Annals of Mathematics

Modular Elliptic Curves and Fermat's Last Theorem
Author(s): Andrew Wiles
Source: The Annals of Mathematics, Second Series, Vol. 141, No. 3 (May, 1995), pp. 443-551
Published by: Annals of Mathematics
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Annals of Mathematics, 142 (1995), 443-551

Modular elliptic curves
and
Fermat's Last Theorem
By ANDREW

WILES*

For Nada, Clare, Kate and Olivia
Cubumautemin duos cubos,aut quadratoquadratum
in duos quadratoquadratos,et generaliternullam in infinitumultra quadratum
potestatemin duos ejusdem nominisfas est dividere: cujus rei
demonstrationem
mirabilemsane detexi. Hanc marginisexiguitas
non caperet.
Pierre de Fermat
Introduction
An ellipticcurveoverQ is said to be modularifit has a finitecoveringby
a modularcurveof the formXo(N). Any such ellipticcurvehas the property
that its Hasse-Weilzeta functionhas an analyticcontinuationand satisfiesa
functionalequation of the standardtype. If an ellipticcurve over Q with a
givenj-invariantis modularthenit is easy to see that all ellipticcurveswith
the same j-invariantare modular (in whichcase we say that the j-invariant
is modular). A well-known
conjecturewhichgrewout of the workof Shimura
and Taniyamain the 1950's and 1960's assertsthat everyellipticcurveoverQ
is modular. However,it onlybecamewidelyknownthroughits publicationin a
paper ofWeil in 1967 [We] (as an exerciseforthe interestedreader!),in which,
moreover,Weil gave conceptualevidenceforthe conjecture.Althoughit had
been numericallyverifiedin manycases, priorto the resultsdescribedin this
paper it had onlybeen knownthat finitely
manyj-invariantsweremodular.
In 1985 Freymade the remarkableobservationthat thisconjectureshould
implyFermat'sLast Theorem. The precisemechanismrelatingthe two was
formulatedby Serreas the E-conjectureand this was thenprovedby Ribet in
the summerof 1986. Ribet's resultonly requiresone to provethe conjecture
forsemistableellipticcurvesin orderto deduce Fermat'sLast Theorem.
*The work on this paper was supported by an NSF grant.

444

ANDREW WILES

Our approachto the studyof ellipticcurvesis via theirassociated Galois
of Gal(Q/Q) on the
representations.Suppose that pp is the representation
p-divisionpointsof an ellipticcurveoverQ, and suppose forthe momentthat
p3 is irreducible.The choiceof 3 is criticalbecause a crucialtheoremofLanglands and Tunnellshowsthat ifp3 is irreduciblethen it is also modular. We
thenproceedby showingthat underthe hypothesisthat p3 is semistableat 3,
on the ramification
of p3 at the other
togetherwith some milderrestrictions
primes,everysuitableliftingofp3 is modular. To do thiswe linkthe problem,
via some novelargumentsfromcommutativealgebra,to a class numberproblem of a well-known
type. This we thensolvewiththe help ofthe paper [TW].
This suffices
to provethe modularityof E as it is knownthat E is modularif
is modular.
and onlyifthe associated 3-adic representation
linkbetweentwo
The keydevelopmentin theproofis a newand surprising
strongbut distincttraditionsin numbertheory,therelationshipbetweenGalois
and modularformson the one hand and the interpretation
of
representations
special values of L-functionson the other. The formertraditionis of course
more recent. Followingthe originalresults of Eichler and Shimura in the
1950's and 1960's the othermain theoremswereprovedby Deligne,Serreand
Langlands in the period up to 1980. This includedthe constructionof Galois
ofLanglandsand
associatedto modularforms,the refinements
representations
Deligne (latercompletedby Carayol),and the crucialapplicationby Langlands
of base changemethodsto give converseresultsin weightone. Howeverwith
the exceptionofthe ratherspecial weightone case, includingthe extensionby
TunnellofLanglands' originaltheorem,therewas no progressin the direction
of associatingmodularformsto Galois representations.Fromthe mid 1980's
the main impetus to the fieldwas given by the conjecturesof Serre which
elaboratedon the -conjecturealludedto before.BesidestheworkofRibet and
otherson thisproblemwe drawon some ofthe morespecializeddevelopments
of the 1980's, notablythose of Hida and Mazur.
The second traditiongoes back to the famousanalyticclass numberformula of Dirichlet,but owes its modernrevivalto the conjectureof Birch and
In practicehowever,it is the ideas ofIwasawa in thisfieldon
Swinnerton-Dyer.
whichwe attemptto draw,and whichto a largeextentwe have to replace. The
principlesof Galois cohomology,and in particularthe fundamentaltheorems
of Poitou and Tate, also play an importantrole here.
The restrictionthat p3 be irreducibleat 3 is bypassed by means of an
intriguingargumentwith familiesof elliptic curves which share a common
P5. Using this, we completethe proofthat all semistableellipticcurves are
modular. In particular,thisfinallyyieldsa proofofFermat'sLast Theorem.In
addition,this methodseemswell suitedto establishingthat all ellipticcurves
over Q are modularand to generalizationto othertotallyreal numberfields.
Now we presentour methodsand resultsin moredetail.

MODULAR

ELLIPTIC

CURVES

AND

FERMAT'S

LAST THEOREM

445

Let f be an eigenformassociated to the congruencesubgroupr1(N) of
SL2(Z) of weightk > 2 and characterX. Thus if Tn is the Hecke operator
associatedto an integern thereis an algebraicintegerc(n, f) such that Tnf =
c(n, f)f foreach n. We let Kf be the numberfieldgeneratedover Q by the
{c(nr,f)} togetherwith the values of X and let Of be its ring of integers.
For any primeA of Of let Of,> be the completionof Of at A. The following
theoremis due to Eichlerand Shimura (fork = 2) and Deligne (fork > 2).
The analogousresultwhenk = 1 is a celebratedtheoremof Serreand Deligne
but is morenaturallystated in termsof complexrepresentations.The image
in that case is finiteand a converseis knownin manycases.
For each primep E Z and each primeA I p of Of there
is a continuousrepresentation
THEOREM 0.1.

A
pf,\:Gal(QQ

GL2(Of,X)

outsidetheprimesdividingNp and such thatforall primes
whichis unramified
q t Np,
tracepf,A
(FRobq) = c(q, f),

detpf,A
(Frobq) = X(q)qk-l

We willbe concernedwithtryingto proveresultsin the oppositedirection,
that is to say, with establishingcriteriaunderwhicha A-adicrepresentation
arises in this way froma modular form. We have not foundany advantage
is part of a compatiblesystemof A-adic
in assumingthat the representation
exceptthat the proofmaybe easierforsome A than forothers.
representations
Assume
po: Gal(Q/Q)

-

GL2 (Fp)

with values in the algebraicclosureof a finite
is a continuousrepresentation
fieldof characteristicp and that det po is odd. We say that po is modular
if po and pfA mod A are isomorphicover Fp for some f and A and some
embeddingof Of/A in Fp. Serrehas conjecturedthat everyirreduciblepo of
is modular. Verylittleis knownabout thisconjectureexcept
odd determinant
whenthe image of po in PGL2(Fp) is dihedral,A4 or S4. In the dihedralcase
it is trueand due (essentially)to Hecke,and in the A4 and S4 cases it is again
true and due primarilyto Langlands,withone importantcase due to Tunnell
(see Theorem 5.1 fora statement). More preciselythese theoremsactually
associate a formof weightone to the correspondingcomplex representation
deductionsfromthe complex
but the versionswe need are straightforward
case. Even in the reduciblecase not much is knownabout the problemin
the formwe have describedit, and in that case it should be observedthat
of
one must also choose the lattice carefullyas only the semisimplification
PfA= PfAmodA is independentof the choiceof latticein KA.

446

ANDREW WILES

If 0 is the ringofintegersof a local field(containingQp) we will say that
p: Gal(Q/Q)
GL2(0) is a liftingof po if,fora specifiedembeddingof the
residuefieldof (9 in Fp, 1pand po are isomorphicover FP. Our point of view
will be to assume that po is modularand then to attemptto give conditions
underwhicha representation
p liftingpo comes froma modular formin the
sense that p - pfa, over Kf,Aforsome f,A. We will restrictour attentionto
two cases:
-

(I) po is ordinary(at p) by whichwe mean that thereis a one-dimensional
subspace of P , stable undera decompositiongroupat p and such that
the action on the quotient space is unramifiedand distinctfromthe
action on the subspace.
(II) po is flat (at p), meaningthat as a representationof a decomposition
group at p, po is equivalentto one that arises froma finiteflatgroup
scheme over Zp, and detpo restrictedto an inertiagroup at p is the
cyclotomiccharacter.
to QP,
We say similarlythat p is ordinary(at p) if,viewedas a representation
thereis a one-dimensional
subspace of Q2 stable undera decompositiongroup
at p and such that the action on the quotientspace is unramified.
Let e: Gal(Q/Q)
denote the cyclotomiccharacter. Conjectural
conversesto Theorem0.1 have been part of the folkloreformany years but
have hithertolacked any evidence. The criticalidea that one mightdispense
withcompatiblesystemswas alreadyobservedby Drinfeldin the functionfield
case [Dr]. The idea that one onlyneeds to make a geometricconditionon the
to the decompositiongroupat p was firstsuggestedby Fontaineand
restriction
Mazur. The following
versionis a naturalextensionofSerre'sconjecturewhich
is convenientforstatingour resultsand is, in a slightlymodifiedform,the one
proposedby Fontaineand Mazur. (In the formstatedthisincorporatesSerre's
conjecture.We could insteadhave made the hypothesisthat po is modular.)
-*

Suppose thatp: Gal(Q/Q)
GL2(0) is an irreducible
outsideof a finiteset of primes. There
liftingof po and thatp is unramified
are two cases:
CONJECTURE.

-

(i) Assume thatpo is ordinary.Then ifp is ordinaryand detp = ek-1X for
some integerk > 2 and some X offiniteorder,p comesfroma modular
form.
(ii) Assume thatpo is flat and thatp is odd. Then if p restrictedto a deon a p-divisible
compositiongroupat p is equivalentto a representation
group,again p comesfroma modularform.

MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM

447

In case (ii) it is not hard to see that if the formexists it has to be of
weight2; in (i) of course it would have weightk. One can of course enlarge
this conjecturein severalways,by weakeningthe conditionsin (i) and (ii), by
consideringothernumberfieldsin place of Q and by consideringgroupsother
than GL2.
We provetwo resultsconcerningthis conjecture. The firstincludesthe
hypothesisthat PO is modular. Here and forthe rest of the paper we will
assume that p is an odd prime.
Suppose thatPO is irreducibleand satisfieseither(I) or
(II) above. Suppose also thatPO is modularand that
THEOREM 0.2.

to Q
irreducible
whenrestricted
(i) PGis absolutely

(

(-1)Tp).

- modp is ramifiedin PO then eitherPOIDq is reducibleover
(ii) If q
groupat q or polIq is
the algebraicclosurewhereDq is a decomposition
absolutelyirreduciblewhereIq is an inertiagroupat q.
p as in the conjecturedoes indeedcomefroma modThen any representation
ular form.
The only conditionwhichreallyseems essentialto our methodis the requirementthat PObe modular.
case at the momentis whenp = 3 and POcan be deThe mostinteresting
is modular
finedoverF3. Then sincePGL2(F3) - S4 everysuchrepresentation
by the theoremofLanglands and Tunnellmentionedabove. In particular,evintoGL2(Z3) whosereductionsatisfiesthe givenconditions
eryrepresentation
is modular. We deduce:
THEOREM 0.3. Suppose thatE is an ellipticcurve definedover Q and
thatPO is the Galois action on the 3-divisionpoints. Suppose thatE has the
followingproperties:

reductionat 3.
(i) E has goodor multiplicative
to Q (\-).
(ii) P0 is absolutelyirreduciblewhenrestricted
(iii) For anyq -1 mod3 eitherPOIDqis reducibleoverthealgebraicclosure
or POIIqis absolutelyirreducible.
Then E is modular.
We should pointout that whilethe propertiesof the zeta functionfollow
directlyfromTheorem0.2 the strongerversionthat E is coveredby Xo(N)

so we could relax condition(i) somewhat.4.Rathersurprisingly. This argument. Such ellipticcurveshad already been studied in [He] but withoutthe connectionwithmodularforms. Thus Theorem0. would be associated to a formof conductor2. Suppose thatuP+vP+wP = O withu.2 can oftenbe applied in thiscase also by showingthat the representation on the 5-divisionpointsalso occursfor anotherellipticcurvewhichTheorem0. We note that if E is modular then so is any twist of E.2 is appliedthistimewithp = 5.one still needed to knowthat the curvein questionwould have to be modular. The importantclass of semistablecurves. . However..a case whichincludesthe semistablecurves).4 implies'Fermat's Last Theorem'. thosewithsquare-freeconductor. In 1986.3 has alreadyprovedmodular. THEOREM More generalfamiliesof ellipticcurveswhichare modularare givenin Chapter 5.VP) could not be modular.satisfies(i) and (iii) but not necessarily(ii). This.wE Q andp > 3.Serremade precisethe idea ofFreyby proposinga conjectureon modularformswhichmeantthat the representationon thep-divisionpointsofthisparticularellipticcurve.i.and this is accomplishedby Theorem0. 0.448 ANDREW WILES requiresalso the isogenytheoremprovedby Faltings(and earlierby Serrewhen E has nonintegralj-invariant. Then E is modular. is the only part of the paper whichreallyuses deformations of of the Galois representation.v. Frey'ssuggestion. Theorem0. If (ii) failsthenin factpo is reducible. Serre's conjecturewas then provedby Ribet in the summer of 1986.Serre conjectured and Ribet proved(in [Ril]) a propertyofthe Galois representations associated to modularformswhichenabled Ribet to showthat Theorem0. Suppose thatE is a semistableellipticcurvedefinedover Q.4.in the notationof the followingtheorem.The the ellipticcurveratherthan deformations argumentworksmoregenerallythan in the semistablecase but in this setting we obtain the followingtheorem: 0. by a simple inspection.e. The second result we prove about the conjecturedoes not requirethe assumptionthat po be modular (since it is alreadyknownin this case). stimulatedby an ingeniousidea of Frey [Fr]. could not exist.whichis explained in Chapter 5.5.was to showthat the (hypothetical)ellipticcurvey2 = X(X + UP) (X .ifmodular. We have then (finally!): THEOREM then uvw = 0.

3. Supposefurtherthat (i) po = IndQ Ko for a characterKo of an imaginaryquadraticextensionL of Q whichis unramified at p.we writep fore because of the connectionswithIwasawa theory. From now on and in the main text.It was therefore I began withthe assumption fromthe pointofview of ?-adic representations. This theoremcan also be used to prove that certainfamiliesof elliptic curves are modular.6. I made the first in realizingthatI could use the3-adicrepresentation realbreakthrough instead: theoremmeantthat p3. The followingis an account of the originsof this workand of the more specialized developmentsof the 1980's that affectedit. In this summarywe have only describedthe principal theoremsassociated to Galois representations and ellipticcurves. that the reductionof a givenordinary?-adic representation was reducibleand itselfwould have triedto proveunderthis hypothesisthat the representation to be modular. I began workingon theseproblemsin the late summerof 1986 immediatelyon learningof Ribet's result. This enabled me to try inductivelyto prove that the GL2 (Z/3n Z) representationwould be modularforeach n. For several years I had been workingon the Iwasawa conjecturefor totallyreal fieldsand some applicationsof it. This led quicklyto the studyof Hz(Gal(Fx/Q). Suppose thatpo is irreducible and satisfiesthehypotheses of the conjecture. In the process.I had introduced .I had been using and developingresultson ?-adicrepresentations associatedto Hilbertmodular naturalforme to considerthe problemof modularity forms.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 449 THEOREM 0. I triedto apply some ideas fromIwasawa theoryto this problem. More specifically. (ii) det po I P = .the mod3 representation ofany the Langlands-Tunnell given ellipticcurve over Q. In my solutionto the Iwasawa conjecturefortotallyreal fields[Wi4]. Wf) fori = 1 and 2. Then a representation p as in the conjecturedoes indeedcomefroma modular form.including(I) above. Afterseveralmonthsstudyingthe 2-adic representation. neededto comparethiscohomologywiththe cohomologyofGal(QE/Q) acting on the same module. whereFx is the splittingfieldofthem-adictorsionon the Jacobianofa suitablemodularcurve. would necessarilybe modular. mbeingthe maximalideal ofa Heckeringassociatedto p3 and Wf the module I associated to a modular formf describedin Chapter 1. Our results concerninggeneralizedclass groupsare describedin Theorem3.Even moreoptimistically e = 2 would be tractableas thiswould sufficeforthe studyof the curvesused by Frey. At thistimeI consideredonlythe ordinarycase. I hoped rathernaivelythat in this situationI could apply the I hoped that the case techniquesof Iwasawa theory.

It involvedreplacing the standardIwasawa theorymethodofconsideringthe fieldsin the cyclotomic manydistinct Zp-extensionby a similaranalysisbased on a choiceofinfinitely primes qi _ 1 modpfi with ni -* oo as i -* oo.) In all this workI used the moregeneralassumptionthat pp was modularratherthan the assumptionthat p = 3. Some aspects of this method suggestedthat an alternativeto the standard techniqueof Iwasawa theory. To be of use.I realizedthatthe dualitytheoremsin Galois cohomologyof Poitou and Tate wouldbe usefulfor this. the deformation theoryrequiredsome development. mightbe to make a comparison betweenthe cohomologygroupsas E varies but with the fieldQ fixed.Mazur had been developingthe languageofdeformations ofGalois representations. This drew in particularon a detailed study of all the congruencesbetweenf and othermodular forms of differing levels.at least in certainspecial cases.I translatedtheseideas intoring-theoretic language. A fewyearspreviouslyHida had constructedsome explicitone-parameterfamilies of Galois representations. Moreover. (This was formuch the same reason that the reductionof level argumentin [Ril] is much more difficult when q -1 modp. The outcomewas that I could estimatethe firstcohomologygroupwell undertwo assumptions.I used auxiliaryprimes q -1 modp whenvaryingE as the geometrictechniquesI workedwithdid not apply in generalforprimesq _ 1 modp. This criticalconjecture refinedthe expectationthat all ordinaryliftingsof modular representations should be modular.This fittedwell with their being deformationrings whereone could estimatethe numberofgeneratorsand relationsand so made the originalassumptionmoreplausible. Afterreadingthe paper [Grel].Some of these argumentsare to be found in the secondsectionofChapter1 and some formthe firstweak approximation to the argumentin Chapter3.a theorythat had been initiatedby Hida and Ribet. In the late 1980's. The crucialextractfromthis lattertheoryis in Section2 of Chapter 1. At that time.In an attemptto understandthis.however.450 ANDREW WILES a new techniquein orderto deal withthe trivialzeroes. These assumptionsweremuchtoo restrictive to be reallyeffective but at least theypointedin the rightdirection. In makingthe translationto this ring-theoretic language I realizedthat the vanishingassumptionon the subgroupof H2 whichI had neededshouldbe replacedby the strongerconditionthat the Heckeringswere completeintersections.firstthat a certainsubgroupof the second cohomologygroup vanishedand second that the formf was chosen at the minimallevel form. In orderto put these ideas into practiceI developedin a naive formthe techniquesof the firsttwo sectionsof Chapter 2. whichseemedproblematicin the studyof Wf.Apart fromsome special examples examinedby Boston and Mazur therehad been . The new principlesaid roughlythat the unramified cohomologyclasses are trapped by the tamelyramifiedones.Mazur realizedthat the universaldeformation ringshe foundshould be givenby Hecke rings.

althoughmore natural. In the fallof 1989.the equalityof these invariantswas actuallya criterionfora Gorenstein ringto be a completeintersection.It was onlyon readingSection6 isomorphisms of [Ti2] that I learned that it followedfromTate's account of Grothendieck that these two invariantswereequal dualitytheoryforcompleteintersections I realizedthat. This was needed in orderto removethe restriction to the ordinarycase. In searchingfora clue fromcommutativealgebra I had been particularlystrucksome yearsearlierby a paper ofKunz [Ku2]. The impactofthisresulton the main problemwas enormous.I could checkthis in the ordinaryCM case usingthe recenttheoremsofRubin and Kolyvagin.did not look any simpler.thena studentof mineat Princeton.This is the contentof Chapter 4.Firstly. I checkedthatone could makethe appropriateadjustmentsto thetheoryin orderto describedeformation theoriesat theminimallevel. Kunz's paper suggestedthe use of an invariant(the 77-invariant of the appendix) whichI saw could be used to test forisomorphismsbetweenGorensteinrings. I had already neededto verifythat the HeckeringswereGorensteinin orderto computethe congruencesdevelopedin Chapter 2. The usual methodsof Iwasawa theorywhen translatedinto the ring-theoretic language seemedto requireunknownprinciplesofbase change. This propertyhad firstbeen provedby Mazur in the case of primelevel and his argumenthad alreadybeen extended by other authors as the need arose. A different invariant(the p/p2_ invariantof the appendix) I had already observedcould be used to test for betweencompleteintersections. The turningpoint in this and indeed in the whole proofcame in the springof 1991.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 451 littleworkon it.it meantthat forthe firsttime it could be verifiedthat infinitely manyj-invariantswere modular.by means of a calculationof Hida summarizedin [Hi2] into a problemabout class numbers the main problemcould be transformed of a type well-knownin Iwasawa theory. Thirdly.These argumentsare givenin the appendix.I set Ramakrishna.unlikelythoughit seemedat forsuchrings. This I had been trying in commutato do fora longtimebut withoutsuccess untilthe breakthrough tive algebra.the task of provingthe existenceof a deformation theoryassociated to representations arisingfromfiniteflatgroup schemesover Zp.Not longafterwards first. These developmentsare described in the firstsectionof Chapter 1 althoughthe workof Ramakrishnawas not completeduntil the fall of 1991.it meant that I could focuson the minimallevelwherethe estimatesgivenby myearlier . Finally.the relationshipbetweenthe Heckeringsand the deformation ringscould be tested I In just usingthesetwo invariants. Zp-extension Q.In particular. Secondly. One neededto knowthe fieldsin the cyclotomic exact relationsbetweenthe Hecke ringsfordifferent of and not just the relations up to torsion. For a long time the ring-theoretic version of the problem. particular could providethe inductiveargumentof Section 3 of Chapter 2 to show that if all liftingswith restricted ramification are modularthenall liftingsare modular.

By the fall of 1992.or Selmergroupas it is oftencalled in this context.Here I was also using the workof Ribet and otherson Serre's conjecture(the same workof Ribet that had linkedFermat'sLast Theoremto modularformsin the firstplace) to knowthat therewas a minimallevel. I had earlierrealizedthat ideallywhatI neededin thismethodofauxiliary primeswas a replacementforthe powerseriesringconstructionone obtainsin themorenaturalapproachbased on Iwasawa theory. Therewerealso tenuoushints of a patchingargumentin Iwasawa theory([Scho].underthe additionalassumptionthat the minimalHecke ring was a completeintersection.However.when translatedinto the ringtheoreticlanguage seemed to requireunknownprinciplesof base change.However. I believed I had achievedthis and began then to considerthe remainingcase wherethe mod3 representation was assumed reducible.1991.in the settingwithauxiliaryprimes whereone wouldchangethe levelbut not the field. I learnedof a new constructionof Flach [Fl] and quicklybecame convincedthat an extensionof his methodwas more plausible. ?10]). However. I made a crucialand surprising breakthrough:I foundthe argumentusing familiesof ellipticcurveswith a .In thismoreusual setting. I did not knowhow to estimate the change in the p/p2-invariant precisely. [Wi4.on readingofa constructionoftwistedforms of modularcurvesin a paper of Mazur [Ma3].an approach whichwould give the preciseupper bound for the size of the Selmergroup if it could be completed. The class numberproblemwas of a type well-knownin Iwasawa theory and in the ordinarycase had alreadybeen conjecturedby Coates and Schmidt. but I searched withoutsuccess forthe key. For severalmonthsI triedsimplyto repeat the methodsusing deformationringsand Hecke rings.The Galois cohomologyestimates describedin Chapter 3 werenow muchstronger.the methoddid give the rightbound forthe generalisedclass group.althoughat that time -1 modp forthe argument.the naturallimitingprocess did not appear to be helpful. This methodofHida oftengave one step importantconstruction towardsa powerseriesringin the ordinarycase. as explained earlier. So instead I developed furtherthe idea of using auxiliaryprimesto replace the change of fieldthat is used in Iwasawa theory. the projectivelimitof the Hecke ringsforthe varyingfieldsin a cyclotomic towerwould be expected to be a power series ring. Then.the traditionalmethodsof Iwasawa theorydid not seem quite sufficientin this case and.at least if one assumed the vanishingofthe a-invariant.452 ANDREW WILES Galois cohomologycalculationslooked morepromising. Then unexpectedlyin May 1993. in August. Flach's approachseemed to be the firststep towardsthe constructionof an Euler system.The main difficulty I was still using primesq was that althoughI knew how the q7-invariant changed as one passed to an auxiliarylevel fromthe resultsof Chapter 2.withthe exceptionofthe closelyrelatedand very ofHida [Hil].

whichI had put aside since the summerof 1991. However.I began to workwithTaylor on an attemptto devisea newargumentusingp = 2. But except forexplainingthe completeintersectionargument in the lectureat Princeton. in the proofhad been the realization In conclusionthe keybreakthrough in the springof 1991 that the two invariantsintroducedin the appendixcould be used to relate the deformationringsand the Hecke rings. As explainedbefore.England on June21-23.Previously. since I continuedto believethat the Euler systemapproachwas the correctone.we spentthe nextfewdays makingsure of the details.1994.1994. as auxiliaryprimes. Taylorhad joined me in the attemptto repairthe Euler systemargument. Meanwhilein January.I still did not give any thoughtto my initialapproach.I had onlyobservedthe existenceand importanceofthese primesin the fallof1992 whiletryingto extendFlach's work. could be used togetherwithdualityto glue theHeckeringsat suitableauxiliary levelsintoa powerseriesring.to explainthe reductionto the complete intersectionproperty.I had realizedearlierthat Hida's theoryoftenprovidedone step towardsa power seriesringat least in the ordinarycase. In presentingit in a lectureat Princeton. AfterI communicatedthe argumentto Taylor.it became clearto me in the fallof 1993 that the constructionof the Euler systemused to extendFlach's methodwas incomplete and possiblyflawed.1994.I decidedin Septemberto take one last look at myattemptto generaliseFlach.Then in the springof 1994. It was the old idea ofpickingqi's withqi. The switch to the special primesof Chapter3 had made all this possible.that de Shalit's theory. The attemptto use p = 2 reachedan impasseat theend ofAugust. At the Cambridgeconference de Shalit had explainedto me that forprimesq -1 modp he had obtaineda versionof Hida's results. Believingnow that the proofwas complete.I had unexpectedlyfoundthe missingkeyto my old abandonedapproach. frustratedin the efforts to repairthe Euler systemargument. ifonlyto formulatemoreprecisely the obstruction.togetherwiththe deductionof is givenin [TW]. In hindsightthis change was crucialbecause of a developmentdue to de Shalit.I had only used primesq -1 modp as auxiliaryprimes.I sketchedthe wholetheoryin threelecturesin Cambridge.ifgeneralised. R.In doing this I came suddenlyto a marvelousrevelation:I saw in a flashon September19th. The fullargument.1 modpfi and ni -x oc as i -* oc that I used to achievethe limitingprocess.as it gave a quick way to exhibitinfinitefamilies of modularj-invariants. Chapter 3 followsthe originalapproach I had taken to the problemof boundingthe Selmergroup but had abandoned on learningof Flach's paper.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 453 commonp5 whichis given in Chapter 5. Darmonencouragedme in February. a criticalswitchto the special primesused in Chapter3 almostunconsciously. In effectthe 71- . the completeintersection property.I made. As Taylorwas stillnotconvincedthat the Euler systemargumentwas irreparable.

This is howeverexplainedin the appendixto [TW]. Ribet. Deformationsof Galois representations 2. In additionto his manyvaluable suggestions.thoughelusive.I am most gratefulto H. Rubin.Faltings.severalothersalso made helpfulcommentsand suggestionsespeciallyConrad. Diamond forhis generousassistancein thepreparationofthe finalversion ofthispaper.Theirquestions led to mydiscoveryof the problemwithit.it surelyleftits mark. CongruencesbetweenHecke rings 3. Katz who patiently answeredmany questions in the course of my work on Euler systems. It is a pleasureto thankthosewhoread carefullya firstdraftofsomeofthis paper afterthe Cambridgeconferenceand particularlyN.and togetherwithIllusieread criticallytheEuler systemargument. Finally. I am gratefulalso to Taylorfor his assistancein analyzingin depththe Euler systemargument.in thering-theoretic setting. The main conjectures Chapter 3 Chapter4 Chapter 5 Appendix References Estimatesforthe Selmergroup 1L The ordinaryCM case 2. The last step afterthe June. Skinnerand Taylor. Katz also listenedcriticallyto my firstattemptsto correctit in the fallof 1993. Some resultson subgroupsof GL2(k) Chapter 2 1. One improvement that I have not includedbut whichmightbe used to simplifysome of Chapter2 is the observationof Lenstrathat the criterionfor can be extendedto moregeneral Gorensteinringsto be completeintersections ringswhich are finiteand freeas ZP-modules. Faltings has pointed out an also not included.454 ANDREW WILES invariantcould be used to countGalois representations. Table of Contents Chapter 1 1.1993.de Shalit. The Gorensteinproperty 2.I am indebted to F.was but the conclusionof a long processwhosepurposewas to replace. and [TW].themethods based on Iwasawa theoryby methodsbased on the use of auxiliaryprimes. Calculationof qj Applicationto ellipticcurves .whichsimplifiesthe argumentin Chapter 3 improvement. Some computationsof cohomologygroups 3. Darmon forhis encouragement to reconsidermyold argument.AlthoughI paid no heed to his advice at the time. announcement.

In the firstsectionwe introduceand study Mazur's deformationtheoryand of it. We oftensimplywritep instead of [p] forthe equivalenceclass. We will also fixa choiceof decompositiongroupDq forall primesq in Z. At the end ofthe sectionwe relatethese Selmergroupsto ones used in the Bloch-Kato conjecture.1) Po: Gal(Q/Q) -* GL2(k) is an irreduciblerepresentation. Deformations of Galois representations Let p be an odd prime. . two such homomorphisms beingcalled strictlyequivalent if one can be broughtto the other by conjugationby an elementof ker: GL2(A) -* GL2(k). in C. 1. Suppose furtherthat detpo is odd. A is to be a completeNoetherianlocal W(k)-algebrawithresiduefieldk and maximalideal m. and a deformation[p] is just a strictequivalenceclass ofhomomorphisms p: Gal(Qr/Q) -* GL2(A) such that p modm = po. The most importantobservationof the thirdsectionis Lemma 1. as well as betweenSelmergroupsand theirduals. These refinements will be needed later to discuss various refinements make precisethe correspondence betweenthe universaldeformation ringsand the Hecke ringsin Chapter 2.We considerthe deformations [p]to GL2(A) of po in the sense of Mazur [Mal].but this connectionis not needed forthe proofsof our main results. In particularthis impliesthat the smallestfieldof forpo is givenby the fieldkogeneratedby the tracesbut we will not definition assume that k = ko. Thus ifW(k) is the ringofWitt vectorsof k. In contrastto the introduction we willassume in the rest of the paper that po comes with its fieldof definitionk. It also impliesthat po is absolutelyirreducible.2 whichis used to interpret variousgeneralizedcotangentspaces as Selmergroups and (1. Let E be a finiteset of primesincludingp and let Qs be the maximal extensionof Q unramifiedoutside this set and oc.10(i) whichguaranteesthe existenceof the special primesused in Chapter3 and [TW]. and so also of Qy.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 455 Chapter 1 This chapteris devoted to the study of certain Galois representations. In the second sectionwe extractfromthe resultsof Poitou and Tate on Galois cohomologycertaingeneralrelationsbetweenSelmergroupsas E varies. The main resultsneeded are Proposition1.7) whichlaterwill be used to studythem. Throughoutwe fixan embeddingof Q. Suppose that k is a finitefieldof characteristic p and that (1.

4 of [Rayl]).4.) finiteis (ii) po is flat at p but not ordinary(cf. and det PIip = Fw 1X1X2 where e is the cyclotomiccharacter. Corollary3. PoIDP mustbe absolutelyirreducible. the restriction has (fora suitablechoiceof basis) the form (1.E: Gal(Qr/Q) -* Zp. Since b1and 02 do not extend to charactersof Gal(Qp/Qp).) We will assume also that detpo0Iip= w where Ip is an inertiagroup at p and w is the Teichmiillercharacter givingthe action on pth rootsof unity.. POIDP is the representation schemeoverZp but is notordinaryin thesenseof(i). whereXi and X2 are homomorphisms Moreoverwe requirethat Xi #4X2. and that the deformationhas a representative -* GL2(A) withthe property that (fora suitablechoice p: Gal(Q/Q) of basis) with 52 unramified.. on the We will sometimeswish to make one of the followingrestrictions deformations we allow: In thiscase we assumethat po is ordinary. X2 X2 mod m.2) PO (? X *) fromDp to k* withX2 unramified.as otherwise(usingthe classification the group schemewould be ordinary. givingthe action on all p-powerroots of unity.So we findby Raynaud's results. [Rayl]) of Oort-Tateor Raynaud) a subquotient. tation as above. (In generalwhenwe referto the flatcase we will mean that po is assumed not to be ordinary unless we specifyotherwise. withno(i) (a) Selmerdeformations.ANDREW WILES 456 We will restrictour choiceof po furtherby assumingthat either: of po to the decompositiongroupDp (i) po is ordinary. We do allow here that POIDP be semisimple. viz.(If Xi and X2 are both unramifiedand POIDp is semisimple thenwe fixour choicesof Xi and X2 once and forall. and Xi and X2 are the charactersof (i) viewedas takingvalues in .Forextendinga Jordan-Holder seriesforthe representation space (as an Ip-module)to one forfiniteflatgroup we observefirstthatthetrivialcharacterdoes notoccuron schemes(cf.that PoIIP0k k .w is of orderprimeto p satisfyingw _ E modp. [Sel] wherethe terminology associated to a finiteflatgroup used).viz.b1? 02 where b1 and 02 are the two fundamentalcharactersof degree 2 (cf. In case (ii) it followsfromresultsof Raynaud that POIDP is absolutely irreducibleand one can describeP0IIPexplicitly.

0W(k) is an isomorphism because forfunctorialreasonsthe map has a naturalsection whichinducesan isomorphismon Zariskitangentspaces at closed points. We assumethat each deformation p to GL2(A) has the propertythat forany quotientA /a of finiteorderPIDP mod a is the Galois representation associated to the Qp-pointsof a finiteflat groupschemeover Zp. We oftenomitthe E ifthe contextmakesit clear. Rstr. This is a varianton (i) (a) whichwe onlyuse when is not semisimpleand not flat (i. Note.that if we change the residue fieldvia i: k . not associated to a finiteflat POIDP group scheme).MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 457 (i) (b) Ordinarydeformations.e. -* In the ordinaryand unrestrictedcase this was provedby Mazur and in the flatcase by Ramakrishna[Ram].R1 is also a completelocal Noetherianring . however.The same as in (i) (a) but withno conditionon the determinant. Then a strictdeformation is as in (i)(a) exceptthat we assume in additionthat (X1/X2) IDP = E.Rf in the otherfourcases. The othercases requireminormodifications of Mazur's argument.and one can then use Nakayama's lemma. One can checkthat this is again an isomorphism by consideringthe subringR1 of R(pO) definedas the subringof all elementswhose reductionmodulo the maximal ideal lies in k. It is easy to see that the naturallocal map of local 0-algebras RE ?0 0 RE. If we need to recordwhich0 we are usingwe will writeRE. In each ofthesefourcases. Rrd. There are certaingeneralizationsto all of the above whichwe will also need.0 etc. The firstis thatinsteadofconsideringW(k) -algebrasA we mayconsider 0-algebras for0 the ringof integersof any local fieldwithresiduefieldk. as wellas in the unrestricted case (in whichwe imposeno local restriction at p) one can verify thatMazur's use ofSchlessinger's criteria[Sch]provesthe existenceof a universaldeformation p: Gal(Q/Q) GL2(R). (ii) Flat (at p) deformations. We denote the universalring RE in the unrestricted case and Rs. There is again a natural map of W(k')algebras R(pO) -* R C W(k') W(k) whichis an isomorphismon Zariskitangentspaces. (i) (c) Strictdeformations. We also assume that XiX-1 = w in this case. Since R(pO) is a finiteRl-module.-* k' then we have a new deformationproblem associated to the representationp0 = i o po.

?). In each case we can requireA to be an 0-algebra and again it is easy to see that R'_ E'0 RjE 0 O in each case. So we obtain a sectionto the map R(p') 0-* R 0 W(k') and the map is therefore W(k) an isomorphism.namely: fora suitable choice of basis of A2 with 41 and 02 un(A) PIDq = ( 1) ramifiedand b10'41= E..)We will also need to extendthe considerationof 0-algebras to the restrictedcases. (B) POIIq= X7# 1. (B) or (C) forPo. M) then thereis a simplerelationbetweenRD and Rn'. Po is ordinaryif . withXi and X2 unramified. W(k) The secondgeneralizationconcernsprimesq #&p whichare ramifiedin PO.e. 0. We allow different types at different q's. (A) POIDq= ( Xi X2-1= w and the fixedspace of Iq of dimension1. We distinguishthreespecial cases (types (A) and (C) need not be disjoint): *) fora suitablechoiceofbasis. We will refer to these as the standarddeformation theoriesand writeRD forthe universal ringassociated to D and p-Dforthe universaldeformation(or even p if D is clear fromthe context). M) and V' = (Se.458 ANDREW WILES with residuefieldk.(I am gratefulto Faltingsforthis observation. The universalrepresentation associated to pO is defined over R1 and the universalpropertyof R then definesa map R -* R1. fora suitablechoiceof basis.e. theoryto Po provided (1. is strictand flat if . (C) detplIq = detpolIq.6). POis of type M. is Se or ord. i. q E M.3) po: Gal(Q/Q) -* GL2(k) is itselfof typeD and 0 is the ringof integersof a totallyramifiedextension of W(k).. We note here that if D = (ord. of orderprimeto p. Then in each case we can definea suitabledeformation theoryby imposing additionalrestrictions on those we have alreadyconsidered. Indeed thereis a naturalmap . E.. 0. flator we can associate a deformation unrestricted. so the samecharacter as above). of type (A).Xq (C) H1(Qqi WA)= 0 whereWAis as definedin (1. Thus to each set of data D = {. 0. E. E.ord. str. Thus if M is a set of primesin E distinctfromp and each satisfyingone of (A). M} where is Se.i. strictif . (B) or (C) at each ramified primeq #&p. is fl (meaningflat). (B) PIIq = (Xq f)fora suitablechoiceof basis (Xqoforderprimeto p. we will impose the correspondingrestrictionat each primein M.

e. (8. M(1)) definedby t. By Kummer theory.i. everySelmerdeformation deformation. Let u denote the cohomologyclass in H1 (Dp.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 459 RD-* R-D by the universalpropertyof RD. Prop. PROPOSITION 1. i. ppr) -+ H2(G. 6.Mo(1)) whereMO = M/mM. and its kernelis a principalideal generatedby T = 6-1(-y)detpv(-y). Suppose that7r:Dp-* GL2(A) is a conwhereA is an Artinianlocal ringwithresiduefieldk. (1.) [Se] and therefore Remark. so that the elementresuo of H1(G. Suppose ire (OX"F*) withXi and X2 unramified finitefieldof characteristic and X1 #4 X2.1]). a tinuousrepresentation p. (See [El. and let uo denote its image in H1(Dp.the deformationproblemsin is alreadya strict (i)(a) and (i)(c) are the same.This was observedby Diamond. But thismeansthat 7ris "peu ramifie& t comes froma finiteflatgroupscheme.1 where-yE Gal(Q/Q) is any element to Gal(QOO/Q) is a generator(whereQO is the Zp-extension whoserestriction to Gal(Q((Np)/Q) is trivialforany N primeto p of Q) and whoserestriction with(N E Qs. whereA is a completelocal Noetherian . then MDp C mM. Proof (taken from[Dia.e. Then the residualrepresentation-ris associatedto a finiteflat groupschemeoverZp. that POIDP is not associated to a finiteflat group scheme.1 (Diamond). Let G = kerr and let F be the fixed extensionof Qp). We may replace 7rby 7r0 X2-1and t determinesa cocyclet: Dp -* M(1) where we let p = XX2-1. 1upn)?zp M isomorphism. so the decompositiongroupDp could be replacedby Gal(QP/Qp). Since H2(G. Then 7r-( 1) M is a freeA-moduleof rank one on whichDp acts via A. The argumentis local. Choose n so that pnA fieldof G (so F is a finiteunramified = 0. lps) is infectivefor r < s. If fp#1..M(l)) is an Fx /(FX)Px 0zpM ) MDP ) MO wherethe right-handhorizontalmaps are inducedby vip Fx -* Z. M(l))DP H1(GI MoI()) -+((Fxl(Fx )pn (Fx/(Fx)P) &Zp M)Dp IFpMO H1(G.Now considerthe commutativediagram H1 (G.we have H1 (G. C(Nbeing a primitiveNth root of 1: R-DIT -_R-D.2)]. Diamond also observesthat essentiallythe same proofshows that if 7r: Gal(Qq/Qq) -* GL2(A). we see that the natural map of A[Dp/G]-modules H1(G.4) It turnsout that under the hypothesisthat po is strict. Mo(1)) is in the image in the senseof of (OFx/(OFx)P)?Fp Mo. M(1)) - as Dp-modules.

