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Flow in Tubes

19-58C The number of transfer units NTU is a measure of the heat transfer area and effectiveness of a

heat transfer system. A small value of NTU (NTU < 5) indicates more opportunities for heat transfer

whereas a large NTU value (NTU >5) indicates that heat transfer will not increase no matter how much

we extend the length of the tube.

19-59C The logarithmic mean temperature difference Tln is an exact representation of the average

temperature difference between the fluid and the surface for the entire tube. It truly reflects the

exponential decay of the local temperature difference. The error in using the arithmetic mean temperature

increases to undesirable levels when Te differs from Ti by great amounts. Therefore we should always

use the logarithmic mean temperature.

19-60C The region of flow over which the thermal boundary layer develops and reaches the tube center is

called the thermal entry region, and the length of this region is called the thermal entry length. The region

in which the flow is both hydrodynamically (the velocity profile is fully developed and remains

unchanged) and thermally (the dimensionless temperature profile remains unchanged) developed is called

the fully developed region.

19-61C The heat flux will be higher near the inlet because the heat transfer coefficient is highest at the

tube inlet where the thickness of thermal boundary layer is zero, and decreases gradually to the fully

developed value.

19-62C The heat flux will be higher near the inlet because the heat transfer coefficient is highest at the

tube inlet where the thickness of thermal boundary layer is zero, and decreases gradually to the fully

developed value.

19-63C In the fully developed region of flow in a circular tube, the velocity profile will not change in the

flow direction but the temperature profile may.

19-64C The hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths are given as Lh 0.05 Re D and Lt 0.05 Re Pr D

**for laminar flow, and L h Lt 10 D in turbulent flow. Noting that Pr >> 1 for oils, the thermal entry
**

length is larger than the hydrodynamic entry length in laminar flow. In turbulent, the hydrodynamic and

thermal entry lengths are independent of Re or Pr numbers, and are comparable in magnitude.

19-65C The hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths are given as Lh 0.05 Re D and Lt 0.05 Re Pr D

**for laminar flow, and L h Lt 10 Re in turbulent flow. Noting that Pr << 1 for liquid metals, the
**

thermal entry length is smaller than the hydrodynamic entry length in laminar flow. In turbulent, the

hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths are independent of Re or Pr numbers, and are comparable in

magnitude.

19-66C In fluid flow, it is convenient to work with an average or mean velocity Vm and an average or

mean temperature Tm which remain constant in incompressible flow when the cross-sectional area of the

tube is constant. The Vm and Tm represent the velocity and temperature, respectively, at a cross section if

all the particles were at the same velocity and temperature.

19-67C When the surface temperature of tube is constant, the appropriate temperature difference for use in

the Newton's law of cooling is logarithmic mean temperature difference that can be expressed as

Tln

Te Ti

ln(Te / Ti )

19-68 Air flows inside a duct and it is cooled by water outside. The exit temperature of air and the rate of

heat transfer are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the duct is constant. 3 The

thermal resistance of the duct is negligible.

19-55

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

Properties The properties of air at the anticipated average temperature of 30C are (Table A-22)

1.164 kg/m 3

C p 1007 J/kg.C

Te

Analysis The mass flow rate of water is

D 2

Ac Vm

m

4

(1.164 kg/m 3 )

Vm

(0.2 m) 2

(7 m/s) = 0.256 kg/s

4

As DL (0.2 m)(12 m) = 7.54 m

2

12 m

5C

Air

50C

7 m/s

The exit temperature of air is determined from

Te Ts (Ts Ti )e

Cp )

hAs /( m

5 (5 50)e

( 9.09 )( 7.54 )

( 0.256 )(1007 )

8.74 C

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the rate of heat transfe r are

Te Ti

Tln

T s Te

T

T

i

s

ln

8.74 50

16.59C

5 8.74

ln

5 50

Q hAs Tln (85 W/m 2 .C )(7.54 m 2 )(16.59C) 10,6333.41 10 4 W 10,633 W 10.6 kW

19-56

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-69 Steam is condensed by cooling water flowing inside copper tubes. The average heat transfer

coefficient and the number of tubes needed are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the pipe is constant. 3 The

thermal resistance of the pipe is negligible.

Properties The properties of water at the average temperature of (10+24)/2=17C are (Table A-15)

998.7 kg/m 3

C p 4184.5 J/kg.C

Also, the heat of vaporization of water at 30C is h fg 2431 kJ/kg .

Steam, 30C

Analysis The mass flow rate of water and the surface area are

D 2

Ac Vm

m

4 Vm

Water

10C

4 m/s

(0.012 m) 2

(4 m/s) = 0.4518 kg/s

4

The rate of heat transfer for one tube is

(998.7 kg/m 3 )

24C

D = 1.2 cm

L=5m

m

C p (Te Ti ) (0.4518 kg/s )(4184.5 J/kg.C )(24 10C) 26,468 W

Q

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the surface area are

Te Ti

Tln

Ts Te

Ts Ti

ln

24 10

11.63C

30 24

ln

30 10

**As DL (0.012 m)(5 m) = 0.1885 m 2
**

The average heat transfer coefficient is determined from

Q hAs Tln h

Q

26,468 W

1 kW 12.1 kW/m 2 .C

2

As Tln

(0.1885 m )(11.63C) 1000 W

**The total rate of heat transfer is determined from
**

cond h fg (0.15 kg/s )(2431 kJ/kg) 364.65 kW

Q

total m

**Then the number of tubes becomes
**

Q

364,650 W

N tube total

13.8

26,468 W

Q

19-57

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-70 Steam is condensed by cooling water flowing inside copper tubes. The average heat transfer

coefficient and the number of tubes needed are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the pipe is constant. 3 The

thermal resistance of the pipe is negligible.

Properties The properties of water at the average temperature of (10+24)/2=17C are (Table A-15)

998.7 kg/m 3

C p 4184.5 J/kg.C

Also, the heat of vaporization of water at 30C is h fg 2431 kJ/kg .

Steam, 30C

Analysis The mass flow rate of water is

D 2

Ac Vm

m

4 Vm

Water

10C

4 m/s

(0.012 m) 2

(4 m/s) = 0.4518 kg/s

4

The rate of heat transfer for one tube is

(998.7 kg/m 3 )

24C

D = 1.2 cm

L=5m

m

C p (Te Ti ) (0.4518 kg/s )(4184.5 J/kg.C )(24 10C) 26,468 W

Q

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the surface area are

Te Ti

Tln

Ts Te

Ts Ti

ln

24 10

11.63C

30 24

ln

30 10

**As DL (0.012 m)(5 m) = 0.1885 m 2
**

The average heat transfer coefficient is determined from

Q hAs Tln

h

Q

26,468 W

1 kW 12.1 kW/m 2 .C

2

As Tln

(0.1885 m )(11.63C ) 1000 W

**The total rate of heat transfer is determined from
**

cond h fg (0.60 kg/s )(2431 kJ/kg) 1458.6 kW

Q

total m

**Then the number of tubes becomes
**

Q

1,458,600 W

N tube total

55.1

26,468 W

Q

19-58

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-71 Combustion gases passing through a tube are used to vaporize waste water. The tube length and the

rate of evaporation of water are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the pipe is constant. 3 The

thermal resistance of the pipe is negligible. 4 Air properties are to be used for exhaust gases.

