Sensors and Actuators A 177 (2012) 30–36

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Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/sna

Structural optimization of contact electrodes in microbial fuel cells for current
density enhancements
Shogo Inoue a,f,∗ , Erika A. Parra b,f , Adrienne Higa f , Yingqi Jiang f , Pengbo Wang c,f , Cullen R. Buie d,f ,
John D. Coates e , Liwei Lin f
a

Microdevice Research & Development Department, TAIYO YUDEN CO., LTD., Japan
Department of Organismic & Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, USA
c
College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, China
d
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
e
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California at Berkeley, USA
f
Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, USA
b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Available online 22 September 2011
Keywords:
Microbial fuel cell
Current density
Power density
Carbon nanotube
Geobacter sulfurreducens

a b s t r a c t
More than 200% current density enhancement in miniaturized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been successfully demonstrated by optimizing the contact electrode structure using micro and nano features. Two
fundamental issues are addressed in this work: (1) a methodology to enhance current/power density of
MFCs by changing micro and nano structural configurations of contact electrodes and (2) a study on the
effectiveness of charge transfer between living cells with organic nanowire-pili and micro/nano interfacial electrodes. This paper details the fabrication and characterization processes of miniaturized MFCs
with experimental results, and discusses the prospective power density of MFCs using micro/nano processes. Moreover, a hypothesis for the direct electron transport mechanism from living cells to electrodes
is experimentally corroborated. As such, this work represents a step toward higher energy conversion
efficiency as well as practical applications of MFCs.
© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Compact and highly efficient power sources are integral components for the completion of autonomous sensors and microsystems.
A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising candidate for electrical energy harvesting from ubiquitous organic wastes [1]. The
breakdown of organic substances to retrieve energy is a naturally
occurring process in nature and the possibility to extract electrical charges in the form of MFCs holds great potential in practical
applications such as implantable medical sensors and long-term
monitoring systems in remote locations.
Recently, ␮L-scale MFCs fabricated with MEMS technologies
were demonstrated using Geobacteraceae [2] and Shewanellaceae
[3] as the organic catalysts that break down reduced carbon
molecules during the metabolic process. Previously, our group has
also reported miniaturized MFCs which use baker’s yeasts [4,5]
and Geobacter sulfurreducens [6] as the bio-catalysts. A photosynthetic electrochemical cell has also been presented that harnesses
the subcellular thylakoid photosystems isolated from spinach cells

∗ Corresponding author at: 64, Nishiwaki, Ohkubo-cho, Akashi, Hyogo 674-8555,
Japan. Tel.: +81 78 937 1270; fax: +81 78 937 1271.
E-mail addresses: inoue-shogo@jty.yuden.co.jp, VZA04031@nifty.com (S. Inoue).
0924-4247/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.sna.2011.09.023

to convert light energy into electricity [7]. In general, electrons
were extracted during these biological processes to provide electricity. Electron mediators have been used to extract electrons and
protons from cells or sub-cellular components (to be referred to
as “sub-cell” hereafter) in engineering fuel cell systems. Electrons
are transported externally via a conducting electrode (anode), and
protons are transported through a proton-exchange-membrane
(PEM) and reduce the oxidant in the cathode compartment. The
efficiencies of these MFCs are low due to many loss mechanisms,
particularly during the electron transfer processes. Therefore, various efforts have been conducted to reduce the energy losses in
MFCs. One direction to improve the efficiencies is to modify the
electrode surfaces with nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes
(CNTs). It has been demonstrated that anode electrodes with CNTdoped polyaniline improved the MFC performance [8] and Pt loaded
CNTs electrodes increased the power density as high as 6-fold as
compared to graphite electrodes [9]. Carbon nanostructures on
stainless steel mesh anodes have been shown to increase the power
density of MFC by a factor of 60 [10] and CNT powder added to the
anode chamber have reduced the anodic resistance [11]. On the
other hand, power densities in MFCs are also dependent on the
absolute and relative size of their components. The anode to cathode surface area ratio can affect power output, where tripling the
surface area of the cathode increased power density by 22% [12].

