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**Software for modelling manufacturing
**

processes

Rushabh J Voraa, Mohammed A Sheikh b

a

**Wolfson School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University,
**

Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK. Email: - r.vora@lboro.ac.uk

b

Department of Mechanical, Aerospace & Manufacturing Engineering, UMIST, P.O. Box 88,

Manchester M60 1QD, UK

Abstract: Finite element analysis is a technique where a complex region defining a

continuum is discretised into finite elements. The behavior of each element is predicted by

mathematical equation whose summation approximately simulates the actual response of the

Part. Finite element method has steadily increased its importance in simulation of

manufacturing processes as the benefits of determining the effects of various process

parameters on computer has decreased the shop floor trials. The objective of the paper is to

do technical assessment of finite element software’s like DEFORM for modelling

manufacturing processes. DEFORM is a simulation system whose application ranges from

various forming and heat treatment processes used in metal forming industry. Factors like

software’s capability in handling object geometries, range of material available in the

database, its control over process parameters and simulation were investigated. The

assessment was made on the basis of the efficacy of the software for particular process and

results obtained. Accuracy was checked directly by comparing the results with the shop floor

trials.

1. Introduction

In the late 1970s and early 1980s the use of computer-aided techniques (Computer

aided engineering, design and manufacturing) in metal forming industry has

increased considerably [1]. However, accurate determination of various process

parameters became possible only when finite element method was developed [2].

Finite Element Formulation for deformation analysis of metal forming processes

Discretization of a finite element problem consists of the following steps: Description of the finite element: The geometry of an element, in general, is

uniquely defined by a finite number of nodal points. The shape and the order of

shape functions characterize the element to produce an element strain-rate matrix

and an element stiffness equation.

A set of nodal point velocities in vector form is represented as:

vT = {ν 1 ,ν 2 ,⋅ ⋅ ⋅,ν n }

(1)

**where n = total number of freedoms in the model.
**

The shape functions for the element defines an admissible velocity field locally in

terms of velocities of associated nodes. For example, for a two-dimensional 4-

whereµ is the friction coefficient.η )u (yα ) (3) α α Setting up of a global system of equations: The element equations can be assembled to give: (4) K∆v = f where K is the stiffness matrix. admissible velocity fields can be defined uniquely over the element by the shape functions (Nα) and the nodal velocity components as: u x (ξ .noded rectangular element.η ) = ∑ qα (ξ . Sc is the contact surface between the tool (master) and the work-piece (slave). and f is the residual nodal point force vector [3] Applying the contact boundary conditions: The total surface S is given by: S = S u + Sf + Sc (5) where Su and Sf define the parts of surface where velocities and tractions are prescribed. stresses acting on dies.η ) = ∑ qα (ξ . and p = compressive normal stress at the interface (or die pressure). fs. formation of surface and internal defects. where m is the friction factor ( 0 ≤ m ≤ 1 ). Friction can also be expressed as f S = mk . and load and energy requirements. it is necessary to express this interface friction in terms of a factor or a coefficient. The friction shear stress. the frictional stress ( f S ) and the relative sliding velocity ( u S ) are modelled by: f S = − mk ⎛2 ⎡u ⎤ ⎞ uS ≅ − mk ⎜⎜ tan −1 ⎢ S ⎥ ⎟⎟ uS ⎣ u0 ⎦ ⎠ ⎝π (6) where u 0 is the initial velocity. ∆v represents the nodal velocities corrections. It is assumed that the relative sliding velocity u S can be approximated in the terms of nodal values ν Sα by using shape functions as: uS = ∑ qαν Sα α (7) . and k is the shear strength of the deforming material For numerical calculations. is expressed by Coulomb law as: f S = µp . In order to evaluate the performance of various lubricants and to predict forming pressures. Friction conditions at die metal interface greatly influence metal flow.η )u x(α ) (2) u y (ξ .

Software . The strains are updated in a similar manner from the strain-rate solution [2]. y i ): Co-ordinates of node i . . δν I are the nodal velocities and their variations respectively. Here. 2. on linearization by Taylor expansion ⎡ ∂ 2π ⎤ ⎡ ∂π ⎤ + ∆ν J = 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ∂ν I ⎦υ =υ 0 ⎣ ∂ν I ∂ν J ⎦υ =υ 0 Or K∆v = f (9) where v 0 is the Assumed velocity (updated according to v 0 + α∆v ).DEFORM DEFORM (Design Environment for Forming) is an engineering software that enables designers to analyse metal forming processes [3]. f: residual of the nodal force vector. and arbitrariness of δν I ⎛ ∂π ∂π = ∑ ⎜⎜ ∂ν I j ⎝ ∂ν I ⎞ ⎟⎟ = 0 ⎠( j ) (8) ν . and DEFORM TOOLS adds to the overall presentation capability of the DEFORM system. DEFORM PC-PRO and DEFORM PC are variants for simulations on personal computers. t 0 = Time at current configuration and ∆t = Time increment. DEFORM HT provides heat treatment process simulation capability. ( x i . DEFORM 2D models axi-symmetric and plain strain problems. It is an implicit software code and follows a Lagrangian approach for updating the algorithm. K: Stiffness matrix.Solution of the global system of equations: From a variation formulation. The above stiffness equation is generally nonlinear and the solution is obtained by employing an iterative procedure such as the Newton-Raphson method. (j): the jth element. Time increment and geometry updating: The deformed geometry of the work-piece in the case of two dimensions is obtained by updating the co-ordinates of the nodes (Lagrangian mesh system) by: xi (t 0 + ∆t ) = xi (t 0 ) + u xi + ∆t y i (t 0 + ∆t ) = y i (t 0 ) + u iy + ∆t (10) where.0) is used for three-dimensional simulations. DEFORM 3D (Version 4.

