COBILLA, ROMAR C.

BSCE – 4B

LABORATORY
EXPERIMENTS
PRESENTED TO ENGR. MIRIAM B. VILLANUEVA

The following steps describe how to assemble the triaxial cell: a. and apply light vacuum to the membrane stretcher tube to pull the membrane towards the inside wall of the membrane stretcher. deformation indicator graduated to 0. membrane stretcher. b.. pressure system and water source. Place the top on the cell wall. Measure the diameter near the top. and make sure the cell wall and top are properly seated against one another. 6.Undrained Triaxial Compression Test Laboratory Experiment #1 Material and Equipment Needed:               right-circular cylindrical specimen of cohesive soil. 2 0-rings. Center the membrane on the specimen and release the vacuum to allow the membrane to constrict around the specimen. Place a light coating of vacuum grease on the O-rings in the pedestal and top. latex membrane. 4. d. c. b. Gently pull the ends of the membrane over the base and cap so that the membrane surrounds the base. Carefully lower the stretched membrane over the specimen without touching the specimen. calipers. vacuum grease. Apply a light coating of vacuum grease to the perimeter of the base and cap to help create a waterproof seal. make sure that the O-rings are seated in the grooves. With the membrane stretcher still around the specimen. c. 2. and calculate the average diameter (D0) and average initial area (A0). oven-safe moisture content container. and bottom of the specimen. and make sure the pedestal and cell wall are properly seated against one another.01 g. Use calipers to measure the initial length (La) of the specimen. Make sure that the piston hole in the cap faces up. carefully roll the O-rings onto the membrane where the membrane contacts the base and cap. load cell or proving ring. Obtain a soil specimen from your instructor. scale with precision of0. . The following steps describe how to place the membrane on the soil specimen: a.Also measure the moist mass of the specimen (M). If the base and cap are machined with grooves. middle. Place the cell wall on the pedestal. and soil drying oven set at 110° ± 5° c Procedure: 1. Place the membrane and two O-rings on the membrane stretcher. 5. triaxial cell. and cap without wrinkles. 3. specimen.001 in. load frame. and place the cap on top of the specimen. Place the soil specimen on the base.

If your load frame is configured with a load cell. your reading will be P. it may be necessary to take readings more frequently to accurately identify the peak applied load. Plot Δσ versus ε1. Place the specimen in a soil drying oven overnight and obtain the dry weight of the specimen. proximeter. Release the piston by loosening the locking screw in the top of the triaxial cell. If your load frame is configured with a proving ring instead of a load cell.4%. If a proving ring is used instead of a load cell. Load the specimen until ε1 = 15%.d. However. using additional sheets as needed. 7. alternating between bars to assure an intimate seal between the pedestal.0%. 15. your reading will be ΔL. record the dial gauge conversion factor KL. Repeat Steps 1-17 for 3 or more additional specimens tested over a range of σ3. Record your data on the Unconsolidated Undrained Triaxial Test Data Sheet. 1. cell wall. ASTM D2850 suggests that initial readings be taken at 0. readings should be taken at a strain interval of 1. Begin loading the specimen at a strain rate between 0. and will be in units of force. 16. and will be in units of length. . 18. You will know it is seated when the load cell begins to indicate a slight load. 2. After that. 12. Shut off all valves to the triaxial cell when water emerges from the vent valve. Plot the Mohr circles for each specimen to define the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope and Su. If your deformation indicator is an analog dial gauge.0%. stop advancing the piston. for weight-volume calculations. Position the triaxial cell in the load frame with the deformation indicator and load cell. Once the load cell indicates a slight load. If your deformation indicator is a digital dial gauge. 2. or LVDT. 17. 0.1 %. lock the piston in place by turning the locking screw in the top. 8.3%. zero the dial gauge and record the proving ring constant Kp.5%. Identify the deviator stress at failure. Once in position. 1. and begin filling the triaxial cell with water from the pedestal valve.0%/min. 13. and 3. The tip of the piston should be far enough into the hole to prevent the specimen from tipping when the triaxial cell is moved. Zero the deformation indicator. 0. 0. as either 1) the peak value of Δσ or 2) Δσ at ε1 = 15%. 11. Manually advance the piston until the tip of the piston is seated against the cap. 10. Tighten each of the three cell bars a little bit at a time.3-1.5%. and 0. and top. Apply the desired cell pressure σ3 to the cell through the bottom valve. Open the vent valve in the top of the triaxial cell. e.2%. If an analog dial gauge is used. your reading will be GL.0%. Δσf. and zero the load cell. MS. and will be in units of divisions. but should not be applying any load to the cap. 9.5%. Slide the piston down into the hole in the cap. You will know the specimen is under pressure when the membrane appears to be in intimate contact with the specimen. and will be in units of divisions.0%. 14. your reading will be GP.