of the flat reference surface area. Micro electrodes with (A) flat surfaces. Acetate) Fuel 31 e- O2 H+ H2O H+ Air (O2) Proton exchange membrane (PEM) Fig.6-␮mdeep channels were fabricated. Fig. These contact structures were used as the basic tools to investigate the current density enhancements and effectiveness of charge transfer between living cells with organic nanowire-pili and micro/nano interfacial electrodes. Therefore. 3. 1 shows the schematic diagram of the operation principle of a MFC. Fig. the active metalized areas for hole and channel patterns are calculated as 49% and 154%. These are possible approaches to reduce the loss of electron transfer by using micro. The basic operating principle of an MFC using Geobacter sulfurreducens as the bio-catalyst. Two kinds of silicon etching processes were used to make perpendicular and tapered sidewalls. the sidewalls were not completely covered. 2 illustrates the basic operation principle of the MFC by using G.5]. creating 8-␮m-deep holes with sidewalls perpendicular to the top surface. (C) channel.15] also studied and characterized the influences of sub-cell-to-electrode and cell-to-electrode contact structures.3 ␮m. including the channel sidewalls. sulfurreducens have a length of about 1 ␮m and a diameter of approximately 0. it has been also demonstrated that the surface area of both electrodes and the PEM in MFCs could affect power density [13]. For our experiments. Furthermore. 2. to be covered with metal to collect charges. four different kinds of modified cell-to-electrode contact structures were fabricated as 3. silicon substrates were etched. The channel-shape patterns were fabricated using an isotropic plasma etching process. making only the 2-␮m-wide gaps between the hole patterns active for collecting the charge during MFC operation. sulfurreducens was chosen in this work because their pili have shown to function like “organic nanowires” to directly transfer electrons to the electrodes [16–18]. The plasma etching process was conducted for 5 min using SF6 and O2 with a flow rate of 9:1 applying the RF power of 100 W. Micro electrodes Fig. respectively. Fabrication processes of microelectrodes with holes and channels. 3. Schematic diagram showing the operating principle of the microbial fuel cell. The final angle of the sidewalls was 55◦ . the surface area was measured by considering the cross-section of channels as triangles with 2 ␮m gaps as shown by red lines on the right of Fig. G. Since the metal deposition process was done by the evaporation of Au/Cr (400/200 nm). G. This paper details the structural optimization of contact electrodes with experimental characterization to demonstrate current density enhancements with quantitative data to provide design guidelines for future MFCs. 4a and b are SEM images of fabricated electrode structures with (a) the hole-pattern and (b) channel-pattern surfaces. respectively. After patterning photoresist. only the gap area between the hole-patterns was measured using the SEM image shown on the right of Fig. 2: (A) flat surface as a reference. 4b. The hole-shape patterns were made using DRIE processing. Cell-to-electrode contact structures affect the current/power density of the MFCs. to increase living sub-cell-to-electrode and cell-to-electrode contact areas. For the channel-shape patterns. this enabled the entire surface. (B) surfaces with 5 ␮m × 5 ␮m holes and (C) surfaces with 5-␮m-wide. Inoue et al. shown in Fig. 4 show a close-up of the electrode surface. (B) surface with micro-holes perpendicularly etched into the substrate.1. Our previous work [14. For the hole-shape patterns. respectively. (C) surface with tapered micro-channels. and (D) vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. The right-hand images in Fig. The fabrication processes of micro electrodes with holes and channels are shown in Fig. and (D) vertically aligned CNTs (not drawn to scale). and to optimize the structural configurations of contact electrodes for current density enhancements. (B) hole.g. organic fuel such as acetate is fed into the system and microorganisms act as bio-catalysts to break down the organic matter. / Sensors and Actuators A 177 (2012) 30–36 e- e- Anode CO2 Cathode CO2 Metabolism H2O e- Bacterium Fuel (e. the dimensions of fabricated holes and channels are large enough to accommodate bacteria. 4a. 2. 3.S. Operation principle 3. The inset shows four different kinds of modified cell-to-electrode contact structures: (A) flat. In the anode compartment. . The active metalized areas for the hole and channel patterns are calculated. Consequently. Fabrication Fig. 1. Acetate (or other fuel) is fed into the anode chamber and bacteria are used to break down this fuel during metabolism to produce electrical charges.and nanostructured electrodes and to improve the power density of MFCs. Electrons generated during the metabolic process are transferred to the anode electrode via electron mediators [4. Fig. sulfurreducens as the catalyst.

