7, JULY 2012

Mechanism of Copper (II) Removal from Aqueous
Solution Using Activated Carbon Prepared from
Different Agricultural Materials
J. T. Nwabanne and P. K. Igbokwe
Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka, Nigeria

Abstract– Uptake of copper (II) from aqueous solution using
activated carbons prepared from nipa palm nut (NPN), palmyra
palm nut (PPN), oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), oil palm
fiber (OPF), and oil palm shell (OPS) was studied. Chemical
activation method was adopted in preparing the activated
carbon. The effects of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent
dosage, contact time, initial ion concentration and adsorbent
particle size were investigated in order to determine the
adsorption performance of the adsorbents. It was found that the
amount of Cu2+ adsorbed increased with increase in adsorbent
dosage, and contact time and decreased with increase in particle
size and initial ion concentration. The optimum pH of 6 was
obtained for all the adsorbents. The result of adsorption studies
showed that activated carbons produced from NPN and PPN are
the most efficient adsorbents for the removal of Cu2+ from
aqueous solutions while EFB, OPF and OPS were found to be
poor adsorbents for the removal of the adsorbate. Adsorption
data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and DubininRadushkevich equations. Equilibrium data fitted well to the
Freundlich, Langmuir and Tempkin models. The equilibrium
data were best described by Freundlich model.
Keywords– Adsorption, Copper, Adsorbents, Isotherm, Removal and
Activated Carbon


heavy metals (Gupta, 2003) Among several chemical and
physical methods, the adsorption onto activated carbon has
been found to be superior to other techniques in water-re-use
methodology because of its capability for adsorbing a broad
range of different types of adsorbates efficiently, and its
simplicity of design (Ahmad et al, 2006).
However, commercially available activated carbons are
still considered expensive (Chakraborty et al, 2005).
Consequently, many researchers have studied cheaper
substitutes, which are relatively inexpensive, and are at the
same time endowed with reasonable adsorptive capacity. In
recent years, the preparation of activated carbons from several
agricultural by products has been emphasized due to the
growing interest in low cost activated carbons from renewable
biomass, especially for applications concerning treatment of
drinking water and wastewater (Castro et al, 2000). Several
works have been carried out on the preparation of activated
carbons from sawdust, ficus religiosa leaves, dead biomass,
coconut shell, rice husk, and nypa fruticans shoot (Ahmad et
al, 2008; Qaiser et al, 2007; Geu et al, 2006; Sekar et al, 2004;
Ong et al, 2007; Wankasi et al, 2004). The present study is
aimed at the preparation of activated carbon from five
different agricultural residues and comparing their
performance for the removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solution.


he progressive increase of industrial technology result in
continuous increase of pollution, so that a great effort has
been devoted for minimizing these hazardous pollutants
and therefore avoiding their dangerous effects on animals,
plants and humans (Al-Omair and El- Sharkawy, 2001).
Heavy metal ions are reported as priority pollutants, due to
their mobility in natural water ecosystems and due to their
toxicity (Volesky and Holan, 1995). These heavy metals are
not biodegradable and their presence in streams and lakes
leads to bioaccumulation in living organisms causing health
problems in animals, plants, and human beings (Ong et al,
2007). Since copper is a widely used material, there are many
actual or potential sources of copper pollution. Copper is
essential to life and health but, like all heavy metals, is
potentially toxic as well. For example, continued inhalation of
copper-containing spray is linked with an increase in lung
cancer among exposed workers.
Several methods such as ion exchange, solvent extraction,
reverse osmosis, precipitation, and adsorption have been
proposed for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with

[ISSN: 2045-7057]



A. Sourcing and Pre-treatment of Raw Materials
The raw materials used for the preparation of activated
carbon are oil palm shell (OPS), oil palm fiber (OPF), oil
palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), nipa palm nut (NPN) and
palmyra palm nut (PPN). Oil palm shell, oil palm fiber and oil
palm empty fruit bunch were obtained from Ichida women cooperative oil processing mill, Ichida, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Nipa palm nuts were obtained from a mangrove in Nkpogu
village, Rivers State while Palmyra palm nuts were obtained
from Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State,
Nigeria. The raw materials were washed several times using
de-ionized water to remove all traces of impurities, oil, dirt,
dust, etc. The materials were dried in the sun for 72 hours to
remove excess water until constant weight was obtained.
B. Production of Activated Carbon
The washed and dried raw materials were ground into fine
particles using a Jencod grinding machine and sieved to a