We note that these filtrations are oftencharacterizedby the action of Dp.Then if po is ordinarythe action of Dp on UAinduces a filtration of UA and also on WA and VA. 1. We begin withp.2A) the reducedcotangentspace of RD. Suppose we writethese 0 C UCOc UA.) Let VAbe the representation space of Gal(Qr/Q) on Adpo = Homk(UA. the proofof Prop. We call mv/(m%. ker{H1(Qp.6) k. It consistsof the cohomologyclasses whichsatisfycertainlocal restrictions at p and at the primesin M. (9. . A. VA) = Hord(Qp. VA)is a subspace of H1 (Q/Q.(0 *) with -rramified then7ris of type (A). Globally. VA) fE = VA) = Hstr(Qp. whereWA = VA=WA {ff eHomk(UA. These determinethe filtration is not semisimple. A. Let A be a uniformizer for(9 and let UA.(Q/Q. k2 be the representation space forpo. Hl(Qunr. Thus the action of Dp on WA?is via Xl/x2.UA) --M2(k). as k[Gal(Qr/Q)]modules. (The motivationforthe subscriptA willbecomeapparentlater. VA)whichwe now describe and my is the maximal ideal of RD.-). (1. M) then the natural map RD -* R-D is an isomorphism. Thus UA?is definedby the requirementthat Dp act on it via X2. Hl(Q V/W?)} nr VA Vord)} Hl (QpWA/WA?)?DHl (Qunr k)}.2 below) (1. First we may write (since p 5$2). (9.VA.UA):tracef=0} ~ (Sym2? det-1)po and k is the one-dimensionalsubspace of scalar multiplications.VA) Hom(UA/UAUA/U?)}. 0 c WA?C WA C WA1and 0 C VA?c VA C VA. VA) ker{H1(Qp. on WA/WA? it is trivialand on WA/WAit is via ifeitherX1/x2 is not quadraticor POIDP X2/xl. and the filtrations forVAare obtained by replacingW by V.5) Homk(mvD/(m2. In each case the tangentspace of RD may be computedas in [Mal]. Then thereis an isomorphismof k-vectorspaces (cf. (1. has theformlrIIq .460 ANDREWWILES ringwithresiduefieldk.Proposition1. A).We definethe k-vectorspaces VArd Hse(Qp. k) Hv HD(Q/QVA) whereHD. M) and 7' = (str. E WA: f(U?) c UA}. For WAthe filtrations via the characterXi (cf.1 says that ifpo is strictand ifD = (Se.2)) and on UA/UA? are definedby WA = {f WA = {EfWeWA:f=0onUA?}. in VA :f= ker{H1(Qp.

It will be convenientmoreoverto assume that if we are consideringpo as being of type D then D is definedusing 0-algebras where(9 D Of. In the flatcase we use of k-vectorspaces the factthat thereis a naturalisomorphism H1(Qp. Hhq(QqVA>)V= H1(Qq ker: H1(Qq. VA) is definedas the k-subspaceof H1 (Qp.flor unrestricted accordingto the typeof D.(QP.A is an unramified extensionwhose residuefieldis k. WA) if* is Selmeror strict. A similar definition applies to Hi.it is convenientto use A as the uniformizer for0. VA): aq E HDq(Qq. VA) -? Extk[D](UA UA) wheretheextensionsare computedin thecategoryofk-vectorspaces withlocal Galois action.AmodA. Again we make an analogous definitionfor Hh (Qq. . oapE H1 (Qp. VA) forall q E M. (C). and that thereis a prime A of Of such that po = Pf. By [Rayl] all such extensionsin the inverseimageevencorrespondto k-vectorspace schemes.ord.For moredetails and calculationssee [Ram]. (B). WA) by replacing VA by WA and deletingthe last term in case (A). More preciselywe assume that thereis a normalizedeigenformf of weight2 and level N.and similarlyin the strictcase. -* VA) WA/W' ) ? H1(Qunr k) in case (A) VA) Hl(Qunr. fromp and q E M we have threecases (A). G). divisibleonly by the primesin E. (Althoughthis conditionis unnecessary. VA)} where* is Se. We write this 0 c W q cWq c WA and we set A AWanwee Iker: H1(Qq. In For q different case (A) thereis a filtrationby Dq entirelyanalogous to the one forp.) Finallywe assume that pf. str. VA) in case (B) or (C). We now definethe k-vector space Hi (QE/Q. Then Hi (Qp. VA) as Hb(Q/Q. Howeverwe assume that k D (9f.A/A representations and we fixsuch an embeddingso the comparisoncan be made over k. VA) whichis the inverseimage of Ext1(G.A. VA) = {a e H1(Q/Q. Now and forthe restof the sectionwe are goingto assume that po arises fromthe reductionof the A-adicrepresentationassociated to an eigenform. the groupof extensionsin the categoryoffiniteflatcommutativegroupschemesoverZp killedbyp. WA) by replacingVAby WA.(Qr/Q.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 461 In the Selmercase we make an analogous definitionforHl. G beingthe (unique) finiteflatgroupschemeoverZp associated to UA. Here Of is the ringof integersof the field of f so the fieldsof definitionof the two generatedby the Fouriercoefficients need not be the same.

Wf ( K/0 where Wf has Galois action via Sym2pf. Then if po is ordinarythe filtrationof Uf underthe Ad p action of Dp induces one on Wf whichwe write0 C WC C W1 C Wf. To describethis suppose that ar E H1 (Qp. One checkseasily that as 0-modules (1. Again this is a slightabuse of terminology as we are really consideringthe extensionof scalars Pf. There Oftento simplify ) Wf} given by Wn = WAnn WI is also a filtrationon WAn= {ker An: Wf (compatiblewithour previousdescriptionforn = 1). to give meaningto H9.7) still holds. This just uses the divisibilityof H0(Qr/Q. VAn) -* ](U' Ext. VAn). Let K be the fieldof fractionsof 0 and let Uf = (K/0)2 withthe Galois action takenfromPf. Likewisewe writeVAn for{ker An: Vf ) Vf}.We claim firstthat thereis a naturalmap of 0-modules (1.A>Similarly.let Vf = Ad Pif.but we will OfA\ do thiswithoutfurther mentionifthe contextmakesit clear. reare the same with spectively.(Q/Q.AX0 0 and not PfA itself.[D m.Let pD = ker: RD -* 0. VAn/WAn ) - Hl(Qunr VAm/WAm) has onlythezeroelementfixedunderGal(Qunr/Qp)and the ordcase is similar.ANDREW WILES 462 itselfis of typeD.) With these hypothesesthereis a unique local homomorphism RD -* (9 of 0-algebras whichtakes the universaldeformation to (the class of) pf.A0 detp7enand the action on the second factoris trivial.8) H1(Qp.In the case wherepo is ordinarythe definitions VAnor V replacingVAand O/An or K/O replacingk.Vfetc.(QE/Q. We now explain how to extend the definitionof HD. W/W0) in the strictcase.7) H-. VAn) and H-j. Checkingconditionsat q E M is done withsimilararguments.In the Selmer and strictcases we make analogous definitions with WAnin place of VAnand W in place of V and the analogue of (1. In the Selmercase one checksthat form > n the kernelof Hl(Qunr. UAn) for each m > n where the extensionsare of 0-modules with local Galois action. the notationwe willdropthe indexf fromWe.A (o K/O so that (K/O)4 withthe adjoint representation Vf -. V) and these are O/An and 0-modules.(Q/Q. V) and HO(Qp. VAn) H-. (The analysisof this sectionactually applies to any characteristiczero liftingof po but in all our applicationswe will be in the morerestrictivecontextwe have described here. We now considerthe case wherepo is flat (but not ordinary).A. Then we can asso- ciate to ar a representation pa: Gal(Qp/Qp) -* GL2(0(n[e]) (where On[-E]= .(QE/QV)An1 where as usual the subscriptAn denotes the kernelof multiplicationby An.

n cf.8). V*) = 0 .It followsin particularthat.m: Gal(Qp/Qp) -?GL2(On [e]/Am) f m.VAn). Let E = On0[E]2 wherethe Galois action is via p.1] ifPn. VAn)and H-D(QE/Q. UAn) is an 0-module. Then thereis an exact sequence 0 -) E/Am -E/Am - UAn (E/e)/Am ) 0 UAM and hence an extensionclass in Ext1(UAM.1 below).n pm.VAn) to be the inverseimage of Ext1(UAn.UAn) forall m > n. V)An and hencewe can 00 Hf (QpV) = U Hf (Qp. thoseextensionswhichare alreadyextensions in the categoryoffiniteflatgroupschemesZp.8) to Exti(UAm.UAn) n ExtO[Dp] (UAn. VAn) _-H1 (Qp. e2)) whichis an 0-algebra deformation ofpo (see theproofofProposition 1. Still in the flat (non-ordinary)case we can again use the determination of PoI' to see that H1(Qp. For it is enough to check that H2(Qp. so Hf'(Qp. since POID is absolutelyirreducible. In the flat(non-ordinary) case polipis determinedby Raynaud's resultsas mentionedat the beginningof the chapter. VAn) n_1 and we claimthatHf (Qp.7) is also valid in the flatcase.m and Pm. representations pn.Hf1(Qp.mare obtained froman e H1(Qp. [Rayl]. Observethat Ext' (UAn.Conversely is injectiveand so Pn.V)An . We defineHf (Qp.1 and Lemma V-mn: H'(Qp. UAn) under(1. One checksnow that (1. By [Ram.Prop 1. To see thiswe have to compare form > n.. V) is divisiblein this case (in factV(Qp) define i K/0)..UAn) thenem .e. UAn).V(Qp) = Ho (Qp. For ifem is the extensionclass in Ext1(UAMi. VAn) and im(an) E yAm) and a+be a+Am2be.m: Gal(Qp/Qp) )GL2(Om[e]/Am) where Pn. V) now extend to the flatcase and we note that (1. The definitions of HD.8) is a map of 0-modules.mcomesfroma finiteflatgroupschemethenso does Pm.mcomesfroma finiteflatgroupschemeifPm.en E UAm as Galois-modulesand we can apply resultsof [Rayl] to see that em comes froma finiteflatgroupschemeover Zp ifen does. i. SPm.mdoes. We observethat our definition is equivalentto requir- ing that the classes in Hf (Qp. Thus H1 (Qp.VAn).VAn) is seen to be an 0-submoduleofH1 (Qp.(Q/Q. V) is divisible.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 463 (9[e]/(An7e.m.VAn) map under(1. VA)= 0 and thisfollowsby dualityfromthe factthat H?(Qp. 2.

Home)(pDlp2.a prioriin GL2 (0). Here a basis for 02 is chosen so that the representation pf.H.2] shows that R is a powerseriesringand the divisibilityof Hf (Qp.O.A(g)wherepf.M) with0 an unramified PROPOSITION 1.Then as O-modules D = (-.Hf (Qp.We referto [Ram] formoredetails about RM.2.1 below we have that Homrn(PR/Pt. This resultis essentiallydue to Ramakrishna.) (9 whereRfl is the correspondingringforW(k)-algebras Since R ./Q.5) forV. and then a(g) E V. Th. Againthisis a variantofstandard resultsin deformation theoryand is given (at least forD = (ord.\n is has the upper triangular Gal(QE/Q) viewedin GL2(046[e])by identifying V.D(QF/QV) Remark. is viewed in GL2(On [E]) via the natural mapping0 -e On [e]. VAn). e2). Let O4e] denotethering0[e]/(AnF.ANDREW WILES 464 whereV* = Hom(VX.is a deformationof po of type extensionof(Of.Rfl W(k) the main theoremof [Ram. 4. V) is divisible. q) withsome restriction on X1.1 of [Ram] because PoIDp is absolutelyirreducible.KIO) . .A. Prop 25].. Proof.E. The isomorphismis functorialin an obviousway ifone changes D to a largerD'.: Gal(Q/Q) -+ GL2(O0n[E]) as follows:set p.> on the decompositiongroup Dp C formof (i)(a). W(k). (This existsby Theorem1. For. (g) = a(g)pf.A(g).tip) and lp is the group of pth roots of unity. V) thenfollows. We can associate to a a representation p.X2 in i(a)) in [MT. (Again this followsfromthe explicitformof P?jD ) Much subtleris the fact that Hf (Qp. usinga local versionof Proposition1. Suppose that pf. K/O) .E.A.\n _{( ZE X t = {ker: GL2 (On[e]) Then =? { (1 XE )} - GL2(O)}. V) whereR is the universallocal flatdeformation ringforPOIDPand 0-algebras. Nextwe need an analogueof(1. We will just describethe Selmer case with M =4 as the other cases use similararguments.Suppose that a is a cocyclewhichrepresentsa cohomologyclass in HSe(Q.

Considerthe exact sequence of (9[g]modules 0 -) (V- 1 ) (VAn/Wn)o - X . (VXn/Wo~)7H).whichmaps g to Vn/W~n.oa(Ip) C W\nand it is now easy to checkthat [p.] is a Selmer deformationthere is a unique map of local (9algebras is. we see that Xg = 0 and H1(g. Since [p.i} forsome u e VAn.] is a Selmerdeformation of po. Hence it By hypothesisthe image of a is zero in H1(Qq'Tnrh is in the image of H1(g.>: Rz -* On [E] inducingit. The difference .u} froma globallywe get a new a such that a = f as cocycles mappingg to VXn/W Thus a(Dp) C V1. Then we have an exact diagramof 0-modules H'(91 (V1 'I 0 "LI)1) - H'(9. X) = 0. By subtractingthe coboundary a coboundary{la i-{f F-* oU .e.>] is a Selmer deformation. We need to check that [p.n ( { (1 =n 465 jey6)} e 6yZ) : } and VXn = tE ) and that the deforOne checksreadilythat pa is a continuoushomomorphism mation [p.n.. (V~n/WA~)t H1 (Qp. i. (If M $ q we must check the . Vn/Xn ) Vnf/jW>). Since the action of Dp on VXn/V~n via a characterwhichis nontrivialmodA (it equals X2X11modA and X1 # X2).MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM {= W. Thus we can assume that it is representedin H1(QpV~n/W>?) by a cocycle. betweenf and the image of a is f(Dp) C VAn/WAn f(Ip) = 0. VAn/Wn) H1(Qpunr. Let 7Y = Gal(Qp/Qunr)and g = Gal(Qunr/Qp).>]is unchangedifwe add a coboundaryto a.0 is whereX is a submoduleof (VAn/Vln)7H.

Amod E we see that restricting ip. (g)1 E { 1 + pD/(p2. kerI)) is inducedby a representative of the universaldeformation(chosento equal pf.Usingthelatticeassociatedto pf.GL2(Rv/(p2. E We now relatethe local cohomologygroupswe have definedto the theory of Fontaineand in particularto the groupsof Bloch-Kato [BK]. VAn) - - .ker I) J VAn wherepfA(g) is viewed in GL2(RD/(pD. None of the resultsdescribedin the rest of this sectionare used in the rest of the paper. Then .A. ker I) pD/(p2.+i and A: /D compatiblewithchangeofn. Let pr: V -* V be .the constructionsare ' + V.) Since p =_pf. Moreover.kerI)) via the structuralmap 0 RD (RD being an (9-algebraand the structuralmap being local because of the existenceof a section).ker T) )/A 1 n 1 ) ((D/AnE E.(pD) == 0..ANDREW WILES 466 otherconditionsalso.p.0/An). n mu. factorsthroughR/p-D .ker I) 1 pv/(p2.A. To see that p is surjectivechoose ' E Homo(pP)/p2.Awhenreducedmod PD) and -+ VAn by we definea map aog: Gal(Qr/Q) () PT (g) pf. i. Thus [pfA] = [paC].(9 and beingan 0-algebra homomorphism thisdetermines . They serveonlyto relatethe Selmergroupswe have defined(and later compute)to the morestandardversions. Then ca is readilyseen to be a continuouscocyclewhose cohomologyclass lies in HSe(QE/Ql VA\n). Then pT: Gal(QE/Q) -. To checkthe injectivity of(p supposethat .FO/A such that ('' (P2) - 0.Awe obtain also a latticeT . Hom e(PD/PD.e. If A-'pA = pf. ker I) 1 + pD/(p2.(9/Afl) It is straightforward to checkthat this is a map of 0-modules. forVA\n 0/An+l. Thus we have defineda map p: a y(p:H~e (Qs/Q. Let V = T Oz QP be the associated vectorspace and identifyV with V/T. to PD givesa homomorphism of 0-modules..(94 withGalois actionvia Adpf.>. Finally (p(aT) = T.:PD -.thenA mode is seen to be centralby Schur'slemma and so maybe takento be I. A simplecalculationnow showsthat a is a coboundary. We will distinguishtheseby writingHF forthe cohomologygroupsof Bloch-Kato. The right-handinclusioncomes from PD/ PD.

By the analogue of Proposition1. HF(Qp. |I = Eand pf.So it is enoughto show that Hk(QP. V) for all n} where K : H1(Qp.4 and 4.3. using the theoryof Fontaine and Lafaille. Qp(1)) and indeed to any finite-dimensional continuous p-adic representationspace. V~~~~~~~~~QP F V) Hk(Qp.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 467 the naturalprojectionand definecohomologymodulesby 0 Bcrys).\n) C HSe(QpVn). V)) C H1(Qp. etc. Lemmas 4.2 in the local case.K/() .V) is divisible. V). PROPOSITION 1. Ad p.n) = HF (QpVAn)). If we fixan e with 8(e) = 1 the action on e is definedby oe = e + &(of) with & a cocycle a. Under certainconditionsBloch and Kato show.Ais ordinary. We have to comparetwo constructionsassociated to a nonzeroelementa of H1 (Qp. = ker: H1(QpV) Hk(Qp. -) when p = PfA. Beginningwith (i). V) = pr %H4(Qp. V).V is the natural map and the two groupsin the definition of HF(Qp. V). The firstis to associate an extension (1. Similardefinitions apply to V* = HomQP(V.Ais associatedto a p-divisible detpfA (ii) If pf. Hf (Qp. The secondconstruction representing beginswiththe imageofthe subspace (a) in H1 (Qp. The reader is cautioned that the definitionof HF(Qp. V). we defineHf(QpV) = {E e H1(QpV) H1 (Qp. V) we see that in case (i). V) c Homo (PR/p2.9) 0 -. VAn) is dependenton the lattice T (or equivalentlyon V). that this is independentof the lattice (see [BK. Vsn). -+ V)) C H1(Qp. Proof. (i) If po is flat butnot ordinaryand pf. Then s(a/An) E Hf (Qp. V) = Hfl(Qp IV). HF (QpV. there is an 0-module isomorphism H1 (QP. wherejn: VXn. V) are definedusingcontinuouscochains. group. Henceforth the underlying vectorspace is crystalline.Ais associated to a p-divisiblegroupthenfor all n Hf (QpV>. In any case we will considerin what followsa fixedlatticeassociated to we willonlyuse the notationH1(QP. V~n) = (jn) (HF(Qp.E -6 K -O 0 of K-vectorspaces with commutingcontinuousGalois action.thenfor all n. H1(Qp.V -.5]).

V) ifand onlyiftheextension(1.) Now the extensionE' comes froma p-divisiblegroup if and onlyifit is crystalline.) Then as K[Dp]-modules E' (E ? U)/X.one calculatesexplicitlywiththe definitionof the action on E (givenabove on e) and on E' (givenin the proofofProposition1. so U and also Conversely..468 ANDREW WILES where R is the universaldeformationring of po viewed as a representation of Gal(Qp/Qp) on 0-algebras and PR is the ideal of R correspondingto pD (i.9) as follows. So we have to showthat (1. a)) inducedfromthe universaldeformation(we pick a representation in the universalclass). its inverseimage in R). 0 is E E'.10) is crystalline.K2 has the Galois representation pf. It follows fromstandardpropertiesof crystallinerepresentations that ifE is crystalline.9)..or equivalentlyif and onlyifthe secondconstruction and onlyifE' is the representation associatedto a p-divisiblegroup. a) of PR/pi whichis a free0-module of rank one.10) from(1.A(viewedlocally). V) if can be made throughRfl.f(w). [Fo. For more details on Rfl. (All tensorproductsin this proofwill be as K-vectorspaces. (A priori.A. . Since a $&0.We view V as HomK(U. associated to (a) is a quotient PR/(PR.cf.we Consider E' 0 U (E 0 U 0 U)/(X 0 U). One obtains (1.. comes froma p-divisiblegroup. Howevera theoremof Raynaud [Rayl] says that then p.9) is crystalline ifand onlyif (1. For Galois action via detpf. see [Ram].the universalflatdeformationringof the local representation po. the representationassociated to p. On the otherhand (a) C Hf (Qp. We then obtain a homomorphism Pa: Gal(Qp/Qp) -) GL2 (R/(iR. Then there is a natural map -0 U inducedby the directsum decompositionU 0 U 0 E E' up: (det) (det) EDSym2U.e.1). only has the propertythat on all finite quotientsit comes froma finiteflat group scheme. U) and let X = ker:{HomK(UU ) OU - U} wherethe map is the naturalone f 0 w | .9) is a sum of copies of the moreusual crystalline. To checkthis. a E HF(QP. ?6]. extensionwhereQp replacesK in (1. Here det denotes a 1-dimensionalvectorspace over K with Now we claim that p is injectiveon V 0 (det). can recover E fromE' as follows.9) is In the firstconstruction as the extensiongivenin (1.10) 0 -? U -E -? U 0 -? whereU . This is associatedto an 0-module ofrank4 whichtensoredwith K gives a K-vectorspace E' (K)4 whichis an extension (1.

and pr (Hk(QP.W2 are a basis forU forwhichW1AW2= 1 in det K. This completesthe proofof (i). Define HI (Q T) = i under the natural inclusion i: T --+ V. Qp(l)). But this is false unless f(wi) = f(w2) = 0 whence f = 0. C1 These groupshave the propertythat fors > r. V)) (this VAn) To prove (ii) we checkfirstthat HSe(QP. Finallywe observethat pr (HSe(QP V)) C HSe(QP 7 V) althoughthe inclusionmay be strict. throughoutthis paper we use M* to denote a dual of M with a Cartier twist. (H 1 (Q7 V)) and likewise for the dual lattice T* = Homzp(V. VAr) whereir.V/VO) with V0 the subspace of V on whichIp acts via E. The same holds forV* and V.7)).\r V* in place of V\r and V1\A whereV)*ris definedby V*r = Hom(V\r q lpr) and similarly for V*. VVr s)) = HF(Qp.s: -) Vs is the natural injection. But this followsfromthe computationsin Corollary3. jn1 was alreadyused in (1. So 'p is injectiveand we have exhibitedE0 (det) as a subrepresentation of E' 0 U which is crystalline.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 469 if f E V then p(f) = f 0 (Wi 0 w2 . We nexthaveto showthatH (Qp. (1.This completesthe proof.V) = ker: H1 (Qp IV) -) H1 (Qunr.(H7e(QP. V) wherethe latteris definedby - HSe(QP . V)) = Hk(QP. V) by definition.11) HF7 ( H1(Qp.8.4 of [BK].(Qp/Zp)(1)) in V*. So if p(f) E X 0 U then U in =0 f(Wl)08)w2-f(w2)08)W1 X U. We deduce that E is crystalline if E' is. (Here V* = Hom(V. We also givea finitelevelversionof a resultofBloch-Katowhichis easily deduced fromthe vectorspace version. So o is injective on V 0 det and if 'p itselfwerenot injectivethen E would split contradicting a 7&0.04.As beforelet T C V be a Galois stable lattice so that T . Both results are immediate from the definition (and indeedwerepart of the motivationforthe definition). V) C H~e(QP.W2Owl) where W1.) Also write .

Proof.14) # HF (Qpa VAn)=# (Q/)Any) #ker{H1 (Qp. T*/An.T/A' for the natural projectionmap.8]) says that HF (Qp. V) This. nary case is allowed) then (i) prr (H1 (Qp. (ii) HF(Qp. T)) C HF(Qp. V) + dimKHO(Qp. V*) + dimK V. Fromthe definition. T)) - HF1(Qp. Now fromthe constructionwe may identifyT/An with VAn. V) and HF(Qp. VAn) = # (O/Afn)y # H0(Q VAn) / # (Q/An)dimKHO(Qp. Vi*n)and (1. Whenwe writeV (Qp)div forthe maximaldivisiblesubgroupof V (Qp) this is the same as # (V(Q )/V(Q )div)/An = = # (V(QP)/V(Qp)diV)An # V(Qp)An/# (V(Qp)div )An. A result of BlochKato ([BK. V*n) and prn(HFk(Qp. 3. V*) then (1.T)) are orthogonalcomplements. so to provethe proposition it is enoughto showthat (1.13). The secondfactoris equal to # {V (Qp)/AnV (Qp)}. VAn)is the orthogonalcomplementof HF(Qp. Combiningthis with (1. V*) are orthogonal complementsunderTate local duality.4.14) gives (1. T/An) and similarlyforT*. V)}.15) # HF(Qp. . VA'n) # HFp(Qp. Prop. VAn). V) and s = dimK HF(Qp. More generallytheseresultsholdfor any crystallinerepresentation V' in place of V and A' a uniformizer in K' whereK' is anyfiniteextensionof Qp withK' C EndGal(V/Q)V. It followsformallythat HF(QP. PROPOSITION 1. (1.#H0(Qp. We first observe that prn (HF(Qp.12) # HF(Qp. VAhn) under Tate H1 (Qp. Now if r = dimK Hk(Qp.470 ANDREW WILES prn: T -. VAn)= #H1(Qp VAn). is associatedto a p-divisiblegroup(the ordiIf pf. gives # H (QP. VAn)and H1 (Qp.A. T/An).13) r + s = dimK HO(Qp. VAin) # H0(Qp. and for the mapping it induceson cohomology. togetherwithan analogousformulafor# HF(Qp. VAn)# H4(Q Van) = # (O/A )4. VAn) >H1 (Qp. VAin) and similarlyforWAn local dualitybetween and WA*nreplacing Vxn and VA*n.

WAn/(W~n)0) The H1 (Qp. be the natural map where (W~n)i is the orthogonal complement of W%-T in WAn. WAn/(WAn)}.H(Qunr. WArn)-4 HSe(QP7 W~n) ker: {H1(Qp. Win /(W*n)1). V*'n/(W~n)0).and let Xni be definedas the image underthe compositemap i = im: Z /(ZX)pn (- H1(Q O/An tpn (9/An) H (Qp7 WA~n/(WA~n) ) where in the middle term tLpn0 O/Anis to be identifiedwith (W~n)1/(W~n)0. where Hltr(Qp. and we replace . We writethese duals as H e*(Qp Wan) and H e* (Qp. WAn) = ker: H1(Qp. ipn) x H1(Qp. 0 4 . PROPOSITION 1. R tation. underTate's local duality.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 471 As #Ho (Qp. Wn) -- H1(Qp.12) now followsfrom the formulaforthe Euler characteristic of Vain. W\n) firstterm is orthogonal to ker: H1 (Qp. V*) = # H2 (Qp. or indeedmoregenerallyforany crystallinerepresenThe proofforWarn.owby the analogous map (pv. W\n/(W\n) ) . VAn)the assertionof (1. We also give a characterizationof the orthogonal complementsof Hie(Qp. Ippn). The proof for VAnis essentially the the units ZpX/(Z X)pn same.5. This can be checkedby dualizingthe sequence o Hstr(Qp. be the image Of Similarlyifwe replace W*n by Vn we let o ZX/(ZX)Pn0 (O/An)2 in H1 (Qp. WAn)and H"e(QpS I/n). HA *(QpWX*n) Hse*(QpV>*n) = = -1 (Xni) f01 (yni) Proof. Z/pn) _+Z/pn the orthogonalcomplementofthe unramified is the image of homomorphisms H1 (Qp.is the same.Let :p H1 (Qp W~n) W~n/(W~n) ) H'(Qp. By the the with naturalityof cup productpairing respectto quotientsand subgroups the claim then reduces to the well knownfact that under the cup product - pairing H1(Qp. Vn) respectively.

Then we set HL(Q/QX) = A-1(L). We retainthe notationand conventionsof Section 1 thoughit will be convenientto state the firsttwo propositionsin a moregeneralcontext. pp. H2(Q/QX) HL*(QE/QX*)) L+ HO(Q/Q. Some computations of cohomology groups We now make some comparisonsof ordersof cohomologygroups using the theoremsof Poitou and Tate.whereX is a finitemodule forGal(Qr/Q) of p-powerorder. The followingresultwas suggestedby a resultof Greenberg(cf.Th.6. H1(Q/QX) Hj H1(QqX)/Lq qEF.).Suppose that C I7 H1(QqX) L =JJLq qes is a subgroup. be the localizationmap and similarlyAx* forX*. [Mi2. [Grel]) and is a simpleconsequenceof the theoremsof Poitou and Tate. Let Ax: H1(Q/QX) -- QP/ZP JJ H1(QqX) qEF. Proof.X*)/[Hl(Qq. PROPOSITION 1. We defineL* to be the orthogonalcomplementof L underthe perfectpairing (local Tate duality) 7 7 X H1(QqX) Hl(QqX*) qEF2 qEF2 where X* = Hom(X. Recall that p is alwaysassumedodd and that p E E.472 ANDREW WILES 2. HL*(Q/QX*) =AX1*(L*). X*)A - 0. Adaptingtheexact sequenceofPoitou and Tate (cf. X*) #HO(QX)/#HO(QX*).20]) we get a seventermexact sequence 0 HLj(Q/QX) H H2(Qq X) qEF . #HL(Q/QX) where /#HL*(QE/QX*) fJhq = hoo qEF hq = #HO(Qq. .X):Lq] {ho= #H0(R. 4.

5. Thus in HD* (Q//Q.X).Vn) V*) We will adopt the conventionimplicitin the above that ifwe considerA' D E on the cohomologyclasses at thenHE.1]) we easilyobtain the formulain the proposition.Cor. Vn) forq p and qf M HDq(Qq. Now we returnto the studyof Vain PROPOSITION 1. We need now some estimatesforthe local cohomologygroups.7. (9. First we consideran arbitraryfiniteGal(QE/Q)-module X: PROPOSITION 1. finiteGal(QE/Q)If q V E. H1(Qq. VAn)places no local restriction primesq E A'-S. and q EM Vain)= HLn (Q /Q. X*) = #H1 (Qunr.8.(QEuq/QX)/#HL(Q/QX) ? #H0(QqX*) whereL' = Le for? E E and L.(QEuq/QX) -.1(Qp . 1Vn) for q 5 p for q = p. Proof.(QE/Q. [Mi2.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S 473 LAST THEOREM whereMA = Hom(M. Let D = ( I.Now usinglocal dualityand global Euler characteristics(cf. M) theoryas in Section 1 and definea corresponding be a standarddeformation groupLn = LDn by setting Ln~q= Then HID(QE/Q. Qp/Zp). van) H.3 and Th.= H1 (Qq . and X is an arbitrary moduleofp-powerorder. Considerthe shortexact sequenceof inflation-restriction: 0 HHL(QE/QX) - HLj. We wishto applythe propositionto investigateHDi.Hom(Ga1(QEUq/QE).(QE//Q.We repeat that in the above propositionX can be arbitraryof [] p-powerorder. X)Gal(Qunr/ and Wan. VAin . #HL.V\n)we willrequire(by duality)that the cohomologyclass be locallytrivialat q E -E. V*. . H1(Qunr. 2.Vain)and we also define HD*(Q/Q = HL. X)Ga1(Q nr/Qq) X)Gal(QF/Q) H1(Qunr X)Ga1(Q nr/Qq) The propositionfollowswhenwe note that #H0(Qq. If q E M (q 7&p) and X = then hq = 1.

Aarises froman ordinaryp-divisiblegroup. (vi) If X = VAn or WArnthen hp hoo = / #Ho (Q. O/A>n)}. In particularthis givesthe map u in the diagram H 1(Qp. M) we have that #Z = .9. (iii) If X = VAnor WArnthen hp hoo < in the Selmer case.Considerthencase (iii) withX = V n. Using local Euler characteristics /WAC M duced to ones involvingHO(Qq. and the resultfollowseasily.ANDREW WILES 474 calculation. VXn/WXn)~~Hl(Qpnr. For example if q is of type Proof. VXn/WXn)g1~ where g = Gal(Qpnr/Qp).\nthenhpho.X) and pf. (v) If X = V. (i) If X = VAnthen 1. Case (i) is trivial. (VAn/W~n)H) ) H1(Qp. then (ii) If X = VAXn hpho < # (0/A)n # H0(Qp. (Vord)*)/#Ho(Q. WAgn) etc.7-= Gal(Qp/Qunr) and 6 is definedto make the triangle commute. WAn). We have a long exact sequenceof cohomologyassociated to the exact sequence: (1. #IHI(QpI (W n)*)/#Ho(Q Wan) (iv) If X = VAnor WAn then hp hco = 1 in the strict case.W. We contentourselveswith an inequalityin some cases. Vain) - H1 (Qq.\n/WOn O-. these are easily re#Hi (QqI WAn ) etc.n) in the ordinarycase. Proof.) 0/Wn O one obtains a formulafor the order of Lnq in terms of #Ht(Qq. VAn) 1 -) Z=Hl(Qpnr/Qp.16) 0 -> Wn - Vxn -> V. Then writing hi(M) for #HI(Qp. This is a straightforward (A) thenwe have Lnq = ker{H1 (Qq. W\n/W2?n)E H1(Qnr. = 1 in theflat case. The calculation of hp is more delicate. Vv*\n) if Ln - HF(Qp. Using the long exact sequenceof cohomologyassociated to 0> Wa n - W rn-> W. PROPOSITION #Ho (QV)*n) hpho = # (O/A)3n#Ho (QpVA*n)/ in the unrestricted case.

(ii) It containsan elementpo(G) withany prescribedimage in the Sylow 2-subgroupof (impo)/(impo)' and withthe ratio of the eigenvaluesnot equal to w(of).17) n) h2(WA~h2(V.AIDp does not split if PfAID~ Splits wherer = dimKHF(Qp. 3. we can deduce the result. withpo as in (1.4].\n { (#O/Al)r #H0(Qp.VAn): Ln. Cor. V)An Homo(PR/PR . K/O)An whereR is the universallocal flatdeformation ringofpo for0-algebras. Althoughthese could be phrasedin purelygroup-theoretic it will be moreconvenientto continueto workin the settingof Section 1. A simple calculation using the long exact sequenceassociated to (1.. Some results on subgroups of GL2(k) results which will not be used until We now give two group-theoretic terms Chapter 3. Case (ii) is similar. This we can computeusing the calculationsin [BK. (Here (impo)' denotesthe derivedsubgroupof (impo). WAn) (#O/An')r if Pf. V*n) = 1 in the flatcase. 3.16) gives #imu = h1(VW? )h2(V (1.and the main theoremof [Ram] (Theorem4. LEMMA 1. i. In case (iv) we just need # imu whichis givenby (1.e.1) so that impo is a subgroupof GL2(k) and detpo is assumed odd.In case (v) we have alreadyobservedin Section1 that Raynaud's resultsimplythat #Ho(Qp.\n/IW5~) Hence [H1(Qp.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 475 ho(Vn/W0) and #im6 > (#imu)/(#Z).2) whichcomputesRfl.p) = 1 and 'Yotrivial on any abelian quotientofimpo. VAn) Hf (Qp . Fromthe definitions #HF4(Qp V) . We now prove(vi).8.17) withWAnreplacingV\n. V). The inequalityin (iii) followsforX = VAnand the case X = WAnis similar.p]= #im6 ? #(O/A)3nho(V*.10.\n)/ho(WXn*). Vn) can be computedto be #(Q/A)2nfrom Hf(Qv. Using the relationR _RRXl (9 where Rfl is the correspondingring for W(k)W(k) algebras. If impo has orderdivisiblebyp then: (i) It containsan element'Yoof orderm > 3 with(m.) . We findthat r = 2 in the non-splitcase and r = 3 in the E split case and (vi) followseasily. Moreover #Hf (Qp.

By Dickson's classificationof the subgroupsof GL2(k) containingan elementof orderp.S4 or A5. Since neitherof thesepossibilities is allowed. In each case we can find. of course.[Di. .G' has no fixedline. Then - (a b )(1sax)( has det(6) = detpo(r) and trace6 = sa (ra/3+ c) + br/3 + a + d. Since it has at mostone elementofexact order 2 (the eigenvalueswouldboth be -1 sinceit is in the kernelofthe determinant and hencethe elementwould be -I) it mustalso have an elementof order4. det(6) being. S4. (i) Let G = impo and let Z denote the centerof G. The only one of these with a quotientgroup of orderp is PSL2(F3) whenp = 3. cf. It followsthat p t [G: G'] except in this one case whichwe treat separately. Then we have a surjectionG' (G/Z)' wherethe ' denotes the derivedgroup. G = impo has no fixedline. fixed. So we can finda 6 forwhichthe ratio of the eigenvaluesis not w(T).So assumingnow that p t [G: G'] we see that G' containsa nontrivialunipotentelementu.ANDREW WILES 476 The same resultshold if the image of theprojectiverepresentation po associatedto po is isomorphicto A4.3 and PSL2(F3) . would have orderprimeto p. Then let r be an elementof Gal(Qr/Q) forwhichthe image of po(r) in G/G' is prescribedand let Po(T) = (a d). p) = 1 and m > 3. Thus G' wouldbe contained in the group of diagonal matricesfora suitable basis and eitherit would be centralin which case G would be abelian or its normalizerin GL2(k). We claim that the same then holds forthe derivedgroup G'. (G/Z) is isomorphicto PGL2(k') or PSL2(k') forsome finitefieldk' of characteristic p or possiblyto A5 whenp = 3.and then liftto G'. Pick a basis forPOIG' consisting of theirfixedvectors.A4 or PGL2(F3) Howeverin thesecases (G/Z)' has orderdivisibleby 4 so the 2-Sylowsubgroup of G' has ordergreaterthan 2. (ii) Since po is assumedabsolutelyirreducible. and hence also G. But ra/3+ c cannot be zero forall r as otherwise a = c = 0. Proof. S4 and A5 cases is similar. The argumentin the A4. an elementof orderm with (m. Since p > 3 we can choose this trace to avoid any two givenvalues (by varyings) unless ra3 + c = 0 for all r. For otherwise sinceG' < G we could obtain a secondfixedline by taking(gv) where(v) is the originalfixedlineand g is a suitableelementofG. ?260]. except possiblyin the case p . By Dickson's classificationof the subgroupsof GL2(k) containingan elementof orderp the image of impo in PGL2(k) is isomorphicto PGL2(k') or PSL2(k') forsome finitefieldk' of characteristic p or possiblyto A5 when p = 3. Since G' has no fixedline theremustbe another noncommuting unipotentelementv in G'.