MFC assembly Miniaturized MFCs were assembled as shown in Fig.3. Al and Fe layers of 10 nm and 5 nm. / Sensors and Actuators A 177 (2012) 30–36 Fig. After evaporating an 80-nm-thick molybdenum layer on a thermally oxidized silicon wafer. CNT electrode CNT electrodes have been constructed on top of silicon substrates with vertically aligned. Inoue et al. the anode and cathode chambers were filled with anolyte and catholyte. Vertically aligned CNT forests were selectively synthesized on molybdenum conductive layer. 7. (B) electrode with channel patterns. The catholyte consisted of potassium ferricyanide at high concentration (1 M) to minimize the probability of cathode . 4. and the anode had electrodes with one of the various micro/nano-structured surfaces. Afterwards. Reference MFC with flat electrodes Fig. In (A) and (B). 5e. Subsequently. In the CNT growth process. 3. A 25-␮m-thick PEM [20] was placed separating the electrodes in the middle of the device as shown and all components were sandwiched by using mechanical clips. the mixture of ethylene and hydrogen with a proportion of about 1:2. respectively. Results 4. 5a. 5. 5c. were deposited in Fig. CNT patterns were made within 3 mm × 3 mm area on flat molybdenum as illustrated in Fig. 4. 36-␮m-tall CNT forests. Fig. SEM images of fabricated micro electrodes: (A) electrodes with hole-shape patterns. the total effective electrical conducting area in the anode chamber was calculated to be 262% in comparison to the flat electrode area. 6a) and cross-sectional view (Fig. The fabrication process is shown in Fig. 5e. The 10-␮m-wide gaps are large enough to accommodate bacteria between CNT walls. The external surface area of the electrode with CNT walls was 460% with respect to the flat surface area. respectively. The furnace was first purged with hydrogen and then heated to 720 ◦ C in a hydrogen environment.32 S. 6b).1.5 was flowed for 10 min. Fabrication processes of CNT electrodes. The height of the CNT electrode was measured as 36 ␮m.2. 6 shows SEM images of fabricated CNT electrodes in the top view (Fig. the figure on the right is a higher magnification image of the electrode surface on the left. 36-␮m-tall with 10 ␮m gaps. because there are flat molybdenum areas surrounding the CNT patterns as shown in Fig. Both anode and cathode chambers were constructed by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and the volume of the chamber was 4 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm (40 ␮L). 5b and unwanted metals were removed by lift-off as shown in Fig. However. Fe acts as the catalyst for CNT growth. The anolyte consisted solely of anaerobic minimal media lacking carbon sources. Inlet and outlet tubes were embedded in the PDMS layer to supply aqueous solutions into the anode and cathode chambers. 3. a lithography process was conducted as shown in Fig. Fig. The external surface area of the electrode with CNT patterns was calculated by assuming CNT patterns as walls 10␮m-wide. 10-␮m-wide. The cathode used electrodes with flat surfaces. The size of the anode and cathode electrodes were 10 mm × 10 mm and both electrodes have a SiO2 ring structure to limit the active electrode area to 3 mm × 3 mm as shown. Before electrical measurements. 5 [19]. 5d shows the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to grow the CNTs. The total device thickness was about 5 mm.