Properties The properties of air at the average temperature of (250+150)/2=200C are (Table A-22)

C p 1023 J/kg.C

R 0.287 kJ/kg.K

**Also, the heat of vaporization of water at 1 atm or 100C is h fg 2257 kJ/kg .
**

Analysis The density of air at the inlet and the mass flow rate of exhaust gases are

Ts=110C

P

115 kPa

0.7662 kg/m 3

RT

(0.287 kJ/kg.K)( 250 273 K)

150C

Exh. gases

250C

5 m/s

D

Ac Vm

m

4 Vm

2

(0.03 m) 2

(5 m/s) = 0.002708 kg/s

4

The rate of heat transfer is

(0.7662 kg/m 3 )

D =3 cm

L

m

C p (Ti Te ) (0.002708 kg/s )(1023 J/kg.C )(250 150C ) 276.9 W

Q

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the surface area are

Te Ti

Tln

Ts Te

Ts Ti

ln

Q hAs Tln

150 250

79.82C

110 150

ln

110 250

As

Q

276.9 W

0.02891 m 2

hTln

(120 W/m 2 .C)(79.82C)

Then the tube length becomes

As DL L

As

0.02891 m 2

0.3067 m 30.7 cm

D

(0.03 m)

**The rate of evaporation of water is determined from
**

Q

(0.2769 kW)

evap h fg m

evap

Q m

0.0001227 kg/s = 0.442 kg/h

h fg

( 2257 kJ/kg)

19-59

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-72 Combustion gases passing through a tube are used to vaporize waste water. The tube length and the

rate of evaporation of water are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the pipe is constant. 3 The

thermal resistance of the pipe is negligible. 4 Air properties are to be used for exhaust gases.

Properties The properties of air at the average temperature of (250+150)/2=200C are (Table A-22)

C p 1023 J/kg.C

R 0.287 kJ/kg.K

**Also, the heat of vaporization of water at 1 atm or 100C is h fg 2257 kJ/kg .
**

Analysis The density of air at the inlet and the mass flow rate of exhaust gases are

Ts =110C

P

115 kPa

0.7662 kg/m 3

RT

(0.287 kJ/kg.K)( 250 273 K)

150C

Exh. gases

250C

5 m/s

D

Ac Vm

m

4 Vm

2

(0.03 m) 2

(5 m/s) = 0.002708 kg/s

4

The rate of heat transfer is

(0.7662 kg/m 3 )

D =3 cm

L

m

C p (Ti Te ) (0.002708 kg/s )(1023 J/kg.C )(250 150C ) 276.9 W

Q

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the surface area are

Te Ti

Tln

Ts Te

Ts Ti

ln

Q hAs Tln

150 250

79.82C

110 150

ln

110 250

As

Q

276.9 W

0.05782 m 2

hTln

(60 W/m 2 .C)(79.82C)

Then the tube length becomes

As DL L

As

0.05782 m 2

0.6135 m 61.4 cm

D

(0.03 m)

**The rate of evaporation of water is determined from
**

Q

(0.2769 kW)

evap h fg m

evap

Q m

0.0001227 kg/s = 0.442 kg/h

h fg

( 2257 kJ/kg)

19-60

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-73 Water is to be heated in a tube equipped with an electric resistance heater on its surface. The power

rating of the heater and the inner surface temperature are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The surface heat flux is uniform. 3 The inner surfaces of

the tube are smooth.

Properties The properties of water at the average temperature of

(80+10) / 2 = 45C are (Table A-15)

990.1 kg/m 3

(Resistance heater)

Water

10C

3 m/s

k 0.637 W/m.C

/ 0.602 10 -6 m 2 /s

C p 4180 J/kg.C

D = 2 cm

80C

L

Pr 3.91

**Analysis The power rating of the resistance heater is
**

V (990.1 kg/m 3 )(0.008 m 3 /min ) 7.921 kg/min 0.132 kg/s

m

m

C p (Te Ti ) (0.132 kg/s )(4180 J/kg.C)(80 10)C 38,627 W

Q

**The velocity of water and the Reynolds number are
**

V

(8 10 3 / 60) m 3 / s

0.4244 m / s

Ac

(0.02 m) 2 / 4

Vm

Re

Vm D h

(0.4244 m/s)(0.02 m)

14,101

0.602 10 6 m 2 /s

which is greater than 4000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this case are roughly

Lh Lt 10 D 10(0.02 m) 0.20 m

which is much shorter than the total length of the duct. Therefore, we can assume fully developed

turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu

hD h

0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4 0.023(14,101) 0.8 (3.91) 0.4 82.79

k

Heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.637 W/m.C

Nu

(82.79) 2637 W/m 2 .C

Dh

0.02 m

**Then the inner surface temperature of the pipe at the exit becomes
**

hA (T

Q

T )

s

s ,e

e

2

**38,627 W ( 2637 W/m .C)[ (0.02 m )(7 m )](Ts 80)C
**

T s ,e 113.3C

19-61

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-74 Flow of hot air through uninsulated square ducts of a heating system in the attic is considered. The

exit temperature and the rate of heat loss are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth. 3 Air is an

ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The pressure of air is 1 atm.

Properties We assume the bulk mean temperature for air to be 80C since the mean temperature of air at

the inlet will drop somewhat as a result of heat loss through the duct whose surface is at a lower

temperature. The properties of air at 1 atm and this temperature are (Table A-22)

0.9994 kg/m 3

k 0.02953 W/m.C

Te

2.097 10 -5 m 2 /s

C p 1008 J/kg.C

Pr 0.7154

**Analysis The characteristic length that is the hydraulic
**

diameter, the mean velocity of air, and the Reynolds number are

Dh

10 m

70C

4 Ac 4a 2

a 015

. m

P

4a

Vm

Re

Air

85C

0.1 m3/min

V

0.10 m 3 /s

4.444 m/s

Ac

(0.15 m) 2

Vm D h (4.444 m/s)(0.15 m)

31,791

2.097 10 5 m 2 /s

which is greater than 40000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this case are roughly

L h Lt 10 D h 10(0.15 m) 1.5 m

which is much shorter than the total length of the duct. Therefore, we can assume fully developed

turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu

hDh

0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.3 0.023(31,791)0.8 (0.7154)0.3 83.16

k

Heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.02953 W/m.C

Nu

(83.16) 16.37 W/m 2 .C

Dh

0.15 m

Next we determine the exit temperature of air,

As 4 aL 4(0.15 m)(10 m) = 6 m 2

V (0.9994 kg/m 3 )(0.10 m 3 /s) = 0.09994 kg/s

m

Te T s (T s Ti )e

Cp )

hA /( m

70 (70 85)e

(16.37 )(6 )

( 0.09994 )(1008)

75.7C

Then the logarithmic mean temperature difference and the rate of heat loss from the air becomes

Te Ti

Tln

T s Te

Ts Ti

ln

75.7 85

9.58C

70 75.7

ln

70 85

**Q hAs Tln (16.37 W/m 2 .C)(6 m 2 )(9.58C) 941 W
**

Note that the temperature of air drops by almost 10C as it flows in the duct as a result of heat loss.