0 3.88 802.org Bulk Density.80 4. 8 with 0. After cooling to the ambient temperature.ijmse.35. 200g of sample was impregnated with concentrated orthophosphoric acid at the acid/precursor ratio of 0.45 810. S = surface area of the activated carbon. JULY 2012 particle size of 300µm. Co and Ce are the metal concentrations (mg/l) at initial and any time t. Characterization of Activated Carbon Where. the samples were washed with de-ionized water several times until pH 6-7. V = volume of sodium hydroxide required to raise the pH of the sample from 4 to 9.30 Fixed carbon 72.0g for contact time of 3hrs and particle size of 150μm. and highest surface area and iodine number.60 18. qe (mg/g) and percentage adsorbed were calculated from Eq.1 filter paper. NPN had the lowest bulk density and fixed carbon.43 3.8nm wavelength. The sample (CuS04) was dried in an oven for 2hrs at 1050C to remove moisture. A predetermined amount of activated carbon was added to 100ml of the 100mg/l of adsorbate in a conical flask and placed on a magnetic stirrer. VOL. 2. The effect of contact time was investigated for 10.5g of adsorbent dosage.11 863. 90. It can seen that OPS had the lowest moisture and ash contents and high surface area of 863m2/g and iodine value of 810.1N NaOH to raise the pH from 4 to 9 and the volume. After adsorption is complete. The stirring was done at different q e [(C o C e ) V / m] % Adsorbed III.The bulk density of the activated carbon was determined according to the tamping procedure by Ahmedna et al (1997).39 4. (2) respectively.22 2. 2009 and Alzaydien.56 www.5g of the activated carbon samples in 100ml of diluted hydrochloric acid at a pH = 3. and m the mass of adsorbent used (g). D. 1. 2004). 2009) by agitating 1. The effect of pH on the sorption was studied at pH 3. The solution was titrated with 0. The larger the surface area is the greater is the adsorption capacity. The iodine number was determined based on ASTM D 4607-86 (1986) by using the sodium thiosulphate volumetric method The specific surface area of the activated carbon was estimated using Sear’s method (Al-Qadah and Shawabkah. 0.0. which does have an effect on adsorption per unit volume (Yenisoy-Karakas et al. The effect of particle size on the sorption of Pb2+ was investigated by changing the particle size in the range of 150 to 1100μm with initial concentration of 100mg/l and adsorbent dosage of 0. The dried samples were carbonized in a Muffle furnace for 1hr at 5000C for NPN. OPF and OPS. g/cm3 0. Initial ion concentration of 100mg/l was used in conjunction with adsorbent dosage 0.63 850.7 6.1 filter paper and then dried in the oven at 1100C for 8hours.67 71. The surface area according to this method was calculated as S = 32V – 25.4:1 (wt basis) for OPS and 2:1 for other materials.5g and at 25-500C for 3hrs.53 0. 3.88 3.14 Ash content wt % 4.22 820.5g for 3hrs.56 0.5g/100ml sample dosage and at temperatures of 25-500C. The effect of initial Cu2+ concentration on the sorption was investigated by changing the initial ion concentration in the range of 100-750mg/l with 150μm particle size. filtered with Whatman No. adsorption dosage of 0.9 6. temperature for different times. the solution was filtered using Whatman no. The iodine number value is an indication to surface area of the activated carbon (Abdullah.62 785.15 4.42 20. (1) and Eq. Moisture content of activated carbon and raw materials was determined using ASTM D 2867-91 (1991). 60. the particle size range used and the degree of activation affect bulk density. 5. The impregnated samples were dried in an oven at 1200C for 24hrs.0 73.42 871. 2001).6 6.52 78.7 6.75 mg/g.8 Iodine number (mg/g) 676.0 3.2.10 Volatile matter wt % 23.51g of CuS04 was dissolved in 1000ml of deionized water to get the stock solution of 1000g/l.5 and 2. 40. The reagents were of high grade. 120. OPF had the lowest iodine number and surface area. 150 and 180 min at pH 7.58 76. 0.61 pH 6. [(C o (1) C e ) / C o ] x 100 (2) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Physico-chemical characteristics of activated carbons are shown in Table 1. The volatile content was determined by weighing 1. Adsorbate Preparation and Batch Adsorption Studies The reagent used was copper sulphate (CuS04) and deionized water. The raw material. 7.I NTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING. 1. Where. 2hrs at 5000C for PPN and 2hrs at 8000C for EFB.3 24. Table 1: Physico-chemical characteristics of the activated carbons Activated Carbon wt % OPF EFB OPS NPN PPN [ISSN: 2045-7057] Moisture content wt % 3. The pH of the carbon was determined using standard test of ASTM D 3838-80 (ASTM. Then a 30g of sodium chloride was added while stirring the suspension and then the volume was made up to 150ml with deionized water.75 815. The residual Cu2+ concentration of the effluent was determined spectrophotomically using atomic adsorption spectrophotometer at 324. The presence of ash has been shown to inhibit surface development (Valix et al.The percentage fixed carbon was determined as100 – (Moisture content + ash content + volatile matter). for 3hrs. C.5.78 Surface area (m2/g) 715. V the volume of the solution (L). It was then heated in a muffle furnace at 9000C for 10mins.0g of sample and placing it in a partially closed crucible of known weight.37 47 . 1996). 4. 1999). respectively. 20.64 0. V recorded. The adsorption capacity. The samples were crushed and passed through different sieve sizes and then stored in a tight bottle ready for use.58 0. Consequently low surface area is observed in carbons with high ash content (Pendyal et al. 2004). 0. 7. 6. NO .61 22.

