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23-95 Cold water is heated by hot water in a heat exchanger. The net rate of heat transfer and the heat

transfer surface area of the heat exchanger are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform. 5 The thickness of the tube is negligible.

Properties The specific heats of the cold and hot water are given to be 4.18 and 4.19 kJ/kg. C,

respectively.

Analysis The heat capacity rates of the hot and cold fluids are

Cold Water

15C

0.25 kg/s

**Ch m h C ph (0.25 kg / s)(4180 J / kg. C) 1045 W/ C
**

Cc m c C pc (3 kg / s)(4190 J / kg. C) 12,570 W/ C

Therefore,

Cmin Cc 1045 W/ C

and

C

1045

C min

0.083

Cmax 12,570

Hot Water

100C

3 kg/s

45C

**Then the maximum heat transfer rate becomes
**

Q max Cmin (Th ,in Tc,in ) (1045 W/ C)(100 C -15 C) 88,825 W

The actual rate of heat transfer is

C (T

Q

h

h ,in T h ,out ) (1045 W/ C )( 45C 15C ) 31,350 W

Then the effectiveness of this heat exchanger becomes

Q

31,350

0.35

Qmax 88,825

The NTU of this heat exchanger is determined using the relation in Table 23-5 to be

NTU

1

1

0.35 1

1

ln

ln

0.438

C 1 C 1

0.083 1 0.35 0.083 1

Then the surface area of the heat exchanger is determined from

NTU

**NTU C min (0.438)(1045 W/ C)
**

UA

A

0.482 m 2

2

C min

U

950 W/m .C

23-71

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-96

"GIVEN"

T_cw_in=15 "[C]"

T_cw_out=45 "[C]"

m_dot_cw=0.25 "[kg/s]"

C_p_cw=4.18 "[kJ/kg-C]"

T_hw_in=100 "[C], parameter to be varied"

m_dot_hw=3 "[kg/s]"

C_p_hw=4.19 "[kJ/kg-C]"

"U=0.95 [kW/m^2-C], parameter to be varied"

"ANALYSIS"

"With EES, it is easier to solve this problem using LMTD method than NTU

method. Below, we use LMTD method. Both methods give the same results."

DELTAT_1=T_hw_in-T_cw_out

DELTAT_2=T_hw_out-T_cw_in

DELTAT_lm=(DELTAT_1-DELTAT_2)/ln(DELTAT_1/DELTAT_2)

Q_dot=U*A*DELTAT_lm

Q_dot=m_dot_hw*C_p_hw*(T_hw_in-T_hw_out)

Q_dot=m_dot_cw*C_p_cw*(T_cw_out-T_cw_in)

Thw, in [C]

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

Q [kW]

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

A [m2]

1.25

1.038

0.8903

0.7807

0.6957

0.6279

0.5723

0.5259

0.4865

0.4527

0.4234

0.3976

0.3748

U [kW/m2-C]

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

1

1.05

1.1

1.15

1.2

1.25

Q [kW]

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

A [m2]

0.6163

0.5778

0.5438

0.5136

0.4865

0.4622

0.4402

0.4202

0.4019

0.3852

0.3698

23-72

Chap 23 Heat Exchangers

32

1.4

1.2

area

1

heat

0.8

0.6

2

31.5

A [m ]

Q [kW]

31.75

31.25

0.4

31

60

70

80

90

100

110

0.2

120

Thw,in [C]

32

0.65

0.6

area

31.75

heat

0.5

2

31.5

0.45

31.25

0.4

31

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

2

1.1

U [kW/m -C]

23-73

1.2

A [m ]

Q [kW]

0.55

0.35

1.3

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-97 Glycerin is heated by ethylene glycol in a heat exchanger. Mass flow rates and inlet temperatures

are given. The rate of heat transfer and the outlet temperatures are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform. 5 The thickness of the tube is negligible.

Properties The specific heats of the glycerin and ethylene glycol are given to be 2.4 and 2.5 kJ/kg. C,

respectively.

Analysis (a) The heat capacity rates of the hot and cold fluids are

Ch m h C ph (0.3 kg / s)(2400 J / kg. C) 720 W/ C

Cc m c C pc (0.3 kg / s)(2500 J / kg. C) 750 W/ C

Therefore,

Cmin Ch 720 W/ C

and

C

Glycerin

20C

0.3 kg/s

Ethylene

60C

0.3 kg/s

Cmin 720

0.96

Cmax 750

**Then the maximum heat transfer rate becomes
**

Q max Cmin (Th ,in Tc,in ) (720 W/ C)(60 C 20 C) 28.8 kW

The NTU of this heat exchanger is

NTU

UAs

(380 W/m 2 .C)(5.3 m 2 )

