ABSTRACT

:
POWER CRISIS is being one of the major topics to be discussed. The possible solution
for this is to provide considerable amount of power using adaptable renewable
resources. Among these resources, human population is the only abundant and perennial
resource that has not been utilized. If a suitable method is available, expected amount of
power can be tapped out from this resource.we have presented the idea to utilize human
locomotion power to produce electricity and also we have designed a method named
FOOT STEP POWER GENERATION, a large scale project that consists of number of
similar mechanical setups under a special flooring system. When people walk over the
platform, electricity is generated in this system utilizing the pressure due to weight of
the person walking on the platform and stored using dry batteries.This method will have
an efficient outcome if installed in countries where population is more. By using such
principle the energy can be utilized in the whole area where the mechanical energy is

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Being converted to electrical energy CONTENTS

Page No
ABSTRACT

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CONTENTS

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CHAPTER : 1. INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER:

1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2SEMINAR OVERVIEW

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2.SEMINAR DESCRIPTION

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CHAPTER : 3. HARDWARE

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DESCRIPTION

3.1 FOOT STEP ARRANGEMENT
3.2 RACK

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& PINION AND CHAIN SPROCKET

3.3 PMDC

GENERATOR

3.4

BATTERY

3.5

INVERTER

3.6

LIGHT LOAD

3.7

POWER SUPPLY

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3.7.1 TRANSFORMER
3.7.2 RECTIFIERS
3.7.3 CAPACITOR FILTER
3.7.4 VOLTAGE REGULATOR
CHAPTER :

4. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS

CHAPTER :

5. PHOTO REPRESENTATION

CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

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CHAPTER 1:
1. INTRODUCTION

Man has needed and used energy at an increasing rate for his sustenance and
wellbeing ever since he came on the earth a few million years ago. Primitive man
required energy primarily in the form of food. He derived this by eating plants
or animals, which he hunted. With the passage of time, man started to cultivate land for
agriculture. He added a new dimension to the use of energy by domesticating and
training animals to work for him. With further demand for energy, man began to use the
wind for sailing ships and for driving windmills, and the force of falling water to turn
water for sailing ships and for driving windmills, and the force of falling water to turn
water wheels. Till this time, it would not be wrong to say that the sun was supplying all
the energy needs of man either directly or indirectly and that man was using only
renewable sources of energy.

Other people have developed piezo-electric (mechanical-to-electrical) surfaces
in the past, but the Crowd Farm has the potential to redefine urban space by adding a
sense of fluidity and encouraging people to activate spaces with their movement. The
Crowd Farm floor is composed of standard parts that are easily replicated but it is
expensive to produce at this stage. This technology would facilitate the future creation
of new urban landscapes athletic fields with a spectator area, music halls, theatres,
nightclubs and a large gathering space for rallies, demonstrations and celebrations,
railway stations, bus stands, subways, airports etc. like capable of harnessing human
locomotion for electricity generation.

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1.1.

Seminar overview:
Proposal for the utilization of waste energy of foot power with human

locomotion is very much relevant and important for highly populated countries like
India and China where the roads, railway stations, bus stands, temples, etc. are all over
crowded and millions of people move around the clock. This whole human/bioenergy
being wasted if can be made possible for utilization it will be great invention and crowd
energy farms will be very useful energy sources in crowded countries. Walking across a
"Crowd Farm," floor, then, will be a fun for idle people who can improve their health by
exercising in such farms with earning. The electrical energy generated at such
farms will be useful for nearby applications.

