(K/Q) (V)An) largen. setting (4.Y*) (Yn)*)#H (Q. (4. whichholds forsufficiently is infective. The above map is theninjectivewheneverthe connectinghomomorphism Ho (Lp*.ANDREW WILES 528 applies with maximalsubmoduleon whichIp acts via E2.6) Hstr(Q/Qi Yn*) Hstr(Q/Qi Y*) is infective. (4.4)(4.7) and the elementaryestimate (4. Yn) = 0 and a simplecalculationshowsthat #H (Q.One can checkthis by replacingthese groupsby the subgroups of H1(L. Y*) forq :&p.6. Yn) #HO (Q. En) = i{ f 1 if v=I1mod A #(C)/lI/(q)) otherwise whereq runsthrougha set of primesof OL primeto p cond(v) of densityone. that Y.5) large the map We also need the factthat forn sufficiently (4. replacingY?n*. (K/O)(v)) whichare unramifiedoutside p and trivialat p*.9) #HSe(Q/Q. ip = lim # HO(Qp. This can be checkedsince Y* = IndQ(v) 0 K/c.1. by Proposition1. (4. #Hsltr(QE/Q. (Yn?)*).4) In the case of Y* we will use the inequality # H1tr(QF/Q. Yn).) A similardefinition It followsfroman examinationofthe actionof Ip on Y). Now. Hstr(QE/Ql Yn) = Hunr(QE/Q. So. 7 Ho (Q HQ Yn) #Hr(Q/Q.This follows fromProposition4. (K/O) (v)) + H1 (Lp*.41 we get (4.1. (KI 0)(v where?q = #HO(Qq. Y*) < # Hunr(QF/Qi Y*). y)Ga1(Qunr/Qq) = e . Yn*) () Also. HO (Q. (K/O)(V)An) and H1(L.in a mannersimilarto the beginningofthe proofof Proposition 4.10) Y)) < Y)/Hulnr(QE/Ql #(HSle(Qr/Ql fqi 1I qEE{p} which follows fromthe fact that #H1 (Qunr. Y) <  Iq()I q # Hom (Gal (Moo/L(v)).8) t infq#(O/(1v(q))) ~~~ 1 ifvmodA=1 vmodA #.
the rayclass fieldofconductor f. but we will recall some of the steps here. II. We choose an embeddingcorresponding to a primeabove p and then we findsp = K *X forsome X of finiteorder and conductorprime to p.e.i. Lemma 1. Then thereis a grossencharacter 1 modJ Wof L satisfyings((a)) = a fora (cf..q=limUn. For each primeX3of F above p we have a formalgroup ET. [de Sh. (K/O)(V))Ga1(L(v)/L)). ?1. Indeed Wpand i are both unramifiedat p* and satisfyWpIi.10]). Y). afterfixingan embeddingQ Qp we can associate a padic characterWpto s (cf. We let A = ASE be the logarithmof this formalgroup. Uo=fJ q3lp uCo where Uoo. This is byour hypothesisthat i factored throughan extensionof the formZp E T withT of orderprimeto p.T. Also the only primeswhichramifyin a ZpWPIG extensionlie above p so our hypothesison K ensuresthat KIGhas conductor dividingfp'.(cf. II.) We could now derivethe resultdirectlyfrom this by referring to [de Sh. Howeverwe will make the assumption. II. [Ru2] and especially [Ru4]. is an inertiagroupat p. We choose an f prime to p such that Wf= 1. Withoutalteringfwe can evenchoose s so thatthe orderofX is primeto p.c. and this is a relativeLubinTate group with respect to FT3over Lp (cf.1. To see thispickan abelian splittingfieldofWpand i whoseGalois grouphas the form G E G' with G a propgroup and G' of orderprimeto p. Ch. Let Wfdenote the numberof roots of unity( of L such that ( _ 1 modJ (Jan integralideal of OL). We can thereforeadjust s so that X has orderprime to p as claimed.1 (5)]). The same is then true of the ppartof X whichthereforehas conductordividingf.4]). Ch. In the formerreferenceRubin assumes that the class numberof L is primeto p. This order can be computed usingthe 'main conjecture'establishedby Rubin usingideas ofKolyvagin. Let UOObe the productof the principallocal units at the primesabove p of L(fpoo).5) thisin turnreducesto the problemofestimating # Hom(Gal(MOO/L(v)). y (or more preciselysoo NF/L) is associated to a The grossencharacter (unique) ellipticcurveE definedoverF = L(f).1. V) and the mainproblemis to estimateH e(Q/Q.but still keepingf primeto p. . Accordingto Weil. [de Sh. cond v}.= KII = e wheree is the cyclotomic characterand I. that both v and Wp have conductor dividing fp'. We will not howeverchoose s so that X is 1 as this would requirefp? to be divisibleby condx. Then we see that has conductordividingfp'. Thus we replace fp ? by l. [de Sh. 3]. We may even fixa Weierstrassmodel of E over OF whichhas good reductionat all primesabove p. [de Sh.m. with complex multiplicationby CL and isomorphicover C to CIOL (cf. II. by alteringf if necessary.{f. By (4.4]).MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 529 Our objectiveis to computeH'e(Qr/Q.
The constructionof the powerseriesin [CW] does not extendto the case wherethe formalgrouphas height> 1 or to the case whereit is definedover an extensionof Qp. We now summarizethese results. n= 0(d) whered = [Fqe:L. (Note that the primes of L(f) above p are totallyramifiedin L(fpoo)so we still call them {q3}.5]. II ?4.see [de Sh. Now 0 = pp on Gal(F/F). To an elementu = limun E UOOwe can associate a powerseriesfuv.) For preciselyfuqp(T)is the q3component to our chosenembedding X3 we will choose the primeabove p corresponding = c* Q Qp.(T) E O.Ox is the charactergiving = 09(0)k k.) We bk on Up.530 ANDREW WILES each Un't being the principallocal units in L(fpn)qp. Assume forthe momentthat Fq3is Qp.9(U)= A'(T) dT logfu(T) T=O (9wsatisfying It is easy to see that6k. These werefirstintroduced wishto definecertainhomomorphisms in [CW] in the case wherethe local fieldFspis Qp.12) 5k(UT) = 9(Q)kSk(U) forr E Gal(F/F) where0 again denotesthe action on E[p']. p(U) =d  () by logfu'(T) ET ~~~~T=O Then (4. Let S . Then lettingwn it was shown be nontrivialrootsof [7rn] (x) = 0 chosenso that [ir](an) = wi~n1 in [CW] that to each elementu = limun E UOq therecorrespondeda unique powerseriesfu(T) e Zj[T X such that fu(wn) = Un forn > 1. The definition of 6ke (k > 1) in this case was then k. We on UO. In this case Eq is isomorphicto the LubinTategroupassociated to 7rx+ xP where7r= ~p(p). This powerseriessatisfiesUndo (fu.q3givesa homomorphism: UooUoo. (More ofthe powerseriesdescribedthere. Observethat v = 2 on Gal(F/F).] and {wn} is chosen as beforeas an inversesystemof irn divisionpointsofEm.11) Sk(U) = 6k. Ch.)(wn) forall n > 0.(6) where9: Gal (FIF) skq3(e) the action on E[p'].) The corresponding in [Ru3]and thenin fullgenerality 6k weregivenin somewhatgreatergenerality by de Shalit [de Sh].witha transformation propertycorreactuallywant a homomorphism spondingto v on all of Gal(L/L).3[[T]]x whereOC3is the ringofintegersofFew. (See also [Iwi]. We definea homomorphism 6k: Uoo (4.thus returningto the generalcase whereFq is not assumed to be Qp. A morenaturalapproachwas developedby Coleman [Co] generalizationsof whichworksin general.
Zp[[Gal(L(v)/L)]] modules: charA(Gal (Moo/L(v))) = charA(UO(v)/CJ. II.(VJ) +CP I Let COObe the groupofprojectivelimitsofellipticunitsin L(v) as defined in [Ru4].1) = (2(0)/P2(U) Next we let e(a) be the projectivelimit of ellipticunits in limLpn for a some ideal prime to 6fp describedin [de Sh. Computing (2 on both u and . of rank one. ?12].3an elementofC( ?). It takes integralvalues in (9q [v]. ?4. Now accordingto resultsof Iwasawa ([1w2.1)u = fiforsome f (T) E 0[[T]] and ya topologicalgeneratorof Gal (L(v)/L(vo)).3 gives (4. Gal (L(v)IL) Gal (L(v)IL(vo)) x Gal(L(vo)IL). Since Gal(L(v)/L) decomposesintoa directproduct the Teichmiiller of a propgroupand a groupof orderprimeto p. [Ru2]).). Ch.. Let UO (v) denotethe productof the groups of local principalunits at the primesabove p of the fieldL(v) (by whichwe mean projectivelimitsof local principalunits as before).14) f (v(y).13) dI2(U) = Z v1(of)62(uU)E Oq3[v]. Then by the propositionof Chapter II.8) and it Each termis independentof the choiceof coset representative is easily checkedthat (2(U') = V(Of)4D2(U).[[T]]. [Ru2.2. Let vo = v mod A.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 531 forGal(L/L)/ Gal (LIF) and define be a set of coset representatives (4. generatorofUO (v) (vO)and . Also A(vO). Then f (y.9]. ?2. we can also considerany Zp[[Gal(L(v)/L)]]modulealso as a Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)]module. Theorem 5. Then we have a crucialtheoremof Rubin (cf. proved usingideas of Kolyvagin: There is an equalityof characteristicideals as A = THEOREM 4. [Ru4]. We extend (2 0linearly to is a freeA(vO)module UOO(v)(vO) Suppose that u is a Uoo(v) Ozp (9 and it then factorsthroughUoo(v)(v?).1]).7 of [de Sh] this is a 12th powerin limL xn We . dES by (4. For any Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)]moduleX we writeX(vO) forthe maximalquotientofX 0 (9 on whichthe actionof Gal(L(vo)/L) is via zp liftofvo. In particularX(vO)is a moduleover Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)](v0)O 0. Then 12 factors throughUO (v) and thus definesa continuoushomomorphism (D2:UOO.
(ii) wf= 1. Since V . Combiningthis with (4. (Recall that thiswas chosento have good reductionat primesabove p.9) gives: #HSe(QE/Ql Y) < # (O/Q2Lfo(2. fJq qEE where4 # HI(Qq.) whose associated padic character.Note that if vo = 1 then also p = 3. Also v here should The periodsare those of the standardNerondifferential.v(a)) Lf(2. II. Y*) (forq 4 p).))Ga1(L(v)1L) #O/Q2Lfo(2.10] showsthat (4.P)/Lf0 a padic unit unless vo = 1 in whichcase we can choose it to be t as defined in (4.2. We can clearlychoose Lf(2. A generalizationof the calculationin [CW] whichmay be foundin [de Sh.v)) ifvo7&1 t if vo = 1. The only restrictionswe have placed on f are that (i) f is prime to p.via be interpretedas the grossencharacter the chosenembeddingQ )k QP.3 = Normol3 wherethe normis fromLfpo to L(v). ?4. is v.Y E (K/O)(f ) EDK/(9 we need also a formulafor  # ker{H1(QE/Q.but it is sufficient since Gal (Moo/L(v)) has no finiteAsubmodule(by a resultof Greenberg. i) E OT9[v] whereQ is a basis forthe (9Lmoduleofperiodsofour chosenWeierstrassmodel ofE/F. Now let fop' be the conductorof v withto (2.y)/Lf(2.v)) .see [Gre2.15) (D2(3) = (root of unity)Q2 (Na .Then (D2(U)is a padicunit.532 ANDREW WILES let 31i= !3(a)1/12be the projectionof e(a)1/12to UOOand take .end of ?4]) we deduce fromTheorem4. as P(q)v(q)= Normq2forany ideal q primeto fop.17) to be a unit if vo #41. Also if vo = 1 then we see that inf# {O/{JLoq(21P)/Lfo(2P)}} = t since PF2 = We can compute(D2(u) by choosinga special local unit and showingthat forus to knowthat it is integral. Ch. vP)is primeto p.4). and (iii) condv fpv . tp # HO (Qp. I) < ?l (#O/Q2Lfo (2.15) that #Hom(Gal (Moo/1L(v)). and vPis the complexconjugateof v. (K/( )(0) EDK/()} J qEE{p} 4q . We show now that we can choose f such that Lf(2.I (K/c)) (z.16) #(O/hL)  Hl(Qunr. (4. (YO)*). (K/O)(0) E K/c) This is easily computedto be (4.14) and (4.
y) = (x. Let (4. tp = #HO(Qp. [Hi2]fora surveyof his earlierresults)by interpreting (. T1 (N)m is Gorensteinand it followsthat T is also a Gorenstein Oalgebra (see the discussionfollowing(2. Of) givenby x .) In particular(tx. we set to definean invariantrj of T.v)) where4 = #(O(/hL) J4q qEE H OH(Qq.3. Let po be an irreduciblerepresentation as in (1.Then by Corollary1 of Theorem2. y and foreach standardHecke correspondence H1 (Xi (N).A a that f is a newform ofpo. (.is the adjoint of 7rwith respectto the pairings.(We sometimesdrop the C fromX1(N)IC or Ji(N)IC if the contextmakes it clear that we are referringto the complex manifolds.t*x and simplywritetx fort*x. So we can use perfectpairings (the second one Tbilinear) OxO . Let mbe the kernelofthe homomorphism T1 (N) * Of /A deformation arisingfromf.1.): TxT O (9 is the natural map. ?3. ) in termsof the cup product pairingon the cohomologyof X1 (N). Suppose ofweight2 and levelN. Calculation of rq We needto calculateexplicitlytheinvariantsrD. Assume that p t N.17) ( ):H1 (Xi(N). We now give an explicit formula for 77 developedby Hida (cf. ((K/O)(0) E K/O)*) and hL is the class numberof OL. This is the same . 7r(r)= (?7.77)up to a unitin 0 and as notedin the appendix 77 = Ann p = T[[p] where p = ker7r. #HSe(QE/QV) ? #(9/Q2L10(2. dependingonlyon 7r. I)O Of be the cup productpairingwith Of as coefficients.f introducedin Chapter2.A and kmis W(km. IOf) x H1 (Xi(N). ?3 in a special case. Combiningthese gives: PROPOSITION 4. We writeT forTl(N)m 0 (9. A a primeofOf above p and pf. If 7r: T (r7)= (*ir(1))where*.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 533 where4 = #H0(Qq. We use the action of t on x. Furthermore.V*) (forq #4 p). It is welldefined as we noted as an ideal of T.) the residue fieldof m.t*y) for all t. and then in termsof the Peterssoninnerproductof f with itself.1). The following account(whichdoes not requirethe CM hypothesis)is adapted from[Hi2]and we referthereformoredetails. We assume here that k is the residuefieldof ( and that it is chosento containkm.(YO)*)2. where(9 = Qf. in Chapter2.42)).