19-75

19-62

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

"GIVEN"

T_i=85 "[C]"

L=10 "[m]"

side=0.15 "[m]"

"V_dot=0.10 [m^3/s], parameter to be varied"

T_s=70 "[C]"

"PROPERTIES"

Fluid$='air'

C_p=CP(Fluid$, T=T_ave)*Convert(kJ/kg-C, J/kg-C)

k=Conductivity(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

Pr=Prandtl(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

rho=Density(Fluid$, T=T_ave, P=101.3)

mu=Viscosity(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

nu=mu/rho

T_ave=1/2*(T_i+T_e)

"ANALYSIS"

D_h=(4*A_c)/p

A_c=side^2

p=4*side

Vel=V_dot/A_c

Re=(Vel*D_h)/nu "The flow is turbulent"

L_t=10*D_h "The entry length is much shorter than the total length of the duct."

Nusselt=0.023*Re^0.8*Pr^0.3

h=k/D_h*Nusselt

A=4*side*L

m_dot=rho*V_dot

T_e=T_s-(T_s-T_i)*exp((-h*A)/(m_dot*C_p))

DELTAT_ln=(T_e-T_i)/ln((T_s-T_e)/(T_s-T_i))

Q_dot=h*A*DELTAT_ln

19-63

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

V [m3/s]

0.05

0.055

0.06

0.065

0.07

0.075

0.08

0.085

0.09

0.095

0.1

0.105

0.11

0.115

0.12

0.125

0.13

0.135

0.14

0.145

0.15

Te [C]

74.89

75

75.09

75.18

75.26

75.34

75.41

75.48

75.54

75.6

75.66

75.71

75.76

75.81

75.86

75.9

75.94

75.98

76.02

76.06

76.1

Q [W]

509

554.1

598.6

642.7

686.3

729.5

772.4

814.8

857

898.9

940.4

981.7

1023

1063

1104

1144

1184

1224

1264

1303

1343

76.2

1400

1300

75.9

1200

Te

Te [C]

75.7

1000

900

Q

75.3

800

700

75.1

600

74.8

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

3

V [m /s]

19-64

0.12

0.14

500

0.16

Q [W]

1100

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-76 Air enters the constant spacing between the glass cover and the plate of a solar collector. The net

rate of heat transfer and the temperature rise of air are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the spacing are smooth. 3 Air is

an ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and estimated average temperature of 35C are (Table A-22)

C p 1007 J/kg.C

1.146kg/m 3

k 0.02625 W/m.C

Pr 0.7268

1.655 10 -5 m 2 /s

**Analysis Mass flow rate, cross sectional area, hydraulic diameter,
**

mean velocity of air and the Reynolds number are

Glass

cover

20C

** V (1.146 kg/m 3 )(0.15 m 3 /s ) 0.1719 kg/s
**

m

Ac (1 m)(0.03 m) 0.03 m 2

Dh

4 Ac

4(0.03 m 2 )

0.05825 m

P

2(1 m 0.03 m)

V

0.15 m 3 / s

Vm

5 m/s

Ac

0.03 m 2

Re

Air

30C

0.15 m3/min

60C

Collector plate

(insulated)

V m D h (5 m/s)(0.05825 m)

17,606

1.655 10 5 m 2 /s

which is greater than 4000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this case are roughly

**Lh Lt 10 Dh 10(0.05825 m) 0.5825 m
**

which are much shorter than the total length of the collector. Therefore, we can assume fully developed

turbulent flow in the entire collector, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu

and

h

hDh

0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4 0.023(17,606 )0.8 (0.7268)0.4 50.45

k

k

0.02625 W/m.C

Nu

(50.45) 22.73 W/m 2 .C

Dh

0.05825 m

The exit temperature of air can be calculated using the “average” surface temperature as

As 2(5 m)(1 m) 10 m 2

Ts,ave

60 20

40 C

2

hAs

Te T s ,ave (Ts ,ave Ti ) exp

m

Cp

40 (40 30) exp 22.73 10 37.31C

0.1718 1007

**The temperature rise of air is
**

T 37.3C 30C 7.3C

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the heat loss from the glass are

Tln, glass

Te Ti

37.31 30

13.32C

T s Te

20 37.31

ln

ln

20 30

Ts Ti

2

2

Q

glass hAs Tln (22.73 W/m .C)(5 m )(13.32C) = 1514 W

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the heat gain of the absorber are

19-65

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

Tln,absorber

Te Ti

37.31 30

26.17C

T s Te

60 37.31

ln

ln

60 30

Ts Ti

**Q absorber hATln (22.73 W/m 2 .C)(5 m 2 )(26.17C) = 2975 W
**

Then the net rate of heat transfer becomes

Q

net 2975 1514 1461 W

19-66

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-77 Oil flows through a pipeline that passes through icy waters of a lake. The exit temperature of the oil

and the rate of heat loss are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The surface temperature of the pipe is very nearly

0C. 3 The thermal resistance of the pipe is negligible. 4 The inner surfaces of the pipeline are smooth. 5

The flow is hydrodynamically developed when the pipeline reaches the lake.

(Icy lake, 0C)

**Properties The properties of oil at 10C are (Table A-13)
**

893.5 kg/m 3 ,

2.325 kg/m.s,

C p 1838 J/kg.C,

k 0.146 W/m.COil

10C

2591 10 -6 m 2 /s

0.5 m/s

Pr 28750

D = 0.4 m

Analysis (a) The Reynolds number in this case is

Te

L = 300 m

V D

(0.5 m/s)(0.4 m)

Re m h

77.19

2591 10 6 m 2 /s

which is less than 2300. Therefore, the flow is laminar, and the thermal entry length is roughly

**Lt 0.05 Re Pr D 0.05(77.19)(28750)(0.4 m ) 44,384 m
**

which is much longer than the total length of the pipe. Therefore, we assume thermally developing flow,

and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu

hD

0.065( D / L) Re Pr

3.66

3.66

k

1 0.04 ( D / L) Re Pr 2 / 3

h

and

0 .4 m

0.065

(77.19)(28,750)

300 m

0 .4 m

1 0.04

(77.19)(28,750)

300 m

k

0.146 W/m.C

Nu

(24.47) 8.930 W/m 2 .C

D

0.4 m

Next we determine the exit temperature of oil

**As DL (0.4 m)(300 m) = 377 m 2
**

D 2

(0.4 m) 2

Vm (893.5 kg/m 3 )

V Ac Vm

m

(0.5 m/s) = 56.14 kg/s

4

4

Te Ts (Ts Ti )e

Cp )

hAs /( m

0 (0 10)e

(8.930 )( 377 )

( 56.14 )(1838 )

9.68 C

(b) The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the rate of heat loss from the oil are

Te Ti

Tln

Ts Te

Ts Ti

ln

9.68 10

9.84C

0 9.68

ln

0 10

Q hAs Tln (8.930 W/m 2 .C)(377 m 2 )(9.84C) 3.31 10 4 W 33.1 kW

19-67

2/3

24.47

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-78 Laminar flow of a fluid through an isothermal square channel is considered. The change in the

pressure drop and the rate of heat transfer are to be determined when the mean velocity is doubled.

Assumptions 1 The flow is fully developed. 2 The effect of the change in Tln on the rate of heat transfer is

not considered.