If the image of po has orderprimeto p the lemma is trivial. We need to analyze theircohomology.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 477 Now suppose that impo does not have orderdivisibleby p but that the associated projectiverepresentation po has image isomorphicto S4 or A5. or they are isomorphicto one of the exceptionalgroupsA4. Since this fixes both det po(r) and w(r) we have to show that we can avoid at most two particularvalues of the trace for'r. Suppose thatpo is absolutelyirreducible. the ratio of whose eigenvaluesis not equal to 1. and in the PSL2(F3) . Then by consideringthe inflation-restriction sequence with respect to the normal . A5.27] Their images inside PGL2(k') where k' is the quadratic extensionof k are conjugate to PGL2(F) or PSL2(F) for some subfieldF of k'.Let -5be the associated to PGL2(k). so Pick an r necessarilyp 7&3. The subgroupsof GL2(k) containingan elementoforderp whichare not contained in a Borel subgrouphave been classifiedby Dickson [Di. PROPOSITION 1. ?260] or [Hu.Recall that we are assumingthat po is absolutelyirreducible.by extendingscalars ifnecessary.S4. Pick a basis forpo. H1 (K1 ((p)/Q1WA*) Proof. resulton the finitesubgroupsofPGL2 (Fp) this Remark. Assumethenthatthecohomology groupH1(Ki((p)/Q. element such that the image of po(r) in G/G' is any prescribed class. WA)$ 0.8.). Then one checkseasilythat ifPo(r) = (c d) we cannothave the tracesofall ofT. In the A4 case. Let K1 be the splittingfieldof po. ar and a2 lyingin a set of the form{Tt} unless a = d = 0.Then = 0. To achieve thiswe can adapt our firstchoiceof r by multiplying by any elementofG'. we use a different argument. Then we can view WA and W* as Gal(K1((p)/Q)-modules.In both cases we findthat the 2-Sylowsubgroupof G/G' is generatedby an elementz in the centreofG.1 1.so that a -+ (a a. projectiverepresentation The followingpropositionis based on the computationsin [CPS]. So picka E G' as in (i) whichwe can assume in thesetwo cases has order3. Eithera powerofz is a suitable candidate forpo(a) or else we mustmultiplythe powerof z by an elementof G'. Howeverwe can ensure that po(r) does not satisfythis by firstmultiplying r by a suitableelementof G' since G' is not containedin the diagonal matrices(it is not abelian). Such an elementexists because in G' the onlypossibleelementswithoutthispropertyare {TI} (such elementsnecessarilyhave determinant1 and orderprimeto p) and we know L that #G' > 2 as was noted in the proofof part (i).A4 case when p = 3. By a well-known lemma coversall po whose images are absolutelyirreducibleand forwhich -5 is not dihedral. II.

18) by extendingscalars we see that H1 (impo. by a suitable conjugation. Then if p5 is the projective representation associated to po suppose that g-1 imp g = PGL2(F) and let H = g PSL2(F)g-1. LEMMA 1. Suppose thatpo is absolutelyirreducibleand that (a) po is dihedral(the case wherethe image is Z/2 x Z/2 is allowed). WA) . One sees that no such matrixis fixedby all the elementsof order2.) Extendingscalars commuteswithformationof duals and H1. The groupgeneratedby {A.the center Z of Gal(Ki/Q) is contained in the diagonalmatricesand so acts triviallyon WA. B) has index3 whencethe image of the embeddingof A4 in PGL2(F3) is indeedunique (up to conjugation). This rules out all cases whenp #3.e. i. I am gratefulto Taylorforthe following argument. A are distinctin PGL2(F3) we have B = (? -') forsome a. B E GL2(F3) are such that A2 = B2 = I withthe images ofA.S3 thereis a unique subgroupofN in which(A.Firstwe considerthe actionofPSL2(F3) on WAexplicitly by consideringthe conjugationactionon matrices{A E M2(F3): traceA = 0}.since the representation is (absolutely) irreducible.A4.12. Finallywe considerthe case whereF = F3. B} in PGL2(F3) is its own centralizerso it has indexat most6 in its normalizerN. (Note that S4 . F We deduce also that H1(impo. We can choose A = (O _0)by a suitable choice of basis. and whenp = 3 we onlyhave to considerthe case wherethe image of the projectiverepresentation is isomorphicas a group to PGL2(F) forsome finitefieldof characteristic 3.H1(Z/3. so we may assume without loss of generalityF C k. B representing distinctnontrivialcommutingelementsofPGL2(F3).. . Since N/(A. By conjugatingby a diagonal matrix(whichdoes not change A) we can assume that a = 1. For suppose that A.478 ANDREW WILES subgroupGal(Ki ((p)/KI) we see that (p E K1.18) H1 (H WA)(FF F H (g. WA) = 0 by results of [CPS]. If p = 3 and #F > 3 then H1(PSL2(F).)C2xc2) = 0 whereC2 x C2 denotesthenormalsubgroupoforder4 in PSL2 (F3) . So arguingas in (1. WA) = 0.PGL2(F3). So by consideringthe inflationrestriction sequencewithrespectto Z we see that Z acts triviallyon (p (and on We). gA1(WA F)) = 0.Hg. Next we verifythat thereis a unique copy of A4 in PGL2 (F3) up to conjugation. Then B is diagonal or antidiagonalas it commuteswith A up to a scalar. So Gal(Q((p)/Q) is a quotientof Gal(Ki/Q)/Z. and as B. WA*)= 0 when F = F3 also. B) . Next. whence H1(PSL2(F3). It permitsmost dihedralcases to be coveredby the methodsof Chapter3 and [TW]. O The followinglemma was pointedout to me by Taylor. Then WA WAoverH and (1. (W.

K1 is the splittingfieldof po. thenwe use hypothesis(b).. and we can repeat the argumentby changingthe choice of H forthe other two characters. In the firstsectionwe recall some of the well-knownpropertiesof these ringsand especially the Gorenstein propertywhose proofis rathertechnical. none of whichis the quadratic characterassociated to L. By the resultsof the appendix the conjectureis equivalentto the . Note that X 54X' since H has nontrivialimage in PGL2(k). Chapter 2 In this chapterwe study the Hecke rings. findthe changein the r7-invariant rings In the thirdsectionwe state the conjecturerelatingthe deformation of Chapter 1 and the Hecke rings. the imagehas the formZ/2 x Z/2).The purposeis to as the level increases. If IndG(X/X') is reducibleoverk thenWA0 k is a sum ofthreedistinctquadraticcharacters.If fiois abelian (i. (ii) a fixesQ((pn).e.In the second sectionwe computethe relationsbetweenthe Heckeringsas the levelis augmented. To finda a such that 8(cr) = 1 and conditions(i) and (ii) hold. whereG = Gal(Ki/Q). (As before.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 479 (b) PoK is absolutelyirreduciblewhereL = Q (A(-1)(P1)/2P).dependingon a characteristic p versionof the q-expansionprinciple.H. Then WAX k b 80 IndG(X/X') where6 is the quadraticcharacterG -* C/H and X' is the conjugateof X by any elementof G . (iii) a has an eigenvalue1 on X. Finally. observe that M((pn) is abelian where M is the quadratic fieldassociated to 8. Thus it has an eigenvalueequal to 1.sincea GC -H we see that a has trace zero and o2 = 1 in its action on X. This satisfies(i) and can be made to satisfy(ii) if(b) holds. So conditions(i) and (ii) can be satisfiediffiois non-abelian.H. If fiois dihedralthenpo X k = IndH X forsome H of index 2 in G. Thenfor any positiveintegern and any irreducibleGalois stable subspaceX of WA0 k thereexistsan elementa E Gal(Q/Q) such that (i) f3o(a) $ 1. If X = IndG(x/x') ? k is absolutelyirreduciblethenpick any a E G .) Here H can be takenas the fullinverseimageof any ofthe normalsubgroupsof index 2 definingthe dihedralgroup. Proof. Finally we end with the criticalstep of showingthat if the conjectureis true at a minimallevel then it is true at all levels.

Uq = Uq* forq j N. we estimatedthe changein the p/p2_ 7a-invariant invariant. Up ? m). The ringgeneratedby these Hecke operatorsis denotedTH(N) and sometimes.480 ANDREW WILES forthe forthe Hecke ringsand the p/p2-invariant equalityof the 71-invariant deformationrings.forexample. For precise definitionsof these see [MW1. Section 2. (2. In particularif one identifiesthe cotangentspace of Ji(N) (C) withthe space of cusp formsofweight2 on rF(N) thenthe actioninducedby T1 (N) is the usual one on cusp forms. Here Frobq denotes a Frobeniusat q in Gal(Q/Q). P I Dp D(O X 0 X2 2) fora suitable choice of basis. We let A = { (a) : (a. The representation pmis unique up to isomorphism. with X2 unramifiedand X2(Frobp) = Tp mod m (resp. Section 1. detpm(Frobq) = (q)q foreach primeq t Np. This implies(cf.p I N) we say that m is ordinaryifTp ? m (resp. The Gorenstein property For any positiveintegerN let Xj (N) = X1(N)/Q be the modularcurve over Q corresponding to the grouprl(N) and let J1(N) be its Jacobian. N) = 1}. equal to Up). to the group Thus forH = (Z/NZ)* we have XH(N) = Xo(N) corresponding L decomIn to assume that 2 it will be convenient sometimes (N). theorem2 of [Wil]) that forour fixeddecompositiongroupDp at p.if H and N are clear fromthe context. Let m be a maximal ideal of T = TH(N) with p E m. Then associated to m there is a continuousodd semisimpleGalois representation pm.we abbreviatethis to T. In particularPmis ordinaryin the sense of Chapter 1 .. We let JH(N) denote the Jacobian of XH(N) and note that the above Hecke operatorsact naturallyon JH(N) also. N) = 1}. Let ofJ1(N) whichis generatedoverZ by the T1 (N) be theringofendomorphisms standardHecke operators{Ti = Tl* for1 t N.If p t N (resp. Ch.1) pm: Gal(Q/Q) -- GL2(T/m) unramified outsideNp whichsatisfies tracepm(Frobq) = Tq. In Chapter 2. (a) = (a)* for (a. Let p be a prime > 3. 1. we compute the change in the and in Chapter 1. Section ro poses as a productH = HIHq in (Z/NZ)* -_f(Z/qrZ)* wherethe product is over the distinctprimepowersdividingN. 2. ?5]. The group (Z/NZ)* acts naturallyon X1 (N) via A and for any subgroup H C (Z/NZ)* we let XH(N) = XH(N)/Q be the quotientX1(N)/H.

235]. Let Tmdenotethe completionofT at mso that Tmis a directfactorofthe completesemi-localringTp = T X Zp.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 481 providedXi 54X2. itselfa straightforward generalization of Proposition2 and (11) of [MW2]. (In practiceXi is usuallyramifiedso thisimposesno extracondition. Let D be the pointsof the associated m-divisible group D = JH(N) (Q)m . DE) can be describedas the maximal submoduleon whicho . then if we set di = N/mi.) We cautionthe readerthat ifPmis ordinaryin the sense of Chapter 1 thenwe can onlyconcludethat mis Dp-distinguished ifp t N. If m is ordinarythen Theorem2 of [Wil]. DO (resp. We can describeDo and DE as follows. forC a primitiveNth root of 1..X2(07) is topologicallynilpotentforall of E Gal(Qp/Qp)). the space of cusp formsof weight2 on rH(N). C) of levels mj. Although in [Wil] this filtrationis given only for a factorAf of Ji(N) it is easy to deduce the result for JH(N) itself.We will say that m is Dp-distinguished ifm is ordinaryand Xi 5 X2. Then DO = ker (oa _ E(a))diV. Pick a of E x 14 ZLet e:Dp Ip whichinduces a generatorof Gal (Qp((Npoo)/Qp((Np)). We note that this filtrationis defined withoutreference to characteristic p and also that ifm is Dp-distinguished. the form f = E fi(diz) is a basis vectorof S2(rH(N).m..e. Tp It is knownthat D = HomzP(D. . - be the cyclotomic character... . Qp/Zp) is a rank 2 Tm-module... where%i(of)is any liftingof Xiy(o)to Tm. is freeof rank 1 over T 0 C. be the involutionofXi (N)/Q(() definedin [MW1. C).1(of) is topologicallynilpotentfor all of E Gal(Qp/Qp) (resp. It is more convenientto use an adapted pairingdefinedas follows. shows that (forour fixeddecompositiongroupDp) thereis a filtration of D by Pontrjaginduals of rank 1 Tm-modules(in the sense explainedabove) (2.y) = (x. ] by setting(fora . p. f4} is a completeset of normalizednewforms in S2(rH(N). Then we can definea new pairing[ . C) is zp zp freeof rank 2 over T 0 C and this reducesto showingthat S2 (rH(N). One showsthen that if {fi. that D 0 Qp .. This inducesan involution of XH(N)/Q(() also. quotient on which f.(Tm 0 Qp)2. Brieflyit is enoughto show that H1(XH(N). The Weil pairing ( .i. the kernel being taken inside D and 'div' meaningthe maximal divisiblesubgroup. C) as a T 0 C-module. ) on JH(N)(Q)pM satisfiesthe relation (tx.2) 0 Do D __DE _0 whereDo is stable underDp and the inducedaction on DE is unramified with Frobp = Up on it ifp I N and Frobp equal to the unit root ofx2 -Tpx + p(p) 0 in Tm if p t N.JH(N) (Q)poo (0 Tm. Let w(. t*y) forany Hecke operatort.

We shouldalso pointout that althoughCorollary1 givesa representation fromthe m-adicTate module P = PTm: Gal(Q/Q) -* GL2 (Tm) thiscan be constructedin a muchmoreelementary way.) Here Tam(JH(N) (Q)) = Tap (JH(N) (Q)) 0 Tm is the m-adic Tate module of JH(N). [Gro]and [El]. In eitherof cases (i) or (ii) Tm is a Gorensteinring.) COROLLARY 1. (In second isomorphisms the proofand in all applicationswe will only use the notionof a Gorenstein Zp-algebraas definedin the appendix. but the fundamentalargumentremains that of [Ma2]. and Tam(JH(Np) (Q)) T.4). Howeversome ofthe cases we need are not coveredin these accountsand we will presentthese here.)For. T2 and Tam (JH(N)(Q)> T2m TM. The followingtheoremis the crucial resultof this section. (where Tm = TH(NP)m) COROLLARY 2.1. (ii) If p t N and Pmis irreducibleand m is Dp-distinguished then JH(Np) (Q) [m] (T/)2 . (i) If p t N and Pmis irreduciblethen JH(N) (Q) [m] --(T/M)2. In each case the firstisomorphisms of Corollary1 followfromthe theorem 2 togetherwith the rank result alluded to previously. Corollary2 and the of corollary1 then followon applyingduality(2.wy). (In case (ii) m is a maximal ideal of T = TH(Np).3) Then [tx. In case (ii).Iy]= (x.ANDREW WILES 482 fixedchoiceof () [x. In case (i). JH(Np)(Q)m . ?9]. THEOREM 2. JH(N)(Q)m. In particularwe obtain an inducedpairingon Dpa. For finiteflat local Zp-algebrasthe notionsof Gorensteinring and GorensteinZp-algebraare the same. (See [Ca3] foranother 0 existswithTm Q replacingTm whenwe argument. A standardargument . For a summarysee [E1.T. [Ril] [M Ri]. y] = [x. It has sincebeen generalized in [Til].ty] forall Hecke operatorst.the representation use the factthat Hom(Qp/Zp. (2. It was first provedby Mazur in the case ofprimelevel [Ma2].D) 0 Q was freeofrank2.

are the two smoothirreduciblecomponentsofthe special fibreofthe canonicalmodel of X1(Np)l0 describedin [MW1. = 1. the intersection with kerm is trivialwhen pmis irreducible. Prop.So it is enoughto verifythe theorem forJ1(N) in part (i) (resp.1 usingthis ringwhichis reduced. Ch. (Note that the explicitdescriptionof the traces showsthat ifPm then mod m = brmCrm where is also normalizedso that pm(c) = (o _) b1c1 P. Now considercase (ii).).The case of F1(N) is similar(cf. (The smoothnessin this case was provedin [DR]. Sincethe kernelof JH(N) (Q) -* Ji (N) (Q) is an abelian groupon whichGal(Q/Q) acts throughan abelian extensionof Q. Th.e. 9. (p beinga primitivepth rootofunity. 0 0(m) comes from the irreducibility of pm. Ch. Th. Proof(of theorem). Ji(Np) in part (ii)). Using the fact that A(p) is nontrivialmod m togetherwith Proposition4. 269 of [MW1] we findthat J (Np)m/tO (Fp) . We brieflyreviewthe argumentforuse later.2]. cit.(Pic? E0t X Pico E1)m (Fp) wherethe notationis taken from[MW1] loc.1. # 0(m) and by resealingthe basis so that b. This case is essentiallycoveredin [Til] (and also in [Gro]). c. and thenbypicking a r forwhichp'(r) = (a br) with b.) Also Jl(Np)6t1 denotesthe canonical etale quotientof the r-divisiblegroupover 0. The existenceof a r such that b~c.m(T)= (lrm dbrn.2] whichsummarizesMazur's argument. detp'(Frobe) = f(f) forall e t Np. and let 0 be the ringof integersof the completionof the maximalunramified extensionof K.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 483 using the Eichler-Shimurarelationsimpliesthat this representationp' with values in GL2(Tm 0 Q) has the propertythat tracep'(Frobe) = Te. Let A(p) = {(a): a l(N)} C A\. It was extendedto the case of Fo(N) in [Ril. that6-1 mforsome6 E A(p). 14. Let us first assumethatA(p) is nontrivialmodm. This is the methodof Carayol whichrequiresalso the characterizationof p by the traces and determinants (Theorem 1 of [Ca3])..4 of [Wil]. One can also ofteninterpretthe Uq operatorsin terms of p forq I N usingthe 7rq 7r(gq) theoremof Langlands (cf. This makes sense because J1(Np)m does extendto .2]). II. Here E't and El. p.i. Let K = Qp((p). [El. We can normalizethis representation by pickinga complex conjugationc and choosinga basis suchthatp'(c) = (' _). 5. in One can even constructthe representation directlyfromthe representations Theorem0. [Cal]) and the Up operatorin case (ii) usingTheorem2. The methodforpart (i) was developedby Mazur in [Ma2.The importanttechniqueforprovingsuchmultiplicityone resultsis due to Mazur and is based on the q-expansionprinciplein characteristicp.) With this normalizationone checksthat p' actually takes values in the (closed) subringof Tm generatedover Zp by the traces. 2].

Q1) e Ho (EtI p Q1)} and m' is definedby embeddingT/m .5 of [Wi3]) 6: {Pic0 imx Pico E6t}[] (p) 0 Ip C 4 X. 188].(Np)m/0(Fp) [m] as a T-module. Z/pZ) as Tm-modules. Prop. DE[p] Hom (T.at mod m. checkingthe compatibilityforUp use the formulasof Theorem5. In particularas m is Dp-distinguished. So 'Do[p] Tm/p.) It followsthat T/ra J. (2.the formerfollowing fromthe latterwhenwe use dualityunder the pairing[. This has distincteigenvalues?1 on Pmso we may decompose D[p] into eigenspaces for -r: D[p] = D[p]+ D[p]-.ANDREW WILES 484 a p-divisiblegroupover(9 (again by a theoremof Deligne and Rapoport [DR] and because A(p) is nontrivialmodm). Z/pZ) Now our assumptionthat m is Dp-distinguished enables us to identify 'Do= J.(Np)m0 (Qp) XDE = j.?12].2 below.4) 'D[p] .Tmsince H/m . Prop.3 of [Wi3]but note the correctionin [MW1. . Z/pZ)./p.T/m. We pick a complexconjugation T-. (Np)6t ( For the groupson the rightare unramifiedand those on the leftare dual to groupswhereinertiaacts via a characterof finiteorder(dualitywithrespect to Hom( . For similarversionsin slightlysimplercontextssee [Wi3. see Lemma 2.]. It is ordinaryas followsfrom(2. Qp/Zp(l))). ?6] or [Gro.5 of In [Wi3]. 6. This shows that if H is the Pontrjagin dual of H = Ji(Np)m10(Fp) then H . p. and hence also on its cotangentspace X. We now use an argumentof Tilouine [Til]. the abelian varietypart of the closed fibreof the Neron model of J1(Np) IO. Now the q-expansionprincipleimpliesthat dimp X [m'] < 1 where X = {Ho (EP./p. Thus Ji(Np)m1(Fp) [p] Z Hom(Tm/p. Also T acts on Pico EA x Pico Et. 6.whichis readilyadapted to this case.) Then the Cartiermap inducesan injection(cf.Tm/p G Hom (T.Fp and settingm' = ker:T Fp -Fp under the map t 0 a . (For a proofthat X[m'] is at most onedimensional.2) when we use the main theoremof Tate ([Ta]) since 'Do and 'DE clearlycorrespond to ordinaryp-divisiblegroups. The composite6 o wa can be checkedto be Hecke invariant(cf.

P)/Fp iQ) [m]< 1. OverFp.P)/FP (cf. 1 ?2]. p)/li. ?7]). Z/pZ) are both indecomposableHecke-modules. cf.2. Proof.atmodim) then it is enoughto showthat dimppHO(X1(N. the differentials differentials on the may be identifiedwith the meromorphic normalizationX1 (N. p). p) -) Ji (Np) -+ Ji(N. Th. Ch. this being the essential step. explained (Xi (N. First we remarkthat the action of the Hecke operatorUp here is most conveniently definedusingan extensionfromcharacteristic zero. Let Xl (N.(N. We will first show that dimT/.9]. by the Krull-Schmidttheoremthis decompositionhas factorswhichare isomorphicto those in (2. Let on X1(N. Ch. This shows that D[m]+ A D[m]T/m as required.p) be its Jacobian. Then since corresponding the composite of natural maps J1(N.detPm) that ir has the same numberofeigenvaluesequal to +1 as equal to -1 in D[m].MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 485 Since Tm/pand Hom (Tm/p. So in the decomposition D[m] = D[m]+ GDD[m] one of the eigenspacesis isomorphicto T/m and the otherto (Tm/p)[m]. p) is multiplication by an integerprimeto p and since A(p) is trivialmodm we see that J. This case was treated (but only forthe group Fo(Np) and Pm 'new' at p-the crucial restrictionbeing the last one) in [M Ri].HO(X1(N. 6. has ordinarydoublepointsingularities.(Np) m(Q) It willbe enoughthento use J1(N. Q denotethe sheafof regulardifferentials [M Ri. If we embed T/m . Q) [m']< 1. The curve X1(N. II] and in particularthe cusp ox will lie on E?. p)j = SEt U EA whichhave at mostsimplepoles at the supersingular points(theintersection pointsofthetwocomponents)and satisfy resxj+ resX2= 0 if x1 and x2 are the two points above such a supersingular point.But sincePmis irreducibleit is easy to see by consideringD[m]G Hom(D [m]. p)/Q be the modularcurve to I1 (N) n Fo(p) and let Ji(N. [DR. p) m(Q) -_J. [KM] or [MW1] formoredetails).Fp and then set m' = ker: T 0 Fp Fp (the map given by t 0 a . [DR. Firstwe willsuppose - . dimT/. This is HO below. We willuse the models describedin [MW1. Ch. p) j. We need the followinglemma: LEMMA 2. sinceX1 (N. Now we considerthe case where \(p) is trivialmod m. and the corresponding ringT and ideal m.p)z which over Fp consistsof two smooth curves SEt and E2 intersectingtransversallyat the supersingularpoints (again this is a theoremof Deligne and Rapoport. 6.p) has a canonical model X1(N.p)/FpA) [m] = 1. whence #(Tm/p) [m] = #(T/m).4) up to order.

see (2. For explicitdualityover fieldssee [AK.Q1) viewed as a subspace of HO(Xi (N. no differential [n']. But Up .e. IQ71)E Ho (YEt. The dimension that any such differential claim followsfromthe second assertionby usingthe q-expansionprinciple. in Now assume that thereis a nonzeroholomorphicdifferential H?(Xi(N. in Ho(Xi (N. p) inducesan actionon the connectedcomponentofthe Neronmodelof J1(N.486 ANDREW WILES in Ho (Xi (N. This formulais a variant on the second part of Theorem 5. To see this formally(especially forthe Up operator) one checks first on that Ho(Xi (N. The pointis simplythat all the coefficients of q providedthat are determinedby elementaryformulaefromthe coefficient The w is an eigenform forall the Hecke operators. 0) in F2 and thus is zero on EyL* As . To checkthat overQp ofthe diagramafter thisgivesthe standardactionone uses the commutativity Proposition2.Q). y') for (x. ?11. ?II. y) E (Pico YE x Pico E)(Fp). (A correctionto the firstpart of Theorem 5. cf. By Grothendieck duality the cotangentspace is isomorphicto H0(Xj(N. Then if wi and W2 are two differentials the q-expansionprincipleshowsthat .3]or [Wi3. is the same as the action on Xo viewed as the cotangentspace of Pico Ell x Pic? SEt.see [Ma2. p.AW2= 0 on EY it is holomorphicon Eet. p is crucialand due This use ofthe q-expansionprinciplein characteristic in the q-expansion to Mazur [Ma2]. The value of y' will not be needed.2 in [Mil].u.y) = (Fx.To provethat w :$ 0 on EA we use the formula Up*(x. Prop. where F denotes the Frobeniusendomorphism. Q) thenhas dimension1 and We claimthat the space ofholomorphicdifferentials w :$ 0 is actually nonzeroon EY.A) $&(0.p)1ZPQ). P)/QP. 6.1]. VIII].3 was noted in [MW1.p)/ F .uW1.) and EJ. (For a summaryof the dualitystatementsused in this context.-. By our hypothesisit would then be zero which showsthat wi and W2 are linearlydependent.. whereQ denotesthe sheafofregulardifferentials Xi(N.uwl .) This then definesan actionofthe Heckeoperatorson this group.) One checks then that the action of Up on Xo = Ho (EI. [Ma2. p)/zp.AW2has zero q-expansionat oo for some pair (. Ch. that thereis no nonzeroholomorphicdifferential on E' formwhichpulls back to holomorphicdifferentials i.3]. p)/.p)1V' 7 [in'].p)lzp. Fromthis we see that ifw = 0 on EA then Upw= 0 on E't. 188].3 of [Wi3] where the correspondingresult is proved forXi (Np). p)/F Q)[i'].5) below. formulaeforthe action of these operatorsin characteristicp followfromthe formulaein characteristic zero. The action of the Hecke operatorson J1(N. behaves well under the base changes Zp -* Fp and Zp Qp. so also on itstangentspace and cotangentspace.

We can thus asdifferentials has dimension1 and holomorphic sumethatthespace ofm'-torsion in is generatedby w. p)/ZP. p)?Z ) Reducingboth sides modp and applyingGrothendieckdualitywe get an isomorphism (2.6) Tan(J1(Np)5/F) I Fp). OM1 (N. Then we have an exact sequence 0 *A -* J1(N. 3. Prop.p) has semistablereductionover Qp and B has good reduction. p) [p]/Z B[IZP -o 0 is also exact.a theoremof Raynaud [Ray2] says that the connectedcomponentof the Neron model of J1(N. 7) HO(X1(N. A)/FPiQ) [ml is nonzero.9]). and a similarisomorphismholds forHO (Ml (N. 3]). By Proposition1. Takingtangentspaces at the origin. Hom(H0(Xl(NP)/FP. Y]] /(XY -k) isomorphic with k = 1. 2 or 3 (cf.This completesthe proofof the lemma.3 of [Ma3] the correspondingsequence of connectedgroup schemes 0 -' A[p]ZP] J1(N.we obtain (2. OI To completethe proofof the theoremwe choose an abelian subvariety A of J1(N.Awhas zero q-expansionat oX forsome choiceofA. p)?Z ) is a faithfulT 0 Zp-moduleit followsthat H? (Xi (N.10)). 6.Aw = 0 on EA whenceW2 . 6. p)1ZP.5) H1 (Ml (N. p)/P. Ch. p) with multiplicativereductionat p. Th. Q) [m']) < 1.7) Tan(J1(N. Usingthis we may check that the naturalmap (2. 7) (see the argumentin [Ma2.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 487 acts as a nonzeroscalar whichgivesa contradictionifw :$ 0.p)1zP). in general that dim(HO (Xi(N.p)[p]t ) 0 TP Tm Tan(J(Np) Ta(l N P) ) 0 Tm TP .Q) As M1(N. ?II. and by Corollary1. If we considera minimalregularresolutionM1(Np)1ZP then H0(M1(NP)/Fp.4]). p) -* J1(N) x J1(N) underthe natural map f describedin Section2 (see (2. Since Tan(J1(N. We have now shown .p))) Tan(Ji(N.Awis holomorphicand so W2 = Aw. [DR.P)/FP. (To justifythe reductionin detail see the argumentsin [Ma2.P)/ZP is regular.p)lZP at the supersingularpointsare formally overZunr to Zunr[[X. So ifW2 is now any differential HO(X1 (N.p)1F The singularitiesof X1(N. Q) [m'] thenW2.P)5/z PicO(M1(N.1 of the same propositionthe corresponding sequenceoftangentspaces ofNeronmodelsis exact. Specificallylet A be the connectedpart of the kernelof J1(N. Then W2 .P)/QP is Ji(N.P) -*B O* and J1(N.

We can now proceedas we did in the case whereA(p) was nontrivialmodm.9) with G(Qp) 0 Fp. [Ma3.2) by the theoremof Tate [Ta] as before.For A we note that A[p]/A[p]tis unramified because it is dual to A[p]twhereA is the dual abelian variety.ANDREW WILES 488 is an isomorphism. For it is enoughto checksuch a relationon A and B separatelyand on B it is true because the r-divisiblegroupis ordinary. G) (9 Fp Hom (Tan(tip/. Tan(G/V)) P) of the groupschemesviewedover Qp whereHomQ denoteshomomorphisms can be checkedby reducing and similarlyforHomF .so V C 'DQ[p].p) [p]t(Q. To see this it is sufficient to exhibitan isomorphismof Fp-vectorspaces Tan(G/f ) (2.6) togetherwiththe lemmashowsthat Tan(Ji(Np))/zP (0 Tm Tm. Now (2.) By again examiningA and B separatelywe see that in fact V = ZDo[p].7) togetherwiththis impliesthat as Tm-modules V := Ji(N.)m .(Tm/p). (Note that our assumptionthat A(p) is trivial modm impliesthat the action on V0[p] is ramifiedon everysubquotientand on DyE[p]is unramifiedon everysubquotient.8) G(Qp) 0 Fp forany multiplicative-type groupscheme(finiteand flat) GIzp whichis killed by p and moreoverto give such an isomorphismthat respectsthe action of observethat we have ofGlzp.ip/l. wheret denotesthe maximalmultiplicative-type subgroup scheme(cf. Thus afterthese choices are made we have an isomorphismin (2. Pickingan isomorphismof Fp Tan(.8) which of G. E . Now pickinga primitivepth root of unitywe can identifythe left-handtermin (2. The secondisomorphism p to the case G = lip. G) X9Fp Hompp(lp. respectsthe action of endomorphisms On the otherhand the action of Gal(Qp/Qp) on V is ramifiedon every subquotient.9) with Tan(G/y ). ?1]). (lp. To obtainsuch an isomorphism endomorphisms isomorphisms (2.9) Hom-.) with Fp we can identifythe last termin (2.This followsfrom(2. Tp We claim that (2.

q) correspondsto X1(N. q) with multiplicative reductionat q. 4'(B) n PO(J2).z and z -. Nq) = 1}. Ribet showsthat thismap is injective(cf.Ji(N. One can checkthat Uq preservesB eitherby an explicitcalculation or by notingthat B is the maximalabelian subvarietyof J1(N. More generally. q). Thus 0 is the map J2 = JH(N)2 --+ JH(N. [Ri2. An explicitcalculationshowsthat Woc~o=[F q+ I -qi1 onJ2 .Howeversince the kernelof JH(N) -+ J1(N) does not meet kerm forany maximal ideal m whose associated Pmis irreducible.10) 0- Ji(N) x J. q) = X1 (N. (B will not be an abelian varietyin general. Thus we can definep by (2.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 489 2. q) Dualizing. (a) = (a)* for (a. q)/Q be the corresponding curve.M(q) being the maximal ideal associated to m of the ringT (q)(N. Let IF(N. so we compute p1 (im ofn )= ker ker( o p). The left-handside is (im o n ker 3). Congruences between Hecke rings Suppose that q is a primenot dividingN. The two natural maps X1 (N.q) (whereJH(N. Ul* for I | Nq. q) in place of J1(N) and J1(N.qz on the two factors.q) generatedby the standard Hecke operatorsbut omittingUq. duciblePm. q) -. Let nq be an integersatisfyingnq q(N) and nq 1(q). q) = P1(N) n 1o(q) and let Xi (N. and B = ker .we defineB by 0 -+B B- Ji(N. q)/H) and we writeTH(N) and TH(N. Using a theoremofIhara. We set J2= Ji(N) x Ji(N). Let T1 (N. Nq.2]).z and z -.) The followinglemma is a straightforward generalizationof a lemma of Ribet ([Ri2]).qz on the upper halfplane permitus to definea map Ji(N) x J1(N) -.3 (Ribet). We will use the same notationin the generalcase. 4.one can considerJH(N) and JH(N. q) generatedby the standard Hecke operators {T1* for I. and write(q) = (nq) E TH(Nq). the above sequences remainexact if we restrictto M(q)-divisiblegroups. LEMMA 2. q) - Ji(N) x Ji(N) -+0.Xi (N) induced by the maps z -. q) induced by z -. In this case the corresponding map p may have a kernel. q) be the ring of endomorphismsof Ji(N. (N) J1 (N.(q) = sc(J2) [Uq - (q)]M(q) for irre- Proof. With this minormodification the proofsof the resultsbelow forH #& 1 followfromthe cases of full level. q) forthe associated Hecke rings.Cor.

We will now give a slightlystrongerresultthan that givenin the lemma in the special case q = p. p) -* S1.1. Moreover Si.e.12) and usingthe factthat the Tate-modulesin the rangeand domainof are freeof rank2 by Corollary1 to Theorem2.Tpx + p(p) = 0 in TH(N)m.TH(N)/m.We also findthat on J2 (2. In thepresent contextone can provethis using the surjectivityof in (2. We willnow givea thirdand moredirect proofdue to Ribet (cf.The onlyproblemis to showthatTpis in theimage. The image of Up is U1.mi .For any standardHeckeoperatort except Up (i. p E m and Pmis irreducible. Uqiforq' :$p or (a)) the image of t is t. t = TI.p) under the naturalmap TH(N.TH(N)m and we let mp be the inverseimage of ml in TH(N. To do this considerthe ring S1 = TH(N)[Ul]/(U2 - TpUl + p(p)) C End(JH(N)2) whereU1 is the endomorphism of JH(N)2 givenby the matrix Tp -(Pj It is thus compatiblewiththe action of Up on JH(N. Ui-p ) is a maximal ideal of S1 whereap is any element of TH(N) representingthe class aip e TH(N)m/m . a: TH(NP)m -+ Silmi TH(N)m is surjective.) Assume then that p 1 N and Tp ? m. The resultthenfollowsfromNakayama'slemmaas one deduceseasilythatTH(N)m is a cyclicTH(N. p) withthe same associated representation as m. [Ri4. p) whencomparedusing Now = (i.15. (The case q $ p we will also strengthenbut we will do this separately. A second argumentusingrepresentations can be foundat the end ofProposition2. We firstdefinea maximal ideal mpof TH (N.ANDREW WILES 490 whereT= Tq (q)'. Prop. Let ap be the unit root of x2 . We need to checkthat the inducedmap A. One checksthat mpis Dp-distinguished. A A . This argument was suggestedby Diamond. 2]) but foundindependentlyand shownto us by Diamond. p)m-module. The matrixactionhereis on the left..11) q Tq ] [~~~~~ q whence (U2-(q))o = ? -(q) ]?( ? ) Now suppose that m is a maximal ideal of TH(N).

on A forr = p and r = q. N) $&1. Using the fact that Tr = Frobr + (r)r(Frobr)'. Z). ?4]). TM OF1 -. . A a Proofof2. then an(f) = al(Tnf) is divisible by l for all n primeto 1. Fj). LEMMA (Ribet). The surjectivityof T'/lT' map -+ T/lT is equivalentto the injectivityof the dual Hom(T. But thenthe modl formdefinedby f is in the kernelofthe operator trivialif I is odd. Let S be theset ofcusp formsin S2 (r1 (N)) whoseq-expansions at oo have coefficients in Z. 2.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 491 Forthefollowing lemmawe let TM. Fj) and note that if f is in the Hom(T1. denotethesubringof End (S2(rF (N))) generatedby the Hecke operatorsTn forpositiveintegersn relativelyprimeto M. If M is even thenTM has finiteindexin T equal to a powerof2. (See Corollary5 of the main theorem q d .thereis a primeq not dividingMNl so thatFrobp = Frobq on B. foran integerM. The pairingT 0 S-+ Z definedby T 0 f | 4 a.) Thereforef is in IS. T' 0 F1 -+ T 0 F1 is surjectiveif 1 t 2N. 3] and [Hi4. The resultforTH(N)m then follows. Let R' = (R 0 Ql) n Endz. Fj) Now use the isomorphismS/iS kernel of S -- -* Hom(T1.. Suppose that (M. As the ringsare finitely generatedfreeZ-modules. Then R = TM/PO on A. WriteT forT'. By Cebotarevdensity. that TP = T. Fj). Here S2 (I1 (N)) denotesthe vectorspace of weight2 cusp formson IF (N). Recall that S2(rF(N)) = SoC and that S is stable underthe action of T (cf. The claim followsfrom 1. If M is odd then TM = T.Tq is in ld Endz. It followsthat Tp . It will be enoughto show that Tp is a redundantoperatorin T'. Hom(T. Proofof1. The argumentdoes not provethat TMd = Td if (d. A and choose d so that Zj acts faithfully Zl Consider the Gal(Q/Q)-module ldR' C iR. Let A denotethe Tate moduleTal(Ji(N)).e.N) = 1. Ch. and is therefore of Ka]. (Tf) is easily checkedto induce an isomorphismof T-modules S Homz (T.TM/POF1 is surjectiveifp I M and p t IN. Remark. we see that Tp = Tq on J1(N) and therefore in idR' c iR.it suffices to provethat -TM 0 F1 T 0 F1 is surjectiveunless 1 and M are both even. i. B = Jl(N)[1d] x uN~d. [Id]. [Shl.

and TH(N)m. We define S2 = TH(N)[U2]/(U22 - Tp U2 +p(p)) C End (JH(N)2) where U2 is the endomorphismof JH(N)2 definedby (? j(P))..492 ANDREW WILES We now returnto the assumptionsthat Pm is irreducible.) PROPOSITION2. on restricting to the ml. V2 (JH(N)2) T Tam(JH(N)) Ivl Tam(JH(N)) The verticalisomorphismsare definedby v2: x (-(p)x. p)mpand TH(N)m are both Gorensteinrings(by Corollary2 of Theorem2.12) TI Tamp (JH(N. Considerthe maps on p-adic Tate-modulesinducedby o and A': Tap(JH (N) 2) Tap (JH (N) 2 Tap(JH (N.p t N and Tp ? m. Again m2 = (m. So vi and v2 can be viewed as maps to Tap (JH(N)2) whose images are - respectivelyTam. Next we definea principalideal (Lxp) of TH(N)m as follows. p)mp cokernel. p). px). Then (Ap) = (T2 (p)(1 +p)2) (a2 = - (p)). Assume thatm is Dp-distinguished and thatPm is irreducibleof levelN withp t N.TH(N)m Siml in the mannerdescribedin the appendix and we set ?p = (a o a^)(1). apx) and vi: x (apx.1) we can definean adjoint a^ to a: TH(NPp)m - .p)) -Tam. mpand m2-adicTate-modules: Tam2 (JHN2) ( (2. Also Tam(JH(N)) TH(N)2 and . Since TH(N.(The modulestructureon TH(N)m is definedvia a.) ' Now is surjectiveand p is injectivewithtorsion-free cokernelby the result of Ribet mentionedbefore. (Here ap E TH(N)m can be viewed as an elementof TH(N)p HITH(N)n where the product is taken over the maximal ideals containing p. p)) These maps commutewith the standardHecke operatorswith the exception of Tp or Up (whichare not even definedon all the terms).(JH(N)2) and Tam2 (JH(N)2).4. It is equal to the ideal generatedby any compositemap TH(N)m TH(N)m TH(NP)nvp -moduleswithZp torsion-free providedthat /3is an injectivemap ofTH (N. Proof. Then (zAp) is independentof the choice of (Hecke-module)pairingson TH(N. (O U2 = Upo. U2 - It satisfies p) is a maximal ideal of S2 and we have.