2.797

C min

720 W/C

**Effectiveness of this heat exchanger corresponding to C = 0.96 and NTU = 2.797 is determined using the
**

proper relation in Table 23-4

**1 exp[ NTU (1 C )] 1 exp[2.797(1 0.96 )]
**

0.508

1 C

1 0.96

**Then the actual rate of heat transfer becomes
**

Q

Q

max (0.508)(28.8 kW) 14.63 kW

(b) Finally, the outlet temperatures of the cold and the hot fluid streams are determined from

Q

14.63 kW

Q C c (Tc ,out Tc ,in ) Tc ,out Tc ,in

20C +

40.3C

Cc

0.72 kW / C

Q

14.63 kW

Q C h (Th ,in Th ,out ) Th ,out Th ,in

60C

40.5C

Ch

0.75 kW/C

23-74

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-98 Water is heated by hot air in a cross-flow heat exchanger. Mass flow rates and inlet temperatures

are given. The rate of heat transfer and the outlet temperatures are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform. 5 The thickness of the tube is negligible.

Properties The specific heats of the water and air are given to be 4.18 and 1.01 kJ/kg.C, respectively.

Analysis The mass flow rates of the hot and the cold fluids are

m c VAc (1000 kg / m 3 )(3 m / s)[40 (0.01 m) 2 / 4] 9.425 kg / s

air

P

105 kPa

0.908 kg / m 3

3

RT (0.287 kPa.m / kg.K) (130 + 273 K)

Water

18C, 3 m/s

1m

m h VAc (0.908 kg / m 3 )(12 m / s)(1 m) 2 = 10.90 kg / s

1m

**The heat transfer surface area and the heat
**

capacity rates are

**As nDL 80 (0.01 m)(1 m) 2.513 m 2
**

Ch m h C ph (9.425 kg / s)(4.18 kJ / kg. C) 39.4 kW/ C

Hot Air

130C

105 kPa

12 m/s

1m

**Cc m c C pc (10.9 kg / s)(1.010 kJ / kg. C) 1101
**

. kW/ C

. kW/ C and C

Therefore, Cmin Cc 1101

Cmin 1101

.

0.2794

Cmax 39.40

**Q max Cmin (Th ,in Tc,in ) (11.01 kW/ C)(30 C 18 C) 1233 kW
**

The NTU of this heat exchanger is

NTU

UAs

(130 W/m 2 .C) (2.513 m 2 )

0.02967

C min

11,010 W/C

Noting that this heat exchanger involves mixed cross-flow, the fluid with Cmin is mixed, Cmax unmixed,

effectiveness of this heat exchanger corresponding to C = 0.2794 and NTU =0.02967 is determined using

the proper relation in Table 23-4 to be

1

1 exp (1 e CNTU

C

1

) 1 exp

(1 e 0.27940.02967 ) 0.02912

0

.

2794

**Then the actual rate of heat transfer becomes
**

Q

Q

max (0.02912)(1233 kW) 35.90 kW

Finally, the outlet temperatures of the cold and the hot fluid streams are determined from

Q

35.90 kW

18C +

18.9C

Cc

39.40 kW / C

Q

35.90 kW

130C

126.7 C

Ch

11.01 kW/ C

Q C c (Tc ,out Tc ,in )

Tc ,out Tc ,in

Q C h (Th,in Th ,out )

Th ,out Th ,in

23-75

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-99 Ethyl alcohol is heated by water in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The heat transfer surface area

of the heat exchanger is to be determined using both the LMTD and NTU methods.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.

Properties The specific heats of the ethyl alcohol and water are given to be 2.67 and 4.19 kJ/kg. C,

respectively.

Analysis (a) The temperature differences between the

two fluids at the two ends of the heat exchanger are

Water

T1 Th ,in Tc ,out 95C 70C = 25C

95C

T2 Th ,out Tc ,in 60C 25C = 35C

**The logarithmic mean temperature difference and the
**

correction factor are

Tlm ,CF

70C

Alcohol

T1 T2

25 35

29.7C 25C

ln(T1 / T2 ) ln(25/35)

2.1 kg/s

t t 70 25

P 2 1

0.64

T1 t1 95 25

2-shell pass

8 tube passes

60C

F 0.93

T2 T1 95 60

R

0.78

t1 t1 70 25

**The rate of heat transfer is determined from
**

Q m c C pc (Tc,out Tc,in ) (2.1 kg / s)(2.67 kJ / kg. C)(70 C 25 C) 252.3 kW

The surface area of heat transfer is

Q = UAs Tlm

As

Q

252.3 kW

=

= 11.4 m 2

2

UFTlm

0.8 kW/m .C)(0.93)(29.7C)

**(b) The rate of heat transfer is
**

Q m c C pc (Tc,out Tc,in ) (2.1 kg / s)(2.67 kJ / kg. C)(70 C 25 C) 252.3 kW

The mass flow rate of the hot fluid is

m

h C ph (Th,in Th,out ) m

h

Q

Q

C ph (Th,in Th,out )