Analysis The pressure drop of the fluid for laminar flow is expressed as

P1 f

L Vm 2 64 L Vm 2

64 L Vm 2

L

32 Vm 2

D 2

Re D 2

Vm D D 2

D

**When the freestream velocity of the fluid is doubled, the pressure drop becomes
**

P2 f

L (2 Vm ) 2 64 L 4 Vm 2

64 L 4 Vm 2

L

64 Vm 2

D

2

Re D 2

2 Vm D D 2

D

L

Their ratio is

P2 64

2

P1 32

Laminar flow

Vm

The rate of heat transfer between the fluid and the walls of the channel is expressed as

k

k

Q 1 hAs Tln

NuAs Tln

2.98 As Tln

D

D

When the effect of the change in Tln on the rate of heat transfer is disregarded, the rate of heat transfer

remains the same. Therefore,

Q 2

1

Q

1

Therefore, doubling the velocity will double the pressure drop but it will not effect the heat transfer rate.

19-68

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-79 Turbulent flow of a fluid through an isothermal square channel is considered. The change in the

pressure drop and the rate of heat transfer are to be determined when the mean velocity is doubled.

Assumptions 1 The flow is fully developed. 2 The effect of the change in Tln on the rate of heat transfer is

not considered.

Analysis The pressure drop of the fluid for turbulent flow is expressed as

P1 f

L Vm 2

L Vm 2

V 0.2 D 0.2 L Vm 2

0.184 Re 0.2

0.184 m 0.2

D 2

D 2

D 2

D

0 .2

0.092Vm1.8

L

D

When the freestream velocity of the fluid is doubled, the pressure drop becomes

P2 f

L (2Vm ) 2

L 4Vm 2

(2Vm ) 0.2 D 0.2 L 4Vm 2

0.184 Re 0.2

0.184

D

2

D

2

D

2

0.2

D

0.368( 2) 0.2 Vm1.8

0.2

L

D

L

Their ratio is

P2 0.368(2) 0.2 Vm 1.8

4(2) 0.2 3.48

1

.

8

P1

0.092V m

Turbulent flow

Vm

The rate of heat transfer between the fluid and the walls of the channel is expressed as

** hAT k NuAT k 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr1 / 3 AT
**

Q

1

ln

ln

ln

D

D

0.8

D

0.023Vm 0.8

k

Pr1 / 3 ATln

D

**When the freestream velocity of the fluid is doubled, the heat transfer rate becomes
**

0.023( 2V )0.8 D

Q

2

m

0.8

k

Pr1 / 3 ATln

D

Their ratio is

Q 2 (2 Vm ) 0.8

2 0.8 1.74

Q 1

Vm 0.8

Therefore, doubling the velocity will increase the pressure drop 3.8 times but it will increase the heat

transfer rate by only 74%.

19-69

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-80E Water is heated in a parabolic solar collector. The required length of parabolic collector and the

surface temperature of the collector tube are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The thermal resistance of the tube is negligible. 3 The

inner surfaces of the tube are smooth.

Solar absorption,

350 Btu/h.ft

**Properties The properties of water at the average temperature
**

of (55+200)/2 = 127.5F are (Table A-15E)

61.59 lbm/ft 3

k 0.374 Btu/ft.F

/ 0.5683 10

C p 0.999Btu/lbm.F

**(Inside glass tube)
**

-5

2

ft /s

Water

55F

4 lbm/s

Pr 3.368

D = 1.25 in

200F

**Analysis The total rate of heat transfer is
**

L

m

C (T T ) ( 4 lbm/s)(0.999 Btu/lbm.F)( 200 55)F

Q

p

e

i

579.4 Btu/s = 2.086 10 6 Btu/h

**The length of the tube required is
**

Q

2.086 10 4 Btu/h

L total

5960 ft

350 Btu/h.ft

Q

The velocity of water and the Reynolds number are

Vm

Re

m

Ac

4 lbm/s

(1.25 / 12 ft ) 2

(61.59 lbm/m )

4

7.621 ft/s

3

Vm D h

(7.621 m/s)(1.25/12 ft)

1.397 10 5

5

2

0.5683 10 ft /s

which is greater than 4000. Therefore, we can assume fully developed turbulent flow in the entire tube,

and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu

hDh

0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4 0.023(1.397 104 )0.8 (3.368)0.4 488.4

k

The heat transfer coefficient is

h

k

0.374 Btu/h.ft.F

Nu

( 488.4) 1754 Btu/h.ft 2 .F

Dh

1.25 / 12 ft

The heat flux on the tube is

q

Q

2.086 10 4 Btu/h

1070 Btu/h.ft 2

As

(1.25 / 12 ft )(5960 ft )

Then the surface temperature of the tube at the exit becomes

q h(Ts Te )

Ts Te

q

1070 Btu/h.ft 2

200F +

200.6F

h

1754 Btu/h.ft 2 .F

19-70

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-81 A circuit board is cooled by passing cool air through a channel drilled into the board. The maximum

total power of the electronic components is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat flux at the top surface of the channel is

uniform, and heat transfer through other surfaces is negligible. 3 The inner surfaces of the channel are

smooth. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 5 The pressure of air in the channel is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and estimated average temperature of 25C are (Table A-22)

Electronic components,

50C

1.184 kg/m 3

k 0.02551 W/m.C

1.562 10 -5 m 2 /s

C p 1007 J/kg.C

Air

15C

4 m/s

Pr 0.7296

Te

L = 20 cm

Air channel

0.2 cm 14 cm

Analysis The cross-sectional and heat transfer surface areas are

**Ac (0.002 m )(0.14 m ) 0.00028 m 2
**

As (0.14 m )(0.2 m ) 0.028 m 2

To determine heat transfer coefficient, we first need to find the Reynolds number,

Dh

4 Ac

4(0.00028 m 2 )

0.003944 m

P

2(0.002 m + 0.14 m)

Re

Vm D h (4 m/s)(0.003944 m)

1010

1.562 10 5 m 2 /s

which is less than 2300. Therefore, the flow is laminar and the thermal entry length is

**Lt 0.05 Re Pr D h 0.05(1010)(0.7296 )(0.003944 m) = 0.1453 m < 0.20 m
**

Therefore, we have developing flow through most of the channel. However, we take the conservative

approach and assume fully developed flow, and from Table 19-1 we read Nu = 8.24. Then the heat transfer

coefficient becomes

h

k

0.02551 W/m.C

Nu

(8.24 ) 53.30 W/m 2 .C

Dh

0.003944 m

Also,

** VAc (1.184 kg/m 3 )(4 m/s )(0.00028 m 2 ) 0.001326 kg/s
**

m

Heat flux at the exit can be written as q h(Ts Te ) where Ts 50 C at the exit. Then the heat transfer

q A hA (T T ) , and the exit temperature of the air can be

rate can be expressed as Q

s

s

s

e

determined from

C p (Te Ti )

hAs (T s Te ) m

(53.30 W/m 2 .C)(0.028 m 2 )(50C Te ) (0.001326 kg/s )(1007 J/kg.C)(Te 15C)