Dies are made up of H-13 whilst the material of the billet is AISI – 1025. The top die and the bottom pad are meshed and imported from IDEAS. The billet. as well as.25 inch and the top die velocity is set at of 2 in/sec. 3. SGI. Object Relation Billet-top die Billet Bottom die SlaveMaster SlaveMaster Shearfriction 0.DEFORM 2D and 3D are available on all popular UNIX platforms (HP. The Initial Step . DEC and IBM). on PCs running Windows NT. The temperature of the billet is 20000F and the temperatures of top and bottom dies are 3000F and 4000F respectively.004 Table 1. the inter-object relationships are defined as per Table 1. Inter-object interface The initial step for the spike forging problem is shown in Figure [1].004 0. meshing. has been meshed in DEFORM itself.3 Heat-transfer Coefficient 0. and defining the boundary condition. on the other hand. After importing object geometries. The height of the billet is taken as 2. Figure 1. Applications Non-isothermal spike forging A benchmark problem of non-isothermal spike forging is analysed for determining the stresses in the dies. SUN.3 0. It is selected here to explore the capability of DEFORM-3D in forging and die stress analysis [3].

From the load/ stroke curve Figure [3]. the total load required at the top die to deform the billet was observed.4 klb) at the end of the last step. The work-piece is removed and the forces exerted on the dies by the work-piece are interpolated.3 to 0. Die stress analysis The stresses which are developed in the dies at the end of the above forging process are now analysed for the integrity assessment of the dies. On examining the temperature profile in Figure [2]. For further examination of effective stress in this region the billet is also sliced in a plane normal to the billet and oriented to view the cross-section of the billet. effective stress and temperature. Stroke The results are obtained for various state variables such as strain. .Figure 2. which affect the load of the press is the coefficient of friction between the billet and the bottom die.1 ksi occurs in region ‘A’ which is in direct contact with the top die. This effect should be minimized and in order to lower the forging loads. The load/stroke graph of Figure [3] shows that the load gradually rises with the maximum (19. The effective stress distribution for the billet is shown in Figure [4]. A reduction in the value of the friction coefficient from 0. strain rate. greater chilling is seen at the contacts between the dies and the billet. The temperature profile at the end of 10 steps (defined for the simulation) is shown in Figure [2] Here. Through a sensitivity study of various other parameters it was found that the main factor. the maximum and minimum temperatures are 20000F and 15100F respectively. This represents the maximum force required for the deformation. It can be seen that maximum stress of 37.1 would significantly change the maximum load. Load vs. Temperature Profile Figure 3.

The maximum stress in the die is 31.8 ksi (220 MPa). Application ranges from forging. ductile fracture. Discussion DEFORM is a reliable software in metal forming industry. cogging. 4. micro structural evolution. The forging and die stress analysis was performed effectively. machining. extrusion. glass pressing. where DEFORM was able to estimate the forging loads and the stresses in dies at the end of the simulation. shape rolling. This is much lower than the yield stress value of 372 MPa for H-13 (die material) and is thus acceptable. . machining distortion & chip morphology. die stress analysis. Die stress analysis The effective stress distribution within the dies is shown in Figure [5].Figure 4. where the regions of high stress have been marked. Effective stress Figure 5. drilling to predicting phase transformation.

[2] Kobayashi. DEFORM is capable to produce accurate results which rages from stresses. The Finite Element Method in Engineering science. [3] Scientific Forming Technologies Corporation. S. [4] SHAPE-RR User Manual V 1. It can be used for the simulation of many complex processes where theoretical analysis of the process parameters would be difficult. SUPPORT ROLLS PRESSURE ROLL . It can be inferred from the paper that DEFORM is capable to simulate metal forming processes effectively. defect formation and ductile fracture. Columbia. NY. temperatures. V 4. Oxford University Press. 5. NY.DEFORM has separate templates for extrusion. grain flow. strains. Manufacturing processes for engineering materials. it is hard to simulate thin surfaces made up of shell elements. and rolling (DEFORM 2D). Loadstroke information. As DEFORM uses solid elements. capability to create user defined material data input. Sept. 1989.imsteel. die fill. Maidenhead. DEFORM is an example of some effective finite element programs developed for metal forming. Ltd (Korea). and good control over process parameters. It is a straight forward application to the metal forming industry and so not much suitable for solving structural and dynamic problem. O C. 60 RPM 1993. DEFORM-3D. Addison-Wesley. Soo-Ik Oh. McGraw-Hill. 2003. good geometry handling capability. T. Conclusions The areas of application of the Finite Element Method to model manufacturing processes are potentially broad. The software is still being developed in the areas of rotary forming and extrusion processes. S. [6] Zienkiewicz. point tracking as well die strain.3.com/h13. material flow. 1991.0. Important features include its extensive material database. References [1] Kalpakjian. and Altan. Ohio. ring rolling and roll forming processes respectively. 1971. Metal forming and finite element method. machining. Advantages of the software are in its wide range of application and its user friendly graphic user interface. [5] www.htm. due to which process can be simulated very accurately and in less pre-processing time. SHAPE Co. cogging (DEFORM 3D) and Hammer.

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