The heat capacity rates of the hot and the cold fluids are

252.3 kW

1.72 kg/s

(4.19 kJ/kg.C)(95C 60C)

h C ph (1.72 kg/s)(4.19 kJ/kg.C) 7.21 kW/ C

Ch m

c C pc (2.1 kg/s)(2.67 kJ/kg.C) 5.61 kW/C

Cc m

Therefore, C min C c 5.61 W/ C and

C

Cmin 5.61

0.78

Cmax 7.21

**Then the maximum heat transfer rate becomes
**

Q

max C min (Th ,in Tc ,in ) (5.61 W/ C)(95C 25C) 392.7 kW

The effectiveness of this heat exchanger is

Q

252.3

0.64

Qmax

392.7

**The NTU of this heat exchanger corresponding to this emissivity and C = 0.78 is determined from Fig.
**

23-26d to be NTU = 1.7. Then the surface area of heat exchanger is determined to be

NTU

UAs

NTU C min (1.7)(5.61 kW/C)

As

11.9 m 2

2

C min

U

0.8 kW/m .C

The small difference between the two results is due to the reading error of the chart.

23-76

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-100 Steam is condensed by cooling water in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The rate of heat transfer

and the rate of condensation of steam are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform. 5 The thickness of the tube is negligible.

Properties The specific heat of the water is given to be 4.18 kJ/kg.C. The heat of condensation of steam

at 30C is given to be 2430 kJ/kg.

Analysis (a) The heat capacity rate of a fluid condensing in a heat exchanger is infinity. Therefore,

Cmin Cc m c C pc (0.5 kg / s)(4.18 kJ / kg. C) 2.09 kW/ C

and

C=0

**Then the maximum heat transfer rate becomes
**

Q max Cmin (Th ,in Tc,in ) (2.09 kW/ C)(30 C 15 C) 3135

. kW

and

Steam

As 8nDL 8 50 (0.015 m )(2 m ) 37.7 m 2 30C

The NTU of this heat exchanger

NTU

UAs

(3 kW/m 2 .C) (37.7 m 2 )

54.11

C min

2.09 kW/C

**Then the effectiveness of this heat exchanger
**

corresponding to C = 0 and NTU = 6.76 is determined

using the proper relation in Table 23-5

15C

Water

1800 kg/h

** 1 exp( NTU ) 1 exp( 6.76) 1
**

Then the actual heat transfer rate becomes

30C

Q

Q

max (1)(31.35 kW) 31.35 kW

**(b) Finally, the rate of condensation of the steam is determined from
**

Q

31.4 kJ/s

Q m h fg m

0.0129 kg/s

h fg

2430 kJ/kg

23-77

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-101

"GIVEN"

N_pass=8

N_tube=50

T_steam=30 "[C], parameter to be varied"

h_fg_steam=2430 "[kJ/kg]"

T_w_in=15 "[C]"

m_dot_w=1800/Convert(kg/s, kg/h) "[kg/s]"

C_p_w=4.18 "[kJ/kg-C]"

D=1.5 "[cm], parameter to be varied"

L=2 "[m]"

U=3 "[kW/m^2-C]"

"ANALYSIS"

"With EES, it is easier to solve this problem using LMTD method than NTU

method. Below, we use NTU method. Both methods give the same results."

"(a)"

C_min=m_dot_w*C_p_w

C=0 "since the heat capacity rate of a fluid condensing is infinity"

Q_dot_max=C_min*(T_steam-T_w_in)

A=N_pass*N_tube*pi*D*L*Convert(cm, m)

NTU=(U*A)/C_min

epsilon=1-exp(-NTU) "from Table 23-4 of the text with C=0"

Q_dot=epsilon*Q_dot_max

"(b)"

Q_dot=m_dot_cond*h_fg_steam

Tsteam [C]

20

22.5

25

27.5

30

32.5

35

37.5

40

42.5

45

47.5

50

52.5

55

57.5

60

62.5

65

67.5

70

Q [kW]

10.45

15.68

20.9

26.12

31.35

36.58

41.8

47.03

52.25

57.47

62.7

67.93

73.15

78.38

83.6

88.82

94.05

99.27

104.5

109.7

114.9

mcond [kg/s]

0.0043

0.006451

0.008601

0.01075

0.0129

0.01505

0.0172

0.01935

0.0215

0.02365

0.0258

0.02795

0.0301

0.03225

0.0344

0.03655

0.0387

0.04085

0.043

0.04515

0.0473

23-78

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

D [cm]

1

1.05

1.1

1.15

1.2

1.25

1.3

1.35

1.4

1.45

1.5

1.55

1.6

1.65

1.7

1.75

1.8

1.85

1.9

1.95

2

Q [kW]

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

31.35

mcond [kg/s]

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

0.0129

120

0.05

100

0.04

heat

80

0.03

60

0.02

40

0.01

20

0

20

30

40

50

Tsteam [C]

23-79

60

0

70

mcond [kg/s]

Q [kW]

mass rate

Chap 23 Heat Exchangers

32

0.0135

31.5

mcond

31.25

Qdot

31

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

D [cm]

23-80

0.013

1.8

mcond [kg/s]

Q [kW]

31.75

0.0125

2

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-102 Cold water is heated by hot oil in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The rate of heat transfer is to be

determined using both the LMTD and NTU methods.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.