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CHAPTER 2:
SEMINAR DESCRIPTION

Upper plate

Rack &Pinion

Generat
or

Lower plate

AC ripple
neutralizer

Unidirection
al Current
Controller

Light

Rechargea
ble Battery

INVERTER

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CHAPTER 3:
HARDWARE DESCRIPTION

3.1 Foot step arrangement:
WORKING OF FOOT STEP GENERATOR:
Step1: when force is applied on the plate by virtue on stamping on the plate the force
spring
gets
compressed
Step2: the rack here moves vertically down
Step3: The pinion meshed with the rack gear results in circular motion of the pinion
gear
Step4: for one full compression the pinion Moves 1semicircle
Step5: when the force applied on the plate released the pinion reverses and moves
another semi-circle
Step6: the generator attached to the pinion hence results in the sinusoidal waveform (for
single Generator)

3.2 Rack And Pinion and chain sprocket arrangement:

A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair
of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. The circular pinion engages

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teeth on a linear "gear" bar–the rack. Rotational motion applied to the pinion will cause
the rack to move to the side, up to the limit of its travel.

CHAIN SPROCKET:

A sprocket is a profiled wheel with teeth that meshes with a chain, track or
other perforated or indented material. It is distinguished from a gear in that sprockets
are never meshed together directly, and differs from a pulley in that sprockets have teeth
and pulleys are smooth. Here the rack & pinion, spring arrangement is fixed at the
inclined step. The spring is used to return the inclined step in same position by releasing
the load. The pinion shaft is connected to the supported by end bearings as shown in fig.
The larger sprocket also coupled with the pinion shaft, so that it is running the same
speed of pinion. The larger sprocket is coupled to the small cycle sprocket with the help
of chain (cycle). This larger sprocket is used to transfer the rotation force to the smaller
sprocket. The smaller sprocket is running same direction for the forward and reverse
direction of rotational movement of the larger sprocket. This action locks like a cycle
pedaling action. The fly wheel and gear wheel is also coupled to the smaller sprocket
shaft.

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3.3. PMDC Generator

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Working:
The commutator rotates with the loop of wire just as the slip rings do with the
rotor of an AC generator. Each half of the commutator ring is called a commutator
segment and is insulated from the other half. Each end of the rotating loop of wire is
connected to a commutator segment. Two carbon brushes connected to the outside
circuit rest against the rotating commutator. One brush conducts the current out of the
generator, and the other brush feeds it in. The commutator is designed so that, no matter
how the current in the loop alternates, the commutator segment containing the outwardgoing current is always against the "out" brush at the proper time. The armature in a
large DC generator has many coils of wire and commutator segments. Because of the
commutator, engineers have found it necessary to have the armature serve as the
rotor(the rotating part of an apparatus) and the field structure as the stator (a stationary
portion enclosing rotating parts)

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3.4. Battery
RECHARGEBLE BATTERIES:
A rechargeable battery or storage battery is a group of one or
more electrochemical

cells.

They

are

known

as secondary

cells because

their electrochemical reactions are electrically reversible. Rechargeable batteries come
in many different shapes and sizes, ranging anything from a button cell to megawatt
systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution network. Several different
combinations

of

chemicals

are

commonly

used,

including: lead-acid, nickel

cadmium(NiCad), nickel metal hydride (Nigh), lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium ion
polymer (Li-ion polymer).

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3.5. Inverter
An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating
current (AC); the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the

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use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits. Solid-state inverters
have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from
small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high-voltage direct
current applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply
AC power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries.

Fig 2.26: Inverter
There are two main types of inverter. The output of a modified sine
wave inverter is similar to a square wave output except that the output goes to zero volts
for a time before switching positive or negative. It is simple and low cost
(~$0.10USD/Watt) and is compatible with most electronic devices, except for sensitive
or specialized equipment, for example certain laser printers. A pure sine wave inverter
produces a nearly perfect sine wave output (<3% total harmonic distortion) that is
essentially the same as utility-supplied grid power. Thus it is compatible with all AC
electronic devices. This is the type used in grid-tie inverters. Its design is more complex,
and costs 5 or 10 times more per unit power (~$0.50 to $1.00USD/Watt).[1] The
electrical inverter is a high-power electronic oscillator. It is so named because
early mechanical AC to DC converters were made to work in reverse, and thus were
"inverted", to convert DC to AC. The inverter performs the opposite function of
a rectifier