Z) ft1(N) Of) ?Tl(N)?of mlf~m T ~ T1N2  T2. Of) via its action on Of.> is givenby r(q2) (unit). Actuallythis is not essentialas we could replace Of by any ringof integerscontainingit.19) wherewC is definedas in (2. If f = Eanqn let fP = Eanqn. Furthermore det(bi. Here complexconjugationacts on H1(Xi(N). H1(Xi(N). Then {If.4). Lf X LfP ReplacingOf (and the Ofmodules)bythelocalizationofOf at p (ifnecessary) we can assume that Lf and Lfp are freeof rank 2 and directsummandsas Ofmodulesof the respectivecohomologygroups. fP} forma basis . fPI fPdz.considera modifiedpairing( .6j) forsome padic unit c (in Of).. H (X1(N). Thus (4.e. Then fPis again a newformand we define of Lf.62 be a basis of Lf. Of) [pf].62 is a basis of Lfp = Lf.1. (One can check this.) Then the pairing(.18) Of. C) HN).y) = (x. ) induces anotherby restriction (. y and Hecke operatorst.6j) = det(6i. This is because wC(LfP) = Lf and wC(Lf) = Lfp. f(z)dz. ty) forall x..534 ANDREW WILES as the action induced by t* E T1(N) on H1(Jl(N). Ej) is an elementof Of (or its localizationat p) whose image in Of. Then also 61. Let 61.w 6j) = cdet(6i. and let Lf = H1 (X1 (N). Similarly{If.18) can be viewed (aftertensoringwith Of. ) definedby (x. 6) we observethat f and fP can be C) via viewedas elementsofH1 (X1(N). Of Let pf be the minimalprimeof T1 (N) 0 Of associated to f (i. We can thenverifythat (6. Then (tx. the kernelof T1(N) 0 Of .): (4.19)) as a perfectpairingof Tmodulesand so this servesto computeir(iq2) as explainedearlier(the square comingfromthe fact that we have a rank 2 module). and modifying it as in (4. 6) :=det(bi.Of givenby t10 f H* /ctt(f) wheretf = ct(f)f). y) = (x. using the explicit bases described below.Of) H'(Xi(N). for example.by Theorem2. To givea moreusefulexpressionfor(6. To see this. fP} forma basis forLf Oof C.) Moreover. (Note here that Of = OfP LfP by replacingf by fP in the definition as these ringsare the integersof fieldswhichare eithertotallyreal or CM by a resultof Shimura. way) (4.
C2in Hl(Xi(N). f2} = {f. W2 = (f. Lettinguf be a generator we have the followingformulaof Hida: PROPOSITION 4.): (W. Now (w.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 535 forLfp ?Of C. By Poincare duality there exist classes C1. C2) and with oftheOfmodule{det (fc fi)} {fi. To computedet(C) we considerintegralsoverclasses in H1 (Xi(N). Hence detC generatesthe same Ofmodule as is generatedby {det (fc f)} forall such choicesof classes (Cl. and since svois a character. In additionwe wish to assume that Po is ordinaryand detPoI p = w. where = for any o representingthe nontrivial coset of Ko(aTlb6) KO'a(b) Gal(L/Q)/ Gal(L/L). In particularp splitsin L. f)2/Uf f x (unit in Of. These conditionsimplythat.6) det(CC). (iii) p((a)) = a fora _1 (f) forsome integralideal f primeto p. fI}. fP) and write W1= C6 and W2= C6 withC E M2(C). Let Mo denote the maximal abelian extensionof L whichis unramifiedoutside p. We assume that Po is irreducible. (ii) fppfactorsthroughan abelian extensionisomorphicto Zp e T withT of finiteorderprimeto p. Now we restrictto the case where po = IndQ sio for some imaginary quadratic fieldL whichis unramifiedat p and some kXvaluedcharacterso of Gal(L/L).4..i. To obtain p it is necessaryfirstto define pp. c) is givenexplicitlyin termsofthe (nonnormalized) Peterssoninner product(. f)2 where(f. soi(a) = a1 mod p on U.c') = 4(f.A). after possible replacement of svo by Ivoa Here the U. We assume now that p is fixedand so chosen to satisfythis congruence. We choose a (primitive)grossencharacterp on L togetherwith an emto the primep above p such that the induced beddingQ c* Qp corresponding padic characterfpphas the properties: (i) ppmodp = so (p = maximalideal of Qp). are the unitsofL. Our choice of introducedbelowhas conductorprime so willimplythat the grossencharacter top. Let 0: Gal(Mx/L) + QpX be any characterwhichfactorsthrougha Zpextensionand induces the . Of) such that det(f 60) is a unit in Of. that so 5$ ". f) = fs/r1(N)ffdxdy.e. inducesa homomorphism on U. Define the vectorswi = (ffP)... Of). 7r(iR2)= (f.ifp is a prime of L above p.the restriction of svoto an inertiagroupI.f2 = fP we set (WIa) :=det((fi. Then writingfi = If.If)) = (6..
Then Q = u Q for some padic unit in FX.and pick a grossencharacter p such that ((p)p = (np.p = 'coO. To see thisone checksthat thepadic Galois representations associatedto the Tate moduleson each side are equivalent to (Ind . homomorphism l(p)}.Th.1 forthe representation on Af. Of. Let WE of E/OF+<( ) Let Q be a basis forthe OLmodule of be a Neron differential periods of WE. Note that our choice of p here is not necessarilyintendedto be the same as in Section 1.3)].) Over F+ this ellipticcurvehas onlythe ppower isogeniesofthe form?pm form E Z.. (I t N) and o)f((Ti)= 0 if1 is inert in L (1 t N). fg) are equal (cf. Lemma 3]). The curveE/F is the extension of scalars of a unique ellipticcurveE/F+ whereF+ is the real subfieldof F of index 2. the localizationof OF+ at p. be the conductorof p and let F be the ray class fieldof conductor .536 ANDREW WILES a  .f = fgsis a newform.a1 on U. (See [Shl. the discussionafterTheorem2.op)Ozp Kf. a maximal ideal m of T1 (N) and a homomorphism ) .) * . p is associatedto a cusp formfAlin such a way that the LseriesL(s. Let po = kerf f:T1 (N) + Of and let Af = Ji (N)/poJ1 (N) be the abelian varietyassociatedto f by Shimura. 1]). (5.unique up to isomorphism. withgood reductionat the primesabove p.4.ofrankone overOL and withassociatedgrossencharacter ipo NF/L. cf./L) whereUp.pwhereKf.OverF+ thereis an isogeny Af/F+ (E/F+ )d whered = [Of: Z] (see [Sh4. Over F+ thesetwosubgroupsare interchanged by complexconjugation. the choiceof grossencharacter Now let f. withcomplexmultiplication by OL and periodlatticefree.Thus the integerN = condf = IAL/QINormL/Q(condcp) is primeto p and thereis a homomorphism 'Of: Ti(N)4?Rf C Of C 0cp satisfying of (Tl) = (p(c)+ (P(C)if1 = ccin L. To see thisobservethat F is unramified at p and po is ordinaryso that the only isogeniesof degreep over F are the ones that correspondto divisionby kerp and kerp' wherepp' = (p) in L. (One compares trace(Frob?) in the two representations for? t Np and ? split completelyin F+. Using the embeddingof Q in Qp chosen above we get a prime A of Of above p.1= {u E Up:u Then set '. Accordingto a theoremofHecke. such that the associated representationpf. Also of ((l(l)) = (p((l))?o(l) where / is the quadraticcharacter associated to L.p= Of 0 Qp and where(pr:Gal(F/F) Zx p is the padic characterassociated to and restrictedto F. Then overF thereis an ellipticcurve. [Sh4.Areduces to Tl(N).pomodA. * Gal(M.(p). cp) and L(s. Moreoversince p was assumed primitive.We let E/O9F+ (p) denote a Weierstrassmodel over OF+.whichgives the assertion.
OM). Z) 0 O9M. We note that a (on homologyas in (4.(p) . We claim now that c E OM. Let WE be a Neron differential of E/OF+(p). Z) 0 aOM. Let M be the compositeof F+ and the normal closureof Kf viewedin C.Q11(N) Q3 Hom(OM.(p)  Hi (E/C. We considerthe map (4. Now let us writeO1 for J1 (N)101) N)1~0 6 ) .21) Ja*(wE)= Y E M and JWE a(y) forany class y e Hi(Xi(N)/C. Even if 7r'is not surjectivewe claim that the image of 7r'always has the formHi(EIC.20)) also comes froma map of abelian varietiesa: J1(N)/F+ 'z OM E/F+ ?Z OM althoughwe have not used this to definea**. Extendingscalars to M we can write ir*WE = a. Now definea* on QE bya* = alAiti o r* where*QE/C QJ1(N)/C is the map induced by 7rand ti has the usual action on QJ1(N)C Then a*(WE) = CWffor some c (4. Z) 0) OM. By suitablychoosing7rwe can assume n=l that aid =$0.10 OM and then mapping the image in = QJ1(N)/M )/c~lecv2 82 Hom~c)M.(p) forsome a E OM* This is because tensoredwith Zp 7r'can be viewedas a Gal(Q/F+)equivariant map ofpadic Tatemodules.and the onlyppowerisogenieson E/F+ have the form ?pm forsome m E Z. It followsthat we can factor7r'as (1 0 a) o a forsome othersurjectivea a: Hi(Xi(N)/C.20) 7r:Hi (Xi (N)/C. We can computea*(WE) by considering a**(WE 01) = .(p). Z) 0 O9M. Z) 0 Om + H (E/C.C) 00 wherewfu = E an(fo)qfln foreach a.(p). Then thereexist Ai E OM and ti E T1(N) such that Z Aiti7r*WE for some = ClWf Cl E M.Ztlr* 0 a'Ai on QE0F+ 0 OM to QJ1(N)/F+ Q0 OF+ OM Then there are isomorphisms 9F+. now allowinga to be in OM. E aawfa E M aEHom(Kf .MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 537 Now pick a nonconstantmap 7r:X1(N) IF+ +EIF+ whichfactorsthroughAf/F+. 8f Q1 ii(N)1.(p) givenby 7r'= E Ai(7ro i).
not necessarilydistinct. (ft2'fib =16 3 2 I (1 27 X) LN(1.or fora ramifiedprimeq whichdoes not divide the conductorof Ap. f. fP) ofthe form(1.aq q8) we get also an Euler factorin D(s. fP) = E Ian 2ns iff n=1 = (+1)] Res8=2D(s.ANDREW WILES 538 where6 is the different of M/Q.fP) = LN(S. We now give an expressionfor (f. Actuallyit is moreconvenient 7r(?7) .Similaridentifications occur forE in place of Ji(N).fP) .(1/(padic integer)). f. 0k)(QN(s  1)/(QN(2s  2) by usingLemma 1 of [Sh3]. of Proof. Uf = 4 Q2. f. This was firstobservedby Shimura [Sh2] althoughthe preciseformwe want was givenby Hida. The firstisomorphismcan be describedas follows.(5. is the set of primesq I N such thatq = qq' withq t condW and q. 0 OM it is enoughto observethat by So to checkthat a* (WE 0 1) E Q1 a comesfroma homomorphism its construction J1(N)/01 0 Om k E1010 OM. One beginswith a formulaof Peterssonthat foran eigenform weight2 on F1(N) says (f. Then ti(w)(y)= e(y)*w. One checks n=1 that. E anqn (cf. It followsthat we can comparethe periodsof f and of WE. b is the quadraticcharacterassociatedto L. PROPOSITION 4. Puttingtogetherthe propositionsofthissectionwe nowhave a formulafor as definedat the beginningofthissection.. [Hi3. f. f.q' primesofL.Let e(y):J1(N) + J1(N) 0 OpmforyE OM be themap x  >x 0 'y.4) } whereX is the characterof figand X its restrictionto L. p2k)LN(S  1. DN(S. ) denotesthattheEuler factorsforprimesdividingN have been LN( removed. removingthe Euler factorsat primesdividingN. When f = fl this can only happen fora split primeq whereq' divides the conductorof p but q does not.6.qaq qq8).5. For fP we use the fact that flyfPdz = fCYf dz wherec is the OMlinear map on homologycomingfromcomplexconjugationon the curve.ql8) since I9 (q)12 = q.) in termsof the Lfunctionof p. For each Euler factorof f at a q I N of the form (1.f) = (47)2 F (2) (1)7r[SL2(Z): Ii(N) whereD(s. We deduce: PROPOSITION 4.In this case we get a term(1 . S.13)]).