Te 33.5C

Then the maximum total power of the electronic components that can safely be mounted on this circuit

board becomes

C p (Te Ti ) (0.001326 kg/s )(1007 J/kg.C )(33.5 15C ) 24.7 W

Q

max m

19-71

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-82 A circuit board is cooled by passing cool helium gas through a channel drilled into the board. The

maximum total power of the electronic components is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat flux at the top surface of the channel is

uniform, and heat transfer through other surfaces is negligible. 3 The inner surfaces of the channel are

smooth. 4 Helium is an ideal gas. 5 The pressure of helium in the channel is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of helium at the estimated average temperature of 25C are (Table A-16)

Electronic components,

50C

0.1635 kg/m 3

k 0.1565 W/m.C

Te

1.233 10 - 4 m 2 /s

C p 5193 J/kg.C

He

15C

4 m/s

Pr 0.669

L = 20 cm

Air channel

0.2 cm 14 cm

Analysis The cross-sectional and heat transfer surface areas are

**Ac (0.002 m )(0.14 m ) 0.00028 m 2
**

As (0.14 m )(0.2 m ) 0.028 m 2

To determine heat transfer coefficient, we need to first find the Reynolds number

Dh

4 Ac

4(0.00028 m 2 )

0.003944 m

P

2(0.002 m + 0.14 m)

Re

Vm D h (4 m/s)(0.003944 m)

127.9

1.233 10 4 m 2 /s

which is less than 2300. Therefore, the flow is laminar and the thermal entry length is

**Lt 0.05 Re Pr D h 0.05(127.9)(0.669)(0.003944 m) = 0.01687 m << 0.20 m
**

Therefore, the flow is fully developed flow, and from Table 19-3 we read Nu = 8.24. Then the heat transfer

coefficient becomes

h

k

0.1565 W/m.C

Nu

(8.24) 327.0 W/m 2 .C

Dh

0.003944 m

Also,

** VAc (0.1635 kg/m 3 )(4 m/s )(0.00028 m 2 ) 0.0001831 kg/s
**

m

Heat flux at the exit can be written as q h(Ts Te ) where Ts 50 C at the exit. Then the heat transfer

q A hA (T T ) , and the exit temperature of the air can be

rate can be expressed as Q

s

s

s

e

determined from

C p (Te Ti ) hAs (T s Te )

m

(0.0001831 kg/s )(5193 J/kg.C)(Te 15C) (327.0 W/m 2 .C)(0.0568 m 2 )(50C Te )

Te 46.7C

Then the maximum total power of the electronic components that can safely be mounted on this circuit

board becomes

C p (Te Ti ) (0.0001831 kg/s )(5193 J/kg.C )( 46.7 15C ) 30.2 W

Q

max m

19-72

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-83

"GIVEN"

L=0.20 "[m]"

width=0.14 "[m]"

height=0.002 "[m]"

T_i=15 "[C]"

Vel=4 "[m/s], parameter to be varied"

"T_s=50 [C], parameter to be varied"

"PROPERTIES"

Fluid$='air'

C_p=CP(Fluid$, T=T_ave)*Convert(kJ/kg-C, J/kg-C)

k=Conductivity(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

Pr=Prandtl(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

rho=Density(Fluid$, T=T_ave, P=101.3)

mu=Viscosity(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

nu=mu/rho

T_ave=1/2*(T_i+T_e)

"ANALYSIS"

A_c=width*height

A=width*L

p=2*(width+height)

D_h=(4*A_c)/p

Re=(Vel*D_h)/nu "The flow is laminar"

L_t=0.05*Re*Pr*D_h

"Taking conservative approach and assuming fully developed laminar flow, from

Table 19-1 we read"

Nusselt=8.24

h=k/D_h*Nusselt

m_dot=rho*Vel*A_c

Q_dot=h*A*(T_s-T_e)

Q_dot=m_dot*C_p*(T_e-T_i)

19-73

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

Vel [m/s]

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Q [W]

9.453

16.09

20.96

24.67

27.57

29.91

31.82

33.41

34.76

35.92

Ts [C]

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

Q [W]

10.59

14.12

17.64

21.15

24.67

28.18

31.68

35.18

38.68

42.17

45.65

49.13

52.6

19-74

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

40

35

Q [W]

30

25

20

15

10

5

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Vel [m/s]

55

50

45

Q [W]

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

30

40

50

60

Ts [C]

19-75

70

80

90

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-84 Air enters a rectangular duct. The exit temperature of the air, the rate of heat transfer, and the fan

power are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth. 3 Air is an

ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The pressure of air in the duct is 1 atm.

Properties We assume the bulk mean temperature for air to be 40C since the mean temperature of air at

the inlet will drop somewhat as a result of heat loss through the duct whose surface is at a lower

temperature. The properties of air at this temperature and 1 atm are (Table A-22)

C p 1007 J/kg.C

1.127 kg/m 3

k 0.02662 W/m.C

1.702 10

-5

Pr 0.7255

Ts = 10C

2

m /s

**Analysis (a) The hydraulic diameter, the mean velocity of air, and
**

the Reynolds number are

4 Ac

4(015

. m)(0.20 m)

Dh

01714

.

m

P

2 (015

. m) + (0.20 m)

V D

(7 m/s)(0.1714 m)

Re m h

70,525

1.702 10 5 m 2 /s

Air duct

15 cm 20 cm

Air

50C

7 m/s

L=7m

which is greater than 4000. Therefore, the flow is turbulent and the entry lengths in this case are roughly

L h Lt 10 D h 10(0.1714 m) 1.714 m

which is much shorter than the total length of the duct. Therefore, we can assume fully developed

turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu

hDh

0.023 Re0.8 Pr 0.3 0.023(70,525)0.8 (0.7255)0.3 158.0

k

Heat transfer coefficient is

k

0.02662 W/m.C

Nu

(158.0) 24.53 W/m 2 .C

Dh

0.1714 m

Next we determine the exit temperature of air

h

As 2 7[(0.15 m) + (0.20 m)] = 4.9 m 2

Ac (0.15 m)(0.20 m) = 0.03 m 2

VAc (1.127 kg/m 3 )(7 m/s)(0.03 m 2 ) = 0.2367 kg/s

m

Te Ts (Ts Ti )e

Cp )

hAs /( m

10 (10 50)e

( 24.53)( 4.9 )

( 0.2367 )(1007 )

34.2C

(b) The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the rate of heat loss from the air are

Te Ti

Tln

T s Te

Ts Ti

ln

34.2 50

31.42C

10 34.2

ln

10 50

Q hAs Tln (24.53 W/m 2 .C)(4.9 m 2 )(31.42C) 3776 W

19-76

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-85

"GIVEN"

L=7 "[m]"

width=0.15 "[m]"

height=0.20 "[m]"

T_i=50 "[C]"

"Vel=7 [m/s], parameter to be varied"

T_s=10 "[C]"

"PROPERTIES"

Fluid$='air'

C_p=CP(Fluid$, T=T_ave)*Convert(kJ/kg-C, J/kg-C)

k=Conductivity(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

Pr=Prandtl(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

rho=Density(Fluid$, T=T_ave, P=101.3)

mu=Viscosity(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

nu=mu/rho

T_ave=1/2*(T_i+T_e)

"ANALYSIS"

"(a)"

A_c=width*height

p=2*(width+height)

D_h=(4*A_c)/p

Re=(Vel*D_h)/nu "The flow is turbulent"

L_t=10*D_h "The entry length is much shorter than the total length of the duct."