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3.6. Light Loads

A bulb is a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases. The leaves often function
as food storage organs during dormancy .
A bulb's leaf bases generally do not support leaves, but contain food reserves to
enable the plant to survive adverse conditions. The leaf bases may resemble scales, or
they may overlap and surround the center of the bulb as with the onion. A
modified stem forms the base of the bulb, and plant growth occurs from this basal
plate. Roots emerge from the underside of the base, and new stems and leaves from the
upper side.
Other types of storage organs (such as corms, rhizomes, and tubers) are
sometimes erroneously referred to as bulbs. The correct term for plants that form
0underground storage organs, including bulbs as well as tubers and corms,
is geophytes. Some epiphytic orchids (family Orchidaceous) form above-ground
storage organs called pseudo bulbs that superficially resemble bulbs.

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3.7. Block Diagram for Power Supply:

Figure: Power Supply

Description:
3.7.1 Transformer:
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to
another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying
current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the
transformer's core, and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding.
This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage"
in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction.

Figure: Transformer Symbol
(or)
Transformer is a device that converts the one form energy to another form of energy like
a transducer.

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Figure: Transformer

Basic Principle:
A transformer makes use of Faraday's law and the ferromagnetic properties of an
iron core to efficiently raise or lower AC voltages. It of course cannot increase power so
that if the voltage is raised, the current is proportionally lowered and vice versa.

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Figure: Basic Principle

Transformer Working:
A transformer consists of two coils (often called 'windings') linked by an iron
core, as shown in figure below. There is no electrical connection between the coils;
instead they are linked by a magnetic field created in the core.

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Figure: Basic Transformer

Transformers are used to convert electricity from one voltage to another with
minimal loss of power. They only work with AC (alternating current) because they
require a changing magnetic field to be created in their core. Transformers can increase
voltage (step-up) as well as reduce voltage (step-down).
Alternating current flowing in the primary (input) coil creates a continually
changing magnetic field in the iron core. This field also passes through the secondary
(output) coil and the changing strength of the magnetic field induces an alternating
voltage in the secondary coil. If the secondary coil is connected to a load the induced
voltage will make an induced current flow. The correct term for the induced voltage is
'induced electromotive force' which is usually abbreviated to induced e.m.f.
The iron core is laminated to prevent 'eddy currents' flowing in the core. These
are currents produced by the alternating magnetic field inducing a small voltage in the
core, just like that induced in the secondary coil. Eddy currents waste power by
needlessly heating up the core but they are reduced to a negligible amount by laminating
the iron because this increases the electrical resistance of the core without affecting its
magnetic properties.

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3.7.2. Rectifiers:
The purpose of a rectifier is to convert an AC waveform into a DC waveform (OR)
Rectifier converts AC current or voltages into DC current or voltage. There are two
different rectification circuits, known as 'half-wave' and 'full-wave' rectifiers. Both
use components called diodes to convert AC into DC.
The Half-wave Rectifier:
The half-wave rectifier is the simplest type of rectifier since it only uses one diode, as
shown in figure.

Figure: Half Wave Rectifier
Figure 2 shows the AC input waveform to this circuit and the resulting output. As you
can see, when the AC input is positive, the diode is forward-biased and lets the current
through. When the AC input is negative, the diode is reverse-biased and the diode does
not let any current through, meaning the output is 0V. Because there is a 0.7V voltage

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loss across the diode, the peak output voltage will be 0.7V less than Vs.

Figure: Half-Wave Rectification
While the output of the half-wave rectifier is DC (it is all positive), it would not
be suitable as a power supply for a circuit. Firstly, the output voltage continually varies
between 0V and Vs-0.7V, and secondly, for half the time there is no output at all.
The Full-wave Rectifier
The circuit in figure 3 addresses the second of these problems since at no time is the
output voltage 0V. This time four diodes are arranged so that both the positive and
negative parts of the AC waveform are converted to DC. The resulting waveform is
shown in figure 4.