We also need to give a definition of TV whereD = (ord. q) whereE is the set of primesdividingM.) As in Chapter2. (M)m.24) withD = (Se. To verifythis one checksthat TV is reduced or alternativelyone can apply the methodof Remark2.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 539 to give a formulafor 7r(?JM).22) is provedas in Chapter2. 0. To see that Up is in the image of Rv we use that it is the eigenvalueof Frobp on the unique unramifiedquotientwhichis freeof rankone in the representation p describedafterthe corollariesto Theorem2.4 of [Wil]).(9 correspondsto f' and the adjointis takenwithrespect W(km1 ) to perfectpairingsof T1 and (9 with themselvesas 0modules. . 0( 0. Theorem 2.11. The existenceof the map W(km1. is preciselythe set of primesq forwhichnq = 1 in the notationof Chapter2. For the surjectivity.and it followsthenthat it is in the imageof RV. We deduce that E T. = T1 (M)ml 0 (9 . ?3. 0).A. Here we are consideringa slightlymore generalsituationthan that in Chapter 2. ) and po is induced froma characterof Q(V/=3). Uq E m ifq I M (q $ p) k over ko takingUp ap and thereis an embedding(whichwe fix) km1 ) whereap is the unit eigenvalueof Frobp in pfLA.) in (4.8.31). Property(ii) of fp ensuresthat M is as in (2.1. the firstone assumedTibilinear.an invariantdefinedin the same way but with 0 (9 replacingTl(N)m 0 (9 where M = pMo with p t MO Ti(M)ml and M/N is of the form lb IJ q2. q f N qI qESW M0 Here ml is definedby the requirements that Pm1= po. note that foreach q I M (with q $ p) Uq is zero in TV as Uq E m1 foreach such q so that we can apply Remark 2. ?3 as we are allowingpo to be inducedfroma characterof Q(i/=3). the W(kmi)subalgebraof T1(M)mi generatedby the traces. ?3. Now we take M=Np fJq. In this special case we defineTD to be T. ?3 thereis a canonicalmap (4.22) RV 4 TVZ Ti(M)ml 0 0 W(km1 ) whichis surjectiveby the argumentsin the proofof Proposition2. For this we use (2. (Note that S. A.15.1 (cf. So if f is the eigenform obtained fromf by 'removingthe Euler factors'at q I (M/N) (q $ p) and removingthe nonunitEuler factorat p we have AM = *(1) where7w: T.
4.ANDREW WILES 540 The argumentsin the proofof Theorem2.unramified p ~ po whenviewed as representations to GL2((Fp). FI) = LN(2. (i) detpo 'p =W. and 4.5. (ii) po is ordinary.0.23) lr(r7M)is divisiblebyQ2LN 2.E. For any po as in the theoremsupposethat p: Gal(Q/Q) ) GL2(0) is a continuousrepresentationwithvalues in the ring of integersof a local outsidea finiteset of primes.17 show that ir(.3.4. we have that X) (4. to provethe inequality Proof. COROLLARY. qIN We deduce: THEOREM #(O/r(?JM))= #Hs 4.1) is an irreduciblerepresentation of odd determinantsuch thatpo = Ind? so for a characterso of an at p.18 and at q it comesfromthe argumentofProposition2. ?3 it is sufficient > #((9/lr(?JM)) #HSe(Qr/Q7 V) as the oppositeone is immediate. As explainedin Chapter2. V).12 but with H = H' = 1. CombiningthiswithPropositions4. Since LN(2.satisfying field.6. v) = LN(2.A\.0) such thatpo is of typeVDwith = Se or ord. Assume also imaginaryquadraticextensionL of Q whichis unramified that: THEOREM 4.Tvz and TD is a completeintersection. Suppose thatpo as in (1. We now deduce the main theoremin the CM case using the methodof Theorem2. 92X) termis real by Proposition4.23) and in the expressionforthe upper L bound of # Hse(Q/Q.(p)) 171 (q  1) qESFp The factorat p is givenby whereap is the unit eigenvalueof Frobp in Pf. remark2.8. Thenfor every7D= (. Rv . Supposefurtherthat: .6) it suffices (note that the righthand to pair up the Euler factorsat q forq I N in (4.7.M) is divisibleby ir(r/)(a2. () (p)) 171 (q 1).For thisit sufficesto compare (4.23) withProposition4.17.
3]). Howeverin the crucialcase wherethe image in PGL2(C) is S4. Suppose furtherthatdetp is odd.1 (LanglandsTunnell). Chapter 5 In this chapterwe provethe main resultsabout ellipticcurvesand espeassociated cially show how to removethe hypothesisthat the representation to the 3divisionpointsshould be irreducible.I) withg some newform ?5. THEOREM 5. [Se.mod gLforsome pair (g.This was subsequentlyremoved by Tunnellin [Tu]. po . Suppose thenthat po: Gal(Q/Q)  GL2(F3) is an irreduciblerepresentationof odd determinant. Suppose that p: Gal(Q/Q) whose image is finiteand GL2(C) is a continuousirreduciblerepresentation solvable. = Xek withX offiniteorder. ofGL2(F3) ifnecessarywe can assume By composingi withan automorphism that i induces the identityon reductionmod (1 + vi2).that this representationis modular in the sense that over F3. using the theorem. Langlands actually proved in [La] a much more general result without restrictionon the determinantor the numberfield(whichin our case is Q). So if we consider . extendingearlierresultsof Hecke in the case wherethe projectiveimage is dihedral.LASTTHEOREM MODULAR ELLIPTICCURVESAND FERMAT'S (i) P D (ii) detp 541 is ordinary.pg. Application to elliptic curves The key resultused is the followingtheoremof Langlands and Tunnell. We now show. There existsa representation i: GL2(F3) * GL2 (Z [VZ]) c GL2(C).p) up to finitelymanyEuler factors. ofweight2 (cf. Thenp is associatedto a modularformof weightk.j.k > 2. Then thereexists a weightone newformf such thatL(s. the resultwas onlyobtainedwithan additionalhypothesis.f) = L(s.
whereE1.we can take E = 6 El.3 on E[3] is irreducible. Now picka modularformE ofweightone such that E 1(3). Then fE Lemma 6.3 since the only nontrivialabelian extensionof outside5 and oforderprimeto 5 is Q((5) whichis abelian Q (Vs) unramified it is enoughto checkthat thereare no ellipticcurves over Q. By Serre'sisogeny theorem. to Q(VA/=).5 was modularwe could nowprovethe theoremin the same way we did knowingthat PE. pp.u) forsome prime1Iabove (1 + j/2).cf. As the semistablehypothesis impliesthat all the inertiagroupsoutside 3 in the splittingfieldof Po have outside orderdividing3 this means that the splittingfieldof Po is unramified outside3 3.. Then the pair (g. So Po itselfwouldfactorthroughan abelian extension of Q and this is a contradictionas Po is assumed odd and irreducible. in the deformation representations THEOREM 5. finda newform lie in Z [VA/]. We nowshowhowin studyingellipticcurvesour restriction theorycan be circumvented. However.u (compatiblewithps'). Then we claim that the representationPE.5 is an inducedrepresentation overQ(v/5) and E is semistable .and we replace (9'. restriction wouldbe abelian of orderprimeto 3.5on the 5divisionpointsis irreducible.If we knewthat E. Suppose that E is a semistableelliptic curve over Q.u) satisfiesour fora suitablechoiceof . E forwhichPE.3 was modularonce we observethat PE. eu') by (g.E is also modular(in the sense ofbeinga factorof the Jacobianof a modularcurve). Alternatively.11]) we can findan eigenform g' ofweight2 withthesame eigenvalues as f modulo a primepu'above (1 + X/=2).5 restrictedto followsa similar Gal(Q/Q(x/5)) is absolutelyirreducible.ANDREW WILES 542 whichis i 0PO: Gal(Q/Q) + GL2(C) we obtain an irreduciblerepresentation easily seen to be odd and whose image is solvable.Q(V/Z3) has no nontrivialabelian extensionsunramified and oforderprimeto 3. 7980]. requirements We can apply this to an ellipticcurve E definedover Q by considering to irreducible E[3].2 (provedat the end of Chapter3). Proof. Applyingthe theoremwe Its eigenvalues f ofweightone associatedto thisrepresentation.This irreducibility argumentto the one for E.3 theimageofthe restricted to Gal(Q/Q (vZ/=)) werenotabsolutelyirreducible. Then if Po = PE.3 is then modularby Theorem0.3 is reducible. There is a newformg of weight2 whichhas the same eigenvaluesas g' foralmostall T1's. For example. Assume firstthat the representationE. All semistableellipticcurvesoverQ are modular. So assume now that PE. [BiKu.x is the Eisensteinserieswith Mellintransform givenby ((s) ((s. So Po restrictedto Gal(Q/Q(VE/=)) is absolutelyirreducibleand PE. X) forX the quadraticcharacterassociated f mod3 and using the DeligneSerrelemma ([DS.2..This is because Xo(15) (Q) has only fourrationalpointsbesides the cusps and these correspondto nonsemistablecurveswhichin any case are modular.
[CF. This curve C is smoothas X(p)lQ = X(5)/Q is smooth.Then E is givenby a quadratic twistof E(jE) and so aftera changeof functionsof the form92(i) F u2g2(j). 3.5(Iq) I 5.cf.For.5 ID5(in particularit is inducedfroma characterofthe unramified quadratic extensionof Q5 whose restrictionto inertiais the fundamentalcharacterof level 2) and in the ordinarycase it is straightforward. t) E Q (t) [x] of degree> 1 and we need to ensurethat formany values to in Q. AutX(5)/L) givenby PE.5.) So finallywe pick any to E Q whichis pladicallyclose to t1 and also 5adicallyclose to the original value of t givingE. Prop. This can be checkedin the supersingularcase using the descriptionof PE.to ensurecondition(i) holds.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 543 at 5. Consider the twistedformX(p)lQ of X(5)/Q definedas follows. A rationalpointon C (necessarilynoncuspidal)correspondsto an elliptic curveE' overQ withan isomorphism E'[5] .But this correspondsto E' being the image of a rationalpoint on an irreduciblecoveringof C of degree 4.Then we pick a prime P1 $ 5 such that f(x.3 is irreducibleand (ii) E' (or a quadratictwist)has semistablereductionat 5.2.3 is reducible. t1) has no rootmod P1.E[5] as Galois modules(cf. The curveE' (or a quadratic twist)willthensatisfyall thepropertiesneededto applyTheorem0. It has genus zero since the same is trueof the irreduciblecomponentsof X(5)Q. ex. To see this.92(j)x . to) has no rational solution. VI. This last conditionensuresthat E' (corresponding to to) or a quadratic twisthas semistablereductionat 5. Let Q(t) be the functionfieldof C. 6. We claim that we can choose such a point with the two propertiesthat (i) the Galois representation PE'. 1728.5 To picka rationalpointon C satisfying (i) and (ii) we use the Hilbertirreducibilitytheorem. Hilbert's theoremensures that thereexists a t1 such that f(x. ti) is irreducible.) So E' will be modularand henceso too will PE'. We have therefore an irreduciblepolynomial f(x. we can finda familyE(j): y2 = X3. p. Then E definesa rationalpoint on X(p)/Q and hence also of an irreduciblecomponentof it whichwe denote C.observethat since JE $A0.2. Then forj' E Q close enough5adicallyto jE  .93(j) with rationalfunctions92(ij.we onlyhave to eliminate the possibilitythat the image ofPE'. (This is easilyachievedusingthe Cebotarev densitytheorem.5: Gal(L/Q) GL2(Z/5Z) C Aut X(5)/L whereL denotesthe of splittingfield PE. 93(j) whichare finiteat jE and withthejinvariantof E(jo) equal to jo wheneverthegi(jo) are finite. [DR. Let X(5)/Q be the (geometrically disconnected)curvewhose noncuspidalpoints classifyellipticcurveswithfulllevel 5 structureand let the twistedcurvebe definedby the cohomologyclass (even homomorphism) in H1(Gal(L/Q). (For the primesq : 5 we just use the factthat E' is semistableat q ==> # E. 362]. 93(j) F U3g3(j) with u E Qx we can assume that E(jE) = E and that the equationE(jE) is minimalat 5. f(x.2]).