Nusselt=0.023*Re^0.8*Pr^0.3

h=k/D_h*Nusselt

A=2*L*(width+height)

m_dot=rho*Vel*A_c

T_e=T_s-(T_s-T_i)*exp((-h*A)/(m_dot*C_p))

"(b)"

DELTAT_ln=(T_e-T_i)/ln((T_s-T_e)/(T_s-T_i))

Q_dot=h*A*DELTAT_ln

"(c)"

f=0.184*Re^(-0.2)

DELTAP=f*L/D_h*(rho*Vel^2)/2

W_dot_pump=(m_dot*DELTAP)/rho

19-77

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

Vel [m/s]

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

8

8.5

9

9.5

10

Te [C]

29.01

30.14

30.92

31.51

31.99

32.39

32.73

33.03

33.29

33.53

33.75

33.94

34.12

34.29

34.44

34.59

34.72

34.85

34.97

Q [W]

715.6

1014

1297

1570

1833

2090

2341

2587

2829

3066

3300

3531

3759

3984

4207

4427

4646

4862

5076

19-78

Wpump [W]

0.02012

0.06255

0.1399

0.2611

0.4348

0.6692

0.9722

1.352

1.815

2.369

3.022

3.781

4.652

5.642

6.759

8.008

9.397

10.93

12.62

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

35

6000

34

5000

Te

4000

Q

32

3000

31

2000

30

1000

29

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

10

8

9

Q [W]

Te [C]

33

Vel [m/s]

14

12

Wpump [W]

10

8

6

4

2

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Vel [m/s]

19-79

7

10

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-86 Hot air enters a sheet metal duct located in a basement. The exit temperature of hot air and the rate

of heat loss are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth. 3 The thermal

resistance of the duct is negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 5 The pressure of air is 1

atm.

Properties We expect the air temperature to drop somewhat, and evaluate the air properties at 1 atm and

the estimated bulk mean temperature of 50C (Table A-22),

1.092 kg/m 3 ;

k 0.02735 W/m.C

1.797 10 -5 m 2 /s;

Air duct

20 cm 20 cm

C p 1007 J/kg.C

Pr 0.7228

Analysis The surface area and the Reynolds number are

As 4 aL 4 (0.2 m)(12 m) 9.6 m

4 Ac 4a 2

Dh

a 0.2 m

p

4a

T = 10C

Air

60C

4 m/s

L = 12 m

= 0.3

Vm Dh

(4 m/s)(0.20 m)

44,509

1.797 10 5 m 2 /s

Re

L h Lt 10 D h 10(0.2 m) 2.0 m

which is much shorter than the total length of the duct. Therefore, we can assume fully developed

turbulent flow for the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu

hDh

0.023 Re0.8 Pr 0.3 0.023(44,509)0.8 (0.7228)0.3 109.2

k

and

h

k

0.02735 W/m.C

Nu

(109.2) 14.93 W/m 2 .C

Dh

0.2 m

The mass flow rate of air is

** AcV (1.092 kg/m 3 )(0.2 0.2)m 2 (4 m/s) 0.1748 kg/s
**

m

In steady operation, heat transfer from hot air to the duct must be equal to the heat transfer from the duct

to the surrounding (by convection and radiation), which must be equal to the energy loss of the hot air in

the duct. That is,

Q Q

Q

E

conv,in

conv+rad,out

hot air

**Assuming the duct to be at an average temperature of Ts , the quantities above can be expressed as
**

Q

:

conv,in

Te Ti

Q hi As Tln hi As

Ts Te

Ts Ti

ln

Q conv+rad,out :

Te 60

Q (14.93 W/m 2 .C)(9.6 m 2 )

Ts Te

Ts 60

ln

Q ho As (Ts To ) As Ts4 To4 Q (10 W/m 2 .C)(9.6 m 2 )(T s 10)C

+ 0.3(9.6 m 2 )(5.67 10 8 W/m 2 .K 4 ) (Ts 273) 4 (10 273) 4 K 4

E hot air :

m

(0.1748 kg/s)(1007 J/kg.C)(60 T )C

C p (Te Ti ) Q

Q

e

**This is a system of three equations with three unknowns whose solution is
**

2622 W, T 45.1C, and T 33.3C

Q

e

s

Therefore, the hot air will lose heat at a rate of 2622 W and exit the duct at 45.1C.

19-80

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-87

"GIVEN"

T_i=60 "[C]"

L=12 "[m]"

side=0.20 "[m]"

Vel=4 "[m/s], parameter to be varied"

"epsilon=0.3 parameter to be varied"

T_o=10 "[C]"

h_o=10 "[W/m^2-C]"

T_surr=10 "[C]"

"PROPERTIES"

Fluid$='air'

C_p=CP(Fluid$, T=T_ave)*Convert(kJ/kg-C, J/kg-C)

k=Conductivity(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

Pr=Prandtl(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

rho=Density(Fluid$, T=T_ave, P=101.3)

mu=Viscosity(Fluid$, T=T_ave)

nu=mu/rho

T_ave=T_i-10 "assumed average bulk mean temperature"

"ANALYSIS"

A=4*side*L

A_c=side^2

p=4*side

D_h=(4*A_c)/p

Re=(Vel*D_h)/nu "The flow is turbulent"

L_t=10*D_h "The entry length is much shorter than the total length of the duct."

Nusselt=0.023*Re^0.8*Pr^0.3

h_i=k/D_h*Nusselt

m_dot=rho*Vel*A_c

Q_dot=Q_dot_conv_in

Q_dot_conv_in=Q_dot_conv_out+Q_dot_rad_out

Q_dot_conv_in=h_i*A*DELTAT_ln

DELTAT_ln=(T_e-T_i)/ln((T_s-T_e)/(T_s-T_i))

Q_dot_conv_out=h_o*A*(T_s-T_o)

Q_dot_rad_out=epsilon*A*sigma*((T_s+273)^4-(T_surr+273)^4)

sigma=5.67E-8 "[W/m^2-K^4], Stefan-Boltzmann constant"

Q_dot=m_dot*C_p*(T_i-T_e)

19-81

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

Vel [m/s]

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Te [C]

33.85

39.43

42.78

45.1

46.83

48.17

49.25

50.14

50.89

51.53

Q [W]

1150

1810

2273

2622

2898

3122

3310

3469

3606

3726

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Te [C]

45.82

45.45

45.1

44.77

44.46

44.16

43.88

43.61

43.36

43.12

Q [W]

2495

2560

2622

2680

2735

2787

2836

2883

2928

2970

52.5

4000

3500

Te

48.5

Te [C]

Q

2500

40.5

2000

36.5

32.5

1

1500

2

3

4

5

6

Vel [m/s]

19-82

7

8

9

1000

10

Q [W]

3000

44.5

Chapter 19 Forced Convection

46

3000

45.5

2900

Q

2800

44.5

2700

Te

44

2600

43.5

43

0.1

2500

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

19-83

0.7

0.8

0.9

2400

1

Q [W]

Te [C]

45

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-88 The components of an electronic system located in a rectangular horizontal duct are cooled by

forced air. The exit temperature of the air and the highest component surface temperature are to be

determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth. 3 The thermal

resistance of the duct is negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 5 The pressure of air is 1

atm.