NPN and PPN gave the best performance in removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solution. 2008). From Fig. 110 100 90 Fig. However. 7.I NTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING. the available sites of adsorption become fewer and hence the percentage of metal ion removed is dependent upon the initial concentration. The relatively higher adsorption with smaller adsorbate is explained by the fact that smaller particle yields large surface area.5 Adsorbent dosage. Sekar et al. The increase in adsorption capacity of Cu (II) with increasing pH is attributable to two possible mechanisms. the percentage of adsorption also increased but the amount adsorbed per unit mass of the adsorbent decreased considerably (Figure 1). The decrease in unit adsorption with increasing dose of adsorbent is attributed to adsorption sites remaining unsaturated during the adsorption reaction (Bulut and Aydin. the amount of Cu2+ adsorbed increased with increase in initial ion concentration.5 2 2. The authors stated that the dependence of adsorption on doses can be explained in terms of the concentration factor involving low metal-toadsorbent ratio at low metal concentrations. g Fig. % Adsorbed 80 70 NPN PPN 60 EFB OPF 50 OPS 40 30 20 10 0 0. At higher concentrations. According to Weber and Morris (Karthikeyan et al. Figure 3 presents the effect of pH on the removal of Cu2+ by the different adsorbents. : Effect of adsorbent dosage on the adsorption of Cu 2+ on the adsorbents Fig. The maximum Cu2+ adsorption for all the adsorbents was obtained at pH 7. 2006. 2004). Effect of Initial Ion Concentration on the Adsorption Process The initial metal concentration of an effluent is important since a given mass of sorbent can only adsorb a fixed amount of heavy metal. Effect of pH on the Adsorption Process D. the breaking of larger particles tends to open tiny cracks and channels on the particle surface of the material resulting in more accessibility to better diffusion. 5. 3: Effect of pH on the adsorption of Cu 2+ on the adsorbents The result of percentage Cu2+ adsorbed is shown in Fig. E. This is as a result of the larger number of available adsorption sites favouring the enhanced uptake of the metal ions (Karthikeyan et al. Effect of Particle Size on the Adsorption Process The removal of Pb2+ at different particle sizes showed that the removal rate increased as particle size deceased (Fig. 2004). JULY 2012 A. 2: Effect of particle size on the adsorption of Cu2+ on the adsorbents pH. Maheswani et al. This may be attributed to their high surface areas. Many workers obtained similar results (Gueu et al. 2005). 4 it is seen that the adsorption percentage decreased with increase in initial ion concentration. www. 2009. C. which are cation exchange and surface complexation mechanisms. The adsorption of the Cu2+ increased with increasing pH. but also the solution chemistry of heavy metal is [ISSN: 2045-7057] Fig. The result showed that as the adsorbent dosage increased. Effect of Adsorption Dosage on the Adsorption Process Adsorption dosage is an important parameter as it determines the capacity of an adsorbent for a given initial concentration of the adsorbate. Figure 1 reveals a definite increase in the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents with dosage. 1: Effect of adsorbent dosage on the adsorption of Cu2+ on the adsorbents B. VOL.5 1 1. Effect of Contact Time on the Adsorption Process One of the most factors influencing not only site dissociation. 3.org 48 .ijmse. owing to the smaller particle size. This same trend was reported by Demirbas et al (2004) and Sekar et al (2004). NO . 2). Cu2+ adsorption decreased as pH rose beyond the optimum pH of 7.

