
0.65 m3/min

L=1m

  V  (1.146 kg/m 3 )(0.65 m 3 /min) = 0.7449 kg/min = 0.01241 kg/s
m

 m
 C p (Te  Ti )  Te  Ti 
Q

Q
(0.85)(90 W)
 32C +
 38.1C
Cp
m
(0.01241 kg/s)(1007 J/kg.C)

(b) The mean fluid velocity and hydraulic diameter are

V
0.65 m/min

 25.4 m/min = 0.4232 m/s
Ac
(0.16 m)(0.16 m)
4 Ac
4(0.16 m)(0.16 m)
Dh 

 0.16 m
P
4(0.16 m)

Vm 

Then

Re 

V m D h (0.4232 m/s)(0.16 m)

 4093

1.654  10 5 m 2 /s

which is greater than 4000. Also, the components will cause turbulence and thus we can assume fully
developed turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu 

hDh
 0.023 Re0.8 Pr 0.4  0.023( 4093)0.8 (0.7268)0.4  15.70
k

and

h

k
0.02625 W/m.C
Nu 
(15.70)  2.576 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.16 m

The highest component surface temperature will occur at the exit of the duct. Assuming uniform surface
heat flux, its value is determined from

Q / As
(0.85)(90 W)/ 4(0.16 m)(1 m)
Q / As  h(Ts , highest  Te )  Ts , highest  Te 
 38.1C +
 84.5C
h
(2.576 W/m 2 .C)

19-84

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-89 The components of an electronic system located in a circular horizontal duct are cooled by forced
air. The exit temperature of the air and the highest component surface temperature are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth. 3 The thermal
resistance of the duct is negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 5 The pressure of air is 1
atm.
Properties We assume the bulk mean temperature for air to be 310 K since the mean temperature of air at
the inlet will rise somewhat as a result of heat gain through the duct whose surface is exposed to a
constant heat flux. The properties of air at 1 atm and this temperature are (Table A-22)
Electronics, 90 W

  1143
.
kg / m3
k  0.0268 W / m.  C
-5

Air
32C
0.65 m3/min

2

  167
.  10 m / s
C p  1006 J / kg.  C
Pr  0.710

Analysis (a) The mass flow rate of air and the exit temperature are determined from

D = 15 cm

L=1m

m  V  (1143
.
kg / m 3 )(0.65 m 3 / min) = 0.74295 kg / min = 0.0124 kg / s
Q
(0.85)(90 W)
 p (Te  Ti )  Te  Ti 
Q  mC
 32  C +
 38.1  C
 p
mC
(0.0124 kg / s)(1006 J / kg.  C)
(b) The mean fluid velocity is
V
0.65 m / min
Vm 

 36.7 m / min = 0.612 m / s
Ac (0.15 m) 2 / 4
Then,
Re 

Vm Dh (0.612 m / s)(0.15 m)

 5497

167
.  10 5 m 2 / s

which is greater than 4000. Also, the components will cause turbulence and thus we can assume fully
developed turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from
Nu 

hDh
 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4  0.023(5497) 0.8 (0.710) 0.4  19.7
k

and
h

k
0.0268 W / m.  C
Nu 
(19.7)  352
. W / m2 .  C
Dh
015
. m

The highest component surface temperature will occur at the exit of the duct. Assuming uniform heat flux,
its value is determined from
q  h(Ts,highest  Te )  Ts,highest  Te 

(0.85)(90 W) /  (0.15 m)(1 m)
q
 381
. C +
 84.2 C
h
(3.52 W / m 2 .  C)

19-85

Te

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-90 Air enters a hollow-core printed circuit board. The exit temperature of the air and the highest
temperature on the inner surface are to be determined. 
Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 Heat generated is uniformly distributed over the two
surfaces of the PCB. 3 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The air viscosity at the wall is
evaluated at the anticipated wall temperature of 60C.
Properties We expect the bulk mean temperature for air to rise somewhat as a result of heat gain through
the hollow core whose surface is exposed to a constant heat flux. The properties of air at 1 atm and 35C
are (Table A-22)

  1.145 kg/m 3
k  0.02625 W/m.C

  1.655  10

-5

Electronic components,
20 W

2

m /s

Te

C p  1007 J/kg.C
Pr  0.7268

Air
32C
0.8 L/s

 b  1.895  10 5 kg/m.s
 s ,@ 60C  2.008  10 5 kg/m.s

L = 15 cm
Air channel
0.25 cm  12 cm

Analysis (a) The mass flow rate of air and the exit temperature are determined from
  V  (1.145 kg/m 3 )(0.8  10 -3 m 3 /s) = 9.160  10 -4 kg/s
m

 m
 C p (Te  Ti )  Te  Ti 
Q

Q
20 W
 32 C +
 53.7C
 Cp
m
(9.16  10  4 kg/s)(1007 J/kg.C)