sulfurreducens as the bio-catalysts (4. 8. sulfurreducens was inoculated to the anode chamber and the open circuit potential was stabilized. a polarization curve was acquired using a Gamry Reference 600 Potentiostat as shown in Fig.32 ␮W at 25 k-load.S. The lower Voc as compared to the values of 0. ferricyanide leakage through the PEM. sulfurreducens [25]. The open circuit voltage Voc and short circuit current Isc were measured as 390 mV and 6. 7. (left) Schematic diagram of the micro MFC where contact electrodes were built on a silicon chip of 10 mm × 10 mm. 6. 4.8 ␮A. respectively.8 V as reported in other MFCs [22.65–33 ␮W/cm2 ) [22]. G. The bacteria were then added to the anolyte just after initiating electrical measurements.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Current (µA) Fig. sulfurreducens by using mixed communities [24] and a specific strain of G. pausing at each resistance setting for 5 min. The maximum output power Pmax was calculated as 0. Since the current production can fluctuate due to metabolic conditions and environmental factors. MFCs with micro/nano electrodes To evaluate the performance enhancement of MFCs with different micro and nano structural configurations.2 Isc=6. the batch to batch variability was mitigated by V (A) Flat electrode A Pmax=0. the short circuit current was monitored in each fabricated MFC. respectively. This power density is reasonable compared with the previous ␮L-sized MFCs which also used G. much higher power density has been achieved in mL-scaled MFCs with G.23] could stem from oxygen penetrating through the PDMS. First. Inoue et al.6 ␮W/cm2 . corresponding to a power density of 3. sulfurreducens. High concentration of ferricyanide might erode and damage gold electrodes and lower concentration such as 50 mM might be more suitable for long-term operations. Recently.32 µW 0. which corresponds to a power density of 3.2. . was initially cultured using anaerobic minimal media in a PIPES buffer with 10 mM acetate and 40 mM fumarate as electron acceptors at 30 ◦ C. (right) A fully assembled MFC with a one-cent US coin for size comparison. Both the chambers were filled using a vacuum assisted process from outlet tubing to completely remove bubbles in the chambers [21]. Fig.1 0 0. / Sensors and Actuators A 177 (2012) 30–36 33 Fig. SEM images of vertically aligned CNT electrodes. The resistance between electrodes was lowered stepwise. After G. or pH shifts in either electrolyte within the ␮L chambers. 8.32 ␮W at 25 k-load. Measurement results of the current–voltage and current–power relationship from a MFC using a flat-reference electrode.4 MFC Cathode Anode Measurement circuit Voc=390 mV 300 0.46–0. 0. The bacterium. to about 190 ␮W/cm2 and 390 ␮W/cm2 .8 µA 100 Power (µW) 400 Voltage (mV) limited reactions. The peak power was 0.3 200 0. The inset shows the circuit connection in current–voltage measurements.6 ␮W/cm2 . the current-voltage (polarization) response of a reference MFC with flat electrodes was measured.