Properties We assume the bulk mean temperature for air to be 35C since the mean temperature of air at

the inlet will rise somewhat as a result of heat gain through the duct whose surface is exposed to a

constant heat flux. The properties of air at 1 atm and this temperature are (Table A-22)

1.146 kg/m 3

Air duct

16 cm 16 cm

k 0.02625 W/m.C

1.654 10 -5 m 2 /s

90 W

C p 1007 J/kg.C

Pr 0.7268

**Analysis (a) The mass flow rate of air and the exit
**

temperature are determined from

Air

32C

0.65 m3/min

L=1m

** V (1.146 kg/m 3 )(0.65 m 3 /min) = 0.7449 kg/min = 0.01241 kg/s
**

m

m

C p (Te Ti ) Te Ti

Q

Q

(0.85)(90 W)

32C +

38.1C

Cp

m

(0.01241 kg/s)(1007 J/kg.C)

(b) The mean fluid velocity and hydraulic diameter are

V

0.65 m/min

25.4 m/min = 0.4232 m/s

Ac

(0.16 m)(0.16 m)

4 Ac

4(0.16 m)(0.16 m)

Dh

0.16 m

P

4(0.16 m)

Vm

Then

Re

V m D h (0.4232 m/s)(0.16 m)

4093

1.654 10 5 m 2 /s

which is greater than 4000. Also, the components will cause turbulence and thus we can assume fully

developed turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu

hDh

0.023 Re0.8 Pr 0.4 0.023( 4093)0.8 (0.7268)0.4 15.70

k

and

h

k

0.02625 W/m.C

Nu

(15.70) 2.576 W/m 2 .C

Dh

0.16 m

The highest component surface temperature will occur at the exit of the duct. Assuming uniform surface

heat flux, its value is determined from

Q / As

(0.85)(90 W)/ 4(0.16 m)(1 m)

Q / As h(Ts , highest Te ) Ts , highest Te

38.1C +

84.5C

h

(2.576 W/m 2 .C)

19-84

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-89 The components of an electronic system located in a circular horizontal duct are cooled by forced

air. The exit temperature of the air and the highest component surface temperature are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the duct are smooth. 3 The thermal

resistance of the duct is negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 5 The pressure of air is 1

atm.

Properties We assume the bulk mean temperature for air to be 310 K since the mean temperature of air at

the inlet will rise somewhat as a result of heat gain through the duct whose surface is exposed to a

constant heat flux. The properties of air at 1 atm and this temperature are (Table A-22)

Electronics, 90 W

1143

.

kg / m3

k 0.0268 W / m. C

-5

Air

32C

0.65 m3/min

2

167

. 10 m / s

C p 1006 J / kg. C

Pr 0.710

Analysis (a) The mass flow rate of air and the exit temperature are determined from

D = 15 cm

L=1m

**m V (1143
**

.

kg / m 3 )(0.65 m 3 / min) = 0.74295 kg / min = 0.0124 kg / s

Q

(0.85)(90 W)

p (Te Ti ) Te Ti

Q mC

32 C +

38.1 C

p

mC

(0.0124 kg / s)(1006 J / kg. C)

(b) The mean fluid velocity is

V

0.65 m / min

Vm

36.7 m / min = 0.612 m / s

Ac (0.15 m) 2 / 4

Then,

Re

Vm Dh (0.612 m / s)(0.15 m)

5497

167

. 10 5 m 2 / s

which is greater than 4000. Also, the components will cause turbulence and thus we can assume fully

developed turbulent flow in the entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu

hDh

0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4 0.023(5497) 0.8 (0.710) 0.4 19.7

k

and

h

k

0.0268 W / m. C

Nu

(19.7) 352

. W / m2 . C

Dh

015

. m

The highest component surface temperature will occur at the exit of the duct. Assuming uniform heat flux,

its value is determined from

q h(Ts,highest Te ) Ts,highest Te

(0.85)(90 W) / (0.15 m)(1 m)

q

381

. C +

84.2 C

h

(3.52 W / m 2 . C)

19-85

Te

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-90 Air enters a hollow-core printed circuit board. The exit temperature of the air and the highest

temperature on the inner surface are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 Heat generated is uniformly distributed over the two

surfaces of the PCB. 3 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The air viscosity at the wall is

evaluated at the anticipated wall temperature of 60C.

Properties We expect the bulk mean temperature for air to rise somewhat as a result of heat gain through

the hollow core whose surface is exposed to a constant heat flux. The properties of air at 1 atm and 35C

are (Table A-22)

1.145 kg/m 3

k 0.02625 W/m.C

1.655 10

-5

Electronic components,

20 W

2

m /s

Te

C p 1007 J/kg.C

Pr 0.7268

Air

32C

0.8 L/s

b 1.895 10 5 kg/m.s

s ,@ 60C 2.008 10 5 kg/m.s

L = 15 cm

Air channel

0.25 cm 12 cm

**Analysis (a) The mass flow rate of air and the exit temperature are determined from
**

V (1.145 kg/m 3 )(0.8 10 -3 m 3 /s) = 9.160 10 -4 kg/s

m

m

C p (Te Ti ) Te Ti

Q

Q

20 W

32 C +

53.7C

Cp

m

(9.16 10 4 kg/s)(1007 J/kg.C)

(b) The mean fluid velocity and hydraulic diameter are

V

0.8 10 3 m 3 /s

2.667 m/s

Ac

(0.12 m)(0.0025 m)

4 Ac

4(0.12 m)(0.0025 m)

Dh

0.00490 m

P

2[(0.12 m) + (0.0025 m)]

Vm

Then,

Re

V m D h (2.667 m/s)(0.0049 m)

790

1.655 10 5 m 2 /s

which is less than 2300. Therefore, the flow is laminar and the thermal entry length in this case is

**Lt 0.05 Re Pr D h 0.05(790)(0.7268)(0.0049 m) = 0.14 m
**

which is nearly equal to the total length of the duct. Therefore, we assume thermally developing flow, and

determine the Nusselt number from

hD h

Re Pr D

Nu

1.86

k

L

and

1/ 3

b

s

0.14

** (790)(0.7268)(0.0049)
**

1.86

0.15

1/ 3

The highest component surface temperature will occur at the exit of the duct. Its value is determined from

Q

hA (T

Q

s

s , highest Te ) T s , highest Te

hAs

20 W

53.7C +

74.4C

2

(26.3 W/m .C) 2(0.12 0.15 + 0.0025 0.15)m 2

19-86

2.008 10 5

k

0.02625 W/m.C

h

Nu

(4.90) 26.3 W/m 2 .C

Dh

0.0049 m

0.14

1.895 10 5

4.90

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-91 Air enters a hollow-core printed circuit board. The exit temperature of the air and the highest

temperature on the inner surface are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 Heat generated is uniformly distributed over the two

surfaces of the PCB. 3 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The air viscosity at the wall is

evaluated at the anticipated wall temperature of 60C.