2006).The RL value implies the adsorption to be unfavourable (RL > 1).9259 to 0. The relationship between the amount of a substance adsorbed at constant temperature and its concentration in the equilibrium solution is called the adsorption isotherm. Sivakumar and Palanisamy. and Q0 and b are Langmuir constants related to adsorption capacity and rate of adsorption. Adsorption equilibrium was reached at 90. 5: Effect of Effect contactoftime on thetime adsorption Cu2+ on theofadsorbents adsorbents [ISSN: 2045-7057] H.ijmse. and the slow pore diffusion of the solute ion into the bulk of the adsorbent (Goswani and Ghosh. NO . respectively. 3. 90. VOL. 2008. RL values for Cu2+ on the adsorbents were less than 1 and greater than zero indicating favourable adsorption under conditions used in this study. The later slow adsorption is probably due to the electrostatic hindrances between adsorbed negatively charged adsorbate species into the surface of adsorbents and the available anionic adsorbate species in solution. When Ce/qe is plotted against Ce. The initial rapid adsorption is due to the availability of the positively charged surface of the adsorbents for adsorption of anionic Cu2+ species present in the solution. min 2+ Fig. Langmuir Isotherm Model The Langmuir adsorption model is given by: 20 qe 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Q 800 b Ce 1 b Ce (3) Initial Ion Concentration. 1: Effect of initial ion concentration on the adsorption of Cu 2+ on the adsorbents Fig. % Adsorbed 80 60 40 G. 2005). favourable (O<RL<1). 150. The essential characteristics of the Langmuir equation can be expressed in terms of a dimensionless separation factor. and 150mins for NPN. mg/l Fig. defined as (Ahmed et al. 7. EFB. OPF and OPS range from 0. Q0 and b were evaluated from the intercept and the slope of the linear plot of experimental data of 1/qe versus 1/ce and presented in Table 2 to 6. the adsorption isotherm describes how adsorbate interact with adsorbents and this is critical in optimizing the use of adsorbents. Co is the initial ion concentration.I NTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING.org 49 . PPN. 120. 100 80 NPN PPN EFB OPF OPS 60 (4) Where Ce is the equilibrium concentration of the 120 % Adsorbed 1 Qob 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Contact time. Above 90% of Cu2+ adsorption occurred in the first 10 to 60mins for NPN and PPN and thereafter the rate of adsorption of the adsorbate species into the adsorbent was found to be slow. 4: Effect of initial ion concentration on the adsorption of Cu2+ on the adsorbents It was found that the Cu2+ adsorption percentage increased with increasing contact time. q e the amount of adsorbate per unit mass of adsorbent (mg/g). OPF and OPS respectively. Some researchers showed that experimental data conformed to Langmuir model (Sahmoune et al. 2008). The correlation coefficients showed that Pb2+ adsorption on adsorbents follow Langmuir. RL 1 1 bCO (5) Where. 2008). the values of RL for Cu2+ adsorption on EFB. RL. Linear (RL =1). However. Ce qe 1 Ce Qo adsorbate. The Langmuir constants. 2006). 2009). 2004. Freundlich Isotherm Model The Freundlich adsorption isotherm can be written as (Lin and Juang): www. straight line with slope 1/Q0 indicates that adsorption follows the Langmuir isotherm. The Langmuir equation can be described by the linearized form (Sekar et al. b the Langmuir’s adsorption constant (L/mg). Sekar et al. or irreversible (RL=0) (Maheswari et al.9434 (which are close to unity) indicating not too favourable adsorption. 2004 and Goyal et al. 2: contact on the of adsorption Cu on the Fig. Isotherm Studies 120 NPN PPN EFB OPF OPS 100 The equilibrium adsorption isotherm is important in the design of adsorption systems (Bulut and Aydin. In general. JULY 2012 F.