Properties The specific heats of the water and oil are given to be 4.18 and 2.2 kJ/kg.C, respectively.

Analysis (a) The LMTD method in this case involves iterations, which involves the following steps:

1) Choose Th,out

2) Calculate

Q from Q m h C p (Th ,out Th ,in )

Hot oil

130C

3 kg/s

**3) Calculate Th,out from Q m h C p (Th ,out Th ,in )
**

4) Calculate Tln,CF

UA FT

5) Calculate Q from Q

s

ln,CF

**6) Compare to the Q calculated at step 2, and repeat
**

until reaching the same result

Water

20C

3 kg/s

Result: 385 kW

(20 tube passes)

**(b) The heat capacity rates of the hot and the cold fluids are
**

Ch m h C ph (3 kg / s)(2.2 kJ / kg. C) 6.6 kW/ C

Cc m c C pc (3 kg / s)(4.18 kJ / kg. C) 12.54 kW/ C

Therefore, Cmin Ch 6.6 kW/ C and C

Cmin

6.6

0.53

Cmax 12.54

**Then the maximum heat transfer rate becomes
**

Q max Cmin (Th ,in Tc,in ) (6.6 kW/ C)(130 C 20 C) 726 kW

The NTU of this heat exchanger is

NTU

UAs

(0.3 kW/m 2 .C) (20 m 2 )

0.91

C min

6.6 kW/ C

**Then the effectiveness of this heat exchanger corresponding to C = 0.53 and NTU = 0.91 is determined
**

from Fig. 23-26d to be

0.53

The actual rate of heat transfer then becomes

Q

Q

max (0.53)(726 kW) 385 kW

23-81

Chap 23 Heat Exchangers

**Selection of The Heat Exchangers
**

23-103C 1) Calculate heat transfer rate, 2) select a suitable type of heat exchanger, 3) select a suitable type

of cooling fluid, and its temperature range, 4) calculate or select U, and 5) calculate the size (surface area)

of heat exchanger

23-104C The first thing we need to do is determine the life expectancy of the system. Then we need to

evaluate how much the larger will save in pumping cost, and compare it to the initial cost difference of the

two units. If the larger system saves more than the cost difference in its lifetime, it should be preferred.

23-105C In the case of automotive and aerospace industry, where weight and size considerations are

important, and in situations where the space availability is limited, we choose the smaller heat exchanger.

23-106 Oil is to be cooled by water in a heat exchanger. The heat transfer rating of the heat exchanger is

to be determined and a suitable type is to be proposed.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible.

Properties The specific heat of the oil is given to be 2.2 kJ/kg.C.

Analysis The heat transfer rate of this heat exchanger is

m

c C pc (Tc , out Tc ,in ) (13 kg/s)(2.2 kJ/kg.C)(120C 50C) 2002 kW

Q

We propose a compact heat exchanger (like the car radiator) if air cooling is to be used., or a tube-andshell or plate heat exchanger if water cooling is to be used.

23-82

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

3-107 Water is to be heated by steam in a shell-and-tube process heater. The number of tube passes need to

be used is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible.

Properties The specific heat of the water is

given to be 4.19 kJ/kg.C.

Steam

Analysis The mass flow rate of the water is

90C

m

c C pc (Tc ,out Tc ,in )

Q

m

Q

C pc (Tc ,out Tc ,in )

600 kW

(4.19 kJ/kg.C)(90C 20C)

2.046 kg/s

**The total cross-section area of the tubes
**

corresponding to this mass flow rate is

m VAc Ac

m

2.046 kg / s

6.82 10 4 m 2

V (1000 kg / m 3 )(3 m / s)

Then the number of tubes that need to be used becomes

As n

4 As 4(6.82 10 4 m 2 )

D 2

n

8.68 9

4

D 2

(0.01 m ) 2

Therefore, we need to use at least 9 tubes entering the heat exchanger.

23-83

20C

Water

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-108

"GIVEN"

C_p_w=4.19 "[kJ/kg-C]"

T_w_in=20 "[C]"

T_w_out=90 "[C]"

Q_dot=600 "[kW]"

D=0.01 "[m]"

"Vel=3 [m/s], parameter to be varied"

"PROPERTIES"

rho=density(water, T=T_ave, P=100)

T_ave=1/2*(T_w_in+T_w_out)

"ANALYSIS"

Q_dot=m_dot_w*C_p_w*(T_w_out-T_w_in)

m_dot_w=rho*A_c*Vel

A_c=N_pass*pi*D^2/4

Vel [m/s]

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

8

Npass

26.42

17.62

13.21

10.57

8.808

7.55

6.606

5.872

5.285

4.804

4.404

4.065

3.775

3.523

3.303

30

25

Npass

20

15

10

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

Vel [m/s]

23-84

6

7

8

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-109 Cooling water is used to condense the steam in a power plant. The total length of the tubes

required in the condenser is to be determined and a suitable HX type is to be proposed.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.