(b) The mean fluid velocity and hydraulic diameter are

V
0.8  10 3 m 3 /s

 2.667 m/s
Ac
(0.12 m)(0.0025 m)
4 Ac
4(0.12 m)(0.0025 m)
Dh 

 0.00490 m
P
2[(0.12 m) + (0.0025 m)]

Vm 

Then,

Re 

V m D h (2.667 m/s)(0.0049 m)

 790

1.655  10 5 m 2 /s

which is less than 2300. Therefore, the flow is laminar and the thermal entry length in this case is

Lt  0.05 Re Pr D h  0.05(790)(0.7268)(0.0049 m) = 0.14 m
which is nearly equal to the total length of the duct. Therefore, we assume thermally developing flow, and
determine the Nusselt number from

hD h
 Re Pr D 
Nu 
 1.86

k
L

and

1/ 3

 b

 
 s

0.14

 (790)(0.7268)(0.0049) 
 1.86 

0.15

1/ 3

The highest component surface temperature will occur at the exit of the duct. Its value is determined from

Q
  hA (T
Q
s
s , highest  Te )  T s , highest  Te 
hAs
20 W
 53.7C +
 74.4C
2
(26.3 W/m .C) 2(0.12  0.15 + 0.0025  0.15)m 2

19-86

 2.008  10 5 

k
0.02625 W/m.C
h
Nu 
(4.90)  26.3 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.0049 m

0.14

 1.895  10 5 

 4.90

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-91 Air enters a hollow-core printed circuit board. The exit temperature of the air and the highest
temperature on the inner surface are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 Heat generated is uniformly distributed over the two
surfaces of the PCB. 3 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The air viscosity at the wall is
evaluated at the anticipated wall temperature of 60C.
Properties We expect the bulk mean temperature for air to rise somewhat as a result of heat gain through
the hollow core whose surface is exposed to a constant heat flux. The properties of air at 1 atm and 35C
are (Table A-22)

  1.145 kg/m 3
k  0.02625 W/m.C

  1.655  10

-5

Electronic components,
35 W

2

m /s

Te

C p  1007 J/kg.C
Pr  0.7268

Air
32C
0.8 L/s

 b  1.895  10 5 kg/m.s
 s ,@ 60C  2.008  10 5 kg/m.s

L = 15 cm
Air channel
0.25 cm  12 cm

Analysis (a) The mass flow rate of air and the exit temperature are determined from
  V  (1.145 kg/m 3 )(0.8  10 -3 m 3 /s) = 9.160  10 -4 kg/s
m

 m
 C p (Te  Ti )  Te  Ti 
Q

Q
35 W
 32 C +
 69.9C
4

mC p
(9.16  10
kg/s)(1007 J/kg.C)

(b) The mean fluid velocity and hydraulic diameter are

V
0.8  10 3 m 3 /s

 2.667 m/s
Ac
(0.12 m)(0.0025 m)
4 Ac
4(0.12 m)(0.0025 m)
Dh 

 0.00490 m
P
2[(0.12 m) + (0.0025 m)]

Vm 

Then,

Re 

V m D h (2.667 m/s)(0.0049 m)

 790

1.655  10 5 m 2 /s

which is less than 2300. Therefore, the flow is laminar and the thermal entry length in this case is

Lt  0.05 Re Pr D h  0.05(790)(0.7268)(0.0049 m) = 0.14 m
which is nearly equal to the total length of the duct. Therefore, we assume thermally developing flow, and
determine the Nusselt number from

hD h
 Re Pr D 
Nu 
 1.86

k
L

and

1/ 3

 b

 
 s

0.14

 (790)(0.7268)(0.0049) 
 1.86 

0.15

1/ 3

0.14

 1.895  10 5 

 2.008  10 5 

k
0.02625 W/m.C
h
Nu 
(4.90)  26.3 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.0049 m

The highest component surface temperature will occur at the exit of the duct. Its value is determined from

Q
Q  hAs (Ts , highest  Te )  Ts , highest  Te 
hAs
35 W
 69.9C +
 106C
2
(26.3 W/m .C) 2(0.12  0.15 + 0.0025  0.15)m 2

19-92E Water is heated by passing it through thin-walled copper tubes. The length of the copper tube that
needs to be used is to be determined. 