544
ANDREW WILES
theequationE(j') is stillminimaland semistableat 5, sincea criterionforthis,
foran integralmodel,is that eitherord5(A(E(j'))) = 0 or ord5(c4(E(j'))) = 0.
So up to a quadratictwistE' is also semistable.
This kindof argumentcan be applied moregenerally.
THEOREM 5.3. Suppose thatE is an ellipticcurvedefinedover Q with
thefollowingproperties:
(i) E has good or multiplicative
reductionat 3, 5,
(ii) For p = 3,5 and foranyprimeq 1 modp either1E,pIDq is reducible
overF orPEIpIIq is irreducibleoverFP.
Then E is modular.
Proof. The main point to be checkedis that one can carryover condition (ii) to the new curveE'. For this we use that forany odd primep q$
A
PEXpIDq
IIq is absolutelyreducible
is absolutelyirreducibleand EXP
and 3 t #PE)p(Iq)
E acquiresgood reductionoveran abelian 2powerextensionof
Qqnrbut not overan abelian extensionof Qq.
Suppose thenthat q _1(3) and that E' does not satisfycondition(ii) at
q (forp = 3). Then we claim that also 3 t #PE',3(Iq). For otherwisePEj,3(Iq)
has its normalizerin GL2(F3) containedin a Borel, whence El,3(Dq) would
be reduciblewhichcontradictsour hypothesis.So usingthe above equivalence
we deduce,by passingvia E',5 PE,5, that E also does not satisfyhypothesis
(ii) at p = 3.
We also need to ensurethat PE',3 is absolutelyirreducibleover Q(VW3).
This we can do by observingthatthepropertythattheimageof E',3 lies in the
Sylow2subgroupof GL2(F3) impliesthat E' is the image of a rationalpoint
on a certainirreduciblecoveringof C of nontrivialdegree.We can thenargue
in the same way we did in the previoustheoremto eliminatethe possibility
that E',3 was reducible,this timeusingtwo separatecoveringsto ensurethat
the image of E',3 is neitherreduciblenor containedin a Sylow2subgroup.
Finally one also has to show that if both PE,5 is reducibleand PE,3 is
induced froma characterof Q (v/Z3) then E is modular. (The case where
both were reduciblehas already been considered.) Taylor has pointed out
both these conditionsare classifiedby the noncuspidal
that curvessatisfying
rationalpointson a modularcurve isomorphicto Xo(45)/Wg, and this is an
ellipticcurve isogenousto Xo(15) with rank zero over Q. The noncuspidal
rationalpointscorrespondto modularellipticcurvesof conductor338.
El
ELLIPTIC
MODULAR
CURVES
AND
FERMAT'S
LAST THEOREM
545
Appendix
Gorenstein rings and local complete intersections
PROPOSITION 1. Suppose that0 is a completediscretevaluationring
and thatp: S + T is a suriectivelocal0algebra homomorphism
betweencomplete local Noetherian0algebras. SupposefurtherthatPT is a prime ideal of
'
0 and let Ps = W1(PT). Assume that
T such that T/PT
(i) T 
O(X1,
...
,Xr1/(fi,
..
,fru)
wherer is thesize of a minimalset of
0generatorsofPT/PT,
PT/P2 and thattheseare finitely
ps/p2
(ii) o inducesan isomorphism
generated0modules whosefreepart has ranku.
Then o is an isomorphism.
Proof. First we considerthe case whereu = 0. We may assume that the
generators x1,. . .,Xr lie in PT by subtracting their residues in T/PT
(ii) we may also write
S

(9JX1,.
*
Xrll(gl,*
) 0. By
v9,)
with s > r (by allowingrepetitionsif necessary)and Ps generatedby the
Writing fi
images of {x1,.. .,Xr}. Let p = (X1,... ,Xr) in 0Jx1,. .xr]
Eaijxj mod p2 withaij E 0, we see that the Fittingideal as an 0module of
PT/PT is givenby
F (PT/Pp) = det(aij) E 0
and that this is nonzeroby the hypothesisthat u = 0. Similarly,if each
gi =Ebijxj modp2, then
Fo(ps/p2) = {det(bij): i E I, #I=r,
I C {1, ...,
By (ii) again we see that det(aij) = det(bij) as ideals of 0 forsome choice Io
we may assume that Io = {1, . , r} Then each gi
of I. Afterrenumbering
(i = 1,... ,r) can be written gi = Erijfi for some rij E 0x1,.. .,Xr]J and we
have
det(bij) _ det(rij) det(aij) mod p.
Hence det(rij) is a unit,whence(rij) is an invertiblematrix.Thus the fi's can
be expressedin termsof the gi's and so S _T.
We can extendthisto the case u $&0 by pickingX1,.. , Xru so that they
generate(pT/p2)tors. Then we can writeeach fi = EruaIj x modp2 and
likewiseforthe gi's. The argumentis now just as beforebut applied to the
L
Fittingideals of (pT/p2)tors.
546
ANDREW WILES
For the next propositionwe continueto assume that 0 is a complete
discretevaluationring.Let T be a local 0algebra whichas a moduleis finite
and freeover (9. In addition,we assume the existenceof an isomorphismof
TmodulesT 0 Homr(T, 0). We call a local 0algebra whichis finiteand
freeand satisfiesthis extra conditiona Gorenstein0algebra (cf. ?5 of [Til]).
Now suppose that p is a primeideal of T such that T/p _X.
Let o3:T  Tlp  0 be the naturalmap and definea principalideal of T
by
(AT) = C3(1))
where 3: ( ) T is the adjoint of /3with respectto perfect0pairings on 0
and T, and wherethe pairingof T with itselfis Tbilinear. (By a perfect
pairingon a free0module M of finiterankwe mean a pairingM x M ( 0
suchthat boththe inducedmaps M ) Homo(M, 0) are isomorphisms.When
M = T we are thusrequiringthat thisbe an isomorphism
ofTmodulesalso.)
as an
The ideal (AT) is independentof the pairings.Also T/TT is torsionfree
0module, as can be seen by applyingHom ( , 0) to the sequence
0 +
p T
+
0 +0,
to obtain a homomorphism
T/T/T
Hom(p,0). This also showsthat (OT)
Annp.
If we let l(M) denotethe lengthof an 0module M, then
=
I (P/P ) > 1(0/t)
(wherewe write 7Tfor/3(qT)) because p is a faithfulT/IqTmodule.(For a
briefaccount of the relevantpropertiesof Fittingideals see the appendix to
[MW1].) Indeed, writingFR(M) forthe Fittingideal of M as an Rmodule,
we have
FT/1T (P) = 0 X FT(P) C (r/T)E FT/p,(P/P2)C (AT)
and we then use the fact that the lengthof an 0module M is equal to the
lengthof 09/FO(M) as 0 is a discretevaluationring. In particularwhenp/p2
is a torsion0modulethen77T $ 0.
We need a criterionfora Gorenstein0algebra to be a completeintersection. We will say that a local 0algebra S which is finiteand freeover
0 is a complete intersectionover 0 if there is an 0algebra isomorphism
S _ Oj[xi,.* ., Xrj/(fi
*... , fr) forsome r. Such a ringis necessarilya Gorenstein 0algebra and {fi, .. , fir}is necessarilya regularsequence. That (i) =X
(ii) in the followingpropositionis due to Tate (see A.3, conclusion4, in the
appendix in [M Ro].)
PROPOSITION 2. Assume that0 is a completediscretevaluationrmng
and thatT is a local Gorenstein0algebra whichis finiteand freeover0 and
Then thefollowingtwo conditionsare equivalent: (i) T is a completeintersectionover0. ?6]) but here is an argumentsuggestedby N. PT/P2 wherePs = r1 (PT). We thenmodifygi... We can assume also that N is chosengreaterthan Then set the total degree of gi for each i. Then we have a sequence of maps. . In particularthe maximal 0torsionsubmoduleof S is zero since it is also a finitelengthSsubmoduleof S. .Pick isomorphisms T _Homo(T.. 0) as Tmodules and Smodules. . As (as) = (NT) in C. Now 0/(is) . . The existenceof such an S seems to be well known (cf.. [Ti2. S over0 (so Proof. . f8)2and set (gj = gi + a1.. XXr]/(g1 . (). since l(01/(7s)) = l(ps/p2) by (i) X.3 0..L)= (ft7) in O and (.. (ii) l(PT/PT) = 1(0//7T)as 0modules. . it follows that also T .. ...0/(ft). Katz and H.3 denote the adjointswithrespectto these isomorphisms: oA T S T20.(90X1 X* X ...f) (Xi.p2) = (9gi... S .. xjv can be written in T as a polynomial hi(Xi . conclusion1 of TheoremA. we have that t is a unitmodPT and hencethat a o & is an isomorphism.. in which& and .. gr such that gi = Eaijf.fs)).hi(xi. Set ai = (x' . We can pick 91. ..3 completeintersections of [M Ro].Homo(S. .. withaij E (9 and such that (fiI. with PT the image in T of p = Write T = 0[xi.. Xr).Xr]j/(fi.MODULAR ELLIPTIC AND CURVES FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 547 thatPT is a prime ideal of T such thatT/PT _ 0 and PT/PT is a torsion 0module.. One checksthat & is a map of Smodules (T being givenan Saction via a) and in particularthat a o & is multiplicationby an elementt of T.cf. thereexistsan N such that for each i. igrp2). Xsr) of total degreeless than N... Now (.g9} is a regularsequenceand hencethat depth(S) = dim(S) = 1. X* X . .. pick a completeintersection assumedfiniteand flatover0) suchthat a: SET and suchthatps/p2 . Since T is finiteover0. respectively. g)..The existenceof the latter for over 0 is well known.(. gr by the additionofelements{&I} of (f. Then S is finiteoverX by construction and also ... .g dim(S) < 1 sincedim(S/A) = 0 where(A) is the maximalideal of 0. .. . gr = gr+ ar)..3 o a) o ( o a) = (vs) in (9. S = (9 X .xr]/(fl. f8.. (ii) and I(0/(ftr)) = l(PT/p2) by hypothesis. .It follows . It follows that {9g.x))2. Lenstra (independently). To provethat (ii) =X (i)... Since T is local and finite and free over 0 .
785801. J.Academic Press. P. COATES and C. 7 (1974).Teubner. PRINCETON. IV. 91116. W. LENSTRA. ALTMAN and S.. RAPOPORT. 1 (P. Norm. Math. H. Schemas de modulesde courbeselliptiques. An Introductionto GrothendieckDuality Theory. 507530. 125. NJ REFERENCES [AK] [BiKu] [Bo] [BH] [BK] [BLR] [CF] [Cal] [Ca2] [Ca3] [CPS] [CS] [CW] [CO] [DR] [DS] [Dia] [Di] A. Ann. L. DIAMOND. CARAYOL. Publ. . Sci. B. SCHMIDT. eds. Duke Math. J. 357367. Remark. Paris t312. Lenstra has made an importantimprovementto this proposition by showingthat replacing ZTby /3(annp) gives a criterionvalid forall local (9algebraswhichare finiteand freeover(9. 1973.ANDREW 548 WILES that S z. CLINE. 409468. J. KUYK (eds. PARSHALL. Sci. on Modular Forms and Elliptic Curves. 165. KLEIMAN. Ec. 1970.). BLOCH and K. Cartier et al. IV. Formes modulaires de poids 1. RIBET. 1967. Math. (1978).Ann. Math. The Vol.C. N. Ec. COLEMAN. SpringerLecture Notes in Mathematics. H. Duke Boston. vol. E. 19 (1986). Birkhduser. R. The refinedconjectureof Serre.Vol. J. Ser. WILES. FR6LICH (eds. 169191. Iwasawa theoryforthe symmetric square of an elliptic curve. 104156.Ser. S. BOSTON. Soc. Formes modulaireset representationsGaloisiennes a valeurs dans un anConjecneau local complet. Linear Groups withan Expositionof the Galois Field Theory. and K. B. 1993 Hong Kong Conf. Division values in local fields. 1901.Math. 323328. 1994.vol. Ser. F. J. 1993. to appear in Proc. . S.). Stevens).. KATO. COATES and A.whichcontradictsS being local. 349. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY.). 53 (1979). Sci. 375/376 (1987). J. Cohomologyof finitegroups of Lie type I. Mazur and G. Acad. as otherwiseS _ kera $ ima is a nontrivialdecompositionas [1 Smodules. DELIGNE and JP. and L. AlgebraicNumberTheory. 59 (1989). 1 (1991). IHES 45 (1975). 1975. Math. BRUNS and J. vol. Cambridge UniversityPress. LFunctions and Tamagawa Numbers of Motives. Families of Galois representationsIncreasingthe ramification. Sup. Math.T. SpringerLecture Notes in Mathematics. Aust. Sur les representationsgaloisiennesmodulo e attachees aux formesmodulaires. P. Sur les representationspadiques associees aux formesmodulairesde Hilbert. W. A26.1990. GrothendieckFestschrift. 476. . Norm. E. 66. Quotients of group ringsarisingfromtwodimensionalrepresentations. DELIGNE and M. On padic Lfunctionsand ellipticunits. CASSELS and A. SCOTT. Ser.Invent. HERZOG. B. CohenMacaulay Rings. Modular Functions of One Variable IV. DICKSON. reine und angew. N.in Springer Lecture Notes in Mathematics. R. SERRE. Leipzig. Contemp. thuswithoutthe Gorenstein hypothesis. 146. Sup. BIRCH and W.in pAdic Monodromyand the BirchSwinnertonDyer ture (eds. J. G.
