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Dept. Math. & Stat.

MATH 6024

Functional Analysis

First Test.

Section: 10

Instructor: Dr Aref Kamal

Answer all the questions.

Date:17/03/2002

Spring semester

**1- In the space c0 show that the set S={e1 ,e2 , ... } is independent.
**

15 Points

2- Assume that V is a vector space, and that S is a linearly independent non empty

subset of V. Show that if S is a basis for V then S is maximal of being linearly

independent.

15 Points

3-Show that the function || || defined on the non trivial vector space X by

||x|| =

1 if x 0

is not a norm.

0 if x 0

15 Points

,

4-Use Holder s inequality to prove the Minkowisky’s inequality; that is; if 1<p<, x =

(x 1,x2, ... ,x n)Rn, and y = (y1,y2, ... , yn)Rn, then ||x+y|| p ||x|| p + ||y||p

15 Points

5- Show that the normed linear space P[0, 1] is not complete.

14 Points

6-Assume that {fi} is a sequence in C[0,1] that converges to f0 in B[0, 1]. Show that

f0C[0, 1].

13 Points

7- Show that the open unit ball B(0,1) of the normed linear space X is open.

13 Points

Good Luck

**SULTAN QABOOS UNIVERSITY
**

Dept. Math. & Stat.

**Functional Analysis, MATH 6024
**

First Test.

SOLUTION SHEET

Section: 10

Instructor: Dr Aref Kamal

Answer all the questions.

Date:17/03/2002

Spring semester

**1-In the space c0 show that the set S={e1 ,e2 , ... } is independent.
**

If {e i1 , e i2 , ... ei n } is a finite subset of S, then let m = max{i1, i2 , ... ,in} then

{e i1 , e i2 , ... ei n } is a subset of {e1,e2, ...,em }. Thus it is enough to show that {e1,e2,

...,em} is independent. Assume that a1e1+a2e2 + ... +amem = 0, then (a1, a2, ... , am, 0, 0, ...

) = (0,0, ... ), so ai = 0 for all i = 1,2, ... .

15 Points

2- Assume that V is a vector space, and that S is a linearly independent non empty

subset of V. Show that if S is a basis for V then S is maximal of being linearly

independent.

Assume that S is a basis. To show that S is maximal of being linearly independent, let

xS. It will be shown that {x}S is dependent. Since S is a basis for V, and xV,

then there are a1,a2, ... ,an in K, and x1,x2, ... ,x n in S so that, x = a1x 1+a2x2+ ... +anx n.

Thus a1x1+ a2x2+ ... + anxn+ (-1)x = 0, and since this combination is a non trivial linear

combination of elements of {x}S, it follows that {x}S is linearly dependent.

15 Points

1 if x 0

3-Show that the function || || defined on the vector space X by ||x|| =

is not

0

if

x

0

a norm.

Let x0, then 2x0, so ||2x|| =1, and ||x|| = 1, hence 1= ||2x|| 2 = 2||x||.

15 Points

,

4-Use Holder s inequality to prove the Minkowisky’s inequality; that is; if 1<p<, x

= (x1,x2, ... ,x n)Rn, and y = (y1,y2, ... , yn)Rn, then ||x+y|| p ||x|| p + ||y||p

n

n

n

i 1

i 1

i 1

(|| x y || p ) p | x i yi | p | x i y i | | x i y i |p 1 (| x i | | y i |) | x i y i |p 1

n

n

| x i | | x i yi |p 1 | y i | | x i yi |p 1

i 1

(*).

i 1

**For each i = 1,2, … ,n, let zi = |xi+yi | p 1 , and let z = (z1,z2, … ,zn). If 1 1 1 ,
**

p

q

n

q

1

q

n

then, ||z||q = ( | z i | ) ( | x i y i |

i 1

q ( p 1)

1

q

n

p

1

q

p

q

) ( | x i yi | ) (|| x y || p ) .

i 1

i 1

n

n

i 1

i 1

**Thus from (*) (|| x y || p ) p | x i | | z i | | y i | | z i | . So by Holder’s inequality
**

p

(|| x y || p ) || x || p || z || q || y || p || z || q (|| x || p || y || p ) || z || q =

p

q

(|| x || p || y || p )(|| x y || p ) . So (|| x y || p )

p

p

q

|| x || p || y || p , that is; || x+y ||p ||

x||p+ || y||p.

15 Points

5- Show that the normed linear space P[0, 1] is not complete.

It

is known

that

x 2 x3 x 4

e 1 x

2!

3!

4!

x

.Let

x2

Pn x = 1 x

2

x3

xn

, and let P0 ( x ) e x , then |Pn(x) – P0(x)| = 1 x i 1

i!

i!

3!

n!

i n 1

i n 1

1

1

Pn = P0. But P0 P[0, 1]. So P[0, 1] is not

i2

x12 dx = n 1 . Thus nlim

i n 1

n 1

**closed in C[0, 1]. Therefore P[0, 1] is not complete.
**

14 Points

6-Assume that {fi} is a sequence in C[0,1] that converges to f0 in B[0, 1]. Show that

f0C[0, 1].

Let a[0, 1] to show that f 0 is continuous at a, let 0 be given, since lim f n f 0

n

. Let n N . Since

3

fnC[0, 1], then fn is continuous at a, so for the given there is >0 so that if |x-a|<

then |fn (x) –fn (a)| < . Thus if |x-a|< then |f0(x) – f0 (a)| |f0 (x) –fn (x)| +|fn (x) –fn

3

(a)| + |fn (a) –f0 (a)| ||fn- f0 || +|fn (x) –fn (a)| + ||fn- f0 || < + + = .

3 3 3

13 Points

7- Show that the open unit ball B(0,1) of the normed linear space X is open.

Let x0B(0,1), then || x0 ||<1. Let =1-||x0||, then >0. It will be shown that

B(x0,)B(0,1). Let yB(x0,), then ||y|| ||x 0||+||y-x0||< ||x 0|| + = ||x0|| +(1-||x0||) =1.

13 Points

then there is a natural number N>0 so that if n>N then ||fn- f0 || <

Good Luck

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