and hole-shape electrodes for comparison in parallel. The peak currents for (A) and (C) were 158 nA and 218 nA. respectively. such that the maximum short circuit current for (D) a CNT electrode versus (A) a flat-reference electrode was 205%. the current output by the CNT electrode is 247% more than the flat-reference electrode. However. the current production returns to its peak level. The enhancement of current density in MFCs and effectiveness of charge transfer between living cells with pili (G. The maximum short circuit current for the hole-shape electrode in configuration (B). sulfurreducens.3% Background current 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 Time (Hour) Fig. The peak currents for (A) and (D) were 349 nA and 714 nA. The peak currents for (A) and (B) were 1037 nA and 625 nA. the measurements of short circuit current from MFCs using the channel-shape and flat-shape electrodes were conducted as shown in Fig. Measurement results of short circuit current on (C) a channel-shape electrode. including their activities. probably due to the reactivity of the molybdenum on the electrodes as elemental Mo can oxidize with water as. the short circuit Fig. The condition of the cells. The anode and cathode electrodes for both MFCs had not used the SiO2 ring design as illustrated in Fig. Inoue et al. The peak current for the MFC using the hole-shape electrode occurred about 1 h later than the occurrence of the peak output current from the MFC using flat-reference electrode. the enhancement of current output by the CNT electrode versus a flat-reference electrode is 247%. 9). / Sensors and Actuators A 177 (2012) 30–36 1500 1000 (A) Flat electrode Current (nA) Current (nA) (A) Flat electrode (B) Hole-shape electrode 1000 (D) CNT electrode Bacteria injection 500 247% Bacteria 500 205% injection 60. (A) Flat electrode 100 10 Time (Hour) 4 6 8 10 Time (Hour) Fig. flat-surface MFC. The experiments measuring the output current versus time for the MFC operation using the hole-shape electrode were conducted concurrently as shown in Fig.3%. simultaneously running MFCs with different contact electrodes and a reference. to minimize experimental variations due to these factors. respectively. 10. In contrast to the MFC with hole-shape electrode (Fig. 7. If additional fuel such as acetate is supplied into the anode chamber. In this case. concentrations. The peak currents for electrode configurations (A) and (D) in Fig. simultaneous experiments on different electrode . the increase of output current from the hole-shape electrode was delayed for about 2 h. respectively.3% of the maximum short circuit current for the flat-reference electrode in configuration (A). sulfurreducens. The output current of the flat-shape electrode as the reference MFC rapidly increased after the injection of bacteria. 625 nA was 60. Roughly 4 h after the inoculation of G. Hence. the cathode electrodes of both MFCs and the anode electrode for the reference MFC had used flat-shape electrodes that were covered with molybdenum. If the background current of 100 nA is deducted from output current of both MFCs. such that the maximum short circuit current ratio for the CNT electrode configuration (D) against the flat-reference electrode configuration (A) was 205%. 10. The peak currents for electrode configurations (A) and (C) in Fig.15 V) 300 Current (nA) (C) Channel-shape electrode 200 Bacteria injection 138% 5. G. current production in both MFCs gradually decreased due to the lack of fuel for the bacteria. the peak output current occurred about the same time for both MFCs using channel-shape and flat-reference electrodes.34 S. 11. 9. 11. Measurement results of short circuit current of (D) a CNT electrode. 1037 nA. sulfurreducens) and micro/nano interfacial electrodes have been characterized by experimental measurements in this work. current production in both MFCs gradually decreased due to the lack of fuel for the bacteria. In a similar experiment. If the background current of 100 nA is deducted from the output current of both MFCs. such that the maximum short circuit current ratio for the channel-shape electrode configuration (C) against the flat-reference electrode configuration (A) was 138%. About 2 h after the inoculation of G. adhesion abilities to the substrate and other factors all affect the current generation capabilities. such that the ratio of maximum short circuit current for (B) a hole-shape electrode versus (A) a flat-reference electrode was 60. 11 were 349 nA and 714 nA. In this experiment. 9. Measurement results of short circuit current on (B) a hole-shape electrode. MoO2 (s) + 4H+ + 4e−  Mo(s) + 2H2 O (E o = −0. the enhancement of current outputs by the CNT electrode was obvious. Concurrent measurements on MFCs using CNT and the flatreference electrodes were also conducted as shown in Fig. Experimental results have shown that the background current was quite high (about 100 nA) as compared with the previous experiments on the hole-shape and channel-shape electrodes. respectively. current of both MFCs increased after the injections of bacteria with minimum delay. such that the maximum short circuit current for (C) a channel-shape electrode versus (A) a flat-reference electrode was 138%. sulfurreducens was simultaneously inoculated into anode chambers of both flat. 10 were 158 nA and 218 nA. respectively. Discussion 0 0 2 (1) However.