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next paper. 42 (1981). J.on Local Fields. Modular curves and the class group of Q((p). Math. 5 (1981). 407456. Math. WILES. Conf. France 115 (1987). . Un sousgroupepdivisiblede la jacobienne de X1 (Npr) commemodule sur l'algebre de Hecke. ofMath. 89103. Math. 1967. Theorie d'Iwasawa classique et de l'algebre de Hecke ordinaire. On ordinaryAadicrepresentations associated to modularforms. On padic representations fortotallyreal fields. A. Bull. WINTENBERGER. pdivisiblegroups. R. P.Comp. 1994) . 94 (1988).S. 199208. 65 (1988).Nagoya Math. . J. Driebergen. 43 (1971). 168 (1967).TILOUINE.M. J. The Iwasawa conjecturefortotallyreal fields. 135. Invent. 265320.Proc. Structuregaloisiennede limitesprojectivesd'unitees locales. Artin'sconjectureforrepresentationsof octahedral type. 149156. SpringerVerlag. Soc. A. 58 (1980). TATE. (Received October 14. Math. TAYLOR and A. WEIL. Comp. On ellipticcurveswithcomplex multiplicationas factorsof the Jacobians of modular functionfields.Invent. Uber die BestimmungDirichletscherReihendurchFunktionalgleichungen. Math.Bull. .Ann. 493540. . J.1966. WILES. J. TUNNELL. 173175. 329360. Math.Ann. this issue. A.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM [Sh4] [Ta] [Til] [Ti2] [TU] [TW] [We] [Wil] [Wi2] [Wi3] [Wi4] [Win] 551 . pp. 529573. 131 (1990). 123 (1986). Ring theoreticpropertiesof certainHecke algebras. 158183. Ann. of Math.
(K/Q) (V)An) largen. setting (4.Y*) (Yn)*)#H (Q. (4. whichholds forsufficiently is infective. The above map is theninjectivewheneverthe connectinghomomorphism Ho (Lp*.ANDREW WILES 528 applies with maximalsubmoduleon whichIp acts via E2.6) Hstr(Q/Qi Yn*) Hstr(Q/Qi Y*) is infective. (4.4)(4.7) and the elementaryestimate (4. Yn) = 0 and a simplecalculationshowsthat #H (Q.One can checkthis by replacingthese groupsby the subgroups of H1(L. Y*) forq :&p.6. Yn) #HO (Q. En) = i{ f 1 if v=I1mod A #(C)/lI/(q)) otherwise whereq runsthrougha set of primesof OL primeto p cond(v) of densityone. that Y.5) large the map We also need the factthat forn sufficiently (4. replacingY?n*. (K/O)(v)) whichare unramifiedoutside p and trivialat p*.9) #HSe(Q/Q. ip = lim # HO(Qp. This can be checkedsince Y* = IndQ(v) 0 K/c.1. by Proposition1. (4. #Hsltr(QE/Q. (Yn?)*).4) In the case of Y* we will use the inequality # H1tr(QF/Q. Yn).) A similardefinition It followsfroman examinationofthe actionof Ip on Y). Now. Hstr(QE/Ql Yn) = Hunr(QE/Q. So. 7 Ho (Q HQ Yn) #Hr(Q/Q.This follows fromProposition4. (K/O) (v)) + H1 (Lp*.41 we get (4.1. (KI 0)(v where?q = #HO(Qq. Y*) < # Hunr(QF/Qi Y*). y)Ga1(Qunr/Qq) = e . Yn*) () Also. HO (Q. (K/O)(V)An) and H1(L.in a mannersimilarto the beginningofthe proofof Proposition 4.10) Y)) < Y)/Hulnr(QE/Ql #(HSle(Qr/Ql fqi 1I qEE{p} which follows fromthe fact that #H1 (Qunr. Y) <  Iq()I q # Hom (Gal (Moo/L(v)).8) t infq#(O/(1v(q))) ~~~ 1 ifvmodA=1 vmodA #.
the rayclass fieldofconductor f. but we will recall some of the steps here. II. We choose an embeddingcorresponding to a primeabove p and then we findsp = K *X forsome X of finiteorder and conductorprime to p.e.i. Lemma 1. Then thereis a grossencharacter 1 modJ Wof L satisfyings((a)) = a fora (cf..q=limUn. For each primeX3of F above p we have a formalgroup ET. [de Sh. (K/O)(V))Ga1(L(v)/L)). ?1. Indeed Wpand i are both unramifiedat p* and satisfyWpIi.10]). Y). afterfixingan embeddingQ Qp we can associate a padic characterWpto s (cf. We let A = ASE be the logarithmof this formalgroup. Uo=fJ q3lp uCo where Uoo. This is byour hypothesisthat i factored throughan extensionof the formZp E T withT of orderprimeto p.T. Also the only primeswhichramifyin a ZpWPIG extensionlie above p so our hypothesison K ensuresthat KIGhas conductor dividingfp'.(cf. II.) We could now derivethe resultdirectlyfrom this by referring to [de Sh. Howeverwe will make the assumption. II. [Ru2] and especially [Ru4]. is an inertiagroupat p. We choose an f prime to p such that Wf= 1. Withoutalteringfwe can evenchoose s so thatthe orderofX is primeto p.c. and this is a relativeLubinTate group with respect to FT3over Lp (cf.1. To see thispickan abelian splittingfieldofWpand i whoseGalois grouphas the form G E G' with G a propgroup and G' of orderprimeto p. Ch. Let Wfdenote the numberof roots of unity( of L such that ( _ 1 modJ (Jan integralideal of OL). We can thereforeadjust s so that X has orderprime to p as claimed.1 (5)]). The same is then true of the ppartof X whichthereforehas conductordividingf.4]). Ch. In the formerreferenceRubin assumes that the class numberof L is primeto p. This order can be computed usingthe 'main conjecture'establishedby Rubin usingideas ofKolyvagin. Let UOObe the productof the principallocal units at the primesabove p of L(fpoo).5) thisin turnreducesto the problemofestimating # Hom(Gal(MOO/L(v)). y (or more preciselysoo NF/L) is associated to a The grossencharacter (unique) ellipticcurveE definedoverF = L(f).1. V) and the mainproblemis to estimateH e(Q/Q.but still keepingf primeto p. . Accordingto Weil. [de Sh. cond v}.= KII = e wheree is the cyclotomic characterand I. that both v and Wp have conductor dividing fp'. We will not howeverchoose s so that X is 1 as this would requirefp? to be divisibleby condx. Then we see that has conductordividingfp'. Thus we replace fp ? by l. [de Sh. 3]. We may even fixa Weierstrassmodel of E over OF whichhas good reductionat all primesabove p. [de Sh.m. with complex multiplicationby CL and isomorphicover C to CIOL (cf. II. by alteringf if necessary.{f. By (4.4]).MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 529 Our objectiveis to computeH'e(Qr/Q.
The constructionof the powerseriesin [CW] does not extendto the case wherethe formalgrouphas height> 1 or to the case whereit is definedover an extensionof Qp. We now summarizethese results. n= 0(d) whered = [Fqe:L. (Note that the primes of L(f) above p are totallyramifiedin L(fpoo)so we still call them {q3}.5]. II ?4.see [de Sh. Now 0 = pp on Gal(F/F). To an elementu = limun E UOOwe can associate a powerseriesfuv.) For preciselyfuqp(T)is the q3component to our chosenembedding X3 we will choose the primeabove p corresponding = c* Q Qp.(T) E O.Ox is the charactergiving = 09(0)k k.) We bk on Up.530 ANDREW WILES each Un't being the principallocal units in L(fpn)qp. Assume forthe momentthat Fq3is Qp.9(U)= A'(T) dT logfu(T) T=O (9wsatisfying It is easy to see that6k. These werefirstintroduced wishto definecertainhomomorphisms in [CW] in the case wherethe local fieldFspis Qp.12) 5k(UT) = 9(Q)kSk(U) forr E Gal(F/F) where0 again denotesthe action on E[p']. p(U) =d  () by logfu'(T) ET ~~~~T=O Then (4. Let S . Then lettingwn it was shown be nontrivialrootsof [7rn] (x) = 0 chosenso that [ir](an) = wi~n1 in [CW] that to each elementu = limun E UOq therecorrespondeda unique powerseriesfu(T) e Zj[T X such that fu(wn) = Un forn > 1. The definition of 6ke (k > 1) in this case was then k. We on UO. In this case Eq is isomorphicto the LubinTategroupassociated to 7rx+ xP where7r= ~p(p). This powerseriessatisfiesUndo (fu.q3givesa homomorphism: UooUoo. (More ofthe powerseriesdescribedthere. Observethat v = 2 on Gal(F/F).] and {wn} is chosen as beforeas an inversesystemof irn divisionpointsofEm.11) Sk(U) = 6k. Ch.)(wn) forall n > 0.(6) where9: Gal (FIF) skq3(e) the action on E[p'].) The corresponding in [Ru3]and thenin fullgenerality 6k weregivenin somewhatgreatergenerality by de Shalit [de Sh].witha transformation propertycorreactuallywant a homomorphism spondingto v on all of Gal(L/L).3[[T]]x whereOC3is the ringofintegersofFew. (See also [Iwi]. We definea homomorphism 6k: Uoo (4.thus returningto the generalcase whereFq is not assumed to be Qp. A morenaturalapproachwas developedby Coleman [Co] generalizationsof whichworksin general.
Zp[[Gal(L(v)/L)]] modules: charA(Gal (Moo/L(v))) = charA(UO(v)/CJ. II.(VJ) +CP I Let COObe the groupofprojectivelimitsofellipticunitsin L(v) as defined in [Ru4].1) = (2(0)/P2(U) Next we let e(a) be the projectivelimit of ellipticunits in limLpn for a some ideal prime to 6fp describedin [de Sh. Computing (2 on both u and . of rank one. ?12].3an elementofC( ?). It takes integralvalues in (9q [v]. ?4. Now accordingto resultsof Iwasawa ([1w2.1)u = fiforsome f (T) E 0[[T]] and ya topologicalgeneratorof Gal (L(v)/L(vo)).3 gives (4. Gal (L(v)IL) Gal (L(v)IL(vo)) x Gal(L(vo)IL). Since Gal(L(v)/L) decomposesintoa directproduct the Teichmiiller of a propgroupand a groupof orderprimeto p. [Ru2]).). Ch.. Let UO (v) denotethe productof the groups of local principalunits at the primesabove p of the fieldL(v) (by whichwe mean projectivelimitsof local principalunits as before).14) f (v(y).13) dI2(U) = Z v1(of)62(uU)E Oq3[v]. Then by the propositionof Chapter II.8) and it Each termis independentof the choiceof coset representative is easily checkedthat (2(U') = V(Of)4D2(U).[[T]]. [Ru2.2. Let vo = v mod A.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 531 forGal(L/L)/ Gal (LIF) and define be a set of coset representatives (4. generatorofUO (v) (vO)and . Also A(vO). Then f (y.9]. ?2. we can also considerany Zp[[Gal(L(v)/L)]]modulealso as a Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)]module. Theorem 5. Then we have a crucialtheoremof Rubin (cf. proved usingideas of Kolyvagin: There is an equalityof characteristicideals as A = THEOREM 4. [Ru4]. We extend (2 0linearly to is a freeA(vO)module UOO(v)(vO) Suppose that u is a Uoo(v) Ozp (9 and it then factorsthroughUoo(v)(v?).1]).7 of [de Sh] this is a 12th powerin limL xn We . dES by (4. For any Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)]moduleX we writeX(vO) forthe maximalquotientofX 0 (9 on whichthe actionof Gal(L(vo)/L) is via zp liftofvo. In particularX(vO)is a moduleover Zp[Gal(L(vo)/L)](v0)O 0. Then 12 factors throughUO (v) and thus definesa continuoushomomorphism (D2:UOO.