Properties The specific heat of the water is given to be 4.18

kJ/kg.C. The heat of condensation of steam at 30C is given

to be 2430 kJ/kg.

Steam

30C

26C

**Analysis The temperature differences between the steam and
**

the water at the two ends of condenser are

**T1 Th ,in Tc,out 30 C 26 C = 4 C
**

T2 Th ,out Tc,in 30 C 18 C = 12 C

18C

and the logarithmic mean temperature difference is

Tlm

T1 T2

4 12

7.28C

ln(T1 / T2 ) ln 4 /12

Water

30C

The heat transfer surface area is

Q = UAs Tlm As

Q

500 10 6 W

=

= 1.96 10 4 m 2

2

UTlm

(3500 W/m .C)(7.28C)

The total length of the tubes required in this condenser then becomes

As DL L

As 1.96 10 4 m 2

3.123 10 5 m 312.3 km

D

(0.02 m)

A multi-pass shell-and-tube heat exchanger is suitable in this case.

23-85

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-110 Cold water is heated by hot water in a heat exchanger. The net rate of heat transfer and the heat

transfer surface area of the heat exchanger are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.

Properties The specific heats of the cold and hot water are

given to be 4.18 and 4.19 kJ/kg.C, respectively.

Steam

30C

**Analysis The temperature differences between the steam and
**

the water at the two ends of condenser are

26C

**T1 Th ,in Tc,out 30 C 26 C = 4 C
**

T2 Th ,out Tc,in 30 C 18 C = 12 C

and the logarithmic mean temperature difference is

Tlm

18C

T1 T2

4 12

7.28C

ln(T1 / T2 ) ln(4/12)

Water

30C

The heat transfer surface area is

Q = UAs Tlm As

Q

300 10 6 W

=

= 1.177 10 4 m 2

2

UTlm

(3500 W/m .C)(7.28C)

The total length of the tubes required in this condenser then becomes

As DL L

As 1.177 10 4 m 2

1.874 10 5 m 187.4 km

D

(0.02 m)

A multi-pass shell-and-tube heat exchanger is suitable in this case.

23-86

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

Review Problems

23-111 Hot oil is cooled by water in a multi-pass shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The overall heat transfer

coefficient based on the inner surface is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Water flow is fully developed. 2 Properties of the water are constant.

Properties The properties of water at 25C are (Table A-15)

k 0.607 W/m.C

/ 0.894 10 6 m 2 /s

Pr 6.14

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

Vm D

(3 m/s)(0.013 m)

43,771

0.894 10 6 m 2 /s

**which is greater than 10,000. Therefore, we assume fully
**

developed turbulent flow, and determine Nusselt number from

Nu 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4 0.023( 43,771) 0.8 ( 6.14) 0.4 245

and

hi

Outer surface

D0, A0, h0, U0

Inner surface

Di, Ai, hi, Ui

k

0.607 W/m.C

Nu

( 245) 11,440 W/m 2 .C

D

0.013 m

**The inner and the outer surface areas of the tube are
**

Ai Di L (0.013 m)(1 m) 0.04084 m 2

Ao Do L (0.015 m)(1 m) 0.04712 m 2

The total thermal resistance of this heat exchanger per unit length is

R

ln( Do / Di )

1

1

hi Ai

2kL

ho Ao

1

2

2

(11,440 W/m .C)(0.04084 m )

0.609C/W

ln(1.5 / 1.3)

1

2

2 (110 W/m.C)(1 m) (35 W/m .C)( 0.04712 m 2 )

Then the overall heat transfer coefficient of this heat exchanger based on the inner surface becomes

R

1

U i Ai

Ui

1

1

40.2 W/m2 .C

RAi

(0.609C/W )(0.04084 m 2 )

23-87

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-112 Hot oil is cooled by water in a multi-pass shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The overall heat transfer

coefficient based on the inner surface is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Water flow is fully developed. 2 Properties of the water are constant.