5.r respectively. Here Xi(A. B) is thecurvecorresponding and J1(A. qr+l) .p(JH(N. q2) (but q #p) the same analysisthat we havejust to F1(A)nro(B) appliedto J1(N. (The compatibility the completionsS1iml and S2. we get U1 = U2 whichis indeedthe case. O(q)}.ro 7r)*) and (? = (7r*r.M2 of the Up actionsrequiresthat.rrespectively.qz by 7lrl.z and z -. 7r*. - LEMMA2. togetherwitha similarisomorphism We also obtain H1 (F1(Nq r-l). p)2 by Corollary1 to Theorem2.p-moduleswe can use this diagramto computeLp as remarkedjust priorto the statementof the proposition.on identifying withTH(N)m.) We findthat VT11 1( 2 == (p)) (Z). qr+l) c T. Let Bi and B1 be givenby B1 = Fl(Nqr) jFi(Nqr) n r(q). We nowapplyto J1(N. . B1 = f1(Nqr)/F n r(q). varieties p is a prime and r > 1 thenthesequenceof abelian If q $& 0 -O Ji(Nqr-l) 1 where 6i = ((irr J(Nqr) ) J1(Nq " qr+l) x J1(Nq) o 7r)*. give: The exact sequencesof inflation-restriction A1 H1 (Fi (Nqr) Q /Z)-*H1 (r1(Nqr) n F(q). QP/ZP)Aq. Ta. and let Aq = Fi(Nqr-l)/ri(Nqr) Thus Aq (Nq r) n ) ~ SL2 (Z/q) if r = 1 and is of ordera powerof q ifr > 1. So as I. Q /Z ) -H1 (F1 (Nqr) n F(q). Let Fl(Nqr) C O(qr-1).p). It is convenientto workin a slightlymoregeneralsetting. First we need the analogue of Ihara's result. b denotethe group ad E P1(N): a = d = l(qr). p are maps of TH(N.(7r2. the ring T(q) (Nqr.1.493 MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM p)) TH(N. In the following lemmaifm is a maximalideal of Tl(Nqr-1) or T1(Nqr) we use M(q) to denote the maximal ideal of Ti (Nqr.z. Qp/Zp)B1 withA1replacingA1and B1 replacingB1. qr+l) being the subring obtained by omittingUq fromthe list of generators. B) its Jacobian. qr+l) compatiblewith m. p). and 7r2.. .r) induces a corre- spondingsequenceofp-divisiblegroupswhichbecomesexact whenlocalizedat any M(q)for whichPmis irreducible. Similarly we denote the maps Xi (Nqr.rand 7r4. qr) denote the natural map induced by z -.X1(Nqr) induced by z -+ z and z -? qz by 7r3.Let us denotethe maps Xi(Nqr-lqr) X(Nqr'-1) induced by z -. Also let ir: Xi (Nqr) X1(Nqr-l. (Nqr. Proof.

Qp/Zp) . - Hl (Fl (Nqr .13) 0 Q /Z) H1(Fl(Nqr-l). Now considerthe sequence (2.494 ANDREW WILES The vanishingof H2(SL2(Z/q). q) Let us denote the maps X1 (N.nimAl C H1 (Fl (N qr)nr(q). respectively.By dualitywe obtain a sequence where 0 J1(Nq2) - J1(N)3 -* 0 whichis 'surjective'on Tate modules in the same sense. Hl (F1(Nqr) n F(q). where the cocurveshave genus zero and the homologyis Eisensteinas the corresponding groupsare torsion-free. suppose that A1(x) = -A1(y). Qp/Zp) whence x . Qp/Zp). qr+l).exceptthat we have to change fromgroup cohomologyto the cohomologyof the associated then the difference between completecurves.13) yieldsthe exact sequenceofthe lemma. Thus one onlyneeds to checkthe action of the Hecke operatorson thekernelsoftherestriction maps in thesethreeexceptionalcases. So our sequence (2. If the groups are torsion-free thesecohomologiesis Eisenstein(morepreciselyT1. q2) althoughtheremay be . Then Al(X) E Hl(Fi(Nqr) n F(q). rl(Nqr) nfF(q) . If M < 3 then the group r1(M) has torsion. q) induced by z -* z and z -* -* qz by 7r3and 7r4respectively. X1 (N) induced by z -* z and z -* qz by 7r1and 7r2respectively.QP/ZP)Aq.3 we can restrictto F(3). This can be done explicitlyand again theyare Eisenstein. Qp/Zp) can be checkedby restricting to the Sylowp-subgroupwhichis cyclic.2.Similarlywe denotethe maps X1 (N.10) we deduce that thereis a sequence (2. Ji(Nq2) = (7rlo 7r3)*x (7r20 13)* x (7r2 14)* and that the induced map of pdivisiblegroupsbecomesinjectiveafterlocalizationat M(q)'s whichcorrespond to irreduciblepm's.I-1 for1 _ 1 modNqr+l is nilpotent)so will vanish when we localize at the preimageof M(q) in the abstractHecke ringgeneratedas a polynomialringby all the standardHecke operatorsexcludingTq.Note thatimA1.resi(x') E kerAl = 0. From the lemma (with r = 1) and Ihara's result (2. F(3).Fi(Nqr. Qp/Zp)~'q since B1 and B1 togethergenerateAq. q2) -* X1 (N.Qp/Zp)EDHl (rl (Nqr . More generallywe can proveanalogous resultsforJH(N) and JH(N. So Al(x) is the restrictionof an x' E Hl (IF(Nqr-l). F(4). To check this. >> We claim it is exact.This completesthe E proofof the lemma.14) 0 -* J1(N) x J1(N) x J1(N) . It follows also that y =-res1 (x'). For M = 1. Nowconjugation bythematrix(O?) inducesisomorphisms r F(Nqr) -_F(Nqr).

inducesthe usual actionon cusp forms. q2)mqand TH(N)m.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND a kernel of order divisible by p in JH(N) FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 495 Ji (N). Note that a' is surjective. Then (A') = (q - 1) (T2 - (q)(1 + q)2). q2). We use the same notationin the generalcase whenH $&1 so ( is themap JH(N)3 -* JH(N.There is a maximal ideal ml = (U1.1).as in the earliercases. PROPOSITION 2. m) in Si and Slmi TH(N)m. Suppose thatm is a maximalideal ofTH(N) associated to an irreducible Pm.15) Tap (JH(N)) Tap (JH (N. q2)m. q2)) A Tap (JH(N)3) . Thus we set (A') = (a' o ') where a': TH(N. ?1) in whichTq = trace(Frobq) and apply the Cebotarevdensitytheorem. q2) with the same associated representation as m.Suppose also thatq { Np.4. We let mq denote the reciprocal of in under the natural map TH(N. We provethis in the same manneras we provedProposition2. We suppose now that m is a maximalideal of TH(N) (as alwayswithp E m) associated to an irreduciblerepresentation and that q is a prime. To do this considerthe ring Si = TH(N)[Ui]/Ul(U?2-Tq U1 ? q(q)) C End (JH(N)3) wherethe action of U1 on JH(N)3 is givenby the matrix Tq -(q) 0 0 0 q q L Then U1 satisfiesthe compatibility 0 Oj Uq = Ul 0 One checksthis using the actions on cotangentspaces. For we may identify the cotangentspaces withspaces ofcusp formsand withthisidentification any Heckeoperatort. q2) Next we definea principalideal (A') of TH(N)m using the fact that TH(N. However this kernel will -* not meetthe M(q)-divisible groupforany maximalideal m(q)whose associated is irreducible and Pm hence.6. We now definea maximal ideal mq of TH(N.q { Np. Considerthe maps on p-adic Tate-modulesinducedby ( and (: (2. Proof. ml image TH(N. q2) -* S1. q2)mq - Slm l TH(N)m is the naturalmap and a" is the adjointwithrespectto selectedHecke-module pairingson TH(N. To show that the Tq operatoris in the imageone can use the existenceofthe associated 2-dimensionalrepresentation(cf.and TH(N)m are both Gorensteinrings(cf. Corollary2 to The- orem 2. will not affectthe resultsif afterpassingto p-divisiblegroupswe localize at such an m(q).

U2) is a maximal ideal of S2 and S2. Then Uq( = ( U2 as one can verifybycheckingthe equality( o0) U2 = U1( o ) because ( o ( is an isogeny. z). Then lr*: JH(N. -Tqz. We computethenthat (U1 o 2)=(q-l)(q 1)(Tq-(q)(1 + q)) Now using the surjectivityof ( and that ( has torsion-free cokernelin (2. On restricting (2. The vertical isomorphisms are induced by u2: z ((q)z.5) and that Tam (JH(N)) and Tam (JH(N. We let ir: XH(Nq. We define S2 = TH(N)[U2]/U2(U22-Tq U2 + q(q)) C End (JH(N)3) whereU2 is the endomorphism of JH(N)3 givenby the matrix q 0 -(q) 0 q Tq . q2) -* JH(Nq.q2) -* XH(N. The formulafor ( o ( is given below. Now a calculation shows that on JH(N)3 - 0of = q(q + 1) Tq*. q2)) are each freeof rank2 overthe respectiveHeckerings(Corollary1 ofTheorem2.1). q2) TU1 U2 Tam(JH(N)) Tam(JH(N)).(As beforethe superscriptq denotesthe omissionof Uq from the list of generatorsof TH (Nq.m2Z TH(N)m.496 ANDREW WILES These maps commutewith the standardHecke operatorswith the exception of Tq and Uq (whichare not even definedon all the terms). Again m2 = (i.16) (by Lemma 2. [1 There is one further(and completelyelementary)generalizationof this result. q2) and M(q) denotes the maximal ideal of T(q) (Nq.) .16) > Tam.(q)-'l ( + q) Tq*2 q~~~~~~qq1 Tq *q q(q+ 1) Tq2-(q)(1 + q) Tq . 0.q Tq**q q(q + 1 where Tq*= (q)-1Tq.(JH(N)3) >Tamq(JH(N. q2) compatible with m.q2) be the map given by z -* z.15) to the M2. q2) has kernel a cyclic group and as before this will vanish when we localize at M(q) if m is associated to an irreducible representation.4.q . we deduce the resultas in Proposition2. qz) and ui: z > (0.Mq and m1-adicTate moduleswe get Tam2(JH(N)3) (2.

17) JH(N. q) x JH(N. q2)mqas in the applicationofthe q-expansionprincipleit is important to have all the Heckeoperators.Suppose thatq { Np. f )x + q xf (q) = 0 have absolutevalue q1/2wherec(q. q). As beforethere is a naturalsurjectivehomomorphism a: TH(Nq.6. q) JH(Nfq) - JH(N. In particularas on IF (N. Also when f is a newformof level dividingN the roots of x2 . q )mq Si)me - TH(N)m wheremq is the inverseimage of ml in TH(Nq. q).7. q2) by TH(Nq2) in the definitionof a and Proposition2.c(q. of Tmq= Remark2.(q)) JJ(Uq - fESl c(qf)) f . f) is the eigenvalueofTq and Xf(q) of (q). (Aq) = (q - 1)2 (T2 - (q)(1 + q)2)) The proofis a trivialgeneralizationof that of Proposition2.Here Z is the quotientabelian varietyJH(Nq.8. Since forf on r1(Nqq2).497 MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM We thus have a sequence (not necessarilyexact) JH(N)3 -* q) -)JH(Nq Z ) 0 wherei = lr*o ( whichinducesa corresponding sequenceofp-divisiblegroups whichbecomesexact whenlocalizedat an m(q)corresponding to an irreducible Pm. q2)/ ims.7 below would still hold unchanged.HoweverUq = 0 in Tmq. Uqf is a formon Fr(Nq) we see that Uq(Uq2 . f ) of Uq on newformsof level Nq with q { N are known(cf. q2).) Since both ringsare again Gorensteinwe can definean adjoint a' and a principalideal (Aq) = (a o a') Suppose thatm is a maximalideal of T = TH(N) associatedto an irreduciblerepresentation. . 7r) to give (2.q) x JH(N. q) (q $ p) whichis not associatedto any maximalideal oflevelN (in the senseof havingthe same associatedPm). They satisfyc(q. f)Uq + q(q)) (u fES2 = 0 in TH(Nq. Then PROPOSITION 2. f)I = q1/2 if f is on rF(Nq) but not on r1(N.q). q2) 0 C whereSi is the set of newforms on Ii (Nq) whichare not of level dividingN. To see this we recall that the absolute values of the eigenvaluesc(q. q) and S2 is the set of newforms Uq is in mqit mustbe zero in Tmq A slightlydifferent situationarisesifmis a maximalideal ofT = TH(N. We have includedthe operatorUq in the definition TH(Nq.c(q. [Li]). f )2 = (q) in Of (the of f) if f is on Fl (N. In thiscase we mayuse the map 3 = (r4. ringof integersgeneratedby the Fouriercoefficients and c(q. (We note that one can replace TH(Nq.

The second of these formulaeis standardas mentionedabove. it is enough to solve X2 = (q) Tt' is local and complete. 3]. q)m is already generatedby the standardHecke operators withthe omissionof Uq.q) which are new at q.i.1). again because Pmis not associated to any maximalideal of level N. by the Te fore { Nqp. 3]. In this case Tm = TH(N. forexample [Li. q) generatedbythestandardHeckeoperatorsbut omittingUq.e.the discussion followingCorollary2 of Theorem 2. ?1 (which ensuresthat Pmdoes not occur at level N). q)2. cf. [Cal]).18) Uq) C End (JH(N. For the first considerany newformf of level divisibleby q and observethat the Petersson innerproduct ((UUq . (It is to ensurethat the unramifiedquotientis free of rankone that we assume Pmto be of type (A). This shows that Uq*Uqf(rz).and as in the residuefieldof Tt'. Si whereU1 is givenby the matrix q)[Ui]/Ui(Ui(2.l)f(rz). f(mz)) is zero forany r. q) whereT(q) (N. Assume that Pmis of type (A) at q in the terminologyof Chapter 1. i.e. Th. q)2) U. q) (cf.) We assumenow that Pmis oftype (A) at q. Then this representationis already definedoverthe ZP-subalgebraTt' ofTm generatedby the tracesofFrobenius elements.and TT2= (q) on the m-divisiblegroup.m I (Nq/ levelf) by [Li. Remark2. q) is the subringof TH (N. sincePmis not associatedto any maximalideal oflevelN.9. as TT2 = (q). But we can even do this in ko (the minimalfield of definitionof Pm) by lettingX be the eigenvalueof Frobq on the unique unramifiedrank-onefreequotientof ko and invokingthe lrq 7r(aq) theorem of Langlands (cf. the space spanned by forms{f(sz)} where f runs throughnewformswith q I levelf.a priori a linear combinationof f(miz). So Uq*Uq= 1 on the space of formson rH(N. DefineSi thistimeby setting = TH(N. To see this.considerthe GL2 (Tm) representation of Gal(Q/Q) associatedto the m-adicTate moduleof JH(N. Th. is equal to f(rz). Furthermore. = on JH(N. q)2. where Uq*= Uq(q)1.ANDREW WILES 498 Then (3 o (3 is givenby the matrix q Uq] LUq qj on JH(N. We also writeM(q) . The map (3 is not necessarilysurjectiveand to remedythis we introduceM(q) = mn T(q)(N. In particularUq*preservesthe m-divisible groupand satisfiesthe same relationon it. In particular(q) E Tt'.

The maps vi and v2 are given by v2: z -* (-qz. aqz) and vi: z -* (z.6..m2 .U1) is maximalin S1 and so also in Si. q2)mqand Si. q)2) TI /30-r Tanmq (JH(Nq. q2)[P]m(q) ) JH(N. q)m is the restriction map induced describedabove. q)2 whereU2 is givenby the matrix endomorphisms [Uq qg] This satisfies the compatibility 43U2 = Uq 43.We can replace this conditionby a similarone withM(q) substituted formqand forml. - The surjectivity of$3 o7r*on the completionsis equivalentto the statement that JH(Nj q) 2[P]ml JH(Nq.Uq) be the ringof of JH(N.) The ideal ml = (m. q)m. The inverseimageofmqin TH(Nq. q)2 [P]m(q) . q2) [p]mq is surjective.ml .MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 499 forthe correspondingmaximal ideal of T )(Nq. the surjectivityof JH(Nq. One checks then that v1 o0(c3o7r*)o(7r*oc3)ov2 is equal to -(q .TH(N.1) we can definea principal ideal (Aq) of TH(N.1) (q2 1) or -2(q . 0) where Uq = aq in TH(N. . q)m. i.TH(N.1)2 (q + 1). q2)mq_*Sl. The methodis a straightforward adaptationofthatused forPropositions2.(m(q)) and we let mqdenotethe inverseimage of ml underthis restriction map.(JH(Nt q) ) T I vi V2 Tam(JH(N.U2) in S2 and observethat S2. Suppose that m is a maximal ideal of TH(N. q2) is also a maximalideal whichwe again write mq. 3 and (3 o 7r*are surjectiveand we get a natural restrictionmap of localizationsTH(Nq. We let S2 = TH(N. q)[U2]/U2(U2. q2). Then associatedto an irreducible (Aq) = (q . Then we have maps 1ro0 Tam2(JH(N. Since the completions TH(Nq. by the restriction map on M(q)-localizations PROPOSITION 2. We define m2 = (m. q)) Tam(JH(N.e. q)m by (Aq) = (a o ) where a: TH(Nq.10. q)). q2)) Tam. (Note that the image of Uq under thismap is U1 and not Uq.TH(N. Then on M(q)-divisible groups.4 and 2.m.1)(q2 _ 1). q)m are both Gorensteinrings (by Corollary2 of Theorem 2. q2)(m(q)) I Sl(m(q)). Proof. q) m of type(A).

q2)[p](? Fp.Using the notationH = rHH1 as at the beginningof Section1 set Hl = H1 for1$&q and Hq x Sp = Hq. We assume that m is a maximalideal of TH(Nqr) whereH containsthe Sylowp-subgroupSp of (Z/qrZ)* and that (Xq 1) Pm (2. diagonalizetherepresentation thenin the GL2(Tm) representation the image of Frobq normalizesIq and we can recoverUq as the entryofthe matrixgivingthe value ofFrobq on the unit X theoremof Langlands as before eigenvectorforaq. qr+l).Uq) C End(JH(Nqr)2) where U1 is given by the matrix in (2. The natural map (in which Uq -+ Ui) a: TH. To see this. Pick a aq E Iq.H(Nqr. .19) fora suitablechoiceof basis withXq $&1 and condXq = qr.(Nqr.(Nqrq r~~l ~2O07r' r+l) J JxJ( ) { Np and xJHN definedanalogouslyto (2.A. Here q we assume also that Pmis irreducible. q)2[p]?&Fp has no subquotientas a Galois-modulewhichis irreducible.11.We assume in the analysis of type (B) (and also of type (C) below) that H decomposesas HIHq as describedat the beginningof Section 1. qr+l) -+ XH(Nqr.5 we checkthat 62 is injectiveon the M(q)-divisible group. We define ml = (m. Then because the eigenvaluesofUq are distinctmodm we can withrespectto aq. Then defineH'= rl Hl and let ir' XHi(Nqr.firstassume that Tm is reduced and considerthe GL2(Tm) representation of Gal(Q/Q) associated to the madic Tate module. E The case that correspondsto type (B) is similar. Again we set S1 = TH(Nqr) [Ul]/Ul (U1 .the same reasoningapplied to TM showsthat Uq E Tm.JH(N.or ratherits dual. [Cal]) applied to each of the representations is definedoverthe Zp-algebraTtr generatedby (9f.5 and our hypothesisthat Pmbe of type (A) at q. the inertiagroupin Dq in Gal(Q/Q). qr+ )mq iSiml ~ TH(Nqr)m is surjectiveby the followingremark. Whenwe assumethatPmis oftype(B) thenthe Uq operator is redundantin Tm = TH(Nqr)m. This is by the lrq (iq) obtained frommaps Tm (cf. Using Lemma 2. such that Xq(aq) $&1.5. IfFrobq is a Frobeniusin Dq. The injectivity of 7r* 063 on the completionsand the fact that it has torsion-free cokernelalso follows fromLemma 2.18). This statement. Remark2.two-dimensional and ramifiedat q.5 and where H' is definedas follows.We use the sequence JH(Nq') x JH(Nqr (7r/) * ) 06 I* r JH.ANDREW WILES 500 By our hypothesisthat Pmbe oftype (A) at q it is even sufficient to showthat the cokernelof JH(Nq. qr+l) be the natural map z z. followsfromLemma 2. U1) and let mq be the inverse image of ml in T.17) where62 was as definedin Lemma 2. Since the representation the traces.

Since Uq .q)f (rz). is zero. One sees that on m-completionsTm . the space spanned by forms{f(sz)} where f runs throughnewforms withqr I levelf .vq) is nilpotent.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 501 If Tm is not reduced the above argumentshows only that there is an operatorvq E Ttr such that (Uq .whence the kernelis of finitecardinalityand hence zero. copies of S2(Fr(Nqr-l)) mapped via z -? z and z -? qz.q) f (rz).. Hence Uq = Vq in T also and this finallyshows that Uq E Ttr in general. Th. satisfying thehypothesisthatH containsSp.. f (mz)) = 0 for any m I (Nqr/ levelf ) by [Li. We obtain the following result. There is a restriction map TH(Nqr) -? TH(Nqr)new of whereTH(Nqr)new is the image of TH(Nqr) in the ringof endomorphisms the the old defined as sum of two part being S2(FH(Nqr))/S2(FH(Nqr))old.19) including Pmof type(B) at q. Then since vq E Ttr whichis reduced. By P(x) is a polynomialwith coefficients extendingscalars to (9 (the integersof a local fieldcontainingW(km)) we can assume that the rootslie in T -i Tm 0 (9.(TH(Nqr)new)m since the conductor of Pmis divisible by qr. We compute(Aq) in a similarmannerto the type (A) case. (Again q t Np. Now considerthe map T -? HT(p) wherethe productis taken over the localizationsof T at the minimalprimes p of T. The map is injectivesince the associated primesof the kernelare all maximal. aj of P(x) = 0 because the roots are distinct. 2. a priori a linear combinationof {f(miz)}. Now in each T(p). but using this timethat Uq*Uq = q on the space of formson FH(Nqr) whichare new at q.Vq E p foreach p it followsthat ai = aj foreach p whence Uq = Vq in each T(p). This shows that (Uq*Uq. Uq = ai and Vq = aj for roots aj. W(km) Since (Uq .1)2 ). stein. Finally we have the case wherePmis of type (C) at q. definea principalideal We can therefore (Lq) = (a o thattheringsTH' (Nqr. i.12.vq) is nilpotentit followsthat P(vq)r = 0 forsome r. the space of cusp forms viewed as a ringof endomorphisms of weight2 on FH(Nqr).e. 3(ii)].e. i. Suppose that m is a maximal ideal of TH(Nqr) associatedto an irreducible (2.P(vq) = 0. Now TH(Nqr) can be of S2(FH(Nqr)).as previously.) Then PROPOSITION (LAq) = ((q . qr+l)M and TH(Nqr)m are Gorenusing. To see this let f be any newformof level divisibleby qr and observethat the Peterssoninnerproduct ((UUq . It followsthat Uq E Tm satisfiesan equation of the formP(Uq) = 0 where in W(km) and with distinctroots. We assume then that mis a maximalideal of TH(Nqr) whereH containsthe Sylowp-subgroup .

in this sectionwe state Proposition2.(q) Lq ? i Thus. Finally. (Notice that the propositiondoes not requirethe conditionthat Pmsatisfy(2.i. 'Uq = U1. Siml .. The proofof the followingproposition is analogous (but simpler)to the proofof Proposition2.502 ANDREW WILES Sp of (Z/q'Z)* and that H1(Qqi WA)= 0 (2.4 in the case q ? p as this will be used in Chapter3. We set (Aq) = (a(o&) where a: TH' (Nq')m TH(Nq') is the induced map on the completions. A TH(N.20) but thisis the case in whichwe will use it.20) whereWAis definedas in (1.SI.TH(N)m 0 W(km) W(k ) wherek+ is the extensionof kmgeneratedby the eigenvaluesof {pm(Frobq)}. ciatedto an irreducible Then (Aq) = (q- 1).) Let mq denote the correspondingmaximal ideals of TH(N.21) TH(N)[Ul] /{U2 where ): JH(N. q) -. where m is a maximalideal of TH(N) with associated irreduciblePm.q { Np and let Si denotethe ring (2. q) matrix -- - TqUi + (q)q} C End(JH(N)2) JH(N)2 is the map defined after (2.10) and Ui is the Tq .13. q)m. (We will only need this case and it simplifiesthe exposition.e.the latterbecause Tq is a trace in the 2-dimensionalrepresentation .6) but withPmreplacingpO. The maps A. Thus k+ is eitherequal to kmor its quadratic extension. whichas beforeare Gorensteinrings. WA= ado Pm. nq l(q). The corresponding (2. a are surjective.22) TH(Nq)m. q) and TH(Nq) underthe naturalrestrictionmaps TH(Nq) maps on completionsare TH(N. Let ml be a maximal ideal of Si containing the image of m.We will also assume that pm(Frobq) has distincteigenvalues. Let q be a prime. Supposethatm is a maximalideal ofTH(Nqr) assoPmwithH containingtheSylowp-subgroupof(Z/qrZ)*. This time we let mq be the inverseimage of m in THI (Nqr) under the natural restrictionmap THI (Nqr) ) TH(Nqr) with H' definedas in the case of type B.10. Also (q) is definedas (nq) wherenq _ q(N).) PROPOSITION 2.

1) (so in particularis irreducible)and is of typeVD= (. Serrealso made a conjecture (the 'e'-conjecture)makingprecisewhereone could finda liftingof po once one assumed it to be modular (cf. (We wish to use weight2 only.) Let N(po) be the primeto p part of the conductorof po as definedforexamplein [Se]. Remark.> is of typeV' = (.Then PROPOSITION 2.1 and so we defineinvariantideals of Si..O.(). The proofof Proposition2. 6. This was proved(in slightlyless generality)by Ribet. = Se. The is a minoradaptationofthe epsilonconjectureto our situationwhich following can be foundin [Dia.M) with. Suppose thatpo is modularand satisfies(1. [Se]). THEOREM 2. The most difficultstep was to show that if po was unramified at a prime1 thenone could finda liftingin which1 did not divide the level. Carayol. Then thereexistsa newformf of weight2 and a prime A of Of such thatpf.4 yields Suppose thatPmis irreduciblewherem is a maximal ideal ofTH(N) and thatpm(iFrobq) has distincteigenvalues.4'.4].M) for some O'.22). Suppose thatat least one of thefollowingconditionsholds(i) p > 3 or (ii) po is not inducedfroma characterof Q(V'/=). str or fl.m1 (2. Th. The main conjectures As we suggestedin Chapter 1. O. (A) = (A/) = (agq-(a2 )X (c(2 _ (q))(q .2. in orderto studythe deformation-theory of po in detail we need to assume that it is modular.1).22).po over Fp.14. Note that ifwe suppose also that q ideal and a is an isomorphismin (2. That this should always be so fordetpo odd was conjecturedby Serre.The completionsare Gorensteinby Corollary2 to Theorem2. Mazur. and such that (pf. This has now been provedby the combinedeffortsof a numberof authors includingRibet.EO'.Amod A) .1 and hence is 'redundant'by the Cebotarevdensitytheorem. (A') = (aUof6) o (C Let aq be the imageofU1 in TH(N)m 09 W(k+) underthe last isomorphism W(km) in (2. Edixhovenand others.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 503 to GL2(TH(N)m) given afterTheorem 2.23) (A) = (aUo &). Moreoverwe can assume thatf has characterXf of orderprime to p and has levelN(po)p6(PO) . 1(p) then (i\) is the unit 3. For a precise statementand completereferenceswe referto Diamond's paper [Dia] which removedthe last restrictionsreferredto in Ribet's surveyarticle [Ri3].

Suppose firstthat we are in the flat. If po is exceptionalwe let T4(M) denotethe ringgeneratedby the operators {T1 for1 t Mp. (a) for(a. Mp) = 1}. Recall that when referring = that E and that W.14.X2(Frobp).25(b)) The o soW(k) Tv= T(M)mi f 0 . (9.. For the rest of this chapterwe will assume that po is modular and that ifp = 3 then po is not inducedfroma characterof Q(j/=S).ANDREW WILES 504 whereb(Po) = 0 if POIDp is associated to a finiteflat groupscheme over Zp in the Selmer case and detpo = aw.There kmiis generatedby the traces.k2 is the representation at Define where the inertia q. =Mzp(PO) where r(po) = 1 if po is ordinary and r(po) = 0 otherwise. If UA. ?1). Mp) = 1. Here and in the restof the paper we use the term'induced' to signifythat the representation is inducedafteran extensionof scalars to the algebraicclosure. The omissionofthe HeckeoperatorsUq forq I MO ensuresthat TD is reduced. Henceforth is one exceptionalcase wherepo is ordinaryand POIDp is isomorphicto a sum oftwo distinctunramified characters(X1 and X2 in the notationof Chapter 1.kowherekois thesmallestpossiblefieldofdefinition forpo because Then km_ we will identifyko withkm'.25(a)) 0 W(ko) (9. Suppose ordinary {qj} and that N(po) = detpolI space of po we set nq = H qi with si > 0.2) where ap(f) is the eigenvalueof Up.24) MO= N(po) 11 qj* nqi=l qj FMU{p} 1 nq =2 M qi.Furthermore we can assume thatap(f) X2(FRobp) mod A in the notationof (1.)Iq (2. Iq is group MO and M by dimk(U>. ...Selmeror strict to the flat case we assume that po is not cases. '.) Then in the exceptionalcase km"e is eitherkoor its quadraticextensionand we define (2. Up}. (Note that X2 is specifiedby D. (. Let H be the subgroupof (Z/MZ)* generatedby the Sylowp-subgroupof (Z/qiZ)* foreach qi E M as well as by all of (Z/qiZ)* foreach qi E M of type (A). For each D = {.and 6(po) = 1 otherwise. Note that m' does not dependon the particularchoiceofpair (f. We choose m" to be a maximal e 4 k (over ideal of TV(M) lyingabove m' forwhichthereis an embeddingkmno ko = kmi)satisfyingUp -. M} we will now definea Hecke ring TD except where is unrestricted. (a) for (a. Let T/(M) denotethe ringgeneratedby the standardHeckeoperators{T1 for1 t Mp. If po is not exceptionalwe define YD = T (M)m' (2. E. Let m' denotethe maximalideal ofT'(M) associatedto the f and A givenin the theoremand let kmibe the residuefieldT'(M)/m'. A) in theorem2.

.) Then fo is an eigenform choice of f) with Of. of its associated L-series) is (1-Oqi (g)qTS) (1..!q (g)q S) in the firstcase and (1. ( Xqr2i ..p p-s) where 3p is the non-uniteigenvaluein (Of.. If we considerTH(M) in place of T'(M) we get a similarmap but we have to replacethe ring0g by the ring Sg = 09g[Xql . and qijll(M/ level(g)). qr } f = are the distinctprimesdividingMp. coefficients. XP]/{Yi. we describethenonexceptionalcase indicatingwhere Proof.) SimilarlyZp is . To constructmwe taketheeigenform f ofTheorem2. Here (Xqj - qi(g)) (Xqi - Xqrii(Xqi -aqi(g)) qi (9()) if qj t level(g) if qi I level(g)..e. TV (M) replacingT'(M) and kintreplacingko. For simplicity appropriatethe slightmodificationsneeded in the exceptionalcase. can also be describedas the ringof integersgeneratedby the eigenvaluesof the operators in T'(M) acting on g.{M U p}..MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 505 We need to relateTD to a Hecke ringwithno missingoperatorsin order to apply the resultsof Section 1. In the nonexceptionalcase thereis a maximalideal withmn T' (M) = m' and ko = km.. Since the Hecke operatorswe have used to generateT'(M) are primeto the level thereis an inclusionwithfiniteindex T' (M)c+fl O9g whereg runsoverrepresentatives of the Galois conjugacyclasses of newforms associatedto FH(M) and wherewe notethatbymultiplicity one O.. thus giving TD2 TH(M)m 0 (9O W(ko) In the exceptional case the same statements hold withm" replacing m'. 2. (We allow aqi(g) to be zero here. > TH(M)m is an isomorphism. Xqr.aqj (g)qi-S) in the second case. We have a correspondinghomomorphism -* = lrf0: TH(M) O9f... (By 'removingEuler factors'we mean take the eigenformwhose L-series is that of f with these Euler factorsreofweight2 on FH(M) (thisis ensuredby the moved.Aand we let m 7r-i(A).)and such thatthe natural PROPOSITION m for TH(M) map T' (M)m.15. qj. where the Euler factor of g at qj (i.14 foobtainedfromthenewform by removingthe Euler factorsat all primesq E .. If po is ordinary and f has level prime to p we also remove the Euler factor (1 . zp}tj1 where{p..

Up or ) Xp (accordingas p I M or p t M). Xp]/{Yi.***Xqr.29) (Sg 0 Zp)m - ((Og 0 Zp) [Xq \ilp X I. Zp}.ap(g)p-8) in the thirdcase. ap(g)p-8+ Xg(p)pl-2.r1 in whichXqj is topologicallynilpotentfor . Now we tensorall the ringsin (2.. Now (Sg)mis givenby (2.27) H Og C0 f f TH(M) HSg = r C 9 9 09g[Xql . Here IL runs throughthe primesabove p in each 0g forwhichm' TH'(M) X)9.ANDREW WILES 506 definedby J Xp2- Zp = + pXg(P) ifp M. To verifythe existenceof such Tp one considersthe action of TH(M) on the space of formsof a homomorphism weight2 invariantunderrH(M) and uses that I>r=1gj(mjz) is a freegenerator as a TH(M) 0 C-module where{gj} runs overthe set of newformsand mj = M/level(gj).27) with Zp.j denotesthe productof the factorsof the completesemi-localring Qgqs[Xq1. X***Xqr.) in the first Xp..27) withrespectto m' and the bottomrowwithrespectto m we get a commutativediagram T' (M)mi (2..(M) (2.ap(g) wherethe Euler factorof g at p is (1 two cases and (1 . Zp}1 where the lower map is given on {Uqi. We then have a commutative diagram T'. *Xqr Xp]/{YiX Zp}i IL under )m Jm whereA9.Xp]/{Yi. Then completingthe top rowof (2. Up or Tp} by Uq% o Xqj.28) 5 ( { TH(M)m 0U))m r { C ( Sg) 9 I ( H(Sg)m. p t level(g) ap(g)XXp 1 ifp{M Xp-ap(g) ifplevel(g).

i. This = 0 otherwise. when qj V M and in whichXp is a unitifwe are in the ordinary is a unit at m in theordinary is if This because m and E M Up p IM).it followsthatUp generated is definedoverthe Zp-subalgebra by is containedin thissubring.ofrank to Theorem2.09g.u) = dim(Ug. Kg... We havenowshownthateachAg. For q E M of type (A).Theorem2..28) and (2..4(whenm'-* iL) and it follows from(2.withbi= 0 ifqj V M.) = 0 foreach pair (g. We use to checking herethatcxq2 (9).ir(aq) theorem(cf.biforsomebi E 0g. Similarly Zp is givenup to a unitbyXp .Let Uglydenotethe 2-dimensional We wishto checkthat Galoisactionvia pgq and let nqi(g..21)). We nowconsiderthe primesqi E M.)) fqi As bydefinition qirII(M/levelg) we deducethatri = nqi(g. theclaimis straightforward. in the ZP-subalgebra of TH(M)m generated by the {Ti: 1 t Mp. Nowbydefinition theyare eigenvalues ofLivne is thesameas thatdividing N(po)qji (cf.)'qi.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 507 case (i..In the exceptionalcase Up is in TV4(M)mtt definition.(g...11... (a): a E (Z/MZ)*}.[Liv].. (2. willshowthat(Ag. Uq E T' (M)m' as explained in Remark 2. If po is strictor Selmerat p then after from thetwo-dimensional representation p (described Upcanbe recovered ofFrobpon the(free.?1]).1L)withm' -+ IL. and Yi (Ag.30) (levelg) = ordqi(N(po)qini ordqi (q.9 and forq E M of type (B). We have in the sensethat to showthatthe operatorsUq forq E M are redundant theylie in T' (M)m'. in thesenseexplained Finallywe haveto showthatTpis also redundant { abovewhenp M.1) as theeigenvalue thecorollaries one) unramified quotient(cf. For in thiscase nq = 0 whencealso nq(g. .I) as required.29) thatwe havehomomorphisms T1 (M)mt C TH(M)m )9gj J we haveseenthatUqi= 0 are offiniteindex.1.ap(g) whereap(g) is theunitrootofx2-ap(g)x + PXg(P)= 0 in 0g. A proofofthishasalreadybeengiveninSection2 (Ribet's ..e. Uq= 0 by the lrq . Uq E T/(M)m' as explainedin Remark2. Forq E M oftype(C) butnotoftype(A)..u)bythelrq ir(oq) theorem(cf.e.i)m Forqj V M.4of [Wil]).'vectorspace with to the following. As thisrepresentation by the traces. it amounts Forqi E M andforp.ap(g) ifp levelg orp t M.(2. = in (2.[Ca2. By an observation (cf.)m Xqi.ji whenm' --+ILand (Ag.i)m Yj Xqj = thatri nqi(g. /qj(g) andaqi(g) arep-adicunitswhentheyarenonzerosince thepowerofqi dividingM ofFrobqi. qj V Uqj case.Moreover wheretheinclusions in TH(M)m forqj V M. [Cal]).[Cal]). we claimthatYi is givenup to a unitby Now if m' -u then in (Ag-.26) thisreduces in from the definition of unit.)m.4 ifp t levelg and p I M and byXp .

e.M). Here we give an alternativeargumentusing the Galois representations. Explicitlyit is a quotientofthe groupschemeJH(M)m[p]/Zp. This completesthe proofof the proposition.508 ANDREW WILES lemma).p). P)+km[E] = TH(M)m/a wherekm[E]is the ringof dual numbers(so E2 = 0) with the propertythat Tp As withA $&0 and such that the image of T' (M)m. Next we defineTD in the case when D = (ord.For the restof this chapter we will alwaysmakethis choiceof m (givenpo). It followsthat Tp = 0 in km[E] whichcontradictsour earlierhypothesis. Cor.so by [Rayl. Now G/QP extends to a finiteflat group scheme GIZP. Up V n) of TH(Np) withN primeto p thenHida has constructeda 2-dimensionalNoetherianlocal Hecke ring Too = e TH(Np')n:= lim e TH(Npr)nr which is a A = ZpJ[T-algebra satisfyingTO/T .6]. Oi FRomthe proofofthe propositionit is also clear thatmis the uniquemaximal ideal of TH(M) extendingm' and satisfyingthe conditionsthat Uq E m forq e E .TH(Np)n.p) then there is a quotient TH(M)m/(m . Tp = 0 on G/ZP. lies in km.1. [Rayl]) we know G/ZP -G/Z eGo/Z Now by the Eichler-Shimura relationwe knowthat in JH(M)/F Tp = F + (p)F Since Tp E m it followsthat F + (p)FT = 0 on Go/F and hencethe same holds on G/FP. So Tp E (m2. 3. . If n is any ordinarymaximalideal (i. Also T = lim(1+ Np) -1 .Let G/Q denotethe four-dimensional km-vector space associated to the representation Pe: Gal(Q/Q) ) GL2 (km[6]) in Theorem2. Here nr is the inverseimageofn underthe naturalrestriction map. If Tp V (mi2.p) as required.Q.3. But Tp is an endomorphismof G/ZP whichis zero on the special fibre. It has the form inducedfromthe representation G/Qc?GO/Q ED GO/Q whereGO is the correspondingspace associated to po by our hypothesisthat ofG/Q hereis obtainedfromthe main the traceslie in km. Writingkmforthe residuefieldTH(M)m/m we reduceto the followingsituation.The semisimplicity theoremof [BLR].Since extensions to Zp are unique (cf.{M U p} and Up V m ifpo is ordinary. We knowthat Tp E m and it will be enoughto show that Tp E (m2.

assume . W(km) the isomorphismcomingfromProposition2.m being the maximalideal of RE. then TD/q is associated to an eigenformin a naturalway (generalizingthe case n = 0.15. (Frobl) togetherto give a continuousrepresentation (2.n. [Mal. i. k = 2).8]). whereD' = (Se .Here RE is the universaldeformationringdescribedin Chapter 1 with respectto po viewed withresiduefieldk = km. ?1.: Gal(Q/Q) - GL2(TD) where 3 is the set of primesdividingMp.32) TD YDIT'. To see this we need to checkthe of the maps commutativity Rs-> Tn Tn-1 wherethe horizontalmaps are inducedby Pn and Pn-1 and the verticalmap is the naturalone.It suffices thento showthat RE is generated(topologically)by tracesand thisreducesto checkingthat thereare no nonconstant deformations ofpo to k[E]withtraceslyingin k (cf.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 509 and e = limU!.e. whichare tracesor determinants in the universalrepresentation.33) p = limp. whereD' is the same as D but with 'Selmer' replacing'ord'.25(a)). For thenifRtr denotesthe closed W(k)-subalgebraof RE generatedby the traceswe see that Rtr --(RE/m2) is surjective. For each n > 1 let Tn = TH(Mopl). sincetrace (Frob1) |-4 T1 underboth horizontalmaps and similarlyfordeterminants. (IM). To see that the conditionholds. Mp) detp.. For moredetails about these ringsas well as about A-adic modularformssee forexample [Wil] or [Hil]. We will defineTD by YD = eTH(MOPc?)m (2.31) 0 (9) W(km) In particularwe see that (2. by YD TH(MOP)m 0 (9. can be patched These representations 1(1) for(1. Then by the argumentgiven Pn afterthe statementofTheorem2. Moreoverif q is a heightone primeideal of TD containing((1 + T)P' .(1 + NP)Pn(k-2)) forany integersn > 0 k > 2.1 we can constructa Galois representation tracep (Frob 1) = T1. Now the commutativity is valid on elementsof RE. For an irreduciblepo of type D we have definedTpD in r (2. fromwhich we easily conclude that Rtr = RE. unramified outsideMp withvaluesin GL2(Tn) satisfying = = 1.