(ii) wf= 1. Since V . Combiningthis with (4. (Recall that thiswas chosento have good reductionat primesabove p.9) gives: #HSe(QE/Ql Y) < # (O/Q2Lfo(2. fJq qEE where4 # HI(Qq.) whose associated padic character.Note that if vo = 1 then also p = 3. Also v here should The periodsare those of the standardNerondifferential.v(a)) Lf(2. II. Y*) (forq 4 p).))Ga1(L(v)1L) #O/Q2Lfo(2.10] showsthat (4.P)/Lf0 a padic unit unless vo = 1 in whichcase we can choose it to be t as defined in (4.2. We can clearlychoose Lf(2. A generalizationof the calculationin [CW] whichmay be foundin [de Sh.v)) ifvo7&1 t if vo = 1. The only restrictionswe have placed on f are that (i) f is prime to p.via be interpretedas the grossencharacter the chosenembeddingQ )k QP.3 = Normol3 wherethe normis fromLfpo to L(v). ?4. is v.Y E (K/O)(f ) EDK/(9 we need also a formulafor  # ker{H1(QE/Q.but it is sufficient since Gal (Moo/L(v)) has no finiteAsubmodule(by a resultof Greenberg. i) E OT9[v] whereQ is a basis forthe (9Lmoduleofperiodsofour chosenWeierstrassmodel ofE/F. Now let fop' be the conductorof v withto (2.y)/Lf(2.v)) .see [Gre2.15) (D2(3) = (root of unity)Q2 (Na .Then (D2(U)is a padicunit.532 ANDREW WILES let 31i= !3(a)1/12be the projectionof e(a)1/12to UOOand take .end of ?4]) we deduce fromTheorem4. as P(q)v(q)= Normq2forany ideal q primeto fop.17) to be a unit if vo #41. Also if vo = 1 then we see that inf# {O/{JLoq(21P)/Lfo(2P)}} = t since PF2 = We can compute(D2(u) by choosinga special local unit and showingthat forus to knowthat it is integral. Ch. vP)is primeto p.4). and (iii) condv fpv . tp # HO (Qp. I) < ?l (#O/Q2Lfo (2.15) that #Hom(Gal (Moo/1L(v)). and vPis the complexconjugateof v. (K/( )(0) EDK/()} J qEE{p} 4q . We show now that we can choose f such that Lf(2.I (K/c)) (z.16) #(O/hL)  Hl(Qunr. (4. (YO)*). (K/O)(0) E K/c) This is easily computedto be (4.14) and (4.
y) = (x. Let (4. tp = #HO(Qp. [Hi2]fora surveyof his earlierresults)by interpreting (. T1 (N)m is Gorensteinand it followsthat T is also a Gorenstein Oalgebra (see the discussionfollowing(2. Of) givenby x .) In particular(tx. we set to definean invariantrj of T.v)) where4 = #(O(/hL) J4q qEE H OH(Qq.3. Let po be an irreduciblerepresentation as in (1.Then by Corollary1 of Theorem2. y and foreach standardHecke correspondence H1 (Xi (N).A a that f is a newform ofpo. (.is the adjoint of 7rwith respectto the pairings.(We sometimesdrop the C fromX1(N)IC or Ji(N)IC if the contextmakes it clear that we are referringto the complex manifolds.t*x and simplywritetx fort*x. So we can use perfectpairings (the second one Tbilinear) OxO . Let mbe the kernelofthe homomorphism T1 (N) * Of /A deformation arisingfromf.1.): TxT O (9 is the natural map. ?3. ) in termsof the cup product pairingon the cohomologyof X1 (N). Suppose ofweight2 and levelN. Calculation of rq We needto calculateexplicitlytheinvariantsrD. Assume that p t N.17) ( ):H1 (Xi(N). We now give an explicit formula for 77 developedby Hida (cf. ((K/O)(0) E K/O)*) and hL is the class numberof OL. This is the same . 7r(r)= (?7.77)up to a unitin 0 and as notedin the appendix 77 = Ann p = T[[p] where p = ker7r. #HSe(QE/QV) ? #(9/Q2L10(2. dependingonlyon 7r. I)O Of be the cup productpairingwith Of as coefficients.f introducedin Chapter2.A and kmis W(km. IOf) x H1 (Xi(N). ?3 in a special case. Combiningthese gives: PROPOSITION 4. We writeT forTl(N)m 0 (9. A a primeofOf above p and pf. If 7r: T (r7)= (*ir(1))where*.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 533 where4 = #H0(Qq. We use the action of t on x. Furthermore.V*) (forq #4 p). It is welldefined as we noted as an ideal of T.) the residue fieldof m.t*y) for all t. and then in termsof the Peterssoninnerproductof f with itself.1). The following account(whichdoes not requirethe CM hypothesis)is adapted from[Hi2]and we referthereformoredetails. We assume here that k is the residuefieldof ( and that it is chosento containkm.(YO)*)2. where(9 = Qf. in Chapter2.42)).
Z) ft1(N) Of) ?Tl(N)?of mlf~m T ~ T1N2  T2. Of) via its action on Of.> is givenby r(q2) (unit). Actuallythis is not essentialas we could replace Of by any ringof integerscontainingit.19) wherewC is definedas in (2. If f = Eanqn let fP = Eanqn. Furthermore det(bi. Here complexconjugationacts on H1(Xi(N). H1(Xi(N). Then {If.4). Lf X LfP ReplacingOf (and the Ofmodules)bythelocalizationofOf at p (ifnecessary) we can assume that Lf and Lfp are freeof rank 2 and directsummandsas Ofmodulesof the respectivecohomologygroups. fP} forma basis . fPI fPdz.considera modifiedpairing( .6j) forsome padic unit c (in Of).. H (X1(N). Thus (4.e. Then fPis again a newformand we define of Lf.62 be a basis of Lf. Of) [pf].62 is a basis of Lfp = Lf.1. (One can check this.) Then the pairing(.18) Of. C) HN).y) = (x. ) induces anotherby restriction (. y and Hecke operatorst.6j) = det(6i. This is because wC(LfP) = Lf and wC(Lf) = Lfp. f(z)dz. ty) forall x..534 ANDREW WILES as the action induced by t* E T1(N) on H1(Jl(N). Ej) is an elementof Of (or its localizationat p) whose image in Of. Then also 61. Let 61.w 6j) = cdet(6i. and let Lf = H1 (X1 (N). Similarly{If.18) can be viewed (aftertensoringwith Of. ) definedby (x. 6) we observethat f and fP can be C) via viewedas elementsofH1 (X1(N). Of Let pf be the minimalprimeof T1 (N) 0 Of associated to f (i. We can thenverifythat (6. Then (tx. the kernelof T1(N) 0 Of .): (4.19)) as a perfectpairingof Tmodulesand so this servesto computeir(iq2) as explainedearlier(the square comingfromthe fact that we have a rank 2 module). and modifying it as in (4. 6) :=det(bi.Of givenby t10 f H* /ctt(f) wheretf = ct(f)f). y) = (x. using the explicit bases described below.Of) H'(Xi(N). for example.by Theorem2. To givea moreusefulexpressionfor(6. To see this. fP} forma basis forLf Oof C.) Moreover. (Note here that Of = OfP LfP by replacingf by fP in the definition as these ringsare the integersof fieldswhichare eithertotallyreal or CM by a resultof Shimura. way) (4.
C2in Hl(Xi(N). f2} = {f. W2 = (f. Lettinguf be a generator we have the followingformulaof Hida: PROPOSITION 4.): (W. Now (w.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 535 forLfp ?Of C. By Poincare duality there exist classes C1. C2) and with oftheOfmodule{det (fc fi)} {fi. To computedet(C) we considerintegralsoverclasses in H1 (Xi(N). Hence detC generatesthe same Ofmodule as is generatedby {det (fc f)} forall such choicesof classes (Cl. and since svois a character. In additionwe wish to assume that Po is ordinaryand detPoI p = w. where = for any o representingthe nontrivial coset of Ko(aTlb6) KO'a(b) Gal(L/Q)/ Gal(L/L). In particularp splitsin L. f)2/Uf f x (unit in Of. These conditionsimplythat.6) det(CC). (iii) p((a)) = a fora _1 (f) forsome integralideal f primeto p. fI}. fP) and write W1= C6 and W2= C6 withC E M2(C). Let Mo denote the maximal abelian extensionof L whichis unramifiedoutside p. We assume that Po is irreducible. (ii) fppfactorsthroughan abelian extensionisomorphicto Zp e T withT of finiteorderprimeto p. Now we restrictto the case where po = IndQ sio for some imaginary quadratic fieldL whichis unramifiedat p and some kXvaluedcharacterso of Gal(L/L).4..i. To obtain p it is necessaryfirstto define pp. c) is givenexplicitlyin termsofthe (nonnormalized) Peterssoninner product(. f)2 where(f. soi(a) = a1 mod p on U.c') = 4(f.A). after possible replacement of svo by Ivoa Here the U. We assume now that p is fixedand so chosen to satisfythis congruence. We choose a (primitive)grossencharacterp on L togetherwith an emto the primep above p such that the induced beddingQ c* Qp corresponding padic characterfpphas the properties: (i) ppmodp = so (p = maximalideal of Qp). are the unitsofL. Our choice of introducedbelowhas conductorprime so willimplythat the grossencharacter top. Let 0: Gal(Mx/L) + QpX be any characterwhichfactorsthrougha Zpextensionand induces the . Of) such that det(f 60) is a unit in Of. that so 5$ ". f) = fs/r1(N)ffdxdy.e. inducesa homomorphism on U. Define the vectorswi = (ffP)... Of). 7r(iR2)= (f.ifp is a prime of L above p.the restriction of svoto an inertiagroupI.f2 = fP we set (WIa) :=det((fi. Then writingfi = If.If)) = (6..
Then Q = u Q for some padic unit in FX.and pick a grossencharacter p such that ((p)p = (np.p = 'coO. To see thisone checksthat thepadic Galois representations associatedto the Tate moduleson each side are equivalent to (Ind . homomorphism l(p)}.Th.1 forthe representation on Af. Of. Let WE of E/OF+<( ) Let Q be a basis forthe OLmodule of be a Neron differential periods of WE. Note that our choice of p here is not necessarilyintendedto be the same as in Section 1.3)].) Over F+ this ellipticcurvehas onlythe ppower isogeniesofthe form?pm form E Z.. (I t N) and o)f((Ti)= 0 if1 is inert in L (1 t N). fg) are equal (cf. Lemma 3]). The curveE/F is the extension of scalars of a unique ellipticcurveE/F+ whereF+ is the real subfieldof F of index 2. the localizationof OF+ at p. be the conductorof p and let F be the ray class fieldof conductor .536 ANDREW WILES a  .f = fgsis a newform.a1 on U. (See [Shl. the discussionafterTheorem2.op)Ozp Kf. a maximal ideal m of T1 (N) and a homomorphism ) .) * . p is associatedto a cusp formfAlin such a way that the LseriesL(s. Let po = kerf f:T1 (N) + Of and let Af = Ji (N)/poJ1 (N) be the abelian varietyassociatedto f by Shimura. 1]). (5.unique up to isomorphism. withgood reductionat the primesabove p.4.ofrankone overOL and withassociatedgrossencharacter ipo NF/L. cf./L) whereUp.pwhereKf.OverF+ thereis an isogeny Af/F+ (E/F+ )d whered = [Of: Z] (see [Sh4. Over F+ thesetwosubgroupsare interchanged by complexconjugation. the choiceof grossencharacter Now let f. withcomplexmultiplication by OL and periodlatticefree.Thus the integerN = condf = IAL/QINormL/Q(condcp) is primeto p and thereis a homomorphism 'Of: Ti(N)4?Rf C Of C 0cp satisfying of (Tl) = (p(c)+ (P(C)if1 = ccin L. To see thisobservethat F is unramified at p and po is ordinaryso that the only isogeniesof degreep over F are the ones that correspondto divisionby kerp and kerp' wherepp' = (p) in L. (One compares trace(Frob?) in the two representations for? t Np and ? split completelyin F+. Using the embeddingof Q in Qp chosen above we get a prime A of Of above p.1= {u E Up:u Then set '. Accordingto a theoremofHecke. such that the associated representationpf. Also of ((l(l)) = (p((l))?o(l) where / is the quadraticcharacter associated to L.p= Of 0 Qp and where(pr:Gal(F/F) Zx p is the padic characterassociated to and restrictedto F. Then overF thereis an ellipticcurve. [Sh4.Areduces to Tl(N).pomodA. * Gal(M.(p). cp) and L(s. Moreoversince p was assumed primitive.We let E/O9F+ (p) denote a Weierstrassmodel over OF+.whichgives the assertion.