Β values obtained in this work are similar to the values obtained by Sivakumar and Palanisamy (2009).062 0. the adsorption is physisorption and if the energy of activation is 8-16KJ/mol. Similar results are obtained by Aksu and Tezer (2000).061 0.946 82. 1999): qe RT In ( ACe ) b (8) A linear form of the Temkin isotherm can be expressed as: qe RT In A b RT In Ce b (9) Where RT/b = B and A is Temkin constant.03 0. I. NO . J. The correlation coefficients ranging from 0.86 0. Maheswari et al (2008). adsorption of Cu2+ on EFB.I NTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING.059 0. The magnitude of the exponent.0644 0. All correlation coefficients were greater than 0.993 142. and is the Polanyi potential which is related to the equilibrium concentration as follows: RT In 1 1 Ce (12) Where.org Temperature.989 87. 2006.838 75. 2009). values of Freundlich constants KF and n were calculated from the intercept and slope.978 to 1 indicating that Cu2+ adsorption followed Freundlich model. The KF which is a measure of adsorption capacity. The values of Temkin constants A and b as well as the correlation coefficients are listed in Tables 2 to 6.805 76.314J/molK) and T is the absolute temperature. R is the gas constant (8.00611 0. Karthikeyan et al (2004) has reported that n values between 1 and 10 represent favourable adsorption conditions. The constant gives the mean free energy.2462 0.6297 0.983 79. The adsorption data can be analyzed according to equation 9 and the constant B determines the heat of adsorption.998 1. β a constant related to sorption energy. The values of A decreased with increase in temperature while the values of b increased with increase in temperature for Cu2+ adsorption.641 0.000 0. the adsorption is chemisorptions in nature (Sarin et al. JULY 2012 K F Ce1/ n qe Inq e (6) A linear form of this expression is: log qe 1 log K F Where / n log Ce (7) Where KF and n are Freundlich constants. Sivakumar and Palanisamy (2009) and Goswami and Ghosh (2005). E is <8KJ/mol. E 1 2 (13) The Dubinin-Radushkevich constants were evaluated and given in Tables 2 to 6. indicates that the adsorption of Cu2+ on NPN and PPN did not follow the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm.49 0.41 0.6002 0.ijmse.000 0. 7. 3. Sivakumar and Palanisamy.00666 0.904. Temkin Isotherm The Temkin isotherm has been used in the following form (Choy et al. The exponent is 1<n<3.993 1.86 0. showing beneficial adsorption for the system. R2 ranged from 0.500 to 0.679 0.00598 0. data fairly conformed to Temkin isotherm model. OPF and OPS was chemisorptions. From the linear plots of Inqe versus InCe.000 0. VOL.6207 0. 2002). and are presented in Tables 2 to 6. However. l/g.7182 4. n gives an indication of the favourability and capacity of the adsorbent/adsorbate system. 2009) is: [ISSN: 2045-7057] qm 2 Inq m (11) is the Dubinin– Radushkevich monolayer capacity ( mmol / g ). The values of constants A and b obtained in this work are similar to the values obtained by Sekar et al (2004).937 142. If the mean free energy.889 50 .000 0. Dubinin-Radushkevich Isotherm Model The Dubinin – Radushkevich equation has the following form: qe qm e 2 (10) A linear form of Dubnin – Radushkevich equation isotherm (Sivakumar and Palanisamy. Table 2: Calculated isotherm parameters for the adsorption of Cu 2+ on NPN Isotherm model 298 Langmuir Q (mg/g) b (L/mg) RL R2 Temkin b (J/mg) A (L/g) R2 Freundlich N Kf (L/g) R2 Dubinin-Radushkevich qD (mg/g) β (mol2/J2) E (KJ/mol) www.993 1.889.000 0. n giving an indication of how favourable the adsorption process is and KF is the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. The correlation coefficients. KF and n are determined from the linear plot of log qe versus log Ce.000 0. Generally.000 0. of sorption per molecule of the sorbate when it is transferred to the surface of the solid from infinity in the solution and can be computed using relationship (Lin and Juang.67 0. Results of E obtained indicate that adsorption of Cu2+ on NPN and PPN was physisorption while the adsorption of Cu+2+ on EFB. respectively.999 71.8519 4. K 303 313 166. OPFand OPS conformed to Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm.8349 4. decreased with temperature.096 0. .