Properties The properties of water at 25C are (Table A-15)

k 0.607 W/m.C

/ 0.894 10 6 m 2 /s

Pr 6.14

Analysis The Reynolds number is

Re

Vm D

(3 m/s)(0.013 m)

43,771

0.894 10 6 m 2 /s

Outer surface

D0, A0, h0, U0

**which is greater than 10,000. Therefore, we
**

assume fully developed turbulent flow, and

determine Nusselt number from

Nu 0.023 Re

0.8

Pr

0.4

0.023( 43,771)

0.8

( 6.14)

0.4

245

Inner surface

Di, Ai, hi, Ui

and

hi

k

0.607 W/m.C

Nu

( 245) 11,440 W/m 2 .C

D

0.013 m

**The inner and the outer surface areas of the tube are
**

Ai Di L (0.013 m)(1 m) 0.04084 m 2

Ao Do L (0.015 m)(1 m) 0.04712 m 2

The total thermal resistance of this heat exchanger per unit length of it with a fouling factor is

ln( Do / Di ) R f ,o

1

1

hi Ai

2kL

Ao

ho Ao

R

1

2

2

(11,440 W/m .C)( 0.04084 m )

0.0004 m 2 .C/W

0.04712 m

0.617C/W

2

ln(15 / 13)

2 (110 W/m.C)(1 m )

1

2

(35 W/m .C)( 0.04712 m 2 )

Then the overall heat transfer coefficient of this heat exchanger based on the inner surface becomes

R

1

1

1

U i

39.7 W/m 2 .C

U i Ai

RAi (0.617C/W )(0.04084 m 2 )

23-88

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-113 Water is heated by hot oil in a multi-pass shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The rate of heat transfer

and the heat transfer surface area on the outer side of the tube are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.

Properties The specific heats of the water and oil are given to be 4.18 and 2.2 kJ/kg.C, respectively.

Analysis (a)The rate of heat transfer in this heat exchanger is

m

h C ph (Th ,in Th ,out ) (3 kg/s)(2.2 kJ/kg.C)(130C 60C) = 462 kW

Q

**(b) The outlet temperature of the cold water is
**

Q m c C pc (Tc,out Tc,in ) Tc,out Tc ,in

Q

462 kW

20 C

56.8 C

m c C pc

(3 kg / s)(4.18 kJ / kg. C)

**The temperature differences at the two ends are
**

T1 Th ,in Tc ,out 130C 56.8C = 73.2C

Hot Oil

130C

3 kg/s

T2 Th , out Tc ,in 60C 20C = 40C

The logarithmic mean temperature difference is

Tlm ,CF

T1 T2

73.2 40

54.9C

Cold Water

ln(T1 / T2 ) ln(73.2 / 40)

20C

3 kg/s

and

(20 tube passes)

t t 56.8 20

P 2 1

0.335

T1 t1 130 20

F 0.96

T2 T1 130 60

R

1.90

t 2 t1 56.8 20

60C

The heat transfer surface area on the outer side of the tube is then determined from

Q UAs FTlm

As

Q

462 kW

29.2 m 2

2

UFTlm

(0.3 kW/m .C)(0.96)(54.9C)

23-89

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-114E Water is heated by solar-heated hot air in a double-pipe counter-flow heat exchanger. The

required length of the tube is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.

Properties The specific heats of the water and air are given to be 1.0 and 0.24 Btu/lbm.F, respectively.

Analysis The rate of heat transfer in this heat exchanger is

m

h C ph (Th ,in Th ,out ) (0.7 lbm/s)(0.24 Btu/lbm. F)(190F 135F) = 9.24 Btu/s

Q

The outlet temperature of the cold water is

m

c C pc (Tc ,out Tc ,in )

Q

Tc ,out Tc ,in

Q

9.24 Btu/s

70F

96.4F

c C pc

m

(0.35 lbm/s)(1.0 Btu/lbm.F)

**The temperature differences at the two ends are
**

Cold Water

70F

0.35 lbm/s

**T1 Th,in Tc ,out 190F 96.4F = 93.6F
**

T2 Th,out Tc ,in 135F 70F = 65F

The logarithmic mean temperature difference is

Tlm

Hot Air

T1 T2

93.6 65

130F

78.43F 0.7 lbm/s

ln(T1 / T2 ) ln(93.6 / 65)

135F

**The heat transfer surface area on the outer side of the
**

tube is determined from

Q

9.24 Btu/s

Q UAs Tlm As

21.21 ft 2

2

UTlm

( 20 / 3600 Btu/s.ft .F)(78.43F)

Then the length of the tube required becomes

As DL L

As

21.21 ft 2

162.0 ft

D (0.5 / 12 ft)

23-115 It is to be shown that when T1 = T2 for a heat exchanger, the Tlm relation reduces to Tlm = T1

= T2.

Analysis When T1 = T2, we obtain

Tlm

T1 T2

0

ln( T1 / T2 ) 0

**This case can be handled by applying L'Hospital's rule (taking derivatives of nominator and denominator
**

separately with respect to T1 or T2 ). That is,

Tlm

**d (T1 T2 ) / dT1
**

1

T1 T2

d [ln(T1 / T2 )] / dT1 1 / T1

23-90

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-116 Refrigerant-134a is condensed by air in the condenser of a room air conditioner. The heat transfer

area on the refrigerant side is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.

Properties The specific heat of air is given to be 1.005 kJ/kg.C.

