# Math 310 Problem Set 2

Jiyang Xie 1

Problem 6 (S p.26)
(a) Given any w ∈ Cz , we wish to show there exists an open ball B(w) contained in Cz .
Since Cz ⊂ Ω, for any point in Cz , we can construct an open ball contained in Ω. Since open
balls are path connected and w ∈ B(w), we have that B(w) ⊂ Cz , showing that Cz is open.
To see that Cz is connected, recall again that Cz is necessarily path-connected. Given any
two points a, b ∈ Cz , we can simply concatenate the path from a to z and the path from z
to b, both of which are contained in Ω.
Condition (i) is trivially satisfied. Condition (ii) is true since a path from w to z implies a
path from z to w contained in Cw ∩ Cz . Condition (iii) is true similarly by concatenating
the path from z to w and the path from ζ to z to obtain the path from ζ to w.
(b) Suppose by contradiction that Ω has uncountably many connected components. Then we
could obtain an uncountable number of open balls from each component. Each ball contains
a point with rational coordinates. Since Q × Q is countable, we have a contradiction.
(c) Note that the complement of a disc D containing the compact set is open and bounded.
Any other set A in the complement of the compact set is necessarily contained in the disc
and so must be bounded. Thus, there can be only one unbounded component.

.........
Problem 9 (S p.27-28)
∂y
∂x
= ∂u
+ ∂u
= ∂u
cos(θ) + ∂u
sin(θ). Similarly, multivariable chain
We have that ∂u
∂r
∂x ∂r
∂y ∂r
∂x
∂y
∂v
∂v
∂v
rule and Cauchy-Reimann gives us ∂θ = ∂x (−r) sin(θ) + ∂y
(r) cos(θ) = ∂u
(r) sin(θ) +
∂y
∂u
(r) cos(θ) = r ∂u
, as desired. Equivalently, we have that ∂u
= ∂u
(−r) sin(θ)+ ∂u
(r) cos(θ) =
∂x
∂r
∂θ
∂x
∂y
∂v
∂v
∂v
(−r) sin(θ) + ∂x (−r) cos(θ) = −r ∂r , as desired.
∂y

We wish to apply Theorem 2.4. Let f (reiθ ) = log(r) + iθ. We have that both log(r) and θ
are continuously differentiable on the region r > 0 and −π < θ < π, so we need only show
= 1 = r 1r = r ∂u
that it satisfies the Cauchy-Reimann relations. This is easily checked: ∂v
∂θ
∂r
∂v
1 ∂u
and ∂r = 0 = − r ∂θ .

.........
Problem 12 (S p.27-28)
Checking the Cauchy-Reimann equations at the origin, we get
∂v
∂v
0 = ∂y
and ∂u
= limh→0 u(0,0+h)−u(0,0)
= 0 = − ∂x
.
∂y
h

∂u
∂x

= limh→0

u(0+h,0)−u(0,0)
h

=

However, f is not holomorphic - finding the derivative at the origin along the line x = y
1
gives us limh→0 u(h,h)−u(0,0)
= 1+i
6= 0.
h+ih

.........
Problem 14 (S p.28-29)
We first consider the far right term,
N
−1
X
n=M

(an+1 − an )

n
X
i=1

bi =

N
−1
X

n
n
X
X
( (an+1 bi ) − (
an bi ))

n=M i=1

September 18th, 2014

i=1

we have limn→∞ |an |1/n = L. |L − |a|an+1 | <  =⇒ n| recursively.   1/n 1/n (cnn+(1/2) e−n )3 (n!)3 = lim sup lim sup (3n)! c(3n)3n+(1/2) e−3n  3 3n+(3/2) −3n 1/n cn e = lim sup 3n+(1/2) c(3n) e−3n  1/n c2 n = lim sup 3n+(1/2) 3  1/n  n = lim sup 33 1 = 27 So. we get |an+1 | |an | |an | > |L − |n−N |aN | |an |1/n > |L − |1−N/n |aN |1/n lim |an |1/n > |L − | | lim n→∞ n→∞ |an |1/n − L| <  Thus....28-29) | We have that ∀.28-29) (a) Hadamard’s formula gives us limn→∞ log(n)2/n = 1 =⇒ R = 1.. Problem 17 (S p..... ... ∃N such that ∀n > N . R = 27..Math 310 Problem Set 2 Jiyang Xie 2 This sum telescopes to give M −1 X ( −aM bk ) + ( N −1 X −ai bi ) + ( N −1 X j=1 i=M k=1 aN b j ) The right side of the claim then becomes N M −1 M −1 N −1 N −1 N −1 X X X X X X ( aN b q ) − ( aM b r ) − ( −aM bk ) − ( −ai bi ) − ( aN b j ) = aN b N + ai b i q=1 r=1 i=M k=1 j=1 i=M = N X ai b i i=M ... 2014 > |L − |. September 18th.. Problem 16 (S p.. Applying this ...... limn→∞ log log(n)2/n = 0 =⇒ (d) We evaluate the limit directly with Sterling’s.. as desired... 1 R = lim sup(log(n))2/n . ..

2014 ..Math 310 Problem Set 2 Jiyang Xie 3 Problem 19 (S p.28-29) c. Using summation of parts and the fact that |z| = 1. .... ! ! n n−1 X 1 1 − z n+1 1 1 − z X 1 1 1 − z j+1 zi lim = lim − − − ) ( n→∞ n→∞ i n 1 − z 1 1 − z j + 1 j 1−z i=1 j=1 ! n−1 X 1 |1| + |z j+1 | 1 |1| + |z n+1 | −1+ ( ≤ lim n→∞ n |1 − z| j(j + 1) |1 − z| j=1 ! n−1 X 1 2 1 2 ≤ lim −1+ ( ) n→∞ n |1 − z| j(j + 1) |1 − z| j=1 Note that the right limit exists (the infinite series term is a p-series with p = 2)... September 18th... thus we have that our original series converges.