19-87

 4.90

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the tube are smooth. 3 The thermal
resistance of the tube is negligible. 4 The temperature at the tube surface is constant.
Properties The properties of water at the bulk mean fluid temperature of
Tb,ave  (60  140) / 2  100F are (Table A-15E)

  62.0 lbm/ft 3

250F

k  0.363 Btu/h.ft.F

  0.738  10 -5 ft 2 /s

Water
60F
0.7 lbm/s

C p  0.999 Btu/lbm.F
Pr  4.54

Analysis (a) The mass flow rate and the Reynolds number are

m
0.7 lbm/s
  Ac V m  V m 
m

 3.68 ft/s
3
Ac
(62 lbm/ft )[ (0.75/12 ft) 2 /4]

Re 

D = 0.75 in
140F
L

Vm Dh
(3.68 ft/s)(0.75/12 ft)

 31,165

0.738  10 5 ft 2 /s

which is greater than 4000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this case are roughly

Lh  Lt  10 D  10(0.75 in)  7.5 in

which is probably shorter than the total length of the pipe we will
determine. Therefore, we can assume fully developed turbulent flow in the
entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu 

hDh
 0.023 Re0.8 Pr 0.4  0.023(31,165)0.8 ( 4.54)0.4  165.8
k

and

h

k
0.363 Btu/h.ft.F
Nu 
(165.8)  963 Btu/h.ft 2 .F
Dh
(0.75 / 12) ft

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and then the rate of heat transfer per ft length of the tube are

Te  Ti

Tln 

 T s  Te
 Ts  Ti

ln 

140  60
 146.4F
250  140 

ln

 250  60 

Q  hAs Tln  (963 Btu/h.ft 2 .F)[ (0.75 / 12 ft )](146.4F)  27,680 Btu/h.ft
The rate of heat transfer needed to raise the temperature of water from 60  F to 140  F is
 m
 C p (Te  Ti )  (0.7  3600 lbm/h)(0.999 Btu/lbm. F)(140 - 60)F = 201,400 Btu/h
Q

Then the length of the copper tube that needs to be used becomes
201,400 Btu/h
Length 
 7.3 ft
27,680 Btu/h.ft

19-88

Chapter 19 Forced Convection
19-93 A computer is cooled by a fan blowing air through its case. The flow rate of the air, the fraction of
the temperature rise of air that is due to heat generated by the fan, and the highest allowable inlet air
temperature are to be determined. 
Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 Heat flux is uniformly distributed. 3 Air is an ideal gas
with constant properties. 4 The pressure of air is 1 atm.
Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and 25C are (Table A-22)
Pr  0.712
  1.177 kg/m 3

 b  1.85  10 5 kg/m.s

k  0.0261 W/m.C

  1.57  10 -5 m 2 /s
C p  1005 J/kg.C

 s ,@ 350 K  2.08  10 5 kg/m.s

Analysis (a) Noting that the electric energy consumed by the fan is converted to thermal energy, the mass
flow rate of air is
  W
Q
(8  10  25) W
elect, fan
 m
 C p (Te  Ti )  m
 
Q

 0.01045 kg/s
C p (Te  Ti )
(1005 J/kg.C)(10C)
(b) The fraction of temperature rise of air that is due to the heat generated
by the fan and its motor is

Q
25 W
 m
 C p T  T 
Q

 2.38C
Cp
m
(0.01045 kg/s)(1005 J/kg.C)

2.38C
 0.238  23.8%
Cooling
10C
air
(c) The mean velocity of air is

(0.01045 / 8) kg/s
m
  AcV m  V m 
m

 3.08 m/s
Ac
(1.177 kg/m 3 ) (0.003 m)(0.12 m)
and,
4 Ac
4(0.003 m)(0.12 m)
Dh 

 0.00585 m
P
2(0.003 m  0.12 m)
Therefore,
f =

Re 

Vm Dh
(3.08 m/s)(0.00585 m)

 1148

1.57  10 5 m 2 /s

which is less than 4000. Therefore, the flow is laminar. Assuming fully developed flow, the Nusselt
number from is determined from Table 19-4 corresponding to a/b = 12/0.3 = 40 to be Nu = 8.24. Then,

h

k
0.0261 W/m.C
Nu 
(8.24)  36.8 W/m 2 .C
Dh
0.00585 m

The highest component surface temperature will occur at the exit of the duct. Assuming uniform heat flux,
the air temperature at the exit is determined from

q  h(T s , max  Te )  Te  T s , max 

q
[(80  25) W]/[8  2(0.12  0.18 + 0.003  0.18) m 2 ]
 70C 
 61.9C
h
36.8 W/m 2 .C

The highest allowable inlet temperature then becomes

Te  Ti  10C  Ti  Te  10C  61.9C  10C  51.9C
Discussion Although the Reynolds number is less than 4000, the flow in this case will most likely be
turbulent because of the electronic components that that protrude into flow. Therefore, the heat transfer
coefficient determined above is probably conservative.

19-89