Analysis The temperature differences at the two ends are

R-134a

40C

**T1 Th ,in Tc,out 40 C 35 C = 5 C
**

T2 Th ,out Tc,in 40 C 25 C = 15 C

The logarithmic mean temperature difference is

Tlm

Air

25C

35C

T1 T2

5 15

9.1 C

ln( T1 / T2 ) ln(5 / 15)

**The heat transfer surface area on the outer side
**

of the tube is determined from

Q UAs Tlm

As

40C

Q

(15,000 / 3600) kW

3.05 m 2

UTlm

(0.150 kW/m 2 .C)(9.1C)

23-117 Air is preheated by hot exhaust gases in a cross-flow heat exchanger. The rate of heat transfer is to

be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.

Properties The specific heats of air and combustion gases are given to be 1.005 and 1.1 kJ/kg.C,

respectively.

Analysis The rate of heat transfer is simply

[m

C p (Tin Tout )] gas. (1.1 kg/s)(1.1 kJ/kg.C)(180C 95C) = 102.9 kW

Q

23-91

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-118 A water-to-water heat exchanger is proposed to preheat the incoming cold water by the drained hot

water in a plant to save energy. The heat transfer rating of the heat exchanger and the amount of money

this heat exchanger will save are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible.

Properties The specific heat of the hot water is given to be 4.18 kJ/kg.C.

Analysis The maximum rate of heat transfer is

Cold Water

14C

h C ph (Th,in Tc ,in )

Q

max m

(8 / 60 kg/s)(4.18 kJ/kg.C)(60C 14C)

25.6 kW

Hot water

60C

8 kg/s

**Noting that the heat exchanger will recover 72%
**

of it, the actual heat transfer rate becomes

Q Q max (0.72)(25.6 kJ / s) = 18.43 kW

which is the heat transfer rating. The operating hours per year are

**The annual operating hours = (8 h/day)(5 days/week)(52 week/year) = 2080 h/year
**

The energy saved during the entire year will be

Energy saved = (heat transfer rate)(operating time)

= (18.43 kJ/s)(2080 h/year)(3600 s/h)

= 1.38x10 8 kJ/year

Then amount of fuel and money saved will be

Fuel saved

Energy saved

1.38 10 8 kJ/year 1 therm

Furnace efficiency

0.78

105,500 kJ

1677 therms/year

**Money saved = (fuel saved)(the price of fuel)
**

= (1677 therms/year)($ 0.54/therm) = $906/year

23-92

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-119 A shell-and-tube heat exchanger is used to heat water with geothermal steam condensing. The rate

of heat transfer, the rate of condensation of steam, and the overall heat transfer coefficient are to be

determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 Fluid

properties are constant.

Properties The heat of vaporization of geothermal water at 120C is given to be hfg = 2203 kJ/kg and

specific heat of water is given to be Cp = 4180 J/kg.C.

Analysis (a) The outlet temperature of the water is

Tc,out T h,out 46 120C 46C = 74C

Steam

120C

**Then the rate of heat transfer becomes
**

[m

C p (Tout Tin )] water

Q

(3.9 kg/s)(4.18 kJ/kg.C)(74C 22C)

= 847.7 kW

(b) The rate of condensation of steam is determined from

22C

Q (m h fg ) geothermal

steam

Water

3.9 kg/s

14 tubes

847.7 kW m (2203 kJ/kg ) m 0.385 kg/s

120C

(c) The heat transfer area is

**Ai nDi L 14 (0.024 m)(3.2 m) = 3.378 m 2
**

The logarithmic mean temperature difference for counter-flow arrangement and the correction factor F are

**T1 Th,in Tc,out 120C 74C = 46C
**

T2 Th,out Tc,in 120C 22C = 98C

Tlm,CF

T1 T2

46 98

68.8C

ln( T1 / T2 ) ln(46 / 98)

t 2 t1 74 22

0.53

T1 t1 120 22

F 1

T1 T2 120 120

R

0

t 2 t1 74 22

P

Then the overall heat transfer coefficient is determined to be

U A FT

Q

i i

lm,CF

U i

Q

847,700 W

3648 W/m 2 .C

Ai FTlm,CF

(3.378 m 2 )(1)(68.8C)

23-93

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-120 Water is heated by geothermal water in a double-pipe counter-flow heat exchanger. The mass flow

rate of the geothermal water and the outlet temperatures of both fluids are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.

Properties The specific heats of the geothermal water and the cold water are given to be 4.25 and 4.18

kJ/kg.C, respectively.