1 and in (2. It by a representation followseasily that if the traces of p lie in k then p takes values in k whence can one sees that the universalrepresentation it is equal to po.28) the resultingrepresentation that the imageofthe canonicalmap RpD TO = II 0g9.Iu) observefirstthat forq E M we have imposedthe following conditionson the level and characterof such g's by our choiceof M and H: - q of type (A): qIIlevelg.1.tI is the Teichmiiller liftingof det po I. (This is possible c and poG(o) [p]to k[e]can be represented because po is irreducible.(In the case where*is ord thisneeds to be checked instead forT. 0 (9 foreach n. [Cal]).is TD wherehere denotesthe normalization. so the associated representations are equivalent..) But we saw above that this was true for RD is surjectivebecause the map RE. This holds because it can be identified.510 ANDREW WILES that a basis is chosenso that po(c) = (1 _0)fora chosencomplexconjugation with b = 1 and c. detpg.. (Alternatively be definedoverRtrby diagonalizingcomplexconjugationas before. (1. 54 0 forsome a. For thenwe claim appears in (2.Since the two maps Rt-+ Tn_. The same thenholds forRD as RE on reduced cotangentspaces is surjective(cf.33).|I = 1. inal inspirationforMazur's deformation For each D = {. q of type (C): det pg. Then one just has to checkthat foreverypair (g.detpg.)in the exceptionalcase)..4 of [Wil].) For this we just need to see that RD is W(ko) generatedby traces. 3.0. with the image of u E RD whereu is the eigenvalueof Frobp on the quotientofRD witheigenvalue X2 (Frobp) which uniquerankone unramified is specifiedin the definitionof D.pa)which is of typeD.5)). M} where is not unrestrictedthere is then a canonicalsurjectivemap Wp : RD YTD whichinducestherepresentations describedafterthecorollariesto Theorem2. To checkthe condition on the pairs (g. q of type (B): condXqlIlevelg.induced by the triangleare the same. (In the exceptionalcase we have to show also that Up is in the image.and the universalpropertythen implies of the triangle.| I = Xq.)Then any deformation p such that p(c) and p(or) have the same properties. The thirdcase is already of . usingTheorem2.33) werefirstexhibitedby Hida and werethe origThe representations theory. It is enoughto checkthis when (9 = W(ko) (or W(km.) the commutativity (2. In the firsttwo cases the desiredformof PgqDi then followsfromthe 1rq 'K(0q) theoremof Langlands (cf.

MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 511 type (C).4' at the end of Section 2. The conjecturewill be provedwitha mild restrictionon po at the end of Chapter3. M and m are definedas in (2. FpD is an isomorphism. The case of most interestto us is whenp = 3 and po is a representationwith values in GL2(F3). It will be convenientto assume that the residuefieldof (9 contains si.15. The followingconjecturegeneralizesa fundamentalconjectureof Mazur and Tilouine forV = (ord.24) and Proposition2.qr) whereany qi dividesthe levelofthe form. MO.. describedafter Equivalentlythis conjecturesays that the representation thecorollariesto Theorem2.16. str or fl and suppose that H.This can be seen directlyby looking at (Frobqi) in such a representation or by usingProposition2. /3ifor each qi. Remark. (B). the flatcase beingwell-known. For q = p one can use Theorem2. qr} with qi { Mp.A.33) in theordinarycase) is the universal one fora suitablechoiceofH. For GL2(F3) is a double coverof S4 and can be embeddedin GL2(Z[VA/=])whencein GL2(C).. In this case it is a theoremof Tunnell. /i} of po(Frobqi) are distinctforeach qi E Q. cf. cf. [Se] and [Tu]. . (9. What makesthisdifficult forus is that thereare thennontrivialramifiedlocal deformations(IndQPXf for( a ramifiedcharacterof orderp of K) whichwe cannotdetectby a changeof level. We remindthe readerthatthroughout this section we are assumingthat if p = 3 then po is not induced froma characterof Q(+-/=).1.that po is alwaysmodular. M) is a standard deformationproblem so far.4 of [Wil] in the ordinarycase. 0). [MT].. We choose a finiteset of primes Q = {q1. This last conditionensuresthatpo does notoccuras theresidualrepresentation of the A-adic representation associated to any newformon FH(M. extendingresultsof Langlands. For the purposesof Chapter 3 it is convenientto digressnow in orderto introducea slightvariantof the deformation ringswe have been considering = ( *. Remark. . Withoutthiskindofstabilityit can happenthataftera base changeofQ to an extensionunramifiedat A. The typicalexampleof thisis wherePo D = IndQ (x) withq -I(p) and X is a ramifiedcharacterover K. the unramifiedquadratic extensionof Qq.1 (or in (2. N and m. po 0 ' has smaller'conductor'forsome character A. (C) forpo was motivatedby the wish that the deformationtype (a) be of minimalconductor among its twists. Our originalrestrictionto the types (A). . CONJECTURE 2. Suppose that D (associated to po) with * = Se.(b) retainproperty(a) underunramifiedbase changes. W(ko). Furthermorewe assume that each qi _ 1(p) and that the eigenvalues{ci. q.

(In the exceptionalcase we also imposethe same conditionon moabout the reduction ofTD in the exceptionalcase before(2.15.. -+ ai under the chosen embedding kQ -. with mQ -4 pi.qiunramifiedand X2. we checkthat Uq is in the image of . theorem(cf..35) TQ = TH(Nql .34) P X Xlqi _.14.14 with the propertythat pmo PO over Fp relative to a suitable embedding of kM0-+ k over ko..k.7r(q) type DQ.mod A over the residue fieldof OfA.. Let modenote a maximal ideal of TH(N) given by Theorem 2.A. Then associated to each factorOgt is of each of the 2-dimensionalrepresentations for each can check this We q E Q using eitherthe Wq . W(k-Q) It is easy to see directly(or by the argumentsof Proposition2.fi.1 ofthe Galois conjugacyclasses wherethe productis takenoverrepresentatives of eigenformsg of level Nqj .15. We set (2.37) (oQ: RQ.qi (Frobqj) -i basis.ANDREW WILES 512 problemassociated to Pick ai foreach i. (These new conditionsare reallyvariantson type (B). forq I N(po)p.. This is not an isomorphismin generalas we have used N in place of M.25)(b).( X ) mod m fora suitable choice of with X2. So we get relationifq does not dividethe levelofthe newform a homomorphism of (9-algebrasRQ -+ TQ and hence also an 0-algebra map (2.) Thus of Up as in the definition pmo pf. q. Indeed.The fieldkmQis the extensionof ko (or kmin the exceptionalcase) generatedby the caj. One checksas in Chapter 1 that associated to DQ thereis a universal deformation ringRQ. By droppingone of the Euler factorsat each qj as in the proofof Proposition2. qr) with the property that pmQ PO over Fp relative to a suitable in embeddingkmQ-+ k over kM0.) Heckeringin a veryspecial case and it We willonlyneed a corresponding is convenientin thiscase to defineit usingall the Heckeoperators. Now define DQ using the choices ai for which Uq. we obtain a formand hence a maximalideal mQ of TH(Nql .TQ as RQ is generatedby traces.15) that TQ is reducedand that thereis an inclusionwithfiniteindex (2.Let us now set N = N(po)p6(Po)where6(po) is as definedin Theorem2.36) TQ >TQ = J09g. We let DQ be the deformation representations p of Gal(QsuQ/Q) whichare oftypeD and whichin addition satisfythe propertythat at each qj E Q (2.Q 0 (9. forsome choice of f and A with f of level N. [Cal]) as in the case of type (B) or using the Eichler-Shimura associatedto g.. qr). Howeverit is surjectiveby the argumentsof Proposition2.

40) HDQ (QEUQ/Q.M) with . For q E Q we use the fact that Uq is the image of the value of X2. Howeverthis could be achievedif one replaced Q by a suitable finiteextensiondepending on po. and PfA a deformation ofpo of typeD whereD = (.)Suppose furtherthat level(f) I M where M is definedby (2. (Of. Then as in Proposition1. str or fl. but not of the previous types. Let V = Adpp0 K/c whereK is the fieldof fractionsof 0. (2. For q I M.15.oQ.38) CAdpOK/O - = P() a g)} c d ) {( b):a~b~cdE0}?K/0 ' ' ' and let V(qi)= V/V(qi). (qi) We returnnow to our discussionof Conjecture2. 0.f: T-D 40 . We pick a basis Finally.34) and thenlet {( (2.24). ker: (2140) V) = H1/(Q/ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~q H uQ/Q1 V) i=1 v (Qunr.A.Tq is a trace in PTQ and we can apply the Cebotarev densitytheorem to show that it is in the image of .not everypo has an associated minimalD even whenpo is flator ordinaryat p as explainedin the remarksafterConjecture2. if there is a section a: TQ -+ 0 forPP satisfying(2.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S 513 LAST THEOREM (pQ using the argumentsin the second halfof the proofof Proposition2.16. Z. Now let us set 0 = OfA forthe restof this section.strictor flat. = Se. (2. A is a primeofOf above p Suppose nowthat f is a (normalized)newform. We will call a deformationtheoryD minimalif E = M U {p} and is Selmer.q(Frobq) in the universalrepresentation.when possible.34).41) r= rD.39) Hom0(pRQ/p1Q2K/O) HEQ (QEuQ/QIV) wherePRQ = ker(iro FQ) and the second termis definedby (2.2 we have an isomorphism (2. There is a homomorphism .1.. then set pQ = ker7rand let pp denote the 2-dimensionalrepresentation to GL2(0) obtainedfromPTQ mod pQ.by the conditionthat the representations arise fromfiniteflatgroup schemes-see the remarkafterthe proofof Theorem3. This notionwill be criticalin Chapter 3.A/A.) Unfortunately even up to twist.16. (Strictlyspeakingwe may be changingpo as we wish to choose its fieldof definition to be k = Of. (A slightlystrongernotionof minimalityis describedin Chapter3 wherethe Selmerconditionis replaced. cf.

Zp) givenby 'p F traceof is easily seen to be an isomorphism. Now let *: 0 -. The followingtheoremreducesconjecture2.. str. M) and Di = (.514 ANDREW WILES whose kernelis the primeideal PT. 0) are isomorphisms.Corollary2 of Theorem2. Pick perfectpairingsof 0-modules. ): Tv xTv O. W(km)) Homzp (TH(M)m. i.) Indeed the map Homw(k.C0 whose kernelis the primeideal PR. M1) we allow that El D E. E.f associated to f and A. In additionthesecondone is requiredto be Tv-linear.16 to a 'class number' criterion. We use the termrestrictedto signifythat is Se.fassociated to f and A and whichfactors throughlrf. Fromits description(71)is invariant TvD/71 underextensionsof 0 to 0' in an obviousway. the second one TD-bilinear. The existenceofthesecond pairingis equivalentto the Gorensteinproperty. We will say that Di D V if we obtain Di by relaxingcertain of the hypotheseson D.1. Thus Tv is a Gorenstein0-algebra. 0) we set (tl. ord or unrestrictedin Di.43) up to a unit in 0.(The notionof Gorenstein0-algebra is explained in the appendix. In each case we use the termperfectpairingto signifythat the pairsofinduced maps ( --) Homo (0. A prioriTH(M)m (occurringin the descriptionofTv in Proposition2. (.15) is only Gorensteinas a Zp-algebrabut it followsimmediatelythat it is also a GorensteinW(km)-algebra. is fl in Di it can be fl in 1i.42) 0 X 0 -0. if19= (. as we explain below.. Similarlythereis a homomorphism Rv . 0iOi.see Proposition1.2.4. 0. Since Tv is reduced r(r1)+ 0. M D M1 (but of the same type) and if is Se or str in D it can be Se.e. Then definea principalideal (71)of Tv by (10 = OqDj) = (* (1)). One can also verifythat (2. if . For an interpretation of the right-handside of the inequalityin the theoremas the orderof a cohomologygroup. or unrestricted fl or ord. This is well-defined of the pairingsand moreoverone sees that independently is torsion-free (see the appendix). For an of the left-handside in termsof the value of an innerproduct. t2) = h(tit2). (2. interpretation see Proposition4.) (TH(M)m.as the reduction modp is injectiveand the ranksare equal. .Tv be the adjoint of ir withrespectto these pairings. 0) and Tv -* Homo (Tv. Explicitlyif h is a generatorof the freeTV-module Homo(TD. str. any O1.

If aq: Tq -.#PT/PT . Proof.c/(1 over(9. We now proveinductivelythat we can deduce the same inequality # 01/1"1.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 515 THEOREM 2. Let us writeT forTD.q forPRJfwithR = RDq and rq for 7Pqfj We recall that Uq = 0 in Tq.46) T Homo(T.48) (Aq) = ((q - 1)2(T2 - (q)(1 + q)2)) . D D. Part (ii) By Proposition2 ofthe appendixT is a completeintersection of the theoremthenfollowsforD. (9).Then it is clear that (2. We explainthisfirstin the case D.17. Assume.So the Fittingideal of PT/p2 as an 0-module is containedin (r1)and the conclusionis theneasy.T/rqacts faithfully on PT.A. Suppose that > #0/l(mDf) #PR.f (2. 0 = O9f.45) forD. The above argumentwill thenprovethe theorem fromD only forV1. Homo(Tq.44) (Here and in what followswe sometimeswriteq forir(r) ifthe contextmakes this reasonable. Let us writeTq forTDq. is Se.47) (q(q)) = (JAq) as principalideals of T. str or fl. So togetherwith the hypothesisof the theoremwe get inequalities(and henceequalities) #0e/7r(7) > #PR/PR >. (9) Tq comingfromthe fact that each of the rings is a Gorenstein0-algebra. D 9D and R1 = RD1.f/IRf Then for all (restricted)Di D 1. Part (i) followsforD fromProposition1 of the appendix. as above. Then we alwayshave #//p ? #1'T/1T (2. thatpf. PR forPRf and 71for?D. M) with = Se.) This is provedas follows. We choose isomorphisms (2. PT forPTf.Ais a deformation of po of type19= (E.:RD1 _TM1 is an isomorphism (ii) TD1 is a completeintersection(over 01 if. PR. = 1Dqwhere1Dqdiffers in replacingE by E U{q}. Hence the Fittingideal of PT as a T/rq-moduleis zero. In particular7r(rq)= Ir(? Aq) in (. Now it followsfromProposition2. The same is then true of /p2 as an X)7 = (T/71)/pT-module.f/PRI1.f.).f > #PRi. (i) pD1.T is the naturalmap we mayconsiderthe elementAq = aqo &q E T wherethe adjoint is withrespectto the above isomorphisms.7 thattheprincipalideal (Aq) is givenby (2. str or fl) for all restrictedD.

3. where ap is the unit root of X2 -Tpx + p(p) = 0. 2. Note that forthe ord case if R is a local Noetherian ring and f E R is not a unit and not a zero divisor.2 and 1. (B). and to change fromSe to ord we use (1.42). Cor. T = TH(M)m W(km. 2.42) we see that the ideal (Aq) is unchanged when we use W(km)-algebra pairings. (T.8 on p. and hence also when we extend scalars to ( as in (2. using the description of the pairings as W(km)-algebras derived fromthese Zp-pairings in the paragraph following (2. 2. Combiningthiswith(2. If we suppose in the Selmer case that f has level N with p t N we can also consider the ring TH(MO)mo (with Mo as in (2. To change from an (9-algebra to an (91-algebra is straightforward(the complete intersectionpropertycan be checked using [Kul.Po and p with respect to these rings. Zp).4) and (2. Ap) = (T-(p)(l (22 ?p)2)) = (a2 _ (p)) as principal ideals of T. .8 that #PR~ /p2 < #PR/p2 *#H?(Qqi V*). Zp) to define (LAq) = (aqo &q).18.To and the adjoint is taken with respect to (-pairings on T and To.516 ANDREW WILES In the statement of Proposition 2. W(krn) Define r10.4]). 209]). If M $ 0 we use a similar argument to pass fromD to Dq where this time Dq signifiesthat D is unchanged except for dropping q from M. [BH.10. Th. In each of types (A).0) 0 (9.4 (2.7 we used Zp-pairings T - HomZ.7. Tq - Homzp (Tq.32).1 strict deformations and Selmer deformationsare the same.48) gives(2. The change fromstr to ord reduces to this since by Proposition 1.2 and 1. This time set To = TH(MO)no 0 (9. For some earlier work on how deformation rings change with E see [Bo]. We then have by Proposition 2. This is in agreementwith Propositions2.49) (rjp) = (n .45).12 and 2. Remark 2. However. and (C) one checks fromPropositions 1. Remark.13 which give the corresponding change in r1by the method described above. then R is a complete intersection if and only if R/f is (cf.24) and mo defined in the same way as for TH(M)).rj. (q)(1 + q2)} - by Propositions1. and let (Ap) = oo &p where OP: T .47) and (2. This completes the -1 proof of the theorem. On the other hand #PR~q/PR7q< #PR/R #{O/(q-1)2 (T.

Aof po of type D (altering k if necessaryand replacing( by a ring containingOf. Here we is Selmerand make a slightmodificationof this ring.M U {p}.see the proofof Proposition2. For the rest of this chapter. We beginby showingthat the bound forthe Selmergroupto whichit was reduced in Theorem 2. Then as explained in Theorem 2.(9. H definedfollowing(2.16.A. We remindthe reader that k is assumed to be the residuefieldof (. In Chapter 2.15 ensuresthat thereis a maximalideal moof TH(MO) withmo n T1 (Mo) = m' and such that the naturalmap (3. In the case where POIDP is associated to a finiteflatgroupschemeand detpo I = Wwe set (3.1) TDo = T'H (MO)' W/0 with Mo as in (2.24) (it is actually a subgroup of (Z/Mo Z)*) and m' the maximal ideal of T' (Mo) associated to po. Section3. Theorem2.we will make the assumptionthat po is not of this exceptionaltype.) We now defineTDO in generalby the following: .Let V be a deformation theoryoftype (-.The maximalideal mowhichwe choose is characterizedby the propertiesthat pnlo= po and Uq e moforq e . (The value of Tp or of Uq forq e M is determinedby the otheroperators. we defineda ringTo associated to D.M) such that po is type D. The same proofas in Proposition2.Combiningthis with the main resultof [TW] we completethe proofof Conjecture2.15. Estimates for the Selmer group Let po: Gal(Q/Q) -.GL2(k) be an odd irreduciblerepresentation which we willassume is modular.) providedthat po is not induced froma characterof Q (V'Z3) if p = 3. A. where is Selmer.16 undera hypothesisthat ensuresthat a minimalHecke ringexists.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 517 Chapter 3 In this chapterwe prove the main resultsabout Conjecture 2. we can pick a modular liftingpf.2) TDo = T'(Mo)ma HW(ko) ?(9-)X TH(MO) W(ko) (9 is an isomorphism.strictor flat.24).14 also specifiesa certainminimumlevel and characterforf and in particularensuresthat we can pick f to have level primeto p when POIDP is associated to a finiteflatgroupschemeoverZp and detpoIP = W.17 can be checkedif one knowsthat the minimalHecke ring is a completeintersection.14.

a.f= ( f (l)).RV To and TD is a completeintersection.Ato (.(Qz/Q. NotethatPT f/ is finiteand 7rf(IT. (ii) ifTD0 is a completeintersectionover( then(i) is an equality.f = ker7rfand similarlywe let PRf denotethe inverseimageofPTJf in RD. (3.3) TDO = TD if is str or fl. We definea principalideal (rTif) of TDo by takingan adjoint#'fof lrf withrespectto pairingsas in (2. We let Vf = Ad pp 09K/c) wherepp is the extensionof scalars of pf. = M U {p}.and any pf.(QE/Q. Vf/)as followsfromthe main resultof [TW] whichprovesthe hypothesisof part (ii).Aof typeD.17 we obtain the orderof this groupformoregeneralD's associatedto Po underthe conditionthat a minimal D existsassociated to po.or POIDP is not associated to a finiteflatgroupschemeover Zp.i. Assume thatV is minimal.518 ANDREW WILES TDO is givenby (3.strictor flat type. The finiteness tions on f.(p)) < o0 whenPo is Selmer and POID.1) if. and cp = 1 otherwise. and that PO is absolutelyirreduciblewhenrestrictedtoQ (i) #HD1(QE/QVf) < #(PT~f/PTf) ( ) ). In particular.14 and this givesa homomorphism of (9-algebras irf: T0o -> (9 D of"Ad We set PT. is Se and POIDPis associated to a finiteflatgroupschemeover Zp and detpolip = W.for any (not necessarilyminimal) D of Selmer.Vf) < oo ifpo is as above.he did not consider the strictcase. ) $ 0 because Tpo is reduced.. In general. p and D by a different method. was provedby Flach in [Fl] undersome restricRemarks.e. . is associatedto a finiteflat groupschemeoverZp and detPOIIJ= w. #HD.1. This is stated in Theorem3. 0 THEOREM 3. Then applyingTheorem2.A) of minimumlevel and characteras given by Theorem 2. Then #OT wherecp = #(9/U?2. We also write Trffor1rf(irTf) ifthe contextmakesthisusage reasonable. We choose a pair (f. The bound we obtain in (i) is in fact the actual order of H.3.42) and write n1T. or detPOIIP$wW.

(9.35) forwhichpmQ po k as in over Fp (recall that this uses the same choice of embeddingkmQ the definitionof TQ). A. i.M). satisfying The map LQ is injectivefor any finiteset of primes Q q_ 1(p).. K/O) LEMMA 3. The keyresultis: for Homo( .. KQ -O the cokernelin the horizontalsequenceand * denotes whereKQ is by definition K the fieldof fractionsof (. E U Q. (9.38). (2.2. First. We ofV(q)following(2.35)).e.M) obtained by imposingthe (2.T (q) (1 +q)2modm for all eQ.considerthe ideal aQ of RQ defined . For the minimaldeformation problemdescribedbefore problem'D = (.34) at each q E Q. We use mQ also to denote the maximalideal of TQ if the contextmakesthis reasonable. Considerthe exact and commutativediagram - o -0 H~D(QE/QV) - HD'Q(QEUQ/QV) -Q JJ H(Qunrv(q))Ga (Q nr/Qq) qEQ 0 - I It T T T (PT/P ) (PTQ/PTQ) QS. Also remember writeV forVf and recallthe definition that mQ is a maximalideal of TH(Nql .indicating onlyat the end the slightchangesneededforthefinalassertionofthe theorem.34). Proof. Proof. Note that the hypothesesof the lemmaensurethat po(Frobq) has distincteigenvaluesforeach q E Q. We willassumethroughoutthe proofthat D is minimal. q. (We will assume forthe proofthat (9 is chosenso (9/A= k containsthe eigenvaluesof po(Frobq) foreach q E Q.) We set T = TDO.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 519 associated to po is dihedral The case wherethe projectiverepresentation does not alwayshave the propertythat a twistofit has an associated minimal D.1(p) and po(Frobq) Let Q be a finiteset ofprimesdisjointfromE satisfying having distincteigenvaluesforeach q E Q. R = RD and recall the definitionof TQ and RQ fromChapter 2... q.) as in (2. let VQ be the deformation of (.. ?3 (cf. it is the refinement additionalrestriction(2. In the case wherethe associatedquadraticfieldis imaginarywe will give a different argumentin Chapter4.

5) JH(N' q)mQ (Q) JH(N'q)mQ. withT and TQ replacing R and RQ then we will have the injectivityof LQ.q)mQ.e.6) right-hand (. Repeated inductivelythis gives the desired relation F1 TQ/aQ _T.6) (TH(N'q)mQ.) Now by Corollary1 to Theorem2. This permitsus 0}. and completesthe proofof the lemma. We will writeaQ forthe image of aQ in TQ under the map CpQ of (2.520 ANDREW WILES by (3. q).4) but with Q replaced by q.4' (at the end of ?2) and the remark followingit (or using the fact remarkedin Chapter 2.5) are freeof ranktwo. W(kmQ/) giving TQ. Then det(a) = (tq) e TQ/ in the representation GL2(TQ/) definedafterTheorem2. (Thus tq 1(N') and tq is a primitive root modq.4) ( aQ={ai-1.{q} thus side of with the (3.)2. Q' a subsetof Q. . The hypothesesof the lemmaimplythe conditionthat po(Frobq) has distinct eigenvalues. So applyingProposition2. Let N' = N (po) p'(PO) * rlqiEQ'-{q}qi where6(po) is as definedin Theorem 2.1 the Pontrjaginduals of the modules in (3. Then take an elementa E Iq C Gal(Qq/Qq) whichrestrictsto a generator to of Gal(Q((Nfq)/Q((N/)).14._{q} where aq is definedas in (3.)2/((tq) .i.1) -_(TH(N' .. aq -T Q'-fq} ' since (tq) -1 E dq. It followsthat (3. (Q) [(tq) . It willbe enoughto checkthat forany q E Q'.1] Here H is stilla subgroupof (Z/MoZ)*. If we provethe same relationforthe Heckerings. TQ//-aq TQ. q) oforder3 whichcan give riseto invariant divisorsof XH(N'q) whichare not the imagesof divisorson XH(N'.bicidi-1: i ac b(i) withvi C Iqqi C Q Then the universalpropertyof RQ shows that RQ/aQ to identify(PR/P2)* a (PR/P2) = {f E (PRQ/ipQ)* : f(aQ) = R.37). ?3 that this condition associatedto any impliesthat po does not occur as the residualrepresentation at q) we see that aftertensoringover formwhichhas the special representation can be replacedby TQ. The latteris to avoid the ramification forthe surjectivity the coveringXH(N'q) -4 XH(N'.) It is easily checkedthat (3.1. (We use herethat po is not reducible forthe injectivityand also that po is not inducedfroma characterof Q(Vz/3) pointsof whenp = 3.

7) #6Q(XQ) > (II qEQ #O/(AM q .1)) (t) (1/#(PTPT)) Now we choose Q to be a set of primeswiththe propertythat (3.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 521 Suppose nowthat Q is a finiteset ofprimeschosenas in thelemma. we computethat the indexof the image of LQ is < t as LQ is injective. We get (3. We deduce that 0 rJ/ (q -1) #KQ > Since the rangeof LQ has ordergivenby wheret = #(PT/P2)/#(O/Tf). (We onlyneed that the right-hand side dividesthe leftwhichis somewhateasier.(QE/QV[. Keepingour assumptionon Q fromLemma 3. Thenwe can estimate the orderof 5Q(XQ)usingthe factthat the image of LQ has index at most t. Then with M chosen large enough so that AM annihilatesPT/P4 (which is finite because T is reduced)we get: o )~HD. from the theoryof Fittingideals (see the proofof (2.7) forthe justificationthat AM can be taken inside the parenthesesin the firsttwo terms. Let XQ = 'bQ((PTQ/pTQ)* [AM]).44)) #(PT/PT) #(PTQ/PTQ) ? #(O/1TTf) > #(0O7/TQf). considerthe kernelof AM applied to the diagramat the beginningof the proofof the theorem.) Also. 2. Recall that fromthe theoryof congruences(Prop.8) EQ : HV1*(QE/Q VAM) - H1 (Qq7 VAqM) qEQ . qEQ ? T LQ T 4Q T (PTQ/PTQ/p)*[AM] (PT /p2) `(PT-/p KQ[AM] See (1. qEQ the factors(a2.(q)) being unitsby our hypotheseson q E Q.4' at the end of ?2) 71TQf/1Tf = 17(q -1).XM])-~ HIQ(QSuQ/QSV[AM]) B J7J V(q)[AM])Ga1(Qu"/Qq) H1(Qunr.2.

k(1)) and x 5$0 thenp = 3 and x factorsthroughan abelian extensionL of Q((3) of exponent3 whichis nonabelian over Q. 3V1) but again this means that x is not of type'D* as locallyat the primeabove 3. Let al be an el- .M) [A] H'(QE/Q.This onlyleaves the possibilitythat L = Q((3.k(l)) H'(Qunr.V ) - Hom(Gal(Q/Ko((p)).10(i) and the subsequentremark. This argumentholdswhetheror not D is minimal. L must ramifyat some primeq of Q((3).M) [A] Q II qEQ II fJH'(QqV. So x. We also keep the conditionthat LQ is injectiveby only allowing Q to containprimesof the formgivenin the lemma.9) (i) po(a) has orderm > 3 with (m. Assume firstthat the projectiverepresentationpj3 associated to po is not dihedralso that Sym2po is absolutelyirreducible. V. V)Ga1(KO(7P)/Q) has kernelH'(Ko((p)/Q. In this exceptionalcase.((q/Am)(1)) is nonzeroon x. The same diagramwillhold left-handisomorphism ifwe replaceQ by Qo = Q U {qo} and we now need to showthat we can choose qO so that 6Qo(X) 5#0.) HI(Q/QV*) qEQ comingfromour particularchoicesofq's and the the right-hand isomorphisms fromour hypothesison po. We have a commutativediagram H'(Qq. (ii) a fixesQ(detpo) (4pM).. The restriction map H' (Q~/Q. Now if x E H'(Ko((p)/Q. observefirstthat the firsttwo conditionscan be achievedby Lemma 1. V. gives a nontrivialGalois-equivarianthomomorphism f. V*) whichfactorsthroughan abelian extensionM.p) = 1. Specificallywe choose M. (iii) fx(orm)7+ Ok To show that this is possible. k(1)) by Proposition1.Pick a a E Gal(Mx ((pM)/Q) satisfying (3.ANDREW WILES 522 is injective. suppose that x E kereQ and Ax = 0 but x 5$0. of Ko((p) of exponentp. theseq's to satisfy To see that this can be done. and if q lies overthe rationalprimeq 543 thenthe compositemap HI (K ((3) /QIk(1)) H'(Qunr.we require q =_ 1(pM). to be the minimalsuch extension.11 wherehereKo is the splittingfieldof po. But thenx is not oftypeD* whichgivesa contradiction. L is not generatedby the cube root of a unitoverQ3((3). E Hom(Gal(Q/Ko((p)). In addition. whichwe view in kereQ.

So by successivelyadjoiningq's we can assume that Q is chosen so that eQ is injective.1) Ix ker(a .we can assume that a takes the eigenvalue1 on any given irreducibleGalois stable subspace X of Wx 0 k. qEEUQ Here we are usingthe conventionexplainedafterProposition1. Vf [AM]) = ho...MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 523 ementsatisfying(i) and (ii) and let a1 denote its image in Gal(Ko((p)/Q). We may then choose q0 so that Frobq0 = a and we willthenhave eQ0(x) 540.9 (iv) and (v).1)If(G) 5$0 and thus we can find r E G1 such that f. If X is any irreducibleGalois stable k-subspaceof f (G) ?Fp k then 0 since Sym2po is assumed absolutelyirreducible. Since po(Tiai) = po(ai) this gives (3. in addition. . the injectivityof FQ impliesthat (3. Note that conditions(i) and (ii) implythat q =_1(p) and also that po(a) has distincteigenvalues.(r) ? 0.thus giving both the hypothesesof Lemma 3. Also. If * is Se.6.hq = 1 forq E EI -{p} by Proposition 1. conditions(i) and (ii) implythe hypothesesof Lemma 3.2.9) with at least one of a = r1al or a = al. If on the otherhand po is dihedralthenwe pick a's satisfying 3o(a) $ 1.8. as otherwisewe . as D was chosen to be minimal. withm the orderofpo(a) (and p t m sincejo is dihedral). Viewingr as an elementof G we thentake -Gx At= r x 1 E Gal(Mx((pM)/Ko((p)) Gal(Ko((pM)/Ko((p)) (This decompositionholds because Mx is minimaland because Sym2po and 4p are distinctfromthe trivialrepresentation. If.8).2.qI} to be a finite set ofprimesqj i-=(pM) satisfying the hypothesesofLemma 3. The firsttwoconditionscan be achievedusingLemma 1. we finda r E G1 such that fx(r) $ 0 and we proceed as before. IJ hq. (iii) fx(am) 540. Arguingas above. (i) (ii) a fixes Q(4PM). hq = #(O/AM)2 forq E Q.12 and. By Proposition1. is str or fl then hoohp= 1 by Proposition1.9 (iii). hochp< cp by Proposition1.2 as well as the injectivityof FQ in (3. Again.)Now rT commuteswitha1 and eitherfx((ri al)m) #0 or fx(af') #0.. We have thus shown that we can choose Q = {q1. (To computethis we can assume that Ip acts on WA via w. Now. So also ker(al .10) #HD(QEuQ/Q. Then (&1) acts on G = Gal(Mx/Ko((p)) and under this action G decomposes as G G1 EDGi whereal acts triviallyon G1 and withoutfixedpoints on G'.6 to defineHD1.

ANDREW WILES 524 get hwhp < 1.18 and the right-handinequality is fromthe theoryof Fittingideals.1 (ii). One altersD onlyby replacingthe Selmerconditionby the conditionthat the deformations be flatin the sense of Chapter 1.we have constructedclasses whichare ramified at primesin Q in (3.(Won)* is easily verifiedto be unramifiedwithFrobp actingas U2(p)-l by the descriptionof Pf. The ringTDO definedin (3.7). (qr). By Proposition2 of the appendix.This provespart (i) of Theorem3. togetherwith the equality t = 1 (and the centralequality of (3.) Remark. In the strictor flat cases (and indeed in all cases where cp = 1) this impliesthat RD -_TD by Proposition1 of the appendixtogetherwithProposition1. (The only type at q thenpfAIDq does not pointto note is that ifpf. These are of type D and disjointfromthe classes obtained from(3. associated to the Qp-pointsof a finite PIDPmoda is the Galois representation flatgroupschemeover Zp. Combiningthese with (3.11) (PT #(wr/PT) = #(O/1. i.f) < # (PT. VAm) coming fromthe cyclotomic extension Q(Cql .17 is then given by Theorem 3.2. Now applyingpart (i) we see that the inequalityin (3. 0/AM) = H1(QruQ/Q. (Of course.11) in the .7). Then withthis hypothesis. Th.theyare bounded independentof M and easily computed..the main resultof [TW] shows that T is a completeintersectionand hence that t = 1 as explained above.17.11) is an equality.4]. In the Selmercase we get (3..) FromTheorem3.1) and used in this chaptershould be the deformation ringassociated to the followingdeformationproblemDo. TD is also a completeintersection. The finalassertionof the theoremis provedin exactlythe same way on notingthat we only used the minimalityto ensurethat the hq's were 1. whichprovesthe hypothesisof Theorem 3..10) gives #Hv(QE/Ql Vf[Am]) < t # P/p2 *@ as required. Now if we assume that T is a completeintersectionwe have that t = 1 by Proposition2 of the appendix. More precisely. These are of type DQ. We also have classes in Hom(Gal(QsuQ/Q). and thenapplyingTheorem2.1 we deduce our main resultsabout representations by using the main resultof [TW].A DI in [Wil. 0/AM) H1(Q uQ/Q./T') wherethe centralequality is by Remark 2.) On the otherhand. that each deformationp of po to GL2(A) has the propertythat forany quotientA/a of finiteorder.1. The hypothesisof Theorem 2.po is ordinaryhere in contrastto our usual assumptionforflatdeformations.1.TJ)cp= #(01/7T.1(i).e. 2.. In general.Ais of multiplicative D split.