992 250 0.001 22.561 0.0006 0.931 75.931 77.019 0.265 0.020 0. initial ion concentration.1933 0.001 22.68 0.1049 0.0413 0.1507 0.27 0.0795 0.987 1.977 73.361 0.980 1. JULY 2012 Table 3: Calculated isotherm parameters for the adsorption of Cu 2+ on PPN Isotherm model Langmuir Q (mg/g) b (L/mg) RL R2 Temkin b (J/mg) A (L/g) R2 Freundlich N Kf (L/g) R2 Dubinin-Radushkevich qD (mg/g) β (mol2/J2) E (KJ/mol) 298 Temperature.728 0.001 22.361 0.015 0.937 80.946 51.6750 2.67 0.0040 0.940 333.019 0.999 53.998 1.019 0. 298 303 313 250 0.999 59.002 15.4943 0.9434 0.811 0.0006 0.3589 0.980 250 0.0427 0. OPF and OPS are very adsorbents for the removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solutions. K 303 Isotherm model 313 Table 4: Calculated isotherm parameters for the adsorption of Cu 2+ on EFB Isotherm model Table 5: Calculated isotherm parameters for the adsorption of Cu 2+ on OPF 313 333.9259 0.6051 2.64 0. The study shows that NPN and PPN are very efficient adsorbents for removing Cu2+ from aqueous solutions while EFB.977 80. OPF and OPS as lowcost adsorbents for the removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solutions was studied.4889 0.ijmse.361 0.001 22.1574 0.00003 0.13 0.701 0.00 0.940 333. 7.3873 1.999 1.016 0.9434 0.6313 2.934 1.018 0.7143 0.901 166.361 0.0006 0. 3.999 60.0002 0.07 0.9434 0.811 0.66 0.091 0. K Isotherm model Langmuir Q (mg/g) b (L/mg) RL R2 Temkin b (J/mg) A (L/g) R2 Freundlich N Kf (L/g) R2 Dubinin-Radushkevich qD (mg/g) β (mol2/J2) E (KJ/mol) IV.0006 0.937 81.886 0.6669 0. PPN. particle size.33 0.955 55. and contact time. K 303 313 333.0035 0.33 0.720 6x10-8 0.039 2x10-7 0.4656 0.2005 0.979 1.7402 0. pH.811 0.3214 0. Copper (II) adsorption was found to vary with adsorbent dosage.001 22.9434 0.514 50.916 0.111 0.934 1.7502 0.2136 0.0436 0.31 0.3698 0. EFB. K 303 200 0.002 15..976 85.9259 0. VOL.0039 0.987 82.997 1.874 166.978 52.945 Table 6: Calculated isotherm parameters for the adsorption of Cu 2+ on OPS Temperature.361 0.983 78.875 71.0006 0.249 3x10-7 0.63 0.9242 0.915 333.911 333.4150 0.9434 0.33 0.0755 0.33 0.I NTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING.0008 0.33 0.9434 0.361 0.33 0.999 1.999 1.4375 0.001 22.998 76.0008 0.503 52.32 0.97 0.002 15.985 1.0008 0. The ranking of adsorbents for Cu2+ adsorption showed this order: NPN>PPN>EFB>OPF>OPS.955 58. Isotherms for the adsorption of lead on the adsorbents were developed and [ISSN: 2045-7057] www.000 1.939 51.0006 0.015 0.975 81.9259 0.16 0. NO .org 51 .1876 0.0001 0.2034 0.67 0.974 CONCLUSION The potential of NPN.018 0.972 71.500 Langmuir Q (mg/g) b (L/mg) RL R2 Temkin b (J/mg) A (L/g) R2 Freundlich N Kf (L/g) R2 Dubinin-Radushkevich qD (mg/g) β (mol2/J2) E (KJ/mol) 298 Temperature.561 0.967 59.951 Langmuir Q (mg/g) b (L/mg) RL R2 Temkin b (J/mg) A (L/g) R2 Freundlich N Kf (L/g) R2 Dubinin-Radushkevich qD (mg/g) β (mol2/J2) E (KJ/mol) 298 Temperature.

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