Then place a porous stone and a filter paper in the shear box. Direct Shear Device Figure 2. 2. Place a filter paper. Triple Beam Balance 1.025 in. Remove the large alignment screws from the shear box! Open the gap between the shear box halves to approximately 0. Carefully assemble the shear box and place it in the direct shear device. . Weigh the initial mass of soil in the pan. Weigh the pan of soil again and compute the mass of soil used. Load and Deformation Dial Gauges Procedure: Figure 3. and then back out the gap screws. 6. Place the sand into the shear box and level off the top.Direct Shear Test Laboratory Experiment #2 Material and Equipment Needed: Figure 1. using the gap screws. Compute 15% of the diameter in millimeters. 3. 4. and a top plate (with ball) on top of the sand 5. a porous stone. Measure the diameter and height of the shear box.

vertical displacement gage and shear load gage readings. Continue taking readings until the horizontal shear load peaks and then falls. and then close bleeder valve and apply the load to the soil specimen by raising the toggle switch. Start the motor with selected speed so that the rate of shearing is at a selected constant rate. 9. and take the horizontal displacement gauge. vertical displacement gage and shear load gage) to zero. 10. or the horizontal displacement reaches 15% of the diameter.7. Record the readings on the data sheet. Complete the assembly of the direct shear device and initialize the three gauges (Horizontal displacement gage. if needed). Set the vertical load (or pressure) to a predetermined value. (Note: Record the vertical displacement gage readings. 8. .

Where L and d are the length and diameter of soil specimen. Adjust the device so that the upper plate just makes contact with the specimen and set the load and deformation dials to zero. 4. respectively. Weigh the sample and record the mass on the data sheet.5. and then average the measurements and record the average as the length on the data sheet. 6. Measure the exact diameter of the top of the specimen at three locations 120° apart. and then make the same measurements on the bottom of the specimen. Carefully place the specimen in the compression device and center it on the bottom plate. 2. Average the measurements and record the average as the diameter on the data sheet. Cut a soil specimen so that the ratio (L/d) is approximately between 2 and 2. 3. . Calculate the deformation (DL) corresponding to 15% strain (e). Extrude the soil sample from Shelby tube sampler. Measure the exact length of the specimen at three locations 120° apart.Unconfined Compression Test Laboratory Experiment #3 Material and Equipment Needed:      Compression Device Load and Deformation Dial Gauges Sample Trimming Equipment Balance Moisture Can Procedure: 1. 5.