Vf) = #(01/iD.Y. Then the map WE): RE) TE of Conjecture2. [Guo]). In Section 2 we use a calculation of Hida to relate this to the rj-invariant. The computation of the Selmer group follows from Theorem 2. Assumealso thatpo is oftype(A). The ordinary CM case In this section we estimate the order of the Selmer group in the ordinary CM case. str or fl and f is any newform for whichpf.3.f) < 00 where71D. [de Sh]) and some special cases have been described elsewhere (cf.3. (B) or (C) at each q : p in S. In Section 1 we use the proof of the main conjecture by Rubin to bound the Selmer group in terms of an L-function.M) with * = Se. In the first section we estimate the Selmer group using the main theorem of [Ru 4] which is based on Kolyvagin's method. Theorem 0.3.fl or ord. str. Chapter 4 In this chapter we give a different(and slightlymore general) derivation of the bound for the Selmer group in the CM case.2.E. The condition at q : p in E ensures that there is a minimal D associated to po. whereD = (.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 525 Selmer case) and Proposition 1..: Gal(Q/Q) -* GL2(0) . THEOREM 3.17 and Proposition 1.. Some of these computations are valid in the non-CM case also.2.e. The methods are standard (cf. ( Assume that po is modularand absolutelyirreducible whenrestricted to Q 1 p) . They are needed if one wishes to give the order of the Selmer group in terms of the special value of an L-function.2 satisfiesthe hypotheses of Theorem 3.3 for po up to a suitable twist. Theorem 1 of [TW] refers to a slightlysmaller class of D's than those covered by Theorem 3.43).1) P = IndQ i. In the second section we use a calculation of Hida to relate the rj-invariantto special values of an L-function.1 but up to a twist every such D is covered. It is straightforwardto see that it is enough to check Theorem 3. We assume that (4.16 is an isomorphism for all D associatedto po. afterit is checked that a twist of a po as in Theorem 0.2 of the introduction follows from Theorem 3.Ais a deformation ofpo of typeD then #H1(QE/Q. 1. = Se.fis theinvariantdefinedin Chapter2 prior to (2. In particularif. Strictlyspeaking. i.

at p sincethe Then xmoextendsto a characterof Q whichis thenunramified same is trueofX.Y ED(KIO) (0) EDKIO where b is the quadratic characterof Gal(Q/Q) associated to L. Since W0 c Y (see Chapter 1 forthe definition of Wo) we can define HSle(QF/Q. moduleV . We let E denote a finiteset of primesincludingall those which ramifyin p (and in particularp). The decompositionof V givesa corresponding decompositionof H1(Qr/Q. The ring( is assumedto be the ringof integersof a local fieldwithmaximalideal A and we also assume that p is a Selmerdeformation of po = p modA whichis supposed irreduciblewith detpolII. Over L thereis an isomorphismof Galois modules Y*.(K/O)4 (whereK is the field We considerthe representation is via Ad p. Also it factorsthroughan abelian extensionofL withGalois groupisomorphicto Z2 since X factorsthroughsuch an extensionwithGalois groupisomorphicto Z E T1 withT1 oforderprimeto p (the compositeofthe splittingfieldsof n and a*). Also we say informally Analogousdefinitions apply if Y* is replacedby Yv*nL. It followsthat xm0is also unramifiedoutsidep. Y) by HSe(Q/Q. In analogyto the above we defineHSe(QF/Ql Y*) by HSe(QF/Q.(KIO) (v) ED(KIO) (v-162). In particularit followsthat p splits in L.. whenceit is trivial. that a cohomologyclass is Selmerat p ifit vanishesin H1 (Qunr. . Y) H1 (Qunr Y/Wo)}. (WO)*) (resp. Y) = ker{H1 (Q/Q. - Let Y* be the arithmeticdual of Y. V).e.526 ANDREW WILES is the p-adic representation associated to a characterai: Gal(L/L) Ox of in L and that i an imaginaryquadraticfieldL. V) and we can use it to defineHs e(Q/Q.ppoo) 0 Qp/Zp. a* is ramifiedat p (K* beingthe characterr - forany a representing the nontrivialcoset in Gal(Q/Q)/ Gal(Q/L)). i. In this case V splitsas of fractionsof 0) and the representation V .This provesthe claim. Our aim is to computeHs e(Q/Q.Zp ET whereT is a finitegroupoforderprimeto p. Y*) -? H1 (Qunr.Zp E T' with T' a finitegroupof orderprimeto p. We can suppose withoutloss of generalitythat i is ramifiedat p. Y*) = ker{H1(Qr/Q. and that 1 preciselyone of a. p = po say. Write v for Ke/K* and let L(v) be the splittingfieldof v.= w. Then we claim that Gal(L(v)/L) .(Wo)*)}. Y). We assumethatp is unramified factorsthroughan extensionofL whoseGalois grouphas the formA . For this it is enoughto show that X = KK*/efactorsthrougha group of orderprime to p since v = 82X-1' Suppose that X has orderm = moprwith (mop) = 1. Hom(Y.

Y*) by {H1 (QF/L.First we can replaceH1(Qr/Q.e. 1n*) (whereYn*= Y

and similarlyforY.Zp and so it is trivialin this case also. It LI outsidep.2) K/O(v)). -? (K/O)(v)) Hom (Gal(Mco/L(v))I (K/Q)(V))Gal(L(v)/L) The firsttermis zero as one easily checksusingthe divisibilityof (K/O)(v). ifiedeverywhere sequenceas Proof.If v 0 1(A) this is straightforward(cf. The unramifiedconditionthen translatesinto the requirement that the cohomologyclass should lie in {HunrinE-p(Qr2/L.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 527 Hl(Qunr. Y*) A Hom (Gal(Moo/L(v)). (K/9)(v-162))} where A = Gal(L/Q). (K/Q)(v)). (4. The inflation-restriction sequence applied to this givesan exact sequence (4.3) liftsto a class c in H1 (QE/L. Next note that H2 (L(v)/L.. H jnr in _p (Qr/L. It followsthat any class in the finaltermof (4. (WOn)*)). (K/c)(v)) E Hunrin p* (Qr/L.) for the subgroupof Hunr(QF/Q. The sequenceis obtainedfromthe inflation-restriction follows.i. Let Lo be the splittingfieldof Y*.1.9]. thusequal to (Yn/yn?)* where(Yn*)0is the firststep in the filtration or equivalently to (Y*)%n where (Y*)O is the divisible submodule of Y* on whichthe action of Ip is via 9. Yn) op = 0 in H1(Qp. Thereis an isomorphism 4. 5. Lemma 2. Then MooLo/Lo is unramified outside p and Lo/L has degreeprimeto p. followsthat c is unramified Now writeHltr(QF/Q. (K/O)(v)) Hunr in Up (Qr/L. (If p $&3 one can characterize(Yn)0 as the . (K/O)(V))Ga1(L(v)/L) whereHlnr denotesthesubgroupof classes whichare Selmerat p and unramelse.2 of [Rul]). Yn*)givenby Hstr(QE/Q YEn)= E Hlnr(QF/Q. (K/Q)(v)) is trivial. Let Moo be the maximalabelian p-extensionof L(v) unramifiedoutsidep. Yn*/(Yn)O)} underDp. The followingpropositiongeneralizes[CS. Prop. PROPOSITION Hunr(QF/Q. (K/()(v)) E H1 (Q/L. If v =1(A) then Gal (L(v)/L) .3) 0 - Hlnr in U-p (L(v)/L. (K/O)(v162))} Since A interchangesthe two groups inside the parenthesesit is enough to computethe firstof them.

(K/Q) (V)An) largen. setting (4.Y*) (Yn)*)#H (Q. (4. whichholds forsufficiently is infective. The above map is theninjectivewheneverthe connectinghomomorphism Ho (Lp*.ANDREW WILES 528 applies with maximalsubmoduleon whichIp acts via E2.6) Hstr(Q/Qi Yn*) Hstr(Q/Qi Y*) is infective. (4.4)-(4.7) and the elementaryestimate (4. Yn) = 0 and a simplecalculationshowsthat #H (Q.One can checkthis by replacingthese groupsby the subgroups of H1(L. Y*) forq :&p.6. Yn) #HO (Q. En) = i{ f 1 if v-=I1mod A #(C)/l-I/(q)) otherwise whereq runsthrougha set of primesof OL primeto p cond(v) of densityone. that Y.5) large the map We also need the factthat forn sufficiently (4. replacingY?n*. (K/O)(v)) whichare unramifiedoutside p and trivialat p*.9) #HSe(Q/Q. ip = lim # HO(Qp. This can be checkedsince Y* = IndQ(v) 0 K/c.1. by Proposition1. (4. #Hsltr(QE/Q. (Yn?)*).4) In the case of Y* we will use the inequality # H1tr(QF/Q. Yn).) A similardefinition It followsfroman examinationofthe actionof Ip on Y). Now. Hstr(QE/Ql Yn) = Hunr(QE/Q. So. 7 Ho (Q HQ Yn) #Hr(Q/Q.This follows fromProposition4. (K/O) (v)) -+ H1 (Lp*.41 we get (4.1. (KI 0)(v where?q = #HO(Qq. Y*) < # Hunr(QF/Qi Y*). y)Ga1(Qunr/Qq) = e . Yn*) () Also. HO (Q. (K/O)(V)An) and H1(L.in a mannersimilarto the beginningofthe proofof Proposition 4.10) Y)) < Y)/Hulnr(QE/Ql #(HSle(Qr/Ql fqi 1I qEE-{p} which follows fromthe fact that #H1 (Qunr. Y) < - Iq()I q # Hom (Gal (Moo/L(v)).8) t infq#(O/(1-v(q))) -~~~ 1 ifvmodA=1 vmodA #.

the rayclass fieldofconductor f. but we will recall some of the steps here. II. We choose an embeddingcorresponding to a primeabove p and then we findsp = K *X forsome X of finiteorder and conductorprime to p.e.i. Lemma 1. Then thereis a grossencharacter 1 modJ Wof L satisfyings((a)) = a fora (cf..q=limUn. For each primeX3of F above p we have a formalgroup ET. [de Sh. (K/O)(V))Ga1(L(v)/L)). ?1. Indeed Wpand i are both unramifiedat p* and satisfyWpIi.10]). Y). afterfixingan embeddingQ Qp we can associate a p-adic characterWpto s (cf. We let A = ASE be the logarithmof this formalgroup. Uo=fJ q3lp uCo where Uoo. This is byour hypothesisthat i factored throughan extensionof the formZp E T withT of orderprimeto p.T. Also the only primeswhichramifyin a ZpWPIG extensionlie above p so our hypothesison K ensuresthat KIGhas conductor dividingfp'.(cf. II.) We could now derivethe resultdirectlyfrom this by referring to [de Sh. Howeverwe will make the assumption. II. [Ru2] and especially [Ru4]. is an inertiagroupat p. We choose an f prime to p such that Wf= 1. Withoutalteringfwe can evenchoose s so thatthe orderofX is primeto p.c. and this is a relativeLubin-Tate group with respect to FT3over Lp (cf.1. To see thispickan abelian splittingfieldofWpand i whoseGalois grouphas the form G E G' with G a pro-p-group and G' of orderprimeto p. Ch. Let Wfdenote the numberof roots of unity( of L such that ( _ 1 modJ (Jan integralideal of OL). We can thereforeadjust s so that X has orderprime to p as claimed.1 (5)]). The same is then true of the p-partof X whichthereforehas conductordividingf.4]). Ch. In the formerreferenceRubin assumes that the class numberof L is primeto p. This order can be computed usingthe 'main conjecture'establishedby Rubin usingideas ofKolyvagin. Let UOObe the productof the principallocal units at the primesabove p of L(fpoo).5) thisin turnreducesto the problemofestimating # Hom(Gal(MOO/L(v)). y (or more preciselysoo NF/L) is associated to a The grossencharacter (unique) ellipticcurveE definedoverF = L(f).1. V) and the mainproblemis to estimateH e(Q-/Q.but still keepingf primeto p. . Accordingto Weil. [de Sh. cond v}.= KII = e wheree is the cyclotomic characterand I. that both v and Wp have conductor dividing fp'. We will not howeverchoose s so that X is 1 as this would requirefp? to be divisibleby condx. Then we see that has conductordividingfp'. Thus we replace fp ? by l. [de Sh. 3]. We may even fixa Weierstrassmodel of E over OF whichhas good reductionat all primesabove p. [de Sh.m. with complex multiplicationby CL and isomorphicover C to CIOL (cf. II. by alteringf if necessary.{f. By (4.4]).MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 529 Our objectiveis to computeH'e(Qr/Q.

The constructionof the powerseriesin [CW] does not extendto the case wherethe formalgrouphas height> 1 or to the case whereit is definedover an extensionof Qp. We now summarizethese results. n= 0(d) whered = [Fqe:L. (Note that the primes of L(f) above p are totallyramifiedin L(fpoo)so we still call them {q3}.5]. II ?4.see [de Sh. Now 0 = pp on Gal(F/F). To an elementu = limun E UOOwe can associate a powerseriesfuv.) For preciselyfuqp(T)is the q3-component to our chosenembedding X3 we will choose the primeabove p corresponding = c* Q Qp.(T) E O.-Ox is the charactergiving = 09(0)k k.) We bk on Up.530 ANDREW WILES each Un't being the principallocal units in L(fpn)qp. Assume forthe momentthat Fq3is Qp.9(U)= A'(T) dT logfu(T) T=O (9wsatisfying It is easy to see that6k. These werefirstintroduced wishto definecertainhomomorphisms in [CW] in the case wherethe local fieldFspis Qp.12) 5k(UT) = 9(Q)kSk(U) forr E Gal(F/F) where0 again denotesthe action on E[p']. p(U) =d -- () by logfu'(T) ET ~~~~T=O Then (4. Let S . Then lettingwn it was shown be nontrivialrootsof [7rn] (x) = 0 chosenso that [ir](an) = wi~n-1 in [CW] that to each elementu = limun E UOq therecorrespondeda unique powerseriesfu(T) e Zj[T X such that fu(wn) = Un forn > 1. The definition of 6ke (k > 1) in this case was then k. We on UO. In this case Eq is isomorphicto the Lubin-Tategroupassociated to 7rx+ xP where7r= ~p(p). This powerseriessatisfiesUndo (fu.q3givesa homomorphism: UooUoo. (More ofthe powerseriesdescribedthere. Observethat v = 2 on Gal(F/F).] and {wn} is chosen as beforeas an inversesystemof irn divisionpointsofEm.11) Sk(U) = 6k. Ch.)(wn) forall n > 0.(6) where9: Gal (FIF) skq3(e) the action on E[p'].) The corresponding in [Ru3]and thenin fullgenerality 6k weregivenin somewhatgreatergenerality by de Shalit [de Sh].witha transformation propertycorreactuallywant a homomorphism spondingto v on all of Gal(L/L).3[[T]]x whereOC3is the ringofintegersofFew. (See also [Iwi]. We definea homomorphism 6k: Uoo (4.thus returningto the generalcase whereFq is not assumed to be Qp. A morenaturalapproachwas developedby Coleman [Co] generalizationsof whichworksin general.

Zp[[Gal(L(v)/L)]] -modules: charA(Gal (Moo/L(v))) = charA(UO(v)/CJ. II.(VJ) -+CP I Let COObe the groupofprojectivelimitsofellipticunitsin L(v) as defined in [Ru4].1) = (2(0)/P2(U)- Next we let e(a) be the projectivelimit of ellipticunits in limLpn for a some ideal prime to 6fp describedin [de Sh. Computing (2 on both u and . of rank one. ?12].3an elementofC( ?). It takes integralvalues in (9q [v]. ?4. Now accordingto resultsof Iwasawa ([1w2.1)u = fiforsome f (T) E 0[[T]] and -ya topologicalgeneratorof Gal (L(v)/L(vo)).3 gives (4. Gal (L(v)IL) Gal (L(v)IL(vo)) x Gal(L(vo)IL). Since Gal(L(v)/L) decomposesintoa directproduct the Teichmiiller of a pro-pgroupand a groupof orderprimeto p. [Ru2]).). Ch.. Let UO (v) denotethe productof the groups of local principalunits at the primesabove p of the fieldL(v) (by whichwe mean projectivelimitsof local principalunits as before).14) f (v(-y).13) dI2(U) = Z v-1(of)62(uU)E Oq3[v]. Then by the propositionof Chapter II.8) and it Each termis independentof the choiceof coset representative is easily checkedthat (2(U') = V(Of)4D2(U).[[T]]. [Ru2.2. Let vo = v mod A.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 531 forGal(L/L)/ Gal (LIF) and define be a set of coset representatives (4. generatorofUO (v) (vO)and . Also A(vO)-. Then f (y.9]. ?2. we can also considerany Zp[[Gal(L(v)/L)]]-modulealso as a Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)]module. Theorem 5. Then we have a crucialtheoremof Rubin (cf. proved usingideas of Kolyvagin: There is an equalityof characteristicideals as A = THEOREM 4. [Ru4]. We extend (2 0-linearly to is a freeA(vO)-module UOO(v)(vO) Suppose that u is a Uoo(v) Ozp (9 and it then factorsthroughUoo(v)(v?).1]).7 of [de Sh] this is a 12th powerin limL xn We . dES by (4. For any Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)]-moduleX we writeX(vO) forthe maximalquotientofX 0 (9 on whichthe actionof Gal(L(vo)/L) is via zp liftofvo. In particularX(vO)is a moduleover Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)](v0)O 0. Then 12 factors throughUO (v) and thus definesa continuoushomomorphism (D2:UOO.

(ii) wf= 1. Since V . Combiningthis with (4. (Recall that thiswas chosento have good reductionat primesabove p.9) gives: #HSe(QE/Ql Y) < # (O/Q-2Lfo(2. fJq qEE where4 # HI(Qq.) whose associated p-adic character.Note that if vo = 1 then also p = 3. Also v here should The periodsare those of the standardNerondifferential.v(a)) Lf(2. II. Y*) (forq 4 p).))Ga1(L(v)1L) #O/Q-2Lfo(2.10] showsthat (4.-P)/Lf0 a p-adic unit unless vo = 1 in whichcase we can choose it to be t as defined in (4.2. We can clearlychoose Lf(2. A generalizationof the calculationin [CW] whichmay be foundin [de Sh.v)) ifvo7&1 t if vo = 1. The only restrictionswe have placed on f are that (i) f is prime to p.via be interpretedas the grossencharacter the chosenembeddingQ )-k QP.3 = Normol3 wherethe normis fromLfpo to L(v). ?4. is v.Y E (K/O)(f ) EDK/(9 we need also a formulafor - # ker{H1(QE/Q.but it is sufficient since Gal (Moo/L(v)) has no finiteA-submodule(by a resultof Greenberg. i) E OT9[v] whereQ is a basis forthe (9L-moduleofperiodsofour chosenWeierstrassmodel ofE/F. Now let fop' be the conductorof v withto (2.y)/Lf(2.v)) .see [Gre2.15) (D2(3) = (root of unity)Q-2 (Na .Then (D2(U)is a p-adicunit.532 ANDREW WILES let 31i= !3(a)1/12be the projectionof e(a)1/12to UOOand take .end of ?4]) we deduce fromTheorem4. as -P(q)v(q)= Normq2forany ideal q primeto fop.17) to be a unit if vo #41. Also if vo = 1 then we see that inf# {O/{JLoq(21P)/Lfo(2P)}} = t since PF-2 =- We can compute(D2(u) by choosinga special local unit and showingthat forus to knowthat it is integral. Ch. vP)is primeto p.4). and (iii) condv fpv . tp # HO (Qp. I) < ?l (#O/Q-2Lfo (2.15) that #Hom(Gal (Moo/1L(v)). and vPis the complexconjugateof v. (K/( )(0) EDK/()} J qEE-{p} 4q . We show now that we can choose f such that Lf(2.I (K/c)) (z.16) #(O/hL)- -- Hl(Qunr. (4. (YO)*). (K/O)(0) E K/c) This is easily computedto be (4.14) and (4.

y) = (x. Let (4. tp = #HO(Qp. [Hi2]fora surveyof his earlierresults)by interpreting (. T1 (N)m is Gorensteinand it followsthat T is also a Gorenstein O-algebra (see the discussionfollowing(2. Of) givenby x .) In particular(tx. we set to definean invariantrj of T.v)) where4 = #(O(/hL) J4q qEE H OH(Qq.3. Let po be an irreduciblerepresentation as in (1.Then by Corollary1 of Theorem2. y and foreach standardHecke correspondence H1 (Xi (N).A a that f is a newform ofpo. (.is the adjoint of 7rwith respectto the pairings.(We sometimesdrop the C fromX1(N)IC or Ji(N)IC if the contextmakes it clear that we are referringto the complex manifolds.t*x and simplywritetx fort*x. So we can use perfectpairings (the second one T-bilinear) OxO -. Let mbe the kernelofthe homomorphism T1 (N) -* Of /A deformation arisingfromf.1.): TxT -O (9 is the natural map. ?3. ) in termsof the cup product pairingon the cohomologyof X1 (N). Suppose ofweight2 and levelN. Calculation of rq We needto calculateexplicitlytheinvariantsrD. Assume that p t N.17) ( ):H1 (Xi(N). We now give an explicit formula for 77 developedby Hida (cf. ((K/O)(0) E K/O)*) and hL is the class numberof OL. This is the same . 7r(r)= (?7.77)up to a unitin 0 and as notedin the appendix 77 = Ann p = T[[p] where p = ker7r. #HSe(QE/QV) ? #(9/Q2L10(2. dependingonlyon 7r. I)O Of be the cup productpairingwith Of as coefficients.f introducedin Chapter2.A and kmis W(km. IOf) x H1 (Xi(N). ?3 in a special case. Combiningthese gives: PROPOSITION 4. We writeT forTl(N)m 0 (9. A a primeofOf above p and pf. If 7r: T (r7)= (*ir(1))where*.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 533 where4 = #H0(Qq. We use the action of t on x. Furthermore.V*) (forq #4 p). It is well-defined as we noted as an ideal of T.) the residue fieldof m.t*y) for all t. and then in termsof the Peterssoninnerproductof f with itself.1). The following account(whichdoes not requirethe CM hypothesis)is adapted from[Hi2]and we referthereformoredetails. We assume here that k is the residuefieldof ( and that it is chosento containkm.(YO)*)2. where(9 = Qf. in Chapter2.42)).

Z) ft1(N) Of) ?Tl(N)?of mlf~m T ~ T1N2 - T2. Of) via its action on Of.> is givenby r(q2) (unit). Actuallythis is not essentialas we could replace Of by any ringof integerscontainingit.19) wherewC is definedas in (2. If f = Eanqn let fP = Eanqn. Furthermore det(bi. Here complexconjugationacts on H1(Xi(N). H1(Xi(N). Then {If.4). Lf X LfP ReplacingOf (and the Of-modules)bythelocalizationofOf at p (ifnecessary) we can assume that Lf and Lfp are freeof rank 2 and directsummandsas Of-modulesof the respectivecohomologygroups. fP} forma basis . fPI fPdz.considera modifiedpairing( .6j) forsome p-adic unit c (in Of).. H (X1(N). Thus (4.e. Then fPis again a newformand we define of Lf.62 be a basis of Lf. Of) [pf].62 is a basis of Lfp = Lf.1. (One can check this.) Then the pairing(.18) Of. C) HN).y) = (x. ) induces anotherby restriction (. y and Hecke operatorst.6j) = det(6i. This is because wC(LfP) = Lf and wC(Lf) = Lfp. f(z)dz. ty) forall x..534 ANDREW WILES as the action induced by t* E T1(N) on H1(Jl(N). Ej) is an elementof Of (or its localizationat p) whose image in Of. Then also 61. Let 61.w 6j) = cdet(6i. and let Lf = H1 (X1 (N). Similarly{If.18) can be viewed (aftertensoringwith Of. ) definedby (x. 6) we observethat f and fP can be C) via viewedas elementsofH1 (X1(N). Of Let pf be the minimalprimeof T1 (N) 0 Of associated to f (i. We can thenverifythat (6. Then (tx. the kernelof T1(N) 0 Of -.): (4.19)) as a perfectpairingof T-modulesand so this servesto computeir(iq2) as explainedearlier(the square comingfromthe fact that we have a rank 2 module). and modifying it as in (4. 6) :=det(bi.Of givenby t10 f H-* /ctt(f) wheretf = ct(f)f). y) = (x. using the explicit bases described below.Of) H'(Xi(N). for example.by Theorem2. To givea moreusefulexpressionfor(6. To see this. fP} forma basis forLf Oof C.) Moreover. (Note here that Of = OfP LfP by replacingf by fP in the definition as these ringsare the integersof fieldswhichare eithertotallyreal or CM by a resultof Shimura. way) (4.

C2in Hl(Xi(N). f2} = {f. W2 = (f. Lettinguf be a generator we have the followingformulaof Hida: PROPOSITION 4.): (W. Now (w.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 535 forLfp ?Of C. By Poincare duality there exist classes C1. C2) and with oftheOf-module{det (fc fi)} {fi. To computedet(C) we considerintegralsoverclasses in H1 (Xi(N). Hence detC generatesthe same Of-module as is generatedby {det (fc f)} forall such choicesof classes (Cl. and since svois a character. In additionwe wish to assume that Po is ordinaryand detPoI p = w. where = for any o representingthe nontrivial coset of Ko(aT-lb6) KO'a(b) Gal(L/Q)/ Gal(L/L). In particularp splitsin L. f)2/Uf f x (unit in Of. These conditionsimplythat.6) det(CC). (iii) p((a)) = a fora _1 (f) forsome integralideal f primeto p. fI}. fP) and write W1= C6 and W2= C6 withC E M2(C). Let Mo denote the maximal abelian extensionof L whichis unramifiedoutside p. We assume that Po is irreducible. (ii) fppfactorsthroughan abelian extensionisomorphicto Zp e T withT of finiteorderprimeto p. Now we restrictto the case where po = IndQ sio for some imaginary quadratic fieldL whichis unramifiedat p and some kX-valuedcharacterso of Gal(L/L).4..i. To obtain p it is necessaryfirstto define pp. c) is givenexplicitlyin termsofthe (non-normalized) Peterssoninner product(. f)2 where(f. soi(a) = a-1 mod p on U.c') = -4(f.A). after possible replacement of svo by Ivoa Here the U. We assume now that p is fixedand so chosen to satisfythis congruence. We choose a (primitive)grossencharacterp on L togetherwith an emto the primep above p such that the induced beddingQ c-* Qp corresponding p-adic characterfpphas the properties: (i) ppmodp = so (p = maximalideal of Qp). are the unitsofL. Our choice of introducedbelowhas conductorprime so willimplythat the grossencharacter top. Let 0: Gal(Mx/L) -+ QpX be any characterwhichfactorsthrougha Zp-extensionand induces the . Of) such that det(f 60) is a unit in Of. that so 5$ ". f) = fs/r1(N)ffdxdy.e. inducesa homomorphism on U. Define the vectorswi = (ffP)... Of). 7r(iR2)= (f.ifp is a prime of L above p.the restriction of svoto an inertiagroupI.f2 = fP we set (WIa) :=det((fi. Then writingfi = If.If)) = (6..

Then Q = u Q for some p-adic unit in FX.and pick a grossencharacter p such that ((p)p = (np.p = 'coO. To see thisone checksthat thep-adic Galois representations associatedto the Tate moduleson each side are equivalent to (Ind . homomorphism l(p)}.Th.1 forthe representation on Af. Of. Let WE of E/OF+<( ) Let Q be a basis forthe OL-module of be a Neron differential periods of WE. Note that our choice of p here is not necessarilyintendedto be the same as in Section 1.3)].) Over F+ this ellipticcurvehas onlythe p-power isogeniesofthe form?pm form E Z.. (I t N) and o)f((Ti)= 0 if1 is inert in L (1 t N). fg) are equal (cf. Lemma 3]). The curveE/F is the extension of scalars of a unique ellipticcurveE/F+ whereF+ is the real subfieldof F of index 2. the localizationof OF+ at p. be the conductorof p and let F be the ray class fieldof conductor .536 ANDREW WILES a | .f = fgsis a newform.a-1 on U. (See [Shl. the discussionafterTheorem2.op)Ozp Kf. a maximal ideal m of T1 (N) and a homomorphism ) .) * . p is associatedto a cusp formfAlin such a way that the L-seriesL(s. Let po = kerf f:T1 (N) -+ Of and let Af = Ji (N)/poJ1 (N) be the abelian varietyassociatedto f by Shimura. 1]). (5.unique up to isomorphism. withgood reductionat the primesabove p.4.ofrankone overOL and withassociatedgrossencharacter ipo NF/L. cf./L) whereUp.pwhereKf.OverF+ thereis an isogeny Af/F+ (E/F+ )d whered = [Of: Z] (see [Sh4. Over F+ thesetwosubgroupsare interchanged by complexconjugation. the choiceof grossencharacter Now let f. withcomplexmultiplication by OL and periodlatticefree.Thus the integerN = condf = IAL/QINormL/Q(condcp) is primeto p and thereis a homomorphism 'Of: Ti(N)-4?Rf C Of C 0cp satisfying of (Tl) = (p(c)+ (P(C)if1 = ccin L. To see thisobservethat F is unramified at p and po is ordinaryso that the only isogeniesof degreep over F are the ones that correspondto divisionby kerp and kerp' wherepp' = (p) in L. (One compares trace(Frob?) in the two representations for? t Np and ? split completelyin F+. Using the embeddingof Q in Qp chosen above we get a prime A of Of above p.1= {u E Up:u Then set '. Accordingto a theoremofHecke. such that the associated representationpf. Also of ((l(l)) = (p((l))?o(l) where / is the quadraticcharacter associated to L.p= Of 0 Qp and where(pr:Gal(F/F) Zx p is the p-adic characterassociated to and restrictedto F. Then overF thereis an ellipticcurve. [Sh4.Areduces to Tl(N).pomodA. --* Gal(M.(p). cp) and L(s. Moreoversince p was assumed primitive.We let E/O9F+ (p) denote a Weierstrassmodel over OF+.whichgives the assertion.

OM). Z) 0 O9M. We note that a (on homologyas in (4.(p) . We claim now that c E OM. Let WE be a Neron differential of E/OF+(p). Z) 0 aOM. Let M be the compositeof F+ and the normal closureof Kf viewedin C.Q11(N) Q3 Hom(OM.(p) - Hi (E/C. We considerthe map (4. Now let us writeO1 for J1 (N)101) N)1~0 6 ) .21) Ja*(wE)= Y E M and JWE a(y) forany class y e Hi(Xi(N)/C. Even if 7r'is not surjectivewe claim that the image of 7r'always has the formHi(EIC.20)) also comes froma map of abelian varietiesa: J1(N)/F+ 'z OM E/F+ ?Z OM althoughwe have not used this to definea**. Extendingscalars to M we can write ir*WE = a. Now definea* on QE bya* = a-lAiti o r* where-*QE/C QJ1(N)/C is the map induced by 7rand ti has the usual action on QJ1(N)C Then a*(WE) = CWffor some c (4. Z) 0) OM. By suitablychoosing7rwe can assume n=l that aid =$0.1-0 OM and then mapping the image in = QJ1(N)/M )/c~lecv2 -82 Hom~c)M.(p) forsome a E OM* This is because tensoredwith Zp 7r'can be viewedas a Gal(Q/F+)-equivariant map ofp-adic Tate-modules.and the onlyp-powerisogenieson E/F+ have the form ?pm forsome m E Z. It followsthat we can factor7r'as (1 0 a) o a forsome othersurjectivea a: Hi(Xi(N)/C.20) 7r:Hi (Xi (N)/C. We can computea*(WE) by considering a**(WE 01) = .(p). Z) 0 O9M. Z) 0 Om -+ H (E/C.C) 00 wherewfu = E an(fo)qfln foreach a.(p). Then thereexist Ai E OM and ti E T1(N) such that Z Aiti-7r*WE for some = ClWf Cl E M.Ztlr* 0 a-'Ai on QE0F+ 0 OM to QJ1(N)/F+ Q0 OF+ OM Then there are isomorphisms 9F+. now allowinga to be in OM. E aawfa E M aEHom(Kf .MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 537 Now pick a nonconstantmap 7r:X1(N) IF+ -+EIF+ whichfactorsthroughAf/F+. 8f Q1 ii(N)1.(p) givenby 7r'= E Ai(7ro i).

not necessarilydistinct. (ft2'fib =16 3 2 I (1-- 27 X) LN(1.or fora ramifiedprimeq whichdoes not divide the conductorof Ap. f. fP) ofthe form(1.aq q-8) we get also an Euler factorin D(s. fP) = E Ian 2n-s iff n=1 = (+1)] Res8=2D(s.ANDREW WILES 538 where6 is the different of M/Q.fP) = LN(S. We now give an expressionfor (f. Actuallyit is moreconvenient 7r(?7) .Similaridentifications occur forE in place of Ji(N).fP) .(1/(p-adic integer)). f. 0k)(QN(s - 1)/(QN(2s - 2) by usingLemma 1 of [Sh3]. of Proof. Uf = 4 Q2. f. This was firstobservedby Shimura [Sh2] althoughthe preciseformwe want was givenby Hida. The firstisomorphismcan be describedas follows.(5. is the set of primesq I N such thatq = qq' withq t condW and q. 0 OM it is enoughto observethat by So to checkthat a* (WE 0 1) E Q1 a comesfroma homomorphism its construction J1(N)/01 0 Om -k E1010 OM. One beginswith a formulaof Peterssonthat foran eigenform weight2 on F1(N) says (f. Then ti(w)(-y)= e(-y)*w. One checks n=1 that. E anqn (cf. It followsthat we can comparethe periodsof f and of WE. b is the quadraticcharacterassociatedto L. PROPOSITION 4. Puttingtogetherthe propositionsofthissectionwe nowhave a formulafor as definedat the beginningofthissection.. [Hi3. f. f.q' primesofL.Let e(-y):J1(N) -+ J1(N) 0 Opmfor-yE OM be themap x | >x 0 'y.4) } whereX is the characterof figand X its restrictionto L. p2k)LN(S - 1. DN(S. ) denotesthattheEuler factorsforprimesdividingN have been LN( removed. removingthe Euler factorsat primesdividingN. When f = fl this can only happen fora split primeq whereq' divides the conductorof p but q does not.6.qaq q-q8).5. For fP we use the fact that flyfPdz = fCYf dz wherec is the OM-linear map on homologycomingfromcomplexconjugationon the curve.ql-8) since I9 (q)12 = q.) in termsof the L-functionof p. For each Euler factorof f at a q I N of the form (1.f) = (47)-2 F (2) (1)7r[SL2(Z): Ii(N) whereD(s. We deduce: PROPOSITION 4.In this case we get a term(1 . S.13)]).

We also need to give a definition of TV whereD = (ord. q) whereE is the set of primesdividingM.) As in Chapter2. (M)m.24) withD = (Se. To verifythis one checksthat TV is reduced or alternativelyone can apply the methodof Remark2.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 539 to give a formulafor 7r(?JM).22) is provedas in Chapter2. 0. To see that Up is in the image of Rv we use that it is the eigenvalueof Frobp on the unique unramifiedquotientwhichis freeof rankone in the representation p describedafterthe corollariesto Theorem2.4 of [Wil]).(9 correspondsto f' and the adjointis takenwithrespect W(km1 ) to perfectpairingsof T1 and (9 with themselvesas 0-modules. . 0( 0. Theorem 2.11. The existenceof the map W(km1. is preciselythe set of primesq forwhichnq = 1 in the notationof Chapter2. For the surjectivity.and it followsthenthat it is in the imageof RV. We deduce that E T. = T1 (M)ml 0 (9 . ?3. 0).A. Here we are consideringa slightlymore generalsituationthan that in Chapter 2. ) and po is induced froma characterof Q(V/=3). Uq E m ifq I M (q $ p) k over ko takingUp -ap and thereis an embedding(whichwe fix) km1 ) whereap is the unit eigenvalueof Frobp in pfLA.) in (4.8.31). Property(ii) of fp ensuresthat M is as in (2.1. the firstone assumedTi-bilinear.an invariantdefinedin the same way but with 0 (9 replacingTl(N)m 0 (9 where M = pMo with p t MO Ti(M)ml and M/N is of the form lb IJ q2. q f N qI qESW M0 Here ml is definedby the requirements that Pm1= po. note that foreach q I M (with q $ p) Uq is zero in TV as Uq E m1 foreach such q so that we can apply Remark 2. ?3 as we are allowingpo to be inducedfroma characterof Q(i/=3). the W(kmi)-subalgebraof T1(M)mi generatedby the traces. ?3. Now we take M=Np fJq. In this special case we defineTD to be T. ?3 thereis a canonicalmap (4.22) RV 4 TVZ Ti(M)ml 0 0 W(km1 ) whichis surjectiveby the argumentsin the proofof Proposition2. For this we use (2. (Note that S. A.15.1 (cf. So if f is the eigenform obtained fromf by 'removingthe Euler factors'at q I (M/N) (q $ p) and removingthe non-unitEuler factorat p we have AM = *(1) where7w: T.

4.ANDREW WILES 540 The argumentsin the proofof Theorem2.unramified p ~ po whenviewed as representations to GL2((Fp). FI) = LN(2. (i) detpo 'p =W. and 4.5. (ii) po is ordinary.0.23) lr(r7M)is divisiblebyQ2LN 2.E. For any po as in the theoremsupposethat p: Gal(Q/Q) -) GL2(0) is a continuousrepresentationwithvalues in the ring of integersof a local outsidea finiteset of primes.17 show that ir(.3.4. we have that X) (4. to provethe inequality Proof. COROLLARY. qIN We deduce: THEOREM #(O/r(?JM))= #Hs 4.1) is an irreduciblerepresentation of odd determinantsuch thatpo = Ind? so for a characterso of an at p.18 and at q it comesfromthe argumentofProposition2. ?3 it is sufficient > #((9/lr(?JM)) #HSe(Qr/Q7 V) as the oppositeone is immediate. As explainedin Chapter2. V).12 but with H = H' = 1. CombiningthiswithPropositions4. Since LN(2.satisfying field.6. v) = LN(2.A\.0) such thatpo is of typeVDwith = Se or ord. Assume also imaginaryquadraticextensionL of Q whichis unramified that: THEOREM 4.Tvz and TD is a completeintersection. Suppose thatpo as in (1. We now deduce the main theoremin the CM case using the methodof Theorem2. 92X) termis real by Proposition4.23) and in the expressionforthe upper L bound of # Hse(Q/Q.(p)) 171 (q - 1) qESFp The factorat p is givenby whereap is the unit eigenvalueof Frobp in Pf. remark2.8. Thenfor every7D= (-. Rv . Supposefurtherthat: .6) it suffices (note that the right-hand to pair up the Euler factorsat q forq I N in (4.7.M) is divisibleby ir(r/)(a2. () -(p)) 171 (q- 1).For thisit sufficesto compare (4.23) withProposition4.17.

3]). Howeverin the crucialcase wherethe image in PGL2(C) is S4. Suppose furtherthatdetp is odd.1 (Langlands-Tunnell). Chapter 5 In this chapterwe provethe main resultsabout ellipticcurvesand espeassociated cially show how to removethe hypothesisthat the representation to the 3-divisionpointsshould be irreducible.I-) withg some newform ?5. THEOREM 5. [Se.mod gLforsome pair (g.This was subsequentlyremoved by Tunnellin [Tu]. po . Suppose thenthat po: Gal(Q/Q) -- GL2(F3) is an irreduciblerepresentationof odd determinant. Suppose that p: Gal(Q/Q) whose image is finiteand GL2(C) is a continuousirreduciblerepresentation solvable. = Xek- withX offiniteorder. ofGL2(F3) ifnecessarywe can assume By composingi withan automorphism that i induces the identityon reductionmod (1 + vi2).that this representationis modular in the sense that over F3. using the theorem. Langlands actually proved in [La] a much more general result without restrictionon the determinantor the numberfield(whichin our case is Q). So if we consider . extendingearlierresultsof Hecke in the case wherethe projectiveimage is dihedral.LASTTHEOREM MODULAR ELLIPTICCURVESAND FERMAT'S (i) P D (ii) detp 541 is ordinary.pg. Application to elliptic curves The key resultused is the followingtheoremof Langlands and Tunnell. We now show. There existsa representation i: GL2(F3) -* GL2 (Z [VZ]) c GL2(C).p) up to finitelymanyEuler factors. ofweight2 (cf. Thenp is associatedto a modularformof weightk.j.k > 2. Then thereexists a weightone newformf such thatL(s. the resultwas onlyobtainedwithan additionalhypothesis.f) = L(s.

whereE1.we can take E = 6 El.3 on E[3] is irreducible. Now picka modularformE ofweightone such that E -1(3). Then fE Lemma 6.3 since the only nontrivialabelian extensionof outside5 and oforderprimeto 5 is Q((5) whichis abelian Q (Vs) unramified it is enoughto checkthat thereare no ellipticcurves over Q. By Serre'sisogeny theorem. to Q(VA/=).5 was modularwe could nowprovethe theoremin the same way we did knowingthat PE. pp.u) forsome prime1I-above (1 + j/2).cf. As the semistablehypothesis impliesthat all the inertiagroupsoutside 3 in the splittingfieldof Po have outside orderdividing3 this means that the splittingfieldof Po is unramified outside3 3.. Then the pair (g. So Po itselfwouldfactorthroughan abelian extension of Q and this is a contradictionas Po is assumed odd and irreducible. in the deformation representations THEOREM 5. finda newform lie in Z [VA/]. We nowshowhowin studyingellipticcurvesour restriction theorycan be circumvented. However.u (compatiblewithps'). Then we claim that the representationP-E.5 is an inducedrepresentation overQ(v/5) and E is semistable .and we replace (9'. restriction wouldbe abelian of orderprimeto 3.5on the 5-divisionpointsis irreducible.If we knewthat -E. Suppose that E is a semistableelliptic curve over Q.u) satisfiesour fora suitablechoiceof . E forwhichPE.3 was modularonce we observethat PE. eu') by (g.E is also modular(in the sense ofbeinga factorof the Jacobianof a modularcurve). Alternatively.11]) we can findan eigenform g' ofweight2 withthesame eigenvalues as f modulo a primepu'above (1 + X/=2).5 restrictedto followsa similar Gal(Q/Q(x/5)) is absolutelyirreducible.ANDREW WILES 542 whichis i 0PO: Gal(Q/Q) -+ GL2(C) we obtain an irreduciblerepresentation easily seen to be odd and whose image is solvable.Q(V/Z3) has no nontrivialabelian extensionsunramified and oforderprimeto 3. 79-80]-. requirements We can apply this to an ellipticcurve E definedover Q by considering to irreducible E[3].2 (provedat the end of Chapter3). Proof. Applyingthe theoremwe Its eigenvalues f ofweightone associatedto thisrepresentation.This irreducibility argumentto the one for -E.3 theimageofthe restricted to Gal(Q/Q (vZ/=)) werenotabsolutelyirreducible. Then if Po = PE.3 is then modularby Theorem0.3 is reducible. There is a newformg of weight2 whichhas the same eigenvaluesas g' foralmostall T1's. For example. Assume firstthat the representation-E. All semistableellipticcurvesoverQ are modular. So assume now that PE. [BiKu.x is the Eisensteinserieswith Mellintransform givenby ((s) ((s. So Po restrictedto Gal(Q/Q(VE/=)) is absolutelyirreducibleand PE. X) forX the quadraticcharacterassociated f mod3 and using the Deligne-Serrelemma ([DS.2..This is because Xo(15) (Q) has only fourrationalpointsbesides the cusps and these correspondto nonsemistablecurveswhichin any case are modular.