OM). Z) 0 O9M. We note that a (on homologyas in (4.(p) . We claim now that c E OM. Let WE be a Neron differential of E/OF+(p). Z) 0 aOM. Let M be the compositeof F+ and the normal closureof Kf viewedin C.Q11(N) Q3 Hom(OM.(p)  Hi (E/C. We considerthe map (4. Now let us writeO1 for J1 (N)101) N)1~0 6 ) .21) Ja*(wE)= Y E M and JWE a(y) forany class y e Hi(Xi(N)/C. Even if 7r'is not surjectivewe claim that the image of 7r'always has the formHi(EIC.20)) also comes froma map of abelian varietiesa: J1(N)/F+ 'z OM E/F+ ?Z OM althoughwe have not used this to definea**. Extendingscalars to M we can write ir*WE = a. Now definea* on QE bya* = alAiti o r* where*QE/C QJ1(N)/C is the map induced by 7rand ti has the usual action on QJ1(N)C Then a*(WE) = CWffor some c (4. Z) 0) OM. By suitablychoosing7rwe can assume n=l that aid =$0.10 OM and then mapping the image in = QJ1(N)/M )/c~lecv2 82 Hom~c)M.(p) forsome a E OM* This is because tensoredwith Zp 7r'can be viewedas a Gal(Q/F+)equivariant map ofpadic Tatemodules.and the onlyppowerisogenieson E/F+ have the form ?pm forsome m E Z. It followsthat we can factor7r'as (1 0 a) o a forsome othersurjectivea a: Hi(Xi(N)/C.20) 7r:Hi (Xi (N)/C. We can computea*(WE) by considering a**(WE 01) = .(p). Z) 0 O9M. Z) 0 Om + H (E/C.C) 00 wherewfu = E an(fo)qfln foreach a.(p). Then thereexist Ai E OM and ti E T1(N) such that Z Aiti7r*WE for some = ClWf Cl E M.Ztlr* 0 a'Ai on QE0F+ 0 OM to QJ1(N)/F+ Q0 OF+ OM Then there are isomorphisms 9F+. now allowinga to be in OM. E aawfa E M aEHom(Kf .MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 537 Now pick a nonconstantmap 7r:X1(N) IF+ +EIF+ whichfactorsthroughAf/F+. 8f Q1 ii(N)1.(p) givenby 7r'= E Ai(7ro i).
not necessarilydistinct. (ft2'fib =16 3 2 I (1 27 X) LN(1.or fora ramifiedprimeq whichdoes not divide the conductorof Ap. f. fP) ofthe form(1.aq q8) we get also an Euler factorin D(s. fP) = E Ian 2ns iff n=1 = (+1)] Res8=2D(s.ANDREW WILES 538 where6 is the different of M/Q.fP) = LN(S. We now give an expressionfor (f. Actuallyit is moreconvenient 7r(?7) .Similaridentifications occur forE in place of Ji(N).fP) .(1/(padic integer)). f. 0k)(QN(s  1)/(QN(2s  2) by usingLemma 1 of [Sh3]. of Proof. Uf = 4 Q2. f. This was firstobservedby Shimura [Sh2] althoughthe preciseformwe want was givenby Hida. The firstisomorphismcan be describedas follows.(5. is the set of primesq I N such thatq = qq' withq t condW and q. 0 OM it is enoughto observethat by So to checkthat a* (WE 0 1) E Q1 a comesfroma homomorphism its construction J1(N)/01 0 Om k E1010 OM. One beginswith a formulaof Peterssonthat foran eigenform weight2 on F1(N) says (f. Then ti(w)(y)= e(y)*w. One checks n=1 that. E anqn (cf. It followsthat we can comparethe periodsof f and of WE. b is the quadraticcharacterassociatedto L. PROPOSITION 4. Puttingtogetherthe propositionsofthissectionwe nowhave a formulafor as definedat the beginningofthissection.. [Hi3. f. f.q' primesofL.Let e(y):J1(N) + J1(N) 0 OpmforyE OM be themap x  >x 0 'y.4) } whereX is the characterof figand X its restrictionto L. p2k)LN(S  1. DN(S. ) denotesthattheEuler factorsforprimesdividingN have been LN( removed. removingthe Euler factorsat primesdividingN. When f = fl this can only happen fora split primeq whereq' divides the conductorof p but q does not.6.qaq qq8).5. For fP we use the fact that flyfPdz = fCYf dz wherec is the OMlinear map on homologycomingfromcomplexconjugationon the curve.ql8) since I9 (q)12 = q.) in termsof the Lfunctionof p. For each Euler factorof f at a q I N of the form (1.f) = (47)2 F (2) (1)7r[SL2(Z): Ii(N) whereD(s. We deduce: PROPOSITION 4.In this case we get a term(1 . S.13)]).
We also need to give a definition of TV whereD = (ord. q) whereE is the set of primesdividingM.) As in Chapter2. (M)m.24) withD = (Se. To verifythis one checksthat TV is reduced or alternativelyone can apply the methodof Remark2.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 539 to give a formulafor 7r(?JM).22) is provedas in Chapter2. 0. To see that Up is in the image of Rv we use that it is the eigenvalueof Frobp on the unique unramifiedquotientwhichis freeof rankone in the representation p describedafterthe corollariesto Theorem2.4 of [Wil]).(9 correspondsto f' and the adjointis takenwithrespect W(km1 ) to perfectpairingsof T1 and (9 with themselvesas 0modules. . 0( 0. Theorem 2.11. The existenceof the map W(km1. is preciselythe set of primesq forwhichnq = 1 in the notationof Chapter2. For the surjectivity.and it followsthenthat it is in the imageof RV. We deduce that E T. = T1 (M)ml 0 (9 . ?3. 0).A. Here we are consideringa slightlymore generalsituationthan that in Chapter 2. ) and po is induced froma characterof Q(V/=3). Uq E m ifq I M (q $ p) k over ko takingUp ap and thereis an embedding(whichwe fix) km1 ) whereap is the unit eigenvalueof Frobp in pfLA.) in (4.8.31). Property(ii) of fp ensuresthat M is as in (2.1. the firstone assumedTibilinear.an invariantdefinedin the same way but with 0 (9 replacingTl(N)m 0 (9 where M = pMo with p t MO Ti(M)ml and M/N is of the form lb IJ q2. q f N qI qESW M0 Here ml is definedby the requirements that Pm1= po. note that foreach q I M (with q $ p) Uq is zero in TV as Uq E m1 foreach such q so that we can apply Remark 2. ?3 as we are allowingpo to be inducedfroma characterof Q(i/=3). the W(kmi)subalgebraof T1(M)mi generatedby the traces. ?3. Now we take M=Np fJq. In this special case we defineTD to be T. ?3 thereis a canonicalmap (4.22) RV 4 TVZ Ti(M)ml 0 0 W(km1 ) whichis surjectiveby the argumentsin the proofof Proposition2. For this we use (2. (Note that S. A.15.1 (cf. So if f is the eigenform obtained fromf by 'removingthe Euler factors'at q I (M/N) (q $ p) and removingthe nonunitEuler factorat p we have AM = *(1) where7w: T.
4.ANDREW WILES 540 The argumentsin the proofof Theorem2.unramified p ~ po whenviewed as representations to GL2((Fp). FI) = LN(2. (i) detpo 'p =W. and 4.5. (ii) po is ordinary.0.23) lr(r7M)is divisiblebyQ2LN 2.E. For any po as in the theoremsupposethat p: Gal(Q/Q) ) GL2(0) is a continuousrepresentationwithvalues in the ring of integersof a local outsidea finiteset of primes.17 show that ir(.3.4. we have that X) (4. to provethe inequality Proof. COROLLARY. qIN We deduce: THEOREM #(O/r(?JM))= #Hs 4.1) is an irreduciblerepresentation of odd determinantsuch thatpo = Ind? so for a characterso of an at p.18 and at q it comesfromthe argumentofProposition2. ?3 it is sufficient > #((9/lr(?JM)) #HSe(Qr/Q7 V) as the oppositeone is immediate. As explainedin Chapter2. V).12 but with H = H' = 1. CombiningthiswithPropositions4. Since LN(2.satisfying field.6. v) = LN(2.A\.0) such thatpo is of typeVDwith = Se or ord. Assume also imaginaryquadraticextensionL of Q whichis unramified that: THEOREM 4.Tvz and TD is a completeintersection. Suppose thatpo as in (1. We now deduce the main theoremin the CM case using the methodof Theorem2. 92X) termis real by Proposition4.23) and in the expressionforthe upper L bound of # Hse(Q/Q.(p)) 171 (q  1) qESFp The factorat p is givenby whereap is the unit eigenvalueof Frobp in Pf. remark2.8. Thenfor every7D= (. Rv . Supposefurtherthat: .6) it suffices (note that the righthand to pair up the Euler factorsat q forq I N in (4.7.M) is divisibleby ir(r/)(a2. () (p)) 171 (q 1).For thisit sufficesto compare (4.23) withProposition4.17.
3]). Howeverin the crucialcase wherethe image in PGL2(C) is S4. Suppose furtherthatdetp is odd.1 (LanglandsTunnell). Chapter 5 In this chapterwe provethe main resultsabout ellipticcurvesand espeassociated cially show how to removethe hypothesisthat the representation to the 3divisionpointsshould be irreducible.I) withg some newform ?5. THEOREM 5. [Se.mod gLforsome pair (g.This was subsequentlyremoved by Tunnellin [Tu]. po . Suppose thenthat po: Gal(Q/Q)  GL2(F3) is an irreduciblerepresentationof odd determinant. Suppose that p: Gal(Q/Q) whose image is finiteand GL2(C) is a continuousirreduciblerepresentation solvable. = Xek withX offiniteorder. ofGL2(F3) ifnecessarywe can assume By composingi withan automorphism that i induces the identityon reductionmod (1 + vi2).that this representationis modular in the sense that over F3. using the theorem. Langlands actually proved in [La] a much more general result without restrictionon the determinantor the numberfield(whichin our case is Q). So if we consider . extendingearlierresultsof Hecke in the case wherethe projectiveimage is dihedral.LASTTHEOREM MODULAR ELLIPTICCURVESAND FERMAT'S (i) P D (ii) detp 541 is ordinary.pg. Application to elliptic curves The key resultused is the followingtheoremof Langlands and Tunnell. We now show. There existsa representation i: GL2(F3) * GL2 (Z [VZ]) c GL2(C).p) up to finitelymanyEuler factors. ofweight2 (cf. Thenp is associatedto a modularformof weightk.j.k > 2. Then thereexists a weightone newformf such thatL(s. the resultwas onlyobtainedwithan additionalhypothesis.f) = L(s.
whereE1.we can take E = 6 El.3 on E[3] is irreducible. Now picka modularformE ofweightone such that E 1(3). Then fE Lemma 6.3 since the only nontrivialabelian extensionof outside5 and oforderprimeto 5 is Q((5) whichis abelian Q (Vs) unramified it is enoughto checkthat thereare no ellipticcurves over Q. By Serre'sisogeny theorem. to Q(VA/=).5 was modularwe could nowprovethe theoremin the same way we did knowingthat PE. pp.u) forsome prime1Iabove (1 + j/2).cf. As the semistablehypothesis impliesthat all the inertiagroupsoutside 3 in the splittingfieldof Po have outside orderdividing3 this means that the splittingfieldof Po is unramified outside3 3.. Then the pair (g. So Po itselfwouldfactorthroughan abelian extension of Q and this is a contradictionas Po is assumed odd and irreducible. in the deformation representations THEOREM 5. finda newform lie in Z [VA/]. We nowshowhowin studyingellipticcurvesour restriction theorycan be circumvented. However.u (compatiblewithps'). Then we claim that the representationPE.5 is an inducedrepresentation overQ(v/5) and E is semistable .and we replace (9'. restriction wouldbe abelian of orderprimeto 3.5on the 5divisionpointsis irreducible.If we knewthat E. Suppose that E is a semistableelliptic curve over Q.u) satisfiesour fora suitablechoiceof . E forwhichPE.3 was modularonce we observethat PE. eu') by (g.E is also modular(in the sense ofbeinga factorof the Jacobianof a modularcurve). Alternatively.11]) we can findan eigenform g' ofweight2 withthesame eigenvalues as f modulo a primepu'above (1 + X/=2).5 restrictedto followsa similar Gal(Q/Q(x/5)) is absolutelyirreducible.ANDREW WILES 542 whichis i 0PO: Gal(Q/Q) + GL2(C) we obtain an irreduciblerepresentation easily seen to be odd and whose image is solvable.Q(V/Z3) has no nontrivialabelian extensionsunramified and oforderprimeto 3. 7980]. requirements We can apply this to an ellipticcurve E definedover Q by considering to irreducible E[3].2 (provedat the end of Chapter3). Proof. Applyingthe theoremwe Its eigenvalues f ofweightone associatedto thisrepresentation.This irreducibility argumentto the one for E.3 theimageofthe restricted to Gal(Q/Q (vZ/=)) werenotabsolutelyirreducible. Then if Po = PE.3 is then modularby Theorem0.3 is reducible. There is a newformg of weight2 whichhas the same eigenvaluesas g' foralmostall T1's. For example. Assume firstthat the representationE. All semistableellipticcurvesoverQ are modular. So assume now that PE. [BiKu.x is the Eisensteinserieswith Mellintransform givenby ((s) ((s. So Po restrictedto Gal(Q/Q(VE/=)) is absolutelyirreducibleand PE. X) forX the quadraticcharacterassociated f mod3 and using the DeligneSerrelemma ([DS.2..This is because Xo(15) (Q) has only fourrationalpointsbesides the cusps and these correspondto nonsemistablecurveswhichin any case are modular.