/ Sensors and Actuators A 177 (2012) 30–36 35 Normalized maximum short circuit current 3 (C) Channel 2 (B) Hole or op r P tio n (D) CNT deducted background current (D) CNT not deducted background current 1 (A) Flat electrode (Reference) 0 0 1 2 3 Normalized surface area Fig. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend. 11. Microbial fuel cell based on electrode-exoelectrogenic bacterial interface. however. pp. Parameswaran.6 ␮W/cm2 (the diameter of bacteria is 0. Carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite as anode material for microbial fuel cells. the toxicity of CNTs has not been observed probably because the run time was short (less than 10 h).3 ␮m). Qiao. It has been reported. The red circle for (D) CNT indicates the normalized maximum short circuit current without deducting the background current and the blue square for (D) CNT indicates the normalized maximum short circuit current after deducting the background current of 100 nA in the same way as Fig. H. the reader is referred to the web version of this article. An Innovative miniature microbial fuel cell fabricated using photolithography. pp. Lam. the peak currents being generated by the flat-electrode configuration (A) differed in our experiments likely due to the usage of cells under different culturing periods. 16 (2006) 2547–2553. D. IEEE MEMS Conference. Holmes. Nevertheless. in: Proc. [2] S. Fig. the result of the linear relationship supports the hypothesis that the main charge transfer mechanism is from bacteria attaching to the electrode surface to donate electrons. in: Proc. 2003. Zhao.R. The linear relationship supports the hypothesis that only bacteria attached to the electrode surface can donate electrons and this is likely the key mechanism of charge transfer. The project was partially supported by the Sustainable Products and Solutions Program at the University of California.E. C. G. Chu. cellto-electrode contact area of various MFCs. In this work. Chiao.M. This prospective power density is enough to for powering not only most autonomous microsystems. Rittmann. G. The data demonstrates a linear relationship between the current production and effective surface area of electrodes. E.3 ␮m).M. Li. Y. G.B. Qiu. Y. W. Berkeley and the University of California President’s Postdoctoral Fellowship (Cullen R. Chen. Acknowledgements This work was performed at the University of California. C. that CNTs have a cellular toxicity that could lead to proliferation inhibition and cell death [26. L. Power Sources 170 (2007) 79–84. [6] E. 2009. Y. Bao.I. This result suggests that the background current should be deducted for evaluating the enhanced current outputs. 6. 13. As no added electron mediator was added in the setup. [5] M. Chae. 383–386. Torres. The small discrepancy from 1 indicates the possible experimental variability in concurrent measurements. such as polyaniline [8]. Lin. Lin. CNT forests with larger gaps to accommodate a higher density of bacteria. A ␮L-scale micromachined microbial fuel cell having high power density. Buie). Lam. For longterm applications. and the value is close to 1 as expected. Chen. the blue square for (D) CNT nearly follows the linear relationship between the current and effective surface area. L. Liu. 31–34. Chip 11 (2011) 1110–1117. We estimate that the volumetric power density of MFCs using CNT forests with larger gaps could be as high as 12 mW/100 mm3 . K. X. Micromachined microbial and photosynthetic fuel cells. Lu. hence. if bacteria are fully filled into CNT forests with the dimension of 10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm as shown in Fig. Liu. Parra. Biosens. IEEE/ASME JMEMS 15 (2006) 1243–1250. Micromachined microbial fuel cells. Li. Lovley. . Yang. D. The red circle for (D) CNT indicates the normalized maximum short circuit current without deducting the background current and the blue square for (D) CNT indicates the normalized maximum short circuit current after deducting the background current of 100 nA. Lin. Berkeley during 2009–2010 when Shogo Inoue worked for FUJITSU LABORATORIES LTD. via size exclusion. R. Choi. J.R. Electrode-reducing microorganisms that harvest energy from marine sediments.B. Micromech. 13. Although the red circle for (D) CNT is slightly smaller than the expected value from the effective surface area of the electrode. In spite of these differences. S. [7] K.E. J. H.27]. The rest of the data follows the expected linear relationship between the current and effective surface area. Schematic of bacteria fully filled into a CNT forest with the dimension of 10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm. [3] Y. Lab. current ratios from the simultaneous experiments of different electrode configurations provide valuable insight. The spot (A) reflects the result of simultaneous measurement of two identical reference MFCs which have exactly same electrode surface area. Bao. 26 (2011) 2841–2846. P. Y.6 ␮W/cm2 in Fig. [8] Y. 8 (the diameter of bacteria is 0. Lam. 12. the maximum output power is roughly estimated as high as 12 mW from the measured power density of 3. J. Tian. L. Tender. the modifications of electrodes with CNTs may be necessary to reduce the cellular toxicity by coating with some other materials. For example. Microeng. The CNT electrodes improved the current density about 200% as the effective surface area increased about 200%.S. Sorrento. Experimental results of MFCs showing maximum output current vs. Science 295 (2002) 483–485. Conclusions More than a 200% current density enhancement in miniaturized microbial fuel cells has been successfully demonstrated by optimizing the contact electrode structure using micro and nano features. Sun. 12 summarizes the experimental results of maximum short circuit currents (normalized to current output of flat-reference electrode) from various MFCs with different electrode structures versus the calculated surface areas of individual corresponding electrodes (normalized to flat-reference electrode). References [1] D. Johnson. Lee. Yu. [4] M. but also small portable electronics.) configurations were conducted. B. Chiao. Q. Kyoto. K. IEEE MEMS Conference. The CNT forests used in this work were of high density. This result supports the hypothesis that the charge transfer mechanism is based on direct attachment of bacteria to the electrode surface for electron transport. L. One possible future direction is to synthesize Fig. sulfurreducens could have penetrated in-between CNT walls but not within CNT forests. L. Xiong. K. Bioelectron. Inoue et al. The maximum output power is estimated as high as 12 mW from the measured power density of 3.B. M. A MEMS photosynthetic electrochemical cell powered by sub-cellular plant photosystems. J. Lin. J. Bond. Sheng.

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