[CF. This curve C is smoothas X(p)lQ = X(5)/Q is smooth.Then E is givenby a quadratic twistof E(jE) and so aftera changeof functionsof the form92(i) F u2g2(j). 3.5(Iq) I 5.cf.For.5 ID5(in particularit is inducedfroma characterofthe unramified quadratic extensionof Q5 whose restrictionto inertiais the fundamentalcharacterof level 2) and in the ordinarycase it is straightforward. t) E Q (t) [x] of degree> 1 and we need to ensurethat formany values to in Q. AutX(5)/L) givenby PE.5.) So finallywe pick any to E Q whichis pl-adicallyclose to t1 and also 5-adicallyclose to the original value of t givingE. Prop. This can be checkedin the supersingularcase using the descriptionof PE.to ensurecondition(i) holds.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 543 at 5. Consider the twistedformX(p)lQ of X(5)/Q definedas follows. A rationalpointon C (necessarilynon-cuspidal)correspondsto an elliptic curveE' overQ withan isomorphism E'[5] .But this correspondsto E' being the image of a rationalpoint on an irreduciblecoveringof C of degree 4.Then we pick a prime P1 $ 5 such that f(x.3 is irreducibleand (ii) E' (or a quadratictwist)has semistablereductionat 5.2.3 is reducible. t1) has no rootmod P1.E[5] as Galois modules(cf. The curveE' (or a quadratic twist)willthensatisfyall thepropertiesneededto applyTheorem0. It has genus zero since the same is trueof the irreduciblecomponentsof X(5)-Q. ex. To see this.92(j)x . to) has no rational solution. VI. This last conditionensuresthat E' (corresponding to to) or a quadratic twisthas semistablereductionat 5. Let Q(t) be the functionfieldof C. 6. We claim that we can choose such a point with the two propertiesthat (i) the Galois representation PE'. 1728.5 To picka rationalpointon C satisfying (i) and (ii) we use the Hilbertirreducibilitytheorem. Hilbert's theoremensures that thereexists a t1 such that f(x. ti) is irreducible.) So E' will be modularand henceso too will PE'. We have therefore an irreduciblepolynomial f(x. we can finda familyE(j): y2 = X3. p. Then E definesa rationalpoint on X(p)/Q and hence also of an irreduciblecomponentof it whichwe denote C.observethat since JE $A0.2. Then forj' E Q close enough5-adicallyto jE - .93(j) with rationalfunctions92(ij.we onlyhave to eliminate the possibilitythat the image ofPE'. (This is easilyachievedusingthe Cebotarev densitytheorem.5: Gal(L/Q) GL2(Z/5Z) C Aut X(5)/L whereL denotesthe of splittingfield PE. 93(j) whichare finiteat jE and withthej-invariantof E(jo) equal to jo wheneverthegi(jo) are finite. [DR. Let X(5)/Q be the (geometrically disconnected)curvewhose non-cuspidalpoints classifyellipticcurveswithfulllevel 5 structureand let the twistedcurvebe definedby the cohomologyclass (even homomorphism) in H1(Gal(L/Q). (For the primesq : 5 we just use the factthat E' is semistableat q ==> # E-. 362]. 93(j) F U3g3(j) with u E Qx we can assume that E(jE) = E and that the equationE(jE) is minimalat 5. f(x.2]).

544

ANDREW WILES

theequationE(j') is stillminimaland semistableat 5, sincea criterionforthis,
foran integralmodel,is that eitherord5(A(E(j'))) = 0 or ord5(c4(E(j'))) = 0.
So up to a quadratictwistE' is also semistable.
This kindof argumentcan be applied moregenerally.
THEOREM 5.3. Suppose thatE is an ellipticcurvedefinedover Q with
thefollowingproperties:

(i) E has good or multiplicative
reductionat 3, 5,
(ii) For p = 3,5 and foranyprimeq -1 modp either1E,pIDq is reducible
overF orPEIpIIq is irreducibleoverFP.
Then E is modular.
Proof. The main point to be checkedis that one can carryover condition (ii) to the new curveE'. For this we use that forany odd primep q$
A
PEXpIDq

IIq is absolutelyreducible
is absolutelyirreducibleand -EXP
and 3 t #PE)p(Iq)

E acquiresgood reductionoveran abelian 2-powerextensionof
Qqnrbut not overan abelian extensionof Qq.
Suppose thenthat q _-1(3) and that E' does not satisfycondition(ii) at
q (forp = 3). Then we claim that also 3 t #PE',3(Iq). For otherwisePEj,3(Iq)
has its normalizerin GL2(F3) containedin a Borel, whence -El,3(Dq) would
be reduciblewhichcontradictsour hypothesis.So usingthe above equivalence
we deduce,by passingvia -E',5 PE,5, that E also does not satisfyhypothesis
(ii) at p = 3.
We also need to ensurethat PE',3 is absolutelyirreducibleover Q(VW3).
This we can do by observingthatthepropertythattheimageof -E',3 lies in the
Sylow2-subgroupof GL2(F3) impliesthat E' is the image of a rationalpoint
on a certainirreduciblecoveringof C of nontrivialdegree.We can thenargue
in the same way we did in the previoustheoremto eliminatethe possibility
that -E',3 was reducible,this timeusingtwo separatecoveringsto ensurethat
the image of -E',3 is neitherreduciblenor containedin a Sylow2-subgroup.
Finally one also has to show that if both PE,5 is reducibleand PE,3 is
induced froma characterof Q (v/Z3) then E is modular. (The case where
both were reduciblehas already been considered.) Taylor has pointed out
both these conditionsare classifiedby the non-cuspidal
that curvessatisfying
rationalpointson a modularcurve isomorphicto Xo(45)/Wg, and this is an
ellipticcurve isogenousto Xo(15) with rank zero over Q. The non-cuspidal
rationalpointscorrespondto modularellipticcurvesof conductor338.
El

ELLIPTIC

MODULAR

CURVES

AND

FERMAT'S

LAST THEOREM

545

Appendix
Gorenstein rings and local complete intersections
PROPOSITION 1. Suppose that0 is a completediscretevaluationring
and thatp: S -+ T is a suriectivelocal0-algebra homomorphism
betweencomplete local Noetherian0-algebras. SupposefurtherthatPT is a prime ideal of
'
0 and let Ps = W-1(PT). Assume that
T such that T/PT
(i) T -

O(X1,

...

,Xr1/(fi,

..

,fr-u)

wherer is thesize of a minimalset of

0-generatorsofPT/PT,
PT/P2 and thattheseare finitely
ps/p2
(ii) o inducesan isomorphism
generated0-modules whosefreepart has ranku.
Then o is an isomorphism.
Proof. First we considerthe case whereu = 0. We may assume that the
generators x1,. . .,Xr lie in PT by subtracting their residues in T/PT

(ii) we may also write

S

-

(9JX1,.

*

Xrll(gl,*

) 0. By

v9,)

with s > r (by allowingrepetitionsif necessary)and Ps generatedby the
Writing fi
images of {x1,.. .,Xr}. Let p = (X1,... ,Xr) in 0Jx1,. .xr]
Eaijxj mod p2 withaij E 0, we see that the Fittingideal as an 0-module of
PT/PT is givenby
F (PT/Pp) = det(aij) E 0
and that this is nonzeroby the hypothesisthat u = 0. Similarly,if each
gi =Ebijxj modp2, then
Fo(ps/p2) = {det(bij): i E I, #I=r,

I C {1, ...,

By (ii) again we see that det(aij) = det(bij) as ideals of 0 forsome choice Io
we may assume that Io = {1, . , r} Then each gi
of I. Afterrenumbering
(i = 1,... ,r) can be written gi = Erijfi for some rij E 0x1,.. .,Xr]J and we
have
det(bij) _ det(rij) det(aij) mod p.
Hence det(rij) is a unit,whence(rij) is an invertiblematrix.Thus the fi's can
be expressedin termsof the gi's and so S _T.
We can extendthisto the case u $&0 by pickingX1,.. , Xr-u so that they
generate(pT/p2)tors. Then we can writeeach fi = Er-uaIj x modp2 and
likewiseforthe gi's. The argumentis now just as beforebut applied to the
L
Fittingideals of (pT/p2)tors.

546

ANDREW WILES

For the next propositionwe continueto assume that 0 is a complete
discretevaluationring.Let T be a local 0-algebra whichas a moduleis finite
and freeover (9. In addition,we assume the existenceof an isomorphismof
T-modulesT --0 Homr(T, 0). We call a local 0-algebra whichis finiteand
freeand satisfiesthis extra conditiona Gorenstein0-algebra (cf. ?5 of [Til]).
Now suppose that p is a primeideal of T such that T/p _X.
Let o3:T -- Tlp - 0 be the naturalmap and definea principalideal of T
by
(AT) = C3(1))

where 3: ( --) T is the adjoint of /3with respectto perfect0-pairings on 0
and T, and wherethe pairingof T with itselfis T-bilinear. (By a perfect
pairingon a free0-module M of finiterankwe mean a pairingM x M -( 0
suchthat boththe inducedmaps M -) Homo(M, 0) are isomorphisms.When
M = T we are thusrequiringthat thisbe an isomorphism
ofT-modulesalso.)
as an
The ideal (AT) is independentof the pairings.Also T/TT is torsion-free
0-module, as can be seen by applyingHom ( , 0) to the sequence
0 -+

p -T

--+

0 -+0,

to obtain a homomorphism
T/T/T
Hom(p,0). This also showsthat (OT)
Annp.
If we let l(M) denotethe lengthof an 0-module M, then

=

I (P/P ) > 1(0/t)
(wherewe write 7T-for/3(qT)) because p is a faithfulT/IqT-module.(For a
briefaccount of the relevantpropertiesof Fittingideals see the appendix to
[MW1].) Indeed, writingFR(M) forthe Fittingideal of M as an R-module,
we have
FT/1T (P) = 0 X FT(P) C (r/T)E FT/p,(P/P2)C (AT)
and we then use the fact that the lengthof an 0-module M is equal to the
lengthof 09/FO(M) as 0 is a discretevaluationring. In particularwhenp/p2

is a torsion0-modulethen77T $ 0.

We need a criterionfora Gorenstein0-algebra to be a completeintersection. We will say that a local 0-algebra S which is finiteand freeover
0 is a complete intersectionover 0 if there is an 0-algebra isomorphism
S _ Oj[xi,.* ., Xrj/(fi
*... , fr) forsome r. Such a ringis necessarilya Gorenstein 0-algebra and {fi, .. , fir}is necessarilya regularsequence. That (i) =X
(ii) in the followingpropositionis due to Tate (see A.3, conclusion4, in the
appendix in [M Ro].)
PROPOSITION 2. Assume that0 is a completediscretevaluationrmng
and thatT is a local Gorenstein0-algebra whichis finiteand freeover0 and

Then thefollowingtwo conditionsare equivalent: (i) T is a completeintersectionover0. ?6]) but here is an argumentsuggestedby N. PT/P2 wherePs = r-1 (PT). We thenmodifygi... We can assume also that N is chosengreaterthan Then set the total degree of gi for each i. Then we have a sequence of maps. . In particularthe maximal 0-torsionsubmoduleof S is zero since it is also a finitelengthS-submoduleof S. .Pick isomorphisms T _Homo(T.. 0) as T-modules and S-modules. . As (as) = (NT) in C. Now 0/(i-s) . . The existenceof such an S seems to be well known (cf.. [Ti2. S over0 (so Proof. . f8)2and set (gj = gi + a1.. XXr]/(g1 . (). since l(01/(7s)) = l(ps/p2) by (i) X.3 0..L)= (ft7) in O and (.. (ii) l(PT/PT) = 1(0//7T-)as 0-modules. . it follows that also T .. ...0/(ft). Katz and H.3 denote the adjointswithrespectto these isomorphisms: oA T S T2-0.(90X1 X* X ...f) (Xi.p2) = (9gi... S .. xjv can be written in T as a polynomial hi(Xi . conclusion1 of TheoremA. we have that t is a unitmodPT and hencethat a o & is an isomorphism.. in which& and .. gr such that gi = Eaijf.fs)).hi(xi. Set ai = (x' . We can pick 91. ..3 completeintersections of [M Ro].Homo(S. .. withaij E (9 and such that (fiI. with PT the image in T of p = Write T = 0[xi.. Xr).Xr]j/(fi.MODULAR ELLIPTIC AND CURVES FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 547 thatPT is a prime ideal of T such thatT/PT _ 0 and PT/PT is a torsion 0-module.. One checksthat & is a map of S-modules (T being givenan S-action via a) and in particularthat a o & is multiplicationby an elementt of T.cf. thereexistsan N such that for each i. igrp2). Xsr) of total degreeless than N... Now (.g9} is a regularsequenceand hencethat depth(S) = dim(S) = 1. X* X . .. pick a completeintersection assumedfiniteand flatover0) suchthat a: S-ET and suchthatps/p2 . Since T is finiteover0. respectively. g)..The existenceof the latter for over 0 is well known.(. gr by the additionofelements{&I} of (f. Then S is finiteoverX by construction and also ... .g dim(S) < 1 sincedim(S/A) = 0 where(A) is the maximalideal of 0. .. . gr = gr+ ar)..3 o a) o ( o a) = (vs) in (9. S = (9 X .xr]/(fl.- f8.. (ii) and I(0/(ftr)) = l(PT/p2) by hypothesis. .It follows . It follows that {9g.x))2. Lenstra (independently). To provethat (ii) =X (i)... Since T is local and finite and free over 0 .

785-801. J.Academic Press. P. COATES and C. 7 (1974).Teubner. PRINCETON. IV. 91-116. W. LENSTRA. ALTMAN and S.. RAPOPORT. 1 (P. Norm. Math. H. Schemas de modulesde courbeselliptiques. An Introductionto GrothendieckDuality Theory. 507-530. 1-25. NJ REFERENCES [AK] [BiKu] [Bo] [BH] [BK] [BLR] [CF] [Cal] [Ca2] [Ca3] [CPS] [CS] [CW] [CO] [DR] [DS] [Dia] [Di] A. Ann. L. DIAMOND. CARAYOL. Publ. . Sci. B. SCHMIDT. eds. Duke Math. J. 357-367. Remark. Paris t312. Lenstra has made an importantimprovementto this proposition by showingthat replacing -ZTby /3(annp) gives a criterionvalid forall local (9-algebraswhichare finiteand freeover(9. 1973.ANDREW 548 WILES that S z. CLINE. 409-468. J. KUYK (eds. PARSHALL. Sci. on Modular Forms and Elliptic Curves. 165. KLEIMAN. Ec. 1970.). BLOCH and K. Cartier et al. IV. Formes modulaires de poids 1. RIBET. 1967. Math. (1978).Ann. Math. The Vol.C. N. Ec. COLEMAN. SpringerLecture Notes in Mathematics. H. Duke Boston. vol. E. 19 (1986). Birkhduser. R. The refinedconjectureof Serre.Vol. J. Ser. WILES. FR6LICH (eds. 169-191. Iwasawa theoryforthe symmetric square of an elliptic curve. 104-156.Ser. S. BOSTON. Soc. Formes modulaireset representationsGaloisiennes a valeurs dans un anConjecneau local complet. Linear Groups withan Expositionof the Galois Field Theory. and K. B. 1993 Hong Kong Conf. Division values in local fields. 1901.Math. 323-328. 1994.vol. Ser. F. J. 1993. to appear in Proc. . S.). Stevens).. KATO. COATES and A.whichcontradictsS being local. 349. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY.). 53 (1979). Sci. 375/376 (1987). J. Cohomologyof finitegroups of Lie type I. Mazur and G. Acad. as otherwiseS _ kera $ ima is a nontrivialdecompositionas [1 S-modules. DELIGNE and J-P. and L. AlgebraicNumberTheory. 59 (1989). 1 (1991). IHES 45 (1975). 1975. Math. BRUNS and J. vol. Cambridge UniversityPress. L-Functions and Tamagawa Numbers of Motives. Families of Galois representations-Increasingthe ramification. Sup. Math.T. SpringerLecture Notes in Mathematics. Aust. Sur les representationsgaloisiennesmodulo e attachees aux formesmodulaires. P. Sur les representationsp-adiques associees aux formesmodulairesde Hilbert. W. A26.1990. GrothendieckFestschrift. 476. . Norm. E. 66. Quotients of group ringsarisingfromtwodimensionalrepresentations. DELIGNE and M. On p-adic L-functionsand ellipticunits. CASSELS and A. SCOTT. Ser.Invent. HERZOG. B. Cohen-Macaulay Rings. Modular Functions of One Variable IV. DICKSON. reine und angew. N.in Springer Lecture Notes in Mathematics. R. SERRE. Leipzig. Contemp. thuswithoutthe Gorenstein hypothesis. 146. Sup. BIRCH and W.in p-Adic Monodromyand the Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer ture (eds. J. G.

L'action de l'algebre de Hecke sur les groupes de composantesdes jacobiennes des courbes modulairesest "Eisenstein".Ann. N. Studies. 47 (1978).MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM [Dr] [El] [E2] [Fl] [Fo] [Fr] [Grel] [Gre2] [Gro] [Guo] [He] [Hil] [Hi2] [Hi3] [Hi4] [Hu] [Ih] [Iw1] [Iw2] [Ka] [Kul] [Ku2] [KM] [La] [Li] [Liv] [Mal] 549 V. 109 (1992). H. L. 1980. Two-dimensionalt-adic representationsof the fundamentalgroup of a curve over a finitefieldand automorphicformson GL(2). Guo. of No. Springer-Verlag. K. 159-170. A result on modular formsin characteristicp. 85-99. 53-61. 105 (1983).New York. KUNZ. DeformingGalois representations. Pure Math. 563-594. R. 285-315. Sugaku Expositions 2-3 (1989). . Endliche GruppenI. . N. Adv. J. 111115. of Math. 128 (1988). 28 (1974). 295-384. ofMath. On the structureofcertainGalois groups. (4) 19 (1986). 1-40. Ann. Coll. (1989). The weightin Serre's conjectureon modular forms. Annales UniversitatisSaraviensis 1 (1986). 133-141. On modular curves over finitefields. Ecole Norm. A finiteness Math. Ann.Local Class Field Theory. 253-263. St. HELLEGOUARCH. GROSS. M.in Galois Groups over Q. SpringerL. Li. 297 (1993). 115 (1982). 1967. Points d'ordre2ph sur les courbeselliptiques. B. 1973. General Selmer groups and critical values of Hecke L-functions. Am. On p-adic Hecke algebras forGL2 over totally real fields.Math.Springer. Introductionto CommulativeAlgebraand AlgebraicGeometry. IHARA. M. Iwasawa theoryforp-adic representations. . 307-327. 85-114. 31 (1989).1986. J.Invent.Math. DRINFELD. Invent. 601 (1976). Theory of p-adic Hecke algebras and Galois representations. . of Math.Asterisque196-197 (1991). MAZUR. E.Acta Arith. MAZUR.Invent. R. theoremforthe symmetricsquare ofan ellipticcurve. . Math.Ann. . of Math. HIDA. in Modular Functions of One VariableV. PrincetonUniversity Press 96. Bombay. FLACH.in Courbes Modulaires et Courbes de Shimura. 16. PrincetonUniversityPress.Ann. Almostcompleteintersections are not Gorenstein. 1985. Y. 161-202. constructiond'un anneau de Barsotti-Tate. Oxford. on discrete subgroupsof Lie groups and application to moduli. Birkhaiiser. . 231-273. GREENBERG. On Zi-extensionsof algebraic numberfields. B. of Math. On the conductorsof mod e Galois representationscomingfrommodular forms. 445-517.XXVI (1975). p-adiques du groupede Galois J. 109 (1992). 225-261. H. A tamenesscriterionforGalois representationsassociated to modular formsmodp. 1989. Th.FONTAINE. W. Intern.Invent.J. Ann.J.Ann. Sur certainstypesde representations d'un corps local.Math. 246-326. FREY. pp. 529-577. Math. 97-137. EDIXHOVEN.OxfordUniversityPress. KATZ. Studies 108. 98 (1973). 75-102. Sup.Ann. 63 (1981). KATZ and B. G. B. 212 (1975). vol.-M. 221-233. HUPPERT. N. B. . IWASAWA. 61 (1990). LANGLANDS.in Proc.Math. Iwasawa modules attached to congruencesof cusp forms. MSRI Publications. 1985. 17 R. Sci. Congruences of cusp formsand special values of their zeta functions. Newformsand functionalequations. Duke Math. LIVNE. Links between stable elliptic curves and certain diophantineequations. Y. ArithmeticModuli ofElliptic Curves. Alg. Base Changefor GL (2).

SERRE.Academic Press.). .Comm.p).. Bull.Publ. 100 (1990). RAMAKRISHNA. A.Math. Boletin da Sociedade Brasileira de Matematica. 1994. B. K. . Multiplicitiesof p-finitemodp Galois representations in Jo(Np).Invent. eds. Specialisationdu foncteurde Picard. Invent. Jacobian varieties. Iwanami Shoten and PrincetonUniversityPress. J-P. Pure and Appl. Math. 177-188. The structureof the minus class groups of abelian number fields. M. Soc. B. Courbes Modulaires et Courbes de Shimura. . 17 (1983). Schemas en groupes de type (p. . G. On p-adic analytic familiesof Galois representations. Math. . On modularrepresentations ofGal(Q/Q) arisingfrommodularforms. The special values ofthe zeta functionassociated withcusp forms. R. B.Paris (1988-1989). Birkhauser(1990). Persp. . 783-804. (3) 31 (1975). MILNE. 87 (1993). . Nova Serie 21 (1991). Representationsgaloisiennes. RIBET. 431-476. Report on mod 1 representations of Gal(Q/Q). 1986. Invent. Introductionto the ArithmeticTheory of AutomorphicFunctions. 1986. 59 (1986). Math. IHES 38 (1970). DE SHALIT.Math. K. Math. WILES. 179-230. 25-68. Two-dimensionalrepresentationsin the arithmeticof modular curves. . Int.M. 4. Academic Press. On the holomorphyof certainDirichletseries. Math. Elliptic curves with complex multiplicationand the conjectureof Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer. 185-204.Asterisque 196-197 (1991). ' Congruencerelationsbetweenmodular forms. E. . MAZUR and L. 9 (1970). MAZUR and A. Cong. Soc. Modular curves and the Eisensten ideal.. Progress in Math.Proc. 89 (1987).Invent. 103 (1991). 241-280. 179-330. 27-76. Tate-Shafarevichgroupsand L-functionsof ellipticcurveswithcomplex multiplication. The 'main conjectures'of Iwasawa theoryforimaginaryquadratic fields. Rational isogeniesof primedegree. 64 (1981). R. 639-676. . . On a variationof Mazur's deformationfunctor. of Math. 201-234. 133-186. SCHOOF.. SCHLESSINGER. J. SHIMURA. Iwasawa Theory of Elliptic Curves with Complex Multiplication. 1971. 55 (1994). Math. RUBIN. Duke Math. J. Functorson Artinrings.Math.Comp.differentielles de Kihler et conjecturesprincipales. 3. B. M. 455-470. 76 (1984). Vol.Proc. Sur les representationsmodulaires de degre 2 de Gal(Q/Q). France 102 (1974).Math. MAZUR and K.550 [Ma2] [Ma3] [M Ri] [M Ro] [MT] [MW1] [MW2] [Mil] [Mi2] [Ram] [Rayl] [Ray2] [Ril] [Ri2] [Ri3] [Ri4] [Rul] [Ru2] [Ru3] [Ru4] [Sch] [Scho] [Se] [de Sh] [Shl] [Sh2] [Sh3] ANDREW WILES . ArithmeticDuality Theorems. 65-103. Proc. MAZUR and J. 208-222.CRM Proceedings and Lecture Notes.p. More 'main conjectures'forimaginaryquadratic fields. of Symp. TILOUINE. Math. 231-264. A. 29 (1976). . 215-255. RIBET. in Pure Math. 1987. 54 (1987). 91. 130 (1968). 129-162. Springer-Verlag. Class fieldsof abelian extensionsof Q. Publ. Invent. 269-286. Math. RAYNAUD. Invent. in Math. IHES 71 (1990). .Math.Math.Trans. Local Euler characteristics.Comp. S. in Seminairede Theorie des Nombres. London Math. ROBERTS.Invent. 527-560. IHES 47 (1977).in Arithmetic Geometry (Cornell and Silverman. 503-514.S. . 79-98. Publ. 44 (1978).

next paper. 42 (1981). J.on Local Fields. Modular curves and the class group of Q((p). Math. 5 (1981). 407-456. Math. WILES. Conf. France 115 (1987). . Un sous-groupep-divisiblede la jacobienne de X1 (Npr) commemodule sur l'algebre de Hecke. ofMath. 89-103. Math. 1967. Theorie d'Iwasawa classique et de l'algebre de Hecke ordinaire. On ordinaryA-adicrepresentations associated to modularforms. On p-adic representations fortotallyreal fields. A. Bull. WINTENBERGER. p-divisiblegroups. R. P.Comp. 1994) . 94 (1988).S. 199-208. 65 (1988).Nagoya Math. . J. Driebergen. 43 (1971). 168 (1967).TILOUINE.M. J. The Iwasawa conjecturefortotallyreal fields. 1-35. Invent. 265-320.Proc. Structuregaloisiennede limitesprojectivesd'unitees locales. Artin'sconjectureforrepresentationsof octahedral type. 149-156. SpringerVerlag. Soc. A. 58 (1980). TATE. (Received October 14. Math. TAYLOR and A. WEIL. Comp. On ellipticcurveswithcomplex multiplicationas factorsof the Jacobians of modular functionfields.Invent. Uber die BestimmungDirichletscherReihendurchFunktionalgleichungen. Math.Bull. .Ann. 493-540. . J.1966. WILES. J. TUNNELL. 173-175. 329-360. Math.Ann. this issue. A.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM [Sh4] [Ta] [Til] [Ti2] [TU] [TW] [We] [Wil] [Wi2] [Wi3] [Wi4] [Win] 551 . pp. 529-573. 131 (1990). 123 (1986). Ring theoreticpropertiesof certainHecke algebras. 158-183. Ann. of Math.

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and similarlyforY.Zp and so it is trivialin this case also. It LI outsidep.2) K/O(v)). -? (K/O)(v)) Hom (Gal(Mco/L(v))I (K/Q)(V))Gal(L(v)/L) The firsttermis zero as one easily checksusingthe divisibilityof (K/O)(v). ifiedeverywhere sequenceas Proof.If v 0 1(A) this is straightforward(cf. The unramifiedconditionthen translatesinto the requirement that the cohomologyclass should lie in {HunrinE-p(Qr2/L.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 527 Hl(Qunr. Y*) A Hom (Gal(Moo/L(v)). (K/9)(v-162))} where A = Gal(L/Q). (K/Q)(v)). (4. The inflation-restriction sequence applied to this givesan exact sequence (4.3) liftsto a class c in H1 (QE/L. Next note that H2 (L(v)/L.. H jnr in _p (Qr/L. It followsthat any class in the finaltermof (4. (WOn)*)). (K/c)(v)) E Hunrin p* (Qr/L.) for the subgroupof Hunr(QF/Q. The sequenceis obtainedfromthe inflation-restriction follows.i. Let Lo be the splittingfieldof Y*.1.9]. thusequal to (Yn/yn?)* where(Yn*)0is the firststep in the filtration or equivalently to (Y*)%n where (Y*)O is the divisible submodule of Y* on whichthe action of Ip is via 9. Yn) op = 0 in H1(Qp. Thereis an isomorphism 4. 5. Lemma 2. Then MooLo/Lo is unramified outside p and Lo/L has degreeprimeto p. followsthat c is unramified Now writeHltr(QF/Q. (K/O)(v)) Hunr in Up (Qr/L. (If p $&3 one can characterize(Yn)0 as the . (K/O)(V))Ga1(L(v)/L) whereHlnr denotesthesubgroupof classes whichare Selmerat p and unramelse.2 of [Rul]). Yn*)givenby Hstr(QE/Q YEn)= E Hlnr(QF/Q. (K/Q)(v)) is trivial. Let Moo be the maximalabelian p-extensionof L(v) unramifiedoutsidep. Yn*/(Yn)O)} underDp. The followingpropositiongeneralizes[CS. Prop. PROPOSITION Hunr(QF/Q. (K/()(v)) E H1 (Q/L. If v =1(A) then Gal (L(v)/L) .3) 0 - Hlnr in U-p (L(v)/L. (K/O)(v162))} Since A interchangesthe two groups inside the parenthesesit is enough to computethe firstof them.

(K/Q) (V)An) largen. setting (4.Y*) (Yn)*)#H (Q. (4. whichholds forsufficiently is infective. The above map is theninjectivewheneverthe connectinghomomorphism Ho (Lp*.ANDREW WILES 528 applies with maximalsubmoduleon whichIp acts via E2.6) Hstr(Q/Qi Yn*) Hstr(Q/Qi Y*) is infective. (4.4)-(4.7) and the elementaryestimate (4. Yn) = 0 and a simplecalculationshowsthat #H (Q.One can checkthis by replacingthese groupsby the subgroups of H1(L. Y*) forq :&p.6. Yn) #HO (Q. En) = i{ f 1 if v-=I1mod A #(C)/l-I/(q)) otherwise whereq runsthrougha set of primesof OL primeto p cond(v) of densityone. that Y.5) large the map We also need the factthat forn sufficiently (4. replacingY?n*. (K/O)(v)) whichare unramifiedoutside p and trivialat p*.9) #HSe(Q/Q. ip = lim # HO(Qp. This can be checkedsince Y* = IndQ(v) 0 K/c.1. by Proposition1. (4. #Hsltr(QE/Q. (Yn?)*).4) In the case of Y* we will use the inequality # H1tr(QF/Q. Yn).) A similardefinition It followsfroman examinationofthe actionof Ip on Y). Now. Hstr(QE/Ql Yn) = Hunr(QE/Q. So. 7 Ho (Q HQ Yn) #Hr(Q/Q.This follows fromProposition4. (K/O) (v)) -+ H1 (Lp*.41 we get (4.1. (KI 0)(v where?q = #HO(Qq. Y*) < # Hunr(QF/Qi Y*). y)Ga1(Qunr/Qq) = e . Yn*) () Also. HO (Q. (K/O)(V)An) and H1(L.in a mannersimilarto the beginningofthe proofof Proposition 4.10) Y)) < Y)/Hulnr(QE/Ql #(HSle(Qr/Ql fqi 1I qEE-{p} which follows fromthe fact that #H1 (Qunr. Y) < - Iq()I q # Hom (Gal (Moo/L(v)).8) t infq#(O/(1-v(q))) -~~~ 1 ifvmodA=1 vmodA #.

the rayclass fieldofconductor f. but we will recall some of the steps here. II. We choose an embeddingcorresponding to a primeabove p and then we findsp = K *X forsome X of finiteorder and conductorprime to p.e.i. Lemma 1. Then thereis a grossencharacter 1 modJ Wof L satisfyings((a)) = a fora (cf..q=limUn. For each primeX3of F above p we have a formalgroup ET. [de Sh. (K/O)(V))Ga1(L(v)/L)). ?1. Indeed Wpand i are both unramifiedat p* and satisfyWpIi.10]). Y). afterfixingan embeddingQ Qp we can associate a p-adic characterWpto s (cf. We let A = ASE be the logarithmof this formalgroup. Uo=fJ q3lp uCo where Uoo. This is byour hypothesisthat i factored throughan extensionof the formZp E T withT of orderprimeto p.T. Also the only primeswhichramifyin a ZpWPIG extensionlie above p so our hypothesison K ensuresthat KIGhas conductor dividingfp'.(cf. II.) We could now derivethe resultdirectlyfrom this by referring to [de Sh. Howeverwe will make the assumption. II. [Ru2] and especially [Ru4]. is an inertiagroupat p. We choose an f prime to p such that Wf= 1. Withoutalteringfwe can evenchoose s so thatthe orderofX is primeto p.c. and this is a relativeLubin-Tate group with respect to FT3over Lp (cf.1. To see thispickan abelian splittingfieldofWpand i whoseGalois grouphas the form G E G' with G a pro-p-group and G' of orderprimeto p. Ch. Let Wfdenote the numberof roots of unity( of L such that ( _ 1 modJ (Jan integralideal of OL). We can thereforeadjust s so that X has orderprime to p as claimed.1 (5)]). The same is then true of the p-partof X whichthereforehas conductordividingf.4]). Ch. In the formerreferenceRubin assumes that the class numberof L is primeto p. This order can be computed usingthe 'main conjecture'establishedby Rubin usingideas ofKolyvagin. Let UOObe the productof the principallocal units at the primesabove p of L(fpoo).5) thisin turnreducesto the problemofestimating # Hom(Gal(MOO/L(v)). y (or more preciselysoo NF/L) is associated to a The grossencharacter (unique) ellipticcurveE definedoverF = L(f).1. V) and the mainproblemis to estimateH e(Q-/Q.but still keepingf primeto p. . Accordingto Weil. [de Sh. cond v}.= KII = e wheree is the cyclotomic characterand I. that both v and Wp have conductor dividing fp'. We will not howeverchoose s so that X is 1 as this would requirefp? to be divisibleby condx. Then we see that has conductordividingfp'. Thus we replace fp ? by l. [de Sh. 3]. We may even fixa Weierstrassmodel of E over OF whichhas good reductionat all primesabove p. [de Sh.m. with complex multiplicationby CL and isomorphicover C to CIOL (cf. II. by alteringf if necessary.{f. By (4.4]).MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 529 Our objectiveis to computeH'e(Qr/Q.

The constructionof the powerseriesin [CW] does not extendto the case wherethe formalgrouphas height> 1 or to the case whereit is definedover an extensionof Qp. We now summarizethese results. n= 0(d) whered = [Fqe:L. (Note that the primes of L(f) above p are totallyramifiedin L(fpoo)so we still call them {q3}.5]. II ?4.see [de Sh. Now 0 = pp on Gal(F/F). To an elementu = limun E UOOwe can associate a powerseriesfuv.) For preciselyfuqp(T)is the q3-component to our chosenembedding X3 we will choose the primeabove p corresponding = c* Q Qp.(T) E O.-Ox is the charactergiving = 09(0)k k.) We bk on Up.530 ANDREW WILES each Un't being the principallocal units in L(fpn)qp. Assume forthe momentthat Fq3is Qp.9(U)= A'(T) dT logfu(T) T=O (9wsatisfying It is easy to see that6k. These werefirstintroduced wishto definecertainhomomorphisms in [CW] in the case wherethe local fieldFspis Qp.12) 5k(UT) = 9(Q)kSk(U) forr E Gal(F/F) where0 again denotesthe action on E[p']. p(U) =d -- () by logfu'(T) ET ~~~~T=O Then (4. Let S . Then lettingwn it was shown be nontrivialrootsof [7rn] (x) = 0 chosenso that [ir](an) = wi~n-1 in [CW] that to each elementu = limun E UOq therecorrespondeda unique powerseriesfu(T) e Zj[T X such that fu(wn) = Un forn > 1. The definition of 6ke (k > 1) in this case was then k. We on UO. In this case Eq is isomorphicto the Lubin-Tategroupassociated to 7rx+ xP where7r= ~p(p). This powerseriessatisfiesUndo (fu.q3givesa homomorphism: UooUoo. (More ofthe powerseriesdescribedthere. Observethat v = 2 on Gal(F/F).] and {wn} is chosen as beforeas an inversesystemof irn divisionpointsofEm.11) Sk(U) = 6k. Ch.)(wn) forall n > 0.(6) where9: Gal (FIF) skq3(e) the action on E[p'].) The corresponding in [Ru3]and thenin fullgenerality 6k weregivenin somewhatgreatergenerality by de Shalit [de Sh].witha transformation propertycorreactuallywant a homomorphism spondingto v on all of Gal(L/L).3[[T]]x whereOC3is the ringofintegersofFew. (See also [Iwi]. We definea homomorphism 6k: Uoo (4.thus returningto the generalcase whereFq is not assumed to be Qp. A morenaturalapproachwas developedby Coleman [Co] generalizationsof whichworksin general.

Zp[[Gal(L(v)/L)]] -modules: charA(Gal (Moo/L(v))) = charA(UO(v)/CJ. II.(VJ) -+CP I Let COObe the groupofprojectivelimitsofellipticunitsin L(v) as defined in [Ru4].1) = (2(0)/P2(U)- Next we let e(a) be the projectivelimit of ellipticunits in limLpn for a some ideal prime to 6fp describedin [de Sh. Computing (2 on both u and . of rank one. ?12].3an elementofC( ?). It takes integralvalues in (9q [v]. ?4. Now accordingto resultsof Iwasawa ([1w2.1)u = fiforsome f (T) E 0[[T]] and -ya topologicalgeneratorof Gal (L(v)/L(vo)).3 gives (4. Gal (L(v)IL) Gal (L(v)IL(vo)) x Gal(L(vo)IL). Since Gal(L(v)/L) decomposesintoa directproduct the Teichmiiller of a pro-pgroupand a groupof orderprimeto p. [Ru2]).). Ch.. Let UO (v) denotethe productof the groups of local principalunits at the primesabove p of the fieldL(v) (by whichwe mean projectivelimitsof local principalunits as before).14) f (v(-y).13) dI2(U) = Z v-1(of)62(uU)E Oq3[v]. Then by the propositionof Chapter II.8) and it Each termis independentof the choiceof coset representative is easily checkedthat (2(U') = V(Of)4D2(U).[[T]]. [Ru2.2. Let vo = v mod A.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 531 forGal(L/L)/ Gal (LIF) and define be a set of coset representatives (4. generatorofUO (v) (vO)and . Also A(vO)-. Then f (y.9]. ?2. we can also considerany Zp[[Gal(L(v)/L)]]-modulealso as a Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)]module. Theorem 5. Then we have a crucialtheoremof Rubin (cf. proved usingideas of Kolyvagin: There is an equalityof characteristicideals as A = THEOREM 4. [Ru4]. We extend (2 0-linearly to is a freeA(vO)-module UOO(v)(vO) Suppose that u is a Uoo(v) Ozp (9 and it then factorsthroughUoo(v)(v?).1]).7 of [de Sh] this is a 12th powerin limL xn We . dES by (4. For any Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)]-moduleX we writeX(vO) forthe maximalquotientofX 0 (9 on whichthe actionof Gal(L(vo)/L) is via zp liftofvo. In particularX(vO)is a moduleover Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)](v0)O 0. Then 12 factors throughUO (v) and thus definesa continuoushomomorphism (D2:UOO.