[CF. This curve C is smoothas X(p)lQ = X(5)/Q is smooth.Then E is givenby a quadratic twistof E(jE) and so aftera changeof functionsof the form92(i) F u2g2(j). 3.5(Iq) I 5.cf.For.5 ID5(in particularit is inducedfroma characterofthe unramified quadratic extensionof Q5 whose restrictionto inertiais the fundamentalcharacterof level 2) and in the ordinarycase it is straightforward. t) E Q (t) [x] of degree> 1 and we need to ensurethat formany values to in Q. AutX(5)/L) givenby PE.5.) So finallywe pick any to E Q whichis pladicallyclose to t1 and also 5adicallyclose to the original value of t givingE. Prop. This can be checkedin the supersingularcase using the descriptionof PE.to ensurecondition(i) holds.MODULAR ELLIPTIC CURVES AND FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 543 at 5. Consider the twistedformX(p)lQ of X(5)/Q definedas follows. A rationalpointon C (necessarilynoncuspidal)correspondsto an elliptic curveE' overQ withan isomorphism E'[5] .But this correspondsto E' being the image of a rationalpoint on an irreduciblecoveringof C of degree 4.Then we pick a prime P1 $ 5 such that f(x.3 is irreducibleand (ii) E' (or a quadratictwist)has semistablereductionat 5.2.3 is reducible. t1) has no rootmod P1.E[5] as Galois modules(cf. The curveE' (or a quadratic twist)willthensatisfyall thepropertiesneededto applyTheorem0. It has genus zero since the same is trueof the irreduciblecomponentsof X(5)Q. ex. To see this.92(j)x . to) has no rational solution. VI. This last conditionensuresthat E' (corresponding to to) or a quadratic twisthas semistablereductionat 5. Let Q(t) be the functionfieldof C. 6. We claim that we can choose such a point with the two propertiesthat (i) the Galois representation PE'. 1728.5 To picka rationalpointon C satisfying (i) and (ii) we use the Hilbertirreducibilitytheorem. Hilbert's theoremensures that thereexists a t1 such that f(x. ti) is irreducible.) So E' will be modularand henceso too will PE'. We have therefore an irreduciblepolynomial f(x. we can finda familyE(j): y2 = X3. p. Then E definesa rationalpoint on X(p)/Q and hence also of an irreduciblecomponentof it whichwe denote C.observethat since JE $A0.2. Then forj' E Q close enough5adicallyto jE  .93(j) with rationalfunctions92(ij.we onlyhave to eliminate the possibilitythat the image ofPE'. (This is easilyachievedusingthe Cebotarev densitytheorem.5: Gal(L/Q) GL2(Z/5Z) C Aut X(5)/L whereL denotesthe of splittingfield PE. 93(j) whichare finiteat jE and withthejinvariantof E(jo) equal to jo wheneverthegi(jo) are finite. [DR. Let X(5)/Q be the (geometrically disconnected)curvewhose noncuspidalpoints classifyellipticcurveswithfulllevel 5 structureand let the twistedcurvebe definedby the cohomologyclass (even homomorphism) in H1(Gal(L/Q). (For the primesq : 5 we just use the factthat E' is semistableat q ==> # E. 362]. 93(j) F U3g3(j) with u E Qx we can assume that E(jE) = E and that the equationE(jE) is minimalat 5. f(x.2]).
544
ANDREW WILES
theequationE(j') is stillminimaland semistableat 5, sincea criterionforthis,
foran integralmodel,is that eitherord5(A(E(j'))) = 0 or ord5(c4(E(j'))) = 0.
So up to a quadratictwistE' is also semistable.
This kindof argumentcan be applied moregenerally.
THEOREM 5.3. Suppose thatE is an ellipticcurvedefinedover Q with
thefollowingproperties:
(i) E has good or multiplicative
reductionat 3, 5,
(ii) For p = 3,5 and foranyprimeq 1 modp either1E,pIDq is reducible
overF orPEIpIIq is irreducibleoverFP.
Then E is modular.
Proof. The main point to be checkedis that one can carryover condition (ii) to the new curveE'. For this we use that forany odd primep q$
A
PEXpIDq
IIq is absolutelyreducible
is absolutelyirreducibleand EXP
and 3 t #PE)p(Iq)
E acquiresgood reductionoveran abelian 2powerextensionof
Qqnrbut not overan abelian extensionof Qq.
Suppose thenthat q _1(3) and that E' does not satisfycondition(ii) at
q (forp = 3). Then we claim that also 3 t #PE',3(Iq). For otherwisePEj,3(Iq)
has its normalizerin GL2(F3) containedin a Borel, whence El,3(Dq) would
be reduciblewhichcontradictsour hypothesis.So usingthe above equivalence
we deduce,by passingvia E',5 PE,5, that E also does not satisfyhypothesis
(ii) at p = 3.
We also need to ensurethat PE',3 is absolutelyirreducibleover Q(VW3).
This we can do by observingthatthepropertythattheimageof E',3 lies in the
Sylow2subgroupof GL2(F3) impliesthat E' is the image of a rationalpoint
on a certainirreduciblecoveringof C of nontrivialdegree.We can thenargue
in the same way we did in the previoustheoremto eliminatethe possibility
that E',3 was reducible,this timeusingtwo separatecoveringsto ensurethat
the image of E',3 is neitherreduciblenor containedin a Sylow2subgroup.
Finally one also has to show that if both PE,5 is reducibleand PE,3 is
induced froma characterof Q (v/Z3) then E is modular. (The case where
both were reduciblehas already been considered.) Taylor has pointed out
both these conditionsare classifiedby the noncuspidal
that curvessatisfying
rationalpointson a modularcurve isomorphicto Xo(45)/Wg, and this is an
ellipticcurve isogenousto Xo(15) with rank zero over Q. The noncuspidal
rationalpointscorrespondto modularellipticcurvesof conductor338.
El
ELLIPTIC
MODULAR
CURVES
AND
FERMAT'S
LAST THEOREM
545
Appendix
Gorenstein rings and local complete intersections
PROPOSITION 1. Suppose that0 is a completediscretevaluationring
and thatp: S + T is a suriectivelocal0algebra homomorphism
betweencomplete local Noetherian0algebras. SupposefurtherthatPT is a prime ideal of
'
0 and let Ps = W1(PT). Assume that
T such that T/PT
(i) T 
O(X1,
...
,Xr1/(fi,
..
,fru)
wherer is thesize of a minimalset of
0generatorsofPT/PT,
PT/P2 and thattheseare finitely
ps/p2
(ii) o inducesan isomorphism
generated0modules whosefreepart has ranku.
Then o is an isomorphism.
Proof. First we considerthe case whereu = 0. We may assume that the
generators x1,. . .,Xr lie in PT by subtracting their residues in T/PT
(ii) we may also write
S

(9JX1,.
*
Xrll(gl,*
) 0. By
v9,)
with s > r (by allowingrepetitionsif necessary)and Ps generatedby the
Writing fi
images of {x1,.. .,Xr}. Let p = (X1,... ,Xr) in 0Jx1,. .xr]
Eaijxj mod p2 withaij E 0, we see that the Fittingideal as an 0module of
PT/PT is givenby
F (PT/Pp) = det(aij) E 0
and that this is nonzeroby the hypothesisthat u = 0. Similarly,if each
gi =Ebijxj modp2, then
Fo(ps/p2) = {det(bij): i E I, #I=r,
I C {1, ...,
By (ii) again we see that det(aij) = det(bij) as ideals of 0 forsome choice Io
we may assume that Io = {1, . , r} Then each gi
of I. Afterrenumbering
(i = 1,... ,r) can be written gi = Erijfi for some rij E 0x1,.. .,Xr]J and we
have
det(bij) _ det(rij) det(aij) mod p.
Hence det(rij) is a unit,whence(rij) is an invertiblematrix.Thus the fi's can
be expressedin termsof the gi's and so S _T.
We can extendthisto the case u $&0 by pickingX1,.. , Xru so that they
generate(pT/p2)tors. Then we can writeeach fi = EruaIj x modp2 and
likewiseforthe gi's. The argumentis now just as beforebut applied to the
L
Fittingideals of (pT/p2)tors.
546
ANDREW WILES
For the next propositionwe continueto assume that 0 is a complete
discretevaluationring.Let T be a local 0algebra whichas a moduleis finite
and freeover (9. In addition,we assume the existenceof an isomorphismof
TmodulesT 0 Homr(T, 0). We call a local 0algebra whichis finiteand
freeand satisfiesthis extra conditiona Gorenstein0algebra (cf. ?5 of [Til]).
Now suppose that p is a primeideal of T such that T/p _X.
Let o3:T  Tlp  0 be the naturalmap and definea principalideal of T
by
(AT) = C3(1))
where 3: ( ) T is the adjoint of /3with respectto perfect0pairings on 0
and T, and wherethe pairingof T with itselfis Tbilinear. (By a perfect
pairingon a free0module M of finiterankwe mean a pairingM x M ( 0
suchthat boththe inducedmaps M ) Homo(M, 0) are isomorphisms.When
M = T we are thusrequiringthat thisbe an isomorphism
ofTmodulesalso.)
as an
The ideal (AT) is independentof the pairings.Also T/TT is torsionfree
0module, as can be seen by applyingHom ( , 0) to the sequence
0 +
p T
+
0 +0,
to obtain a homomorphism
T/T/T
Hom(p,0). This also showsthat (OT)
Annp.
If we let l(M) denotethe lengthof an 0module M, then
=
I (P/P ) > 1(0/t)
(wherewe write 7Tfor/3(qT)) because p is a faithfulT/IqTmodule.(For a
briefaccount of the relevantpropertiesof Fittingideals see the appendix to
[MW1].) Indeed, writingFR(M) forthe Fittingideal of M as an Rmodule,
we have
FT/1T (P) = 0 X FT(P) C (r/T)E FT/p,(P/P2)C (AT)
and we then use the fact that the lengthof an 0module M is equal to the
lengthof 09/FO(M) as 0 is a discretevaluationring. In particularwhenp/p2
is a torsion0modulethen77T $ 0.
We need a criterionfora Gorenstein0algebra to be a completeintersection. We will say that a local 0algebra S which is finiteand freeover
0 is a complete intersectionover 0 if there is an 0algebra isomorphism
S _ Oj[xi,.* ., Xrj/(fi
*... , fr) forsome r. Such a ringis necessarilya Gorenstein 0algebra and {fi, .. , fir}is necessarilya regularsequence. That (i) =X
(ii) in the followingpropositionis due to Tate (see A.3, conclusion4, in the
appendix in [M Ro].)
PROPOSITION 2. Assume that0 is a completediscretevaluationrmng
and thatT is a local Gorenstein0algebra whichis finiteand freeover0 and
Then thefollowingtwo conditionsare equivalent: (i) T is a completeintersectionover0. ?6]) but here is an argumentsuggestedby N. PT/P2 wherePs = r1 (PT). We thenmodifygi... We can assume also that N is chosengreaterthan Then set the total degree of gi for each i. Then we have a sequence of maps. . In particularthe maximal 0torsionsubmoduleof S is zero since it is also a finitelengthSsubmoduleof S. .Pick isomorphisms T _Homo(T.. 0) as Tmodules and Smodules. . As (as) = (NT) in C. Now 0/(is) . . The existenceof such an S seems to be well known (cf.. [Ti2. S over0 (so Proof. . f8)2and set (gj = gi + a1.. XXr]/(g1 . (). since l(01/(7s)) = l(ps/p2) by (i) X.3 0..L)= (ft7) in O and (.. (ii) l(PT/PT) = 1(0//7T)as 0modules. . it follows that also T .. ...0/(ft). Katz and H.3 denote the adjointswithrespectto these isomorphisms: oA T S T20.(90X1 X* X ...f) (Xi.p2) = (9gi... S .. xjv can be written in T as a polynomial hi(Xi . conclusion1 of TheoremA. we have that t is a unitmodPT and hencethat a o & is an isomorphism.. in which& and .. gr such that gi = Eaijf.fs)).hi(xi. Set ai = (x' . We can pick 91. ..3 completeintersections of [M Ro].Homo(S. .. withaij E (9 and such that (fiI. with PT the image in T of p = Write T = 0[xi.. Xr).Xr]j/(fi.MODULAR ELLIPTIC AND CURVES FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM 547 thatPT is a prime ideal of T such thatT/PT _ 0 and PT/PT is a torsion 0module.. One checksthat & is a map of Smodules (T being givenan Saction via a) and in particularthat a o & is multiplicationby an elementt of T.cf. thereexistsan N such that for each i. igrp2). Xsr) of total degreeless than N... Now (.g9} is a regularsequenceand hencethat depth(S) = dim(S) = 1. X* X . .. pick a completeintersection assumedfiniteand flatover0) suchthat a: SET and suchthatps/p2 . Since T is finiteover0. respectively. g)..The existenceof the latter for over 0 is well known.(. gr by the additionofelements{&I} of (f. Then S is finiteoverX by construction and also ... .g dim(S) < 1 sincedim(S/A) = 0 where(A) is the maximalideal of 0. .. . gr = gr+ ar)..3 o a) o ( o a) = (vs) in (9. S = (9 X .xr]/(fl. f8.. (ii) and I(0/(ftr)) = l(PT/p2) by hypothesis. .It follows . It follows that {9g.x))2. Lenstra (independently). To provethat (ii) =X (i)... Since T is local and finite and free over 0 .
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