Properties We expect the bulk mean temperature for air to rise somewhat as a result of heat gain through

the hollow core whose surface is exposed to a constant heat flux. The properties of air at 1 atm and 35C

are (Table A-22)

1.145 kg/m 3

k 0.02625 W/m.C

1.655 10

-5

Electronic components,

35 W

2

m /s

Te

C p 1007 J/kg.C

Pr 0.7268

Air

32C

0.8 L/s

b 1.895 10 5 kg/m.s

s ,@ 60C 2.008 10 5 kg/m.s

L = 15 cm

Air channel

0.25 cm 12 cm

**Analysis (a) The mass flow rate of air and the exit temperature are determined from
**

V (1.145 kg/m 3 )(0.8 10 -3 m 3 /s) = 9.160 10 -4 kg/s

m

m

C p (Te Ti ) Te Ti

Q

Q

35 W

32 C +

69.9C

4

mC p

(9.16 10

kg/s)(1007 J/kg.C)

(b) The mean fluid velocity and hydraulic diameter are

V

0.8 10 3 m 3 /s

2.667 m/s

Ac

(0.12 m)(0.0025 m)

4 Ac

4(0.12 m)(0.0025 m)

Dh

0.00490 m

P

2[(0.12 m) + (0.0025 m)]

Vm

Then,

Re

V m D h (2.667 m/s)(0.0049 m)

790

1.655 10 5 m 2 /s

which is less than 2300. Therefore, the flow is laminar and the thermal entry length in this case is

**Lt 0.05 Re Pr D h 0.05(790)(0.7268)(0.0049 m) = 0.14 m
**

which is nearly equal to the total length of the duct. Therefore, we assume thermally developing flow, and

determine the Nusselt number from

hD h

Re Pr D

Nu

1.86

k

L

and

1/ 3

b

s

0.14

** (790)(0.7268)(0.0049)
**

1.86

0.15

1/ 3

0.14

1.895 10 5

2.008 10 5

k

0.02625 W/m.C

h

Nu

(4.90) 26.3 W/m 2 .C

Dh

0.0049 m

The highest component surface temperature will occur at the exit of the duct. Its value is determined from

Q

Q hAs (Ts , highest Te ) Ts , highest Te

hAs

35 W

69.9C +

106C

2

(26.3 W/m .C) 2(0.12 0.15 + 0.0025 0.15)m 2

19-92E Water is heated by passing it through thin-walled copper tubes. The length of the copper tube that

needs to be used is to be determined.

19-87

4.90

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 The inner surfaces of the tube are smooth. 3 The thermal

resistance of the tube is negligible. 4 The temperature at the tube surface is constant.

Properties The properties of water at the bulk mean fluid temperature of

Tb,ave (60 140) / 2 100F are (Table A-15E)

62.0 lbm/ft 3

250F

k 0.363 Btu/h.ft.F

0.738 10 -5 ft 2 /s

Water

60F

0.7 lbm/s

**C p 0.999 Btu/lbm.F
**

Pr 4.54

**Analysis (a) The mass flow rate and the Reynolds number are
**

m

0.7 lbm/s

Ac V m V m

m

3.68 ft/s

3

Ac

(62 lbm/ft )[ (0.75/12 ft) 2 /4]

Re

D = 0.75 in

140F

L

Vm Dh

(3.68 ft/s)(0.75/12 ft)

31,165

0.738 10 5 ft 2 /s

Lh Lt 10 D 10(0.75 in) 7.5 in

**which is probably shorter than the total length of the pipe we will
**

determine. Therefore, we can assume fully developed turbulent flow in the

entire duct, and determine the Nusselt number from

Nu

hDh

0.023 Re0.8 Pr 0.4 0.023(31,165)0.8 ( 4.54)0.4 165.8

k

and

h

k

0.363 Btu/h.ft.F

Nu

(165.8) 963 Btu/h.ft 2 .F

Dh

(0.75 / 12) ft

The logarithmic mean temperature difference and then the rate of heat transfer per ft length of the tube are

Te Ti

Tln

T s Te

Ts Ti

ln

140 60

146.4F

250 140

ln

250 60

**Q hAs Tln (963 Btu/h.ft 2 .F)[ (0.75 / 12 ft )](146.4F) 27,680 Btu/h.ft
**

The rate of heat transfer needed to raise the temperature of water from 60 F to 140 F is

m

C p (Te Ti ) (0.7 3600 lbm/h)(0.999 Btu/lbm. F)(140 - 60)F = 201,400 Btu/h

Q

**Then the length of the copper tube that needs to be used becomes
**

201,400 Btu/h

Length

7.3 ft

27,680 Btu/h.ft

19-88

**Chapter 19 Forced Convection
**

19-93 A computer is cooled by a fan blowing air through its case. The flow rate of the air, the fraction of

the temperature rise of air that is due to heat generated by the fan, and the highest allowable inlet air

temperature are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady flow conditions exist. 2 Heat flux is uniformly distributed. 3 Air is an ideal gas

with constant properties. 4 The pressure of air is 1 atm.

Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and 25C are (Table A-22)

Pr 0.712

1.177 kg/m 3

b 1.85 10 5 kg/m.s

k 0.0261 W/m.C

1.57 10 -5 m 2 /s

C p 1005 J/kg.C

s ,@ 350 K 2.08 10 5 kg/m.s

Analysis (a) Noting that the electric energy consumed by the fan is converted to thermal energy, the mass

flow rate of air is

W

Q

(8 10 25) W

elect, fan

m

C p (Te Ti ) m

Q

0.01045 kg/s

C p (Te Ti )

(1005 J/kg.C)(10C)

(b) The fraction of temperature rise of air that is due to the heat generated

by the fan and its motor is

Q

25 W

m

C p T T

Q

2.38C

Cp

m

(0.01045 kg/s)(1005 J/kg.C)

2.38C

0.238 23.8%

Cooling

10C

air

(c) The mean velocity of air is

(0.01045 / 8) kg/s

m

AcV m V m

m

3.08 m/s

Ac

(1.177 kg/m 3 ) (0.003 m)(0.12 m)

and,

4 Ac

4(0.003 m)(0.12 m)

Dh

0.00585 m

P

2(0.003 m 0.12 m)

Therefore,

f =

Re

Vm Dh

(3.08 m/s)(0.00585 m)

1148

1.57 10 5 m 2 /s

which is less than 4000. Therefore, the flow is laminar. Assuming fully developed flow, the Nusselt

number from is determined from Table 19-4 corresponding to a/b = 12/0.3 = 40 to be Nu = 8.24. Then,

h

k

0.0261 W/m.C

Nu

(8.24) 36.8 W/m 2 .C

Dh

0.00585 m

The highest component surface temperature will occur at the exit of the duct. Assuming uniform heat flux,

the air temperature at the exit is determined from

q h(T s , max Te ) Te T s , max

q

[(80 25) W]/[8 2(0.12 0.18 + 0.003 0.18) m 2 ]

70C

61.9C

h

36.8 W/m 2 .C

The highest allowable inlet temperature then becomes

**Te Ti 10C Ti Te 10C 61.9C 10C 51.9C
**

Discussion Although the Reynolds number is less than 4000, the flow in this case will most likely be

turbulent because of the electronic components that that protrude into flow. Therefore, the heat transfer

coefficient determined above is probably conservative.

19-89

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