25mm / min for use in forcing the penetration plunger in to the specimen. 8.4 of IS: 9669-1980. 4. Remove the sample from the compression device and obtain a sample for water content determination.4 of IS: 9669-1980.7. Loading machine having a capacity of at least 5000kg and equipped with a movable head or base that travels at a uniform rate of 1. Keep applying the load until (1) the load (load dial) decreases on the specimen significantly.4 of IS: 9669-1980. Collar confirming to 4.1. (2) the load holds constant for at least four deformation dial readings. 10. California Bearing Ratio Test Laboratory Experiment #4 Material and Equipment Needed:        Moulds 2250cc capacity with base plate. Metal rammer confirming to IS: 9189-1979.3 and 4.5% to 2. Determine the water content. or (3) the deformation is significantly past the 15% strain that was determined in step 5.2 of IS: 9669-1980. stay rod and wing nut confirming to 4. Expansion measuring apparatus with the adjustable stem. .0% per minute. and then record the load and deformation dial readings on the data sheet at every 20 to 50 divisions on deformation the dial. Apply the load so that the device produces an axial strain at a rate of 0. 9. Draw a sketch to depict the sample failure. Penetration plunger confirming to 4. tripod confirming and to weights confirming to 4. Spacer Disc confirming to 4. perforated plates.4 of IS: 9669-1980.

50 or 22.75mm. Remove the mould from the compression testing machine. h. dishes and calibrated measuring jar. drying oven. f. Record the empty weight of the mould with base plate. straight edge. c. with extension collar removed (m1). Place a filter paper on top of the soil followed by a 5cms displacer disc. g. In this method calculate the mass of wet soil at required moisture content to give a desired density when compacted in a standard test mould as given below Volume of mould = 2250cc. Procedure: There are two types of methods in compacting soil specimen in the CBR moulds  Static Compaction method. it may be necessary to reapply load to force the displacer disc slightly below the top of the mould so that on rebound the right volume is obtained. Compact the mould by pressing it in between the platens of the compression testing machine until the top of the spacer disc comes flush with the top of the mould. m Weight of wet soil =1+ ---------. 2. . soaking tank. b. Miscellaneous apparatus such as mixing bowl. scales. Weight of dry soil (W) = 2250 x MDD. m = Optimum moisture content obtained from the laboratory compaction test. j. Gently compact each layer with the spacer disc. filter paper. b. In some soil types where a certain amount of rebound occurs. IS sieves 37.Weight of dry soil. Remove the spacer disc and weigh the mould with compacted soil (m2).50 or 19mm and 4. Replace the extension collar of the mould. l. Take oven dried soil sample of calculated weight and thoroughly mix with water (OMC) as obtained from the above equation. c. Record the empty weight of the mould with base plate. Place the correct mass of the wet soil in to the mould in five layers. i. Replace the extension collar of the mould.) Dynamic Compaction a. k. Take representative sample of soil weighing approximately 6kg and mix thoroughly at OMC. d. m. Prepare two more specimens in the same procedure as described above.   Dial gauge two numbers reading to 0. Held the load for about 30 seconds and then release.01mm. 1.) Static Compaction a.x W 100 Weight of water = Weight of wet soil .  Dynamic Compaction method. with extension collar removed (m1). e.

d. j. Each sample shall weigh not less than 100g for fine-grained soils and not less than 500 for granular soils. l. Remove the extension collar and carefully level the compacted soil to the top of the mould by means of a straight edge. h. f. Insert a spacer disc over the base plate and place a coarse filter paper on the top of the spacer disc. if the sample is to be soaked. Place the mould on a solid base such as a concrete floor or plinth and compact the wet soil in to the mould in five layers of approximately equal mass each layer being given 56 blows with 4. . n. i.5kg on the perforated plate. leaving not more than about 6mm to be struck off when the extension collar is removed. In both the cases of compaction. Immerse the whole mould and weights in a tank of water allowing free access of water to the top and bottom of specimen for 96 hours. Remove the spacer disc by inverting the mould and weigh the mould with compacted soil (m2). Replace the extension collar of the mould. The amount of soil used shall be sufficient to fill the mould.90kg hammer equally distributed and dropped from a height of 450 mm above the soil. e. k. m. Place the weights to produce a surcharge equal to the weight of base material and pavement to the nearest 2. Place a filter paper between the base plate and the inverted mould. o. take representative samples of the material at the beginning of compaction and another sample of remaining material after compaction for the determination of moisture content. p. Prepare two more specimens in the same procedure as described above. g. Place the adjustable stem and perforated plate on the compacted soil specimen in the mould.