Analysis The heat capacity rates of the hot and cold fluids are

h C ph m

h (4.25 kJ/kg.C) = 4.25m

h

Ch m

c C pc (1.2 kg/s)(4.18 kJ/kg.C) = 5.016 kW/ C

Cc m

C min C c 5.016 kW/C

and

Cold Water

12C

1.2 kg/s

Geothermal

water

C

5.016

1.1802

C min

h

h

Cmax

4.25m

m

95C

The NTU of this heat exchanger is

NTU

UAs

(0.480 kW/m 2 .C)(25 m 2 )

2.392

C min

5.016 kW/C

Using the effectiveness relation, we find the capacity ratio

1 exp NTU(1 C )

1 exp 2.392(1 C )

0.823

C 0.494

1 C exp NTU(1 C )

1 C exp 2.392(1 C )

Then the mass flow rate of geothermal water is determined from

C

1.1802

1.1802

0.494

m h 2.39 kg/s

m h

m h

**The maximum heat transfer rate is
**

Q

max C min (T h,in Tc,in ) (5.016 kW/ C)(95C - 12C) 416.328 kW

**Then the actual rate of heat transfer rate becomes
**

Q

Q

max (0.823)(416.328 kW) 342.64 kW

**The outlet temperatures of the geothermal and cold waters are determined to be
**

C (T

Q

c

c,out Tc,in )

342.64 kW = (5.016 kW/ C)(Tc,out 12 )

Tc,out 80.3C

m

h C ph (T h,in T h,out )

Q

342.64 kW = (2.39 kg/s)(4.25 kJ/kg.C)(95 T h,out )

23-94

T h,out 61.3C

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-121 Air is to be heated by hot oil in a cross-flow heat exchanger with both fluids unmixed. The

effectiveness of the heat exchanger, the mass flow rate of the cold fluid, and the rate of heat transfer are to

be determined.

.Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.

Properties The specific heats of the air and the oil are given to be 1.006 and 2.15 kJ/kg.C, respectively.

Analysis (a) The heat capacity rates of the hot and cold fluids are

h C ph 0.5m

c (2.15 kJ/kg.C) = 1.075m

c

Ch m

c C pc m

c (1.006 kJ/kg.C) = 1.006 m

c

Cc m

Therefore,

c

Cmin Cc 1.006 m

C

and

Oil

80C

c

Cmin

1.006 m

0.936

c

Cmax

1.075m

Air

18C

58C

**The effectiveness of the heat
**

exchanger is determined from

Q

Q max

C c (Tc,out Tc,in )

C c (Th,in Tc,in )

58 18

0.645

80 18

(b) The NTU of this heat exchanger is expressed as

NTU

UAs

(0.750 kW/ C) 0.7455

c

c

C min

1.006 m

m

The NTU of this heat exchanger can also be determined from

NTU

ln C ln(1 ) 1

ln 0.936 ln(1 0.645) 1

3.724

C

0.936

Then the mass flow rate of the air is determined to be

NTU

UAs

(0.750 kW/C)

3.724

m c 0.20 kg/s

C min

1.006 m c

**(c) The rate of heat transfer is determined from
**

m

c C pc (Tc,out Tc,in ) (0.20 kg/s)(1.006 kJ/kg.C)(58 - 18)C 8.05 kW

Q

23-95

**Chap 23 Heat Exchangers
**

23-122 A water-to-water counter-flow heat exchanger is considered. The outlet temperature of the cold

water, the effectiveness of the heat exchanger, the mass flow rate of the cold water, and the heat transfer

rate are to be determined.

.Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss

to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to

the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 The

overall heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform.

Properties The specific heats of both the cold and the hot water are given to be 4.18 kJ/kg.C.

Analysis (a) The heat capacity rates of the hot and cold fluids are

h C ph 1.5m

c (4.18 kJ/kg.C) = 6.27Cold

c

Ch m

m

Water

c C pc m

c (4.18 kJ/kg.C) = 4.18m

c

Cc m

20C

Hot water

c

Therefore, Cmin Cc 4.18m

95C

and

C

c

Cmin

4.18m

0.667

c

Cmax

6.27m

**The rate of heat transfer can be expressed as
**

C (T

c )(Tc,out 20)

Q

c

c,out Tc,in ) ( 4.18m

C (T

c ) 95 (Tc,out 15) (6.27m

c )(80 Tc,out )

Q

h,in T h,out ) (6.27 m

h

Setting the above two equations equal to each other we obtain the outlet temperature of the cold water

4.18m

c (Tc,out 20) 6.27m

c (80 Tc,out )

Q

Tc,out 56C

(b) The effectiveness of the heat exchanger is determined from

Q

Q

max

C c (Tc,out Tc,in )

C c (T h,in Tc,in )

c (56 20)

4.18m

0.48

c (95 20)

4.18m

(c) The NTU of this heat exchanger is determined from

NTU

1

1

0.48 1

1

ln

ln

0.805

C 1 C 1

0.667 1 0.48 0.667 1

Then, from the definition of NTU, we obtain the mass flow rate of the cold fluid:

NTU

UAs

1.400 kW/ C

0.805

m c 0.416 kg/s

C min

4.18m c

**(d) The rate of heat transfer is determined from
**

m

c C pc (Tc,out Tc,in ) (0.416 kg/s )( 4.18 kJ/kg.C)(56 20 )C 62.6 kW

Q

23-123 . . . 23-129 Design and Essay Problems

23-96

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