(ii) wf= 1. Since V . Combiningthis with (4. (Recall that thiswas chosento have good reductionat primesabove p.9) gives: #HSe(QE/Ql Y) < # (O/Q-2Lfo(2. fJq qEE where4 # HI(Qq.) whose associated p-adic character.Note that if vo = 1 then also p = 3. Also v here should The periodsare those of the standardNerondifferential.v(a)) Lf(2. II. Y*) (forq 4 p).))Ga1(L(v)1L) #O/Q-2Lfo(2.10] showsthat (4.-P)/Lf0 a p-adic unit unless vo = 1 in whichcase we can choose it to be t as defined in (4.2. We can clearlychoose Lf(2. A generalizationof the calculationin [CW] whichmay be foundin [de Sh.v)) ifvo7&1 t if vo = 1. The only restrictionswe have placed on f are that (i) f is prime to p.via be interpretedas the grossencharacter the chosenembeddingQ )-k QP.3 = Normol3 wherethe normis fromLfpo to L(v). ?4. is v.Y E (K/O)(f ) EDK/(9 we need also a formulafor - # ker{H1(QE/Q.but it is sufficient since Gal (Moo/L(v)) has no finiteA-submodule(by a resultof Greenberg. i) E OT9[v] whereQ is a basis forthe (9L-moduleofperiodsofour chosenWeierstrassmodel ofE/F. Now let fop' be the conductorof v withto (2.y)/Lf(2.v)) .see [Gre2.15) (D2(3) = (root of unity)Q-2 (Na .Then (D2(U)is a p-adicunit.532 ANDREW WILES let 31i= !3(a)1/12be the projectionof e(a)1/12to UOOand take .end of ?4]) we deduce fromTheorem4. as -P(q)v(q)= Normq2forany ideal q primeto fop.17) to be a unit if vo #41. Also if vo = 1 then we see that inf# {O/{JLoq(21P)/Lfo(2P)}} = t since PF-2 =- We can compute(D2(u) by choosinga special local unit and showingthat forus to knowthat it is integral. Ch. vP)is primeto p.4). and (iii) condv fpv . tp # HO (Qp. I) < ?l (#O/Q-2Lfo (2.15) that #Hom(Gal (Moo/1L(v)). and vPis the complexconjugateof v. (K/( )(0) EDK/()} J qEE-{p} 4q . We show now that we can choose f such that Lf(2.I (K/c)) (z.16) #(O/hL)- -- Hl(Qunr. (4. (YO)*). (K/O)(0) E K/c) This is easily computedto be (4.14) and (4.

y) = (x. Let (4. tp = #HO(Qp. [Hi2]fora surveyof his earlierresults)by interpreting (. T1 (N)m is Gorensteinand it followsthat T is also a Gorenstein O-algebra (see the discussionfollowing(2. Of) givenby x .) In particular(tx. we set to definean invariantrj of T.v)) where4 = #(O(/hL) J4q qEE H OH(Qq.3. Let po be an irreduciblerepresentation as in (1.Then by Corollary1 of Theorem2. y and foreach standardHecke correspondence H1 (Xi (N).A a that f is a newform ofpo. (.is the adjoint of 7rwith respectto the pairings.(We sometimesdrop the C fromX1(N)IC or Ji(N)IC if the contextmakes it clear that we are referringto the complex manifolds.t*x and simplywritetx fort*x. So we can use perfectpairings (the second one T-bilinear) OxO -. Let mbe the kernelofthe homomorphism T1 (N) -* Of /A deformation arisingfromf.1.): TxT -O (9 is the natural map. ?3. ) in termsof the cup product pairingon the cohomologyof X1 (N). Suppose ofweight2 and levelN. Calculation of rq We needto calculateexplicitlytheinvariantsrD. Assume that p t N.17) ( ):H1 (Xi(N). We now give an explicit formula for 77 developedby Hida (cf. ((K/O)(0) E K/O)*) and hL is the class numberof OL. This is the same . 7r(r)= (?7.77)up to a unitin 0 and as notedin the appendix 77 = Ann p = T[[p] where p = ker7r. #HSe(QE/QV) ? #(9/Q2L10(2. dependingonlyon 7r. I)O Of be the cup productpairingwith Of as coefficients.f introducedin Chapter2.A and kmis W(km. IOf) x H1 (Xi(N). ?3 in a special case. Combiningthese gives: PROPOSITION 4. We writeT forTl(N)m 0 (9. A a primeofOf above p and pf. If 7r: T (r7)= (*ir(1))where*.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 533 where4 = #H0(Qq. We use the action of t on x. Furthermore.V*) (forq #4 p). It is well-defined as we noted as an ideal of T.) the residue fieldof m.t*y) for all t. and then in termsof the Peterssoninnerproductof f with itself.1). The following account(whichdoes not requirethe CM hypothesis)is adapted from[Hi2]and we referthereformoredetails. We assume here that k is the residuefieldof ( and that it is chosento containkm.(YO)*)2. where(9 = Qf. in Chapter2.42)).

Z) ft1(N) Of) ?Tl(N)?of mlf~m T ~ T1N2 - T2. Of) via its action on Of.> is givenby r(q2) (unit). Actuallythis is not essentialas we could replace Of by any ringof integerscontainingit.19) wherewC is definedas in (2. If f = Eanqn let fP = Eanqn. Furthermore det(bi. Here complexconjugationacts on H1(Xi(N). H1(Xi(N). Then {If.4). Lf X LfP ReplacingOf (and the Of-modules)bythelocalizationofOf at p (ifnecessary) we can assume that Lf and Lfp are freeof rank 2 and directsummandsas Of-modulesof the respectivecohomologygroups. fP} forma basis . fPI fPdz.considera modifiedpairing( .6j) forsome p-adic unit c (in Of).. H (X1(N). Thus (4.e. Then fPis again a newformand we define of Lf.62 be a basis of Lf. Of) [pf].62 is a basis of Lfp = Lf.1. (One can check this.) Then the pairing(.18) Of. C) HN).y) = (x. ) induces anotherby restriction (. y and Hecke operatorst.6j) = det(6i. This is because wC(LfP) = Lf and wC(Lf) = Lfp. f(z)dz. ty) forall x..534 ANDREW WILES as the action induced by t* E T1(N) on H1(Jl(N). Ej) is an elementof Of (or its localizationat p) whose image in Of. Then also 61. Let 61.w 6j) = cdet(6i. and let Lf = H1 (X1 (N). Similarly{If.18) can be viewed (aftertensoringwith Of. ) definedby (x. 6) we observethat f and fP can be C) via viewedas elementsofH1 (X1(N). Of Let pf be the minimalprimeof T1 (N) 0 Of associated to f (i. We can thenverifythat (6. Then (tx. the kernelof T1(N) 0 Of -.): (4.19)) as a perfectpairingof T-modulesand so this servesto computeir(iq2) as explainedearlier(the square comingfromthe fact that we have a rank 2 module). and modifying it as in (4. 6) :=det(bi.Of givenby t10 f H-* /ctt(f) wheretf = ct(f)f). y) = (x. using the explicit bases described below.Of) H'(Xi(N). for example.by Theorem2. To givea moreusefulexpressionfor(6. To see this. fP} forma basis forLf Oof C.) Moreover. (Note here that Of = OfP LfP by replacingf by fP in the definition as these ringsare the integersof fieldswhichare eithertotallyreal or CM by a resultof Shimura. way) (4.

C2in Hl(Xi(N). f2} = {f. W2 = (f. Lettinguf be a generator we have the followingformulaof Hida: PROPOSITION 4.): (W. Now (w.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 535 forLfp ?Of C. By Poincare duality there exist classes C1. C2) and with oftheOf-module{det (fc fi)} {fi. To computedet(C) we considerintegralsoverclasses in H1 (Xi(N). Hence detC generatesthe same Of-module as is generatedby {det (fc f)} forall such choicesof classes (Cl. and since svois a character. In additionwe wish to assume that Po is ordinaryand detPoI p = w. where = for any o representingthe nontrivial coset of Ko(aT-lb6) KO'a(b) Gal(L/Q)/ Gal(L/L). In particularp splitsin L. f)2/Uf f x (unit in Of. These conditionsimplythat.6) det(CC). (iii) p((a)) = a fora _1 (f) forsome integralideal f primeto p. fI}. fP) and write W1= C6 and W2= C6 withC E M2(C). Let Mo denote the maximal abelian extensionof L whichis unramifiedoutside p. We assume that Po is irreducible. (ii) fppfactorsthroughan abelian extensionisomorphicto Zp e T withT of finiteorderprimeto p. Now we restrictto the case where po = IndQ sio for some imaginary quadratic fieldL whichis unramifiedat p and some kX-valuedcharacterso of Gal(L/L).4..i. To obtain p it is necessaryfirstto define pp. c) is givenexplicitlyin termsofthe (non-normalized) Peterssoninner product(. f)2 where(f. soi(a) = a-1 mod p on U.c') = -4(f.A). after possible replacement of svo by Ivoa Here the U. We assume now that p is fixedand so chosen to satisfythis congruence. We choose a (primitive)grossencharacterp on L togetherwith an emto the primep above p such that the induced beddingQ c-* Qp corresponding p-adic characterfpphas the properties: (i) ppmodp = so (p = maximalideal of Qp). are the unitsofL. Our choice of introducedbelowhas conductorprime so willimplythat the grossencharacter top. Let 0: Gal(Mx/L) -+ QpX be any characterwhichfactorsthrougha Zp-extensionand induces the . Of) such that det(f 60) is a unit in Of. that so 5$ ". f) = fs/r1(N)ffdxdy.e. inducesa homomorphism on U. Define the vectorswi = (ffP)... Of). 7r(iR2)= (f.ifp is a prime of L above p.the restriction of svoto an inertiagroupI.f2 = fP we set (WIa) :=det((fi. Then writingfi = If.If)) = (6..

Then Q = u Q for some p-adic unit in FX.and pick a grossencharacter p such that ((p)p = (np.p = 'coO. To see thisone checksthat thep-adic Galois representations associatedto the Tate moduleson each side are equivalent to (Ind . homomorphism l(p)}.Th.1 forthe representation on Af. Of. Let WE of E/OF+<( ) Let Q be a basis forthe OL-module of be a Neron differential periods of WE. Note that our choice of p here is not necessarilyintendedto be the same as in Section 1.3)].) Over F+ this ellipticcurvehas onlythe p-power isogeniesofthe form?pm form E Z.. (I t N) and o)f((Ti)= 0 if1 is inert in L (1 t N). fg) are equal (cf. Lemma 3]). The curveE/F is the extension of scalars of a unique ellipticcurveE/F+ whereF+ is the real subfieldof F of index 2. the localizationof OF+ at p. be the conductorof p and let F be the ray class fieldof conductor .536 ANDREW WILES a | .f = fgsis a newform.a-1 on U. (See [Shl. the discussionafterTheorem2.op)Ozp Kf. a maximal ideal m of T1 (N) and a homomorphism ) .) * . p is associatedto a cusp formfAlin such a way that the L-seriesL(s. Let po = kerf f:T1 (N) -+ Of and let Af = Ji (N)/poJ1 (N) be the abelian varietyassociatedto f by Shimura. 1]). (5.unique up to isomorphism. withgood reductionat the primesabove p.4.ofrankone overOL and withassociatedgrossencharacter ipo NF/L. cf./L) whereUp.pwhereKf.OverF+ thereis an isogeny Af/F+ (E/F+ )d whered = [Of: Z] (see [Sh4. Over F+ thesetwosubgroupsare interchanged by complexconjugation. the choiceof grossencharacter Now let f. withcomplexmultiplication by OL and periodlatticefree.Thus the integerN = condf = IAL/QINormL/Q(condcp) is primeto p and thereis a homomorphism 'Of: Ti(N)-4?Rf C Of C 0cp satisfying of (Tl) = (p(c)+ (P(C)if1 = ccin L. To see thisobservethat F is unramified at p and po is ordinaryso that the only isogeniesof degreep over F are the ones that correspondto divisionby kerp and kerp' wherepp' = (p) in L. (One compares trace(Frob?) in the two representations for? t Np and ? split completelyin F+. Using the embeddingof Q in Qp chosen above we get a prime A of Of above p.1= {u E Up:u Then set '. Accordingto a theoremofHecke. such that the associated representationpf. Also of ((l(l)) = (p((l))?o(l) where / is the quadraticcharacter associated to L.p= Of 0 Qp and where(pr:Gal(F/F) Zx p is the p-adic characterassociated to and restrictedto F. Then overF thereis an ellipticcurve. [Sh4.Areduces to Tl(N).pomodA. --* Gal(M.(p). cp) and L(s. Moreoversince p was assumed primitive.We let E/O9F+ (p) denote a Weierstrassmodel over OF+.whichgives the assertion.

OM). Z) 0 O9M. We note that a (on homologyas in (4.(p) . We claim now that c E OM. Let WE be a Neron differential of E/OF+(p). Z) 0 aOM. Let M be the compositeof F+ and the normal closureof Kf viewedin C.Q11(N) Q3 Hom(OM.(p) - Hi (E/C. We considerthe map (4. Now let us writeO1 for J1 (N)101) N)1~0 6 ) .21) Ja*(wE)= Y E M and JWE a(y) forany class y e Hi(Xi(N)/C. Even if 7r'is not surjectivewe claim that the image of 7r'always has the formHi(EIC.20)) also comes froma map of abelian varietiesa: J1(N)/F+ 'z OM E/F+ ?Z OM althoughwe have not used this to definea**. Extendingscalars to M we can write ir*WE = a. Now definea* on QE bya* = a-lAiti o r* where-*QE/C QJ1(N)/C is the map induced by 7rand ti has the usual action on QJ1(N)C Then a*(WE) = CWffor some c (4. Z) 0) OM. By suitablychoosing7rwe can assume n=l that aid =$0.1-0 OM and then mapping the image in = QJ1(N)/M )/c~lecv2 -82 Hom~c)M.(p) forsome a E OM* This is because tensoredwith Zp 7r'can be viewedas a Gal(Q/F+)-equivariant map ofp-adic Tate-modules.and the onlyp-powerisogenieson E/F+ have the form ?pm forsome m E Z. It followsthat we can factor7r'as (1 0 a) o a forsome othersurjectivea a: Hi(Xi(N)/C.20) 7r:Hi (Xi (N)/C. We can computea*(WE) by considering a**(WE 01) = .(p). Z) 0 O9M. Z) 0 Om -+ H (E/C.C) 00 wherewfu = E an(fo)qfln foreach a.(p). Then thereexist Ai E OM and ti E T1(N) such that Z Aiti-7r*WE for some = ClWf Cl E M.Ztlr* 0 a-'Ai on QE0F+ 0 OM to QJ1(N)/F+ Q0 OF+ OM Then there are isomorphisms 9F+. now allowinga to be in OM. E aawfa E M aEHom(Kf .MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 537 Now pick a nonconstantmap 7r:X1(N) IF+ -+EIF+ whichfactorsthroughAf/F+. 8f Q1 ii(N)1.(p) givenby 7r'= E Ai(7ro i).

not necessarilydistinct. (ft2'fib =16 3 2 I (1-- 27 X) LN(1.or fora ramifiedprimeq whichdoes not divide the conductorof Ap. f. fP) ofthe form(1.aq q-8) we get also an Euler factorin D(s. fP) = E Ian 2n-s iff n=1 = (+1)] Res8=2D(s.ANDREW WILES 538 where6 is the different of M/Q.fP) = LN(S. We now give an expressionfor (f. Actuallyit is moreconvenient 7r(?7) .Similaridentifications occur forE in place of Ji(N).fP) .(1/(p-adic integer)). f. 0k)(QN(s - 1)/(QN(2s - 2) by usingLemma 1 of [Sh3]. of Proof. Uf = 4 Q2. f. This was firstobservedby Shimura [Sh2] althoughthe preciseformwe want was givenby Hida. The firstisomorphismcan be describedas follows.(5. is the set of primesq I N such thatq = qq' withq t condW and q. 0 OM it is enoughto observethat by So to checkthat a* (WE 0 1) E Q1 a comesfroma homomorphism its construction J1(N)/01 0 Om -k E1010 OM. One beginswith a formulaof Peterssonthat foran eigenform weight2 on F1(N) says (f. Then ti(w)(-y)= e(-y)*w. One checks n=1 that. E anqn (cf. It followsthat we can comparethe periodsof f and of WE. b is the quadraticcharacterassociatedto L. PROPOSITION 4. Puttingtogetherthe propositionsofthissectionwe nowhave a formulafor as definedat the beginningofthissection.. [Hi3. f. f.q' primesofL.Let e(-y):J1(N) -+ J1(N) 0 Opmfor-yE OM be themap x | >x 0 'y.4) } whereX is the characterof figand X its restrictionto L. p2k)LN(S - 1. DN(S. ) denotesthattheEuler factorsforprimesdividingN have been LN( removed. removingthe Euler factorsat primesdividingN. When f = fl this can only happen fora split primeq whereq' divides the conductorof p but q does not.6.qaq q-q8).5. For fP we use the fact that flyfPdz = fCYf dz wherec is the OM-linear map on homologycomingfromcomplexconjugationon the curve.ql-8) since I9 (q)12 = q.) in termsof the L-functionof p. For each Euler factorof f at a q I N of the form (1.f) = (47)-2 F (2) (1)7r[SL2(Z): Ii(N) whereD(s. We deduce: PROPOSITION 4.In this case we get a term(1 . S.13)]).

We also need to give a definition of TV whereD = (ord. q) whereE is the set of primesdividingM.) As in Chapter2. (M)m.24) withD = (Se. To verifythis one checksthat TV is reduced or alternativelyone can apply the methodof Remark2.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 539 to give a formulafor 7r(?JM).22) is provedas in Chapter2. 0. To see that Up is in the image of Rv we use that it is the eigenvalueof Frobp on the unique unramifiedquotientwhichis freeof rankone in the representation p describedafterthe corollariesto Theorem2.4 of [Wil]).(9 correspondsto f' and the adjointis takenwithrespect W(km1 ) to perfectpairingsof T1 and (9 with themselvesas 0-modules. . 0( 0. Theorem 2.11. The existenceof the map W(km1. is preciselythe set of primesq forwhichnq = 1 in the notationof Chapter2. For the surjectivity.and it followsthenthat it is in the imageof RV. We deduce that E T. = T1 (M)ml 0 (9 . ?3. 0).A. Here we are consideringa slightlymore generalsituationthan that in Chapter 2. ) and po is induced froma characterof Q(V/=3). Uq E m ifq I M (q $ p) k over ko takingUp -ap and thereis an embedding(whichwe fix) km1 ) whereap is the unit eigenvalueof Frobp in pfLA.) in (4.8.31). Property(ii) of fp ensuresthat M is as in (2.1. the firstone assumedTi-bilinear.an invariantdefinedin the same way but with 0 (9 replacingTl(N)m 0 (9 where M = pMo with p t MO Ti(M)ml and M/N is of the form lb IJ q2. q f N qI qESW M0 Here ml is definedby the requirements that Pm1= po. note that foreach q I M (with q $ p) Uq is zero in TV as Uq E m1 foreach such q so that we can apply Remark 2. ?3 as we are allowingpo to be inducedfroma characterof Q(i/=3). the W(kmi)-subalgebraof T1(M)mi generatedby the traces. ?3. Now we take M=Np fJq. In this special case we defineTD to be T. ?3 thereis a canonicalmap (4.22) RV 4 TVZ Ti(M)ml 0 0 W(km1 ) whichis surjectiveby the argumentsin the proofof Proposition2. For this we use (2. (Note that S. A.15.1 (cf. So if f is the eigenform obtained fromf by 'removingthe Euler factors'at q I (M/N) (q $ p) and removingthe non-unitEuler factorat p we have AM = *(1) where7w: T.

4.ANDREW WILES 540 The argumentsin the proofof Theorem2.unramified p ~ po whenviewed as representations to GL2((Fp). FI) = LN(2. (i) detpo 'p =W. and 4.5. (ii) po is ordinary.0.23) lr(r7M)is divisiblebyQ2LN 2.E. For any po as in the theoremsupposethat p: Gal(Q/Q) -) GL2(0) is a continuousrepresentationwithvalues in the ring of integersof a local outsidea finiteset of primes.17 show that ir(.3.4. we have that X) (4. to provethe inequality Proof. COROLLARY. qIN We deduce: THEOREM #(O/r(?JM))= #Hs 4.1) is an irreduciblerepresentation of odd determinantsuch thatpo = Ind? so for a characterso of an at p.18 and at q it comesfromthe argumentofProposition2. ?3 it is sufficient > #((9/lr(?JM)) #HSe(Qr/Q7 V) as the oppositeone is immediate. As explainedin Chapter2. V).12 but with H = H' = 1. CombiningthiswithPropositions4. Since LN(2.satisfying field.6. v) = LN(2.A\.0) such thatpo is of typeVDwith = Se or ord. Assume also imaginaryquadraticextensionL of Q whichis unramified that: THEOREM 4.Tvz and TD is a completeintersection. Suppose thatpo as in (1. We now deduce the main theoremin the CM case using the methodof Theorem2. 92X) termis real by Proposition4.23) and in the expressionforthe upper L bound of # Hse(Q/Q.(p)) 171 (q - 1) qESFp The factorat p is givenby whereap is the unit eigenvalueof Frobp in Pf. remark2.8. Thenfor every7D= (-. Rv . Supposefurtherthat: .6) it suffices (note that the right-hand to pair up the Euler factorsat q forq I N in (4.7.M) is divisibleby ir(r/)(a2. () -(p)) 171 (q- 1).For thisit sufficesto compare (4.23) withProposition4.17.

3]). Howeverin the crucialcase wherethe image in PGL2(C) is S4. Suppose furtherthatdetp is odd.1 (Langlands-Tunnell). Chapter 5 In this chapterwe provethe main resultsabout ellipticcurvesand espeassociated cially show how to removethe hypothesisthat the representation to the 3-divisionpointsshould be irreducible.I-) withg some newform ?5. THEOREM 5. [Se.mod gLforsome pair (g.This was subsequentlyremoved by Tunnellin [Tu]. po . Suppose thenthat po: Gal(Q/Q) -- GL2(F3) is an irreduciblerepresentationof odd determinant. Suppose that p: Gal(Q/Q) whose image is finiteand GL2(C) is a continuousirreduciblerepresentation solvable. = Xek- withX offiniteorder. ofGL2(F3) ifnecessarywe can assume By composingi withan automorphism that i induces the identityon reductionmod (1 + vi2).that this representationis modular in the sense that over F3. using the theorem. Langlands actually proved in [La] a much more general result without restrictionon the determinantor the numberfield(whichin our case is Q). So if we consider . extendingearlierresultsof Hecke in the case wherethe projectiveimage is dihedral.LASTTHEOREM MODULAR ELLIPTICCURVESAND FERMAT'S (i) P D (ii) detp 541 is ordinary.pg. Application to elliptic curves The key resultused is the followingtheoremof Langlands and Tunnell. We now show. There existsa representation i: GL2(F3) -* GL2 (Z [VZ]) c GL2(C).p) up to finitelymanyEuler factors. ofweight2 (cf. Thenp is associatedto a modularformof weightk.j.k > 2. Then thereexists a weightone newformf such thatL(s. the resultwas onlyobtainedwithan additionalhypothesis.f) = L(s.

whereE1.we can take E = 6 El.3 on E[3] is irreducible. Now picka modularformE ofweightone such that E -1(3). Then fE Lemma 6.3 since the only nontrivialabelian extensionof outside5 and oforderprimeto 5 is Q((5) whichis abelian Q (Vs) unramified it is enoughto checkthat thereare no ellipticcurves over Q. By Serre'sisogeny theorem. to Q(VA/=).5 was modularwe could nowprovethe theoremin the same way we did knowingthat PE. pp.u) forsome prime1I-above (1 + j/2).cf. As the semistablehypothesis impliesthat all the inertiagroupsoutside 3 in the splittingfieldof Po have outside orderdividing3 this means that the splittingfieldof Po is unramified outside3 3.. Then the pair (g. So Po itselfwouldfactorthroughan abelian extension of Q and this is a contradictionas Po is assumed odd and irreducible. in the deformation representations THEOREM 5. finda newform lie in Z [VA/]. We nowshowhowin studyingellipticcurvesour restriction theorycan be circumvented. However.u (compatiblewithps'). Then we claim that the representationP-E.5 is an inducedrepresentation overQ(v/5) and E is semistable .and we replace (9'. restriction wouldbe abelian of orderprimeto 3.5on the 5-divisionpointsis irreducible.If we knewthat -E. Suppose that E is a semistableelliptic curve over Q.u) satisfiesour fora suitablechoiceof . E forwhichPE.3 was modularonce we observethat PE. eu') by (g.E is also modular(in the sense ofbeinga factorof the Jacobianof a modularcurve). Alternatively.11]) we can findan eigenform g' ofweight2 withthesame eigenvalues as f modulo a primepu'above (1 + X/=2).5 restrictedto followsa similar Gal(Q/Q(x/5)) is absolutelyirreducible.ANDREW WILES 542 whichis i 0PO: Gal(Q/Q) -+ GL2(C) we obtain an irreduciblerepresentation easily seen to be odd and whose image is solvable.Q(V/Z3) has no nontrivialabelian extensionsunramified and oforderprimeto 3. 79-80]-. requirements We can apply this to an ellipticcurve E definedover Q by considering to irreducible E[3].2 (provedat the end of Chapter3). Proof. Applyingthe theoremwe Its eigenvalues f ofweightone associatedto thisrepresentation.This irreducibility argumentto the one for -E.3 theimageofthe restricted to Gal(Q/Q (vZ/=)) werenotabsolutelyirreducible. Then if Po = PE.3 is then modularby Theorem0.3 is reducible. There is a newformg of weight2 whichhas the same eigenvaluesas g' foralmostall T1's. For example. Assume firstthat the representation-E. All semistableellipticcurvesoverQ are modular. So assume now that PE. [BiKu.x is the Eisensteinserieswith Mellintransform givenby ((s) ((s. So Po restrictedto Gal(Q/Q(VE/=)) is absolutelyirreducibleand PE. X) forX the quadraticcharacterassociated f mod3 and using the Deligne-Serrelemma ([DS.2..This is because Xo(15) (Q) has only fourrationalpointsbesides the cusps and these correspondto nonsemistablecurveswhichin any case are modular.

[CF. This curve C is smoothas X(p)lQ = X(5)/Q is smooth.Then E is givenby a quadratic twistof E(jE) and so aftera changeof functionsof the form92(i) F u2g2(j). 3.5(Iq) I 5.cf.For.5 ID5(in particularit is inducedfroma characterofthe unramified quadratic extensionof Q5 whose restrictionto inertiais the fundamentalcharacterof level 2) and in the ordinarycase it is straightforward. t) E Q (t) [x] of degree> 1 and we need to ensurethat formany values to in Q. AutX(5)/L) givenby PE.5.) So finallywe pick any to E Q whichis pl-adicallyclose to t1 and also 5-adicallyclose to the original value of t givingE. Prop. This can be checkedin the supersingularcase using the descriptionof PE.to ensurecondition(i) holds.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 543 at 5. Consider the twistedformX(p)lQ of X(5)/Q definedas follows. A rationalpointon C (necessarilynon-cuspidal)correspondsto an elliptic curveE' overQ withan isomorphism E'[5] .But this correspondsto E' being the image of a rationalpoint on an irreduciblecoveringof C of degree 4.Then we pick a prime P1 $ 5 such that f(x.3 is irreducibleand (ii) E' (or a quadratictwist)has semistablereductionat 5.2.3 is reducible. t1) has no rootmod P1.E[5] as Galois modules(cf. The curveE' (or a quadratic twist)willthensatisfyall thepropertiesneededto applyTheorem0. It has genus zero since the same is trueof the irreduciblecomponentsof X(5)-Q. ex. To see this.92(j)x . to) has no rational solution. VI. This last conditionensuresthat E' (corresponding to to) or a quadratic twisthas semistablereductionat 5. Let Q(t) be the functionfieldof C. 6. We claim that we can choose such a point with the two propertiesthat (i) the Galois representation PE'. 1728.5 To picka rationalpointon C satisfying (i) and (ii) we use the Hilbertirreducibilitytheorem. Hilbert's theoremensures that thereexists a t1 such that f(x. ti) is irreducible.) So E' will be modularand henceso too will PE'. We have therefore an irreduciblepolynomial f(x. we can finda familyE(j): y2 = X3. p. Then E definesa rationalpoint on X(p)/Q and hence also of an irreduciblecomponentof it whichwe denote C.observethat since JE $A0.2. Then forj' E Q close enough5-adicallyto jE - .93(j) with rationalfunctions92(ij.we onlyhave to eliminate the possibilitythat the image ofPE'. (This is easilyachievedusingthe Cebotarev densitytheorem.5: Gal(L/Q) GL2(Z/5Z) C Aut X(5)/L whereL denotesthe of splittingfield PE. 93(j) whichare finiteat jE and withthej-invariantof E(jo) equal to jo wheneverthegi(jo) are finite. [DR. Let X(5)/Q be the (geometrically disconnected)curvewhose non-cuspidalpoints classifyellipticcurveswithfulllevel 5 structureand let the twistedcurvebe definedby the cohomologyclass (even homomorphism) in H1(Gal(L/Q). (For the primesq : 5 we just use the factthat E' is semistableat q ==> # E-. 362]. 93(j) F U3g3(j) with u E Qx we can assume that E(jE) = E and that the equationE(jE) is minimalat 5. f(x.2]).

544

ANDREW WILES

theequationE(j') is stillminimaland semistableat 5, sincea criterionforthis,
foran integralmodel,is that eitherord5(A(E(j'))) = 0 or ord5(c4(E(j'))) = 0.
So up to a quadratictwistE' is also semistable.
This kindof argumentcan be applied moregenerally.
THEOREM 5.3. Suppose thatE is an ellipticcurvedefinedover Q with
thefollowingproperties:

(i) E has good or multiplicative
reductionat 3, 5,
(ii) For p = 3,5 and foranyprimeq -1 modp either1E,pIDq is reducible
overF orPEIpIIq is irreducibleoverFP.
Then E is modular.
Proof. The main point to be checkedis that one can carryover condition (ii) to the new curveE'. For this we use that forany odd primep q$
A
PEXpIDq

IIq is absolutelyreducible
is absolutelyirreducibleand -EXP
and 3 t #PE)p(Iq)

E acquiresgood reductionoveran abelian 2-powerextensionof
Qqnrbut not overan abelian extensionof Qq.
Suppose thenthat q _-1(3) and that E' does not satisfycondition(ii) at
q (forp = 3). Then we claim that also 3 t #PE',3(Iq). For otherwisePEj,3(Iq)
has its normalizerin GL2(F3) containedin a Borel, whence -El,3(Dq) would
be reduciblewhichcontradictsour hypothesis.So usingthe above equivalence
we deduce,by passingvia -E',5 PE,5, that E also does not satisfyhypothesis
(ii) at p = 3.
We also need to ensurethat PE',3 is absolutelyirreducibleover Q(VW3).
This we can do by observingthatthepropertythattheimageof -E',3 lies in the
Sylow2-subgroupof GL2(F3) impliesthat E' is the image of a rationalpoint
on a certainirreduciblecoveringof C of nontrivialdegree.We can thenargue
in the same way we did in the previoustheoremto eliminatethe possibility
that -E',3 was reducible,this timeusingtwo separatecoveringsto ensurethat
the image of -E',3 is neitherreduciblenor containedin a Sylow2-subgroup.
Finally one also has to show that if both PE,5 is reducibleand PE,3 is
induced froma characterof Q (v/Z3) then E is modular. (The case where
both were reduciblehas already been considered.) Taylor has pointed out
both these conditionsare classifiedby the non-cuspidal
that curvessatisfying
rationalpointson a modularcurve isomorphicto Xo(45)/Wg, and this is an
ellipticcurve isogenousto Xo(15) with rank zero over Q. The non-cuspidal
rationalpointscorrespondto modularellipticcurvesof conductor338.
El

ELLIPTIC

MODULAR

CURVES

AND

FERMAT'S

LAST THEOREM

545

Appendix
Gorenstein rings and local complete intersections
PROPOSITION 1. Suppose that0 is a completediscretevaluationring
and thatp: S -+ T is a suriectivelocal0-algebra homomorphism
betweencomplete local Noetherian0-algebras. SupposefurtherthatPT is a prime ideal of
'
0 and let Ps = W-1(PT). Assume that
T such that T/PT
(i) T -

O(X1,

...

,Xr1/(fi,

..

,fr-u)

wherer is thesize of a minimalset of

0-generatorsofPT/PT,
PT/P2 and thattheseare finitely
ps/p2
(ii) o inducesan isomorphism
generated0-modules whosefreepart has ranku.
Then o is an isomorphism.
Proof. First we considerthe case whereu = 0. We may assume that the
generators x1,. . .,Xr lie in PT by subtracting their residues in T/PT

(ii) we may also write

S

-

(9JX1,.

*

Xrll(gl,*

) 0. By

v9,)

with s > r (by allowingrepetitionsif necessary)and Ps generatedby the
Writing fi
images of {x1,.. .,Xr}. Let p = (X1,... ,Xr) in 0Jx1,. .xr]
Eaijxj mod p2 withaij E 0, we see that the Fittingideal as an 0-module of
PT/PT is givenby
F (PT/Pp) = det(aij) E 0
and that this is nonzeroby the hypothesisthat u = 0. Similarly,if each
gi =Ebijxj modp2, then
Fo(ps/p2) = {det(bij): i E I, #I=r,

I C {1, ...,

By (ii) again we see that det(aij) = det(bij) as ideals of 0 forsome choice Io
we may assume that Io = {1, . , r} Then each gi
of I. Afterrenumbering
(i = 1,... ,r) can be written gi = Erijfi for some rij E 0x1,.. .,Xr]J and we
have
det(bij) _ det(rij) det(aij) mod p.
Hence det(rij) is a unit,whence(rij) is an invertiblematrix.Thus the fi's can
be expressedin termsof the gi's and so S _T.
We can extendthisto the case u $&0 by pickingX1,.. , Xr-u so that they
generate(pT/p2)tors. Then we can writeeach fi = Er-uaIj x modp2 and
likewiseforthe gi's. The argumentis now just as beforebut applied to the
L
Fittingideals of (pT/p2)tors.

546

ANDREW WILES

For the next propositionwe continueto assume that 0 is a complete
discretevaluationring.Let T be a local 0-algebra whichas a moduleis finite
and freeover (9. In addition,we assume the existenceof an isomorphismof
T-modulesT --0 Homr(T, 0). We call a local 0-algebra whichis finiteand
freeand satisfiesthis extra conditiona Gorenstein0-algebra (cf. ?5 of [Til]).
Now suppose that p is a primeideal of T such that T/p _X.
Let o3:T -- Tlp - 0 be the naturalmap and definea principalideal of T
by
(AT) = C3(1))

where 3: ( --) T is the adjoint of /3with respectto perfect0-pairings on 0
and T, and wherethe pairingof T with itselfis T-bilinear. (By a perfect
pairingon a free0-module M of finiterankwe mean a pairingM x M -( 0
suchthat boththe inducedmaps M -) Homo(M, 0) are isomorphisms.When
M = T we are thusrequiringthat thisbe an isomorphism
ofT-modulesalso.)
as an
The ideal (AT) is independentof the pairings.Also T/TT is torsion-free
0-module, as can be seen by applyingHom ( , 0) to the sequence
0 -+

p -T

--+

0 -+0,

to obtain a homomorphism
T/T/T
Hom(p,0). This also showsthat (OT)
Annp.
If we let l(M) denotethe lengthof an 0-module M, then

=

I (P/P ) > 1(0/t)
(wherewe write 7T-for/3(qT)) because p is a faithfulT/IqT-module.(For a
briefaccount of the relevantpropertiesof Fittingideals see the appendix to
[MW1].) Indeed, writingFR(M) forthe Fittingideal of M as an R-module,
we have
FT/1T (P) = 0 X FT(P) C (r/T)E FT/p,(P/P2)C (AT)
and we then use the fact that the lengthof an 0-module M is equal to the
lengthof 09/FO(M) as 0 is a discretevaluationring. In particularwhenp/p2

is a torsion0-modulethen77T $ 0.

We need a criterionfora Gorenstein0-algebra to be a completeintersection. We will say that a local 0-algebra S which is finiteand freeover
0 is a complete intersectionover 0 if there is an 0-algebra isomorphism
S _ Oj[xi,.* ., Xrj/(fi
*... , fr) forsome r. Such a ringis necessarilya Gorenstein 0-algebra and {fi, .. , fir}is necessarilya regularsequence. That (i) =X
(ii) in the followingpropositionis due to Tate (see A.3, conclusion4, in the
appendix in [M Ro].)
PROPOSITION 2. Assume that0 is a completediscretevaluationrmng
and thatT is a local Gorenstein0-algebra whichis finiteand freeover0 and

Then thefollowingtwo conditionsare equivalent: (i) T is a completeintersectionover0. ?6]) but here is an argumentsuggestedby N. PT/P2 wherePs = r-1 (PT). We thenmodifygi... We can assume also that N is chosengreaterthan Then set the total degree of gi for each i. Then we have a sequence of maps. . In particularthe maximal 0-torsionsubmoduleof S is zero since it is also a finitelengthS-submoduleof S. .Pick isomorphisms T _Homo(T.. 0) as T-modules and S-modules. . As (as) = (NT) in C. Now 0/(i-s) . . The existenceof such an S seems to be well known (cf.. [Ti2. S over0 (so Proof. . f8)2and set (gj = gi + a1.. XXr]/(g1 . (). since l(01/(7s)) = l(ps/p2) by (i) X.3 0..L)= (ft7) in O and (.. (ii) l(PT/PT) = 1(0//7T-)as 0-modules. . it follows that also T .. ...0/(ft). Katz and H.3 denote the adjointswithrespectto these isomorphisms: oA T S T2-0.(90X1 X* X ...f) (Xi.p2) = (9gi... S .. xjv can be written in T as a polynomial hi(Xi . conclusion1 of TheoremA. we have that t is a unitmodPT and hencethat a o & is an isomorphism.. in which& and .. gr such that gi = Eaijf.fs)).hi(xi. Set ai = (x' . We can pick 91. ..3 completeintersections of [M Ro].Homo(S. .. withaij E (9 and such that (fiI. with PT the image in T of p = Write T = 0[xi.. Xr).Xr]j/(fi.MODULAR ELLIPTIC AND CURVES FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 547 thatPT is a prime ideal of T such thatT/PT _ 0 and PT/PT is a torsion 0-module.. One checksthat & is a map of S-modules (T being givenan S-action via a) and in particularthat a o & is multiplicationby an elementt of T.cf. thereexistsan N such that for each i. igrp2). Xsr) of total degreeless than N... Now (.g9} is a regularsequenceand hencethat depth(S) = dim(S) = 1. X* X . .. pick a completeintersection assumedfiniteand flatover0) suchthat a: S-ET and suchthatps/p2 . Since T is finiteover0. respectively. g)..The existenceof the latter for over 0 is well known.(. gr by the additionofelements{&I} of (f. Then S is finiteoverX by construction and also ... .g dim(S) < 1 sincedim(S/A) = 0 where(A) is the maximalideal of 0. .. . gr = gr+ ar)..3 o a) o ( o a) = (vs) in (9. S = (9 X .xr]/(fl.- f8.. (ii) and I(0/(ftr)) = l(PT/p2) by hypothesis. .It follows . It follows that {9g.x))2. Lenstra (independently). To provethat (ii) =X (i)... Since T is local and finite and free over 0 .

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