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Figure: Full-Wave Rectification
When the AC input is positive, diodes A and B are forward-biased, while diodes C and
D are reverse-biased. When the AC input is negative, the opposite is true - diodes C and
D are forward-biased, while diodes A and B are reverse-biased.
While the full-wave rectifier is an improvement on the half-wave rectifier, its output
still isn't suitable as a power supply for most circuits since the output voltage still varies
between 0V and Vs-1.4V. So, if you put 12V AC in, you will 10.6V DC out.
3.7.3. Capacitor Filter:

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The capacitor-input filter, also called "Pi" filter due to its shape that looks like
the Greek letter pi, is a type of electronic filter. Filter circuits are used to remove
unwanted or undesired frequencies from a signal.

Figure: Capacitor Filter
A typical capacitor input filter consists of a filter capacitor C1, connected across the
rectifier output, an inductor L, in series and another filter capacitor connected across the
load.
1. The capacitor C1 offers low reactance to the AC component of the rectifier
output while it offers infinite reactance to the DC component. As a result the
capacitor shunts an appreciable amount of the AC component while the DC
component continues its journey to the inductor L
2. The inductor L offers high reactance to the AC component but it offers almost
zero reactance to the DC component. As a result the DC component flows
through the inductor while the AC component is blocked.
3. The capacitor C2 bypasses the AC component which the inductor had failed to
block. As a result only the DC component appears across the load RL.

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Figure: Centered Tapped Full-Wave Rectifier with a Capacitor Filter

3.7.4. Voltage Regulator:
A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a
constant voltage level. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or passive or active
electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more
AC or DC voltages. There are two types of regulator are they.
 Positive Voltage Series (78xx) and
 Negative Voltage Series (79xx)

78xx:
’78’ indicate the positive series and ‘xx’indicates the voltage rating. Suppose 7805
produces the maximum 5V.’05’indicates the regulator output is 5V.
79xx:
’78’ indicate the negative series and ‘xx’indicates the voltage rating. Suppose 7905
produces the maximum -5V.’05’indicates the regulator output is -5V.
These regulators consists the three pins there are

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Pin1: It is used for input pin.
Pin2: This is ground pin for regulator
Pin3: It is used for output pin. Through this pin we get the output.

Figure: Regulator

CHAPTER: 4
ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS

Advantages

Reliable

Economical

Eco-Friendly

Less consumption of Non- renewable energies.

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Applications

 Foot step generated power can be used for agricultural, home applications,
street-1lightening.

 Foot step power generation can be used in emergency power failure
situations.

Metros, Rural Applications etc.,

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CHAPTER:5
PHOTO REPRESENTATION

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26

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CONCLUSION:

The seminar “FOOT STEP POWER GENERATION ” is implemented which
is the best economical, affordable energy solution to common people. This can be used
for many applications in rural areas where power availability is less or totally absence.
As India is a developing country where energy management is a big challenge for huge
population. By using this project we can drive both AC as well as D.C loads according
to the force.

REFERENCES:
1. WWW.GOOGLE.COM
2. A. Shiri, M. R. Alizadeh Pahlavani, H. A. Mohammadpour, and A. Shoulaie,
"Electromagnetic Force Distribution on Cylindrical Coils' Body", PIERS
proceedings
3. Dailey, Sandra J., Carpenter, William F., "The evolution of built-in test for an
electrical power generating system (EPGS)",
4. A. Mohammadpour A. Gandhi L. Parsa, "Winding factor calculation for analysis
of back EMF waveform in air core permanent magnet linear synchronous
motors", IET Electric Power Applications.
5. Dailey, Sandra J., Carpenter, William F., "The evolution of built-in test for an
electrical power generating system (EPGS)", IEEEAerospace and Electronics
conference.

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