# SULTAN QABOOS UNIVERSITY

Dept. Math. & Stat.

MATH 6024
Functional Analysis
First Test.
Section: 10
Instructor: Dr Aref Kamal

Date:17/03/2002
Spring semester

1- In the space c0 show that the set S={e1 ,e2 , ... } is independent.
15 Points
2- Assume that V is a vector space, and that S is a linearly independent non empty
subset of V. Show that if S is a basis for V then S is maximal of being linearly
independent.
15 Points
3-Show that the function || || defined on the non trivial vector space X by
||x|| =
1 if x  0
is not a norm.

 0 if x  0
15 Points
,
4-Use Holder s inequality to prove the Minkowisky’s inequality; that is; if 1<p<, x =
(x 1,x2, ... ,x n)Rn, and y = (y1,y2, ... , yn)Rn, then ||x+y|| p  ||x|| p + ||y||p
15 Points
5- Show that the normed linear space P[0, 1] is not complete.
14 Points
6-Assume that {fi} is a sequence in C[0,1] that converges to f0 in B[0, 1]. Show that
f0C[0, 1].
13 Points
7- Show that the open unit ball B(0,1) of the normed linear space X is open.
13 Points

Good Luck

SULTAN QABOOS UNIVERSITY
Dept. Math. & Stat.

Functional Analysis, MATH 6024
First Test.
SOLUTION SHEET
Section: 10
Instructor: Dr Aref Kamal

Date:17/03/2002
Spring semester

1-In the space c0 show that the set S={e1 ,e2 , ... } is independent.
If {e i1 , e i2 , ... ei n } is a finite subset of S, then let m = max{i1, i2 , ... ,in} then
{e i1 , e i2 , ... ei n } is a subset of {e1,e2, ...,em }. Thus it is enough to show that {e1,e2,
...,em} is independent. Assume that a1e1+a2e2 + ... +amem = 0, then (a1, a2, ... , am, 0, 0, ...
) = (0,0, ... ), so ai = 0 for all i = 1,2, ... .
15 Points
2- Assume that V is a vector space, and that S is a linearly independent non empty
subset of V. Show that if S is a basis for V then S is maximal of being linearly
independent.
Assume that S is a basis. To show that S is maximal of being linearly independent, let
xS. It will be shown that {x}S is dependent. Since S is a basis for V, and xV,
then there are a1,a2, ... ,an in K, and x1,x2, ... ,x n in S so that, x = a1x 1+a2x2+ ... +anx n.
Thus a1x1+ a2x2+ ... + anxn+ (-1)x = 0, and since this combination is a non trivial linear
combination of elements of {x}S, it follows that {x}S is linearly dependent.
15 Points
1 if x  0
3-Show that the function || || defined on the vector space X by ||x|| = 
is not
0
if
x

0

a norm.
Let x0, then 2x0, so ||2x|| =1, and ||x|| = 1, hence 1= ||2x||  2 = 2||x||.
15 Points
,
4-Use Holder s inequality to prove the Minkowisky’s inequality; that is; if 1<p<, x
= (x1,x2, ... ,x n)Rn, and y = (y1,y2, ... , yn)Rn, then ||x+y|| p  ||x|| p + ||y||p
n

n

n

i 1

i 1

i 1

(|| x  y || p ) p   | x i  yi | p   | x i  y i | | x i  y i |p 1   (| x i |  | y i |) | x i  y i |p 1
n

n

  | x i | | x i  yi |p 1   | y i | | x i  yi |p 1
i 1

(*).

i 1

For each i = 1,2, … ,n, let zi = |xi+yi | p 1 , and let z = (z1,z2, … ,zn). If 1  1  1 ,
p

q

n

q

1
q

n

then, ||z||q = (  | z i | )  (  | x i  y i |
i 1

q ( p 1)

1
q

n

p

1
q

p
q

)  (  | x i  yi | )  (|| x  y || p ) .

i 1

i 1

n

n

i 1

i 1

Thus from (*) (|| x  y || p ) p   | x i | | z i |   | y i | | z i | . So by Holder’s inequality
p

(|| x  y || p ) || x || p || z || q  || y || p || z || q  (|| x || p  || y || p ) || z || q =
p
q

(|| x || p  || y || p )(|| x  y || p ) . So (|| x  y || p )

p

p
q

 || x || p  || y || p , that is; || x+y ||p  ||

x||p+ || y||p.
15 Points
5- Show that the normed linear space P[0, 1] is not complete.
It

is known

that

x 2 x3 x 4
e 1 x 


2!
3!
4!
x

.Let

x2
Pn x  = 1  x 

2

x3
xn

, and let P0 ( x )  e x , then |Pn(x) – P0(x)| =  1 x i   1 
i!
i!
3!
n!
i n 1
i n 1

1
1 
Pn = P0. But P0  P[0, 1]. So P[0, 1] is not
 i2
 x12 dx = n  1 . Thus nlim

i n 1
n 1

closed in C[0, 1]. Therefore P[0, 1] is not complete.
14 Points
6-Assume that {fi} is a sequence in C[0,1] that converges to f0 in B[0, 1]. Show that
f0C[0, 1].
Let a[0, 1] to show that f 0 is continuous at a, let   0 be given, since lim f n  f 0
n

. Let n  N . Since
3
fnC[0, 1], then fn is continuous at a, so for the given  there is >0 so that if |x-a|<

then |fn (x) –fn (a)| < . Thus if |x-a|< then |f0(x) – f0 (a)|  |f0 (x) –fn (x)| +|fn (x) –fn
3
  
(a)| + |fn (a) –f0 (a)|  ||fn- f0 || +|fn (x) –fn (a)| + ||fn- f0 || < + + = .
3 3 3
13 Points
7- Show that the open unit ball B(0,1) of the normed linear space X is open.
Let x0B(0,1), then || x0 ||<1. Let  =1-||x0||, then >0. It will be shown that
B(x0,)B(0,1). Let yB(x0,), then ||y||  ||x 0||+||y-x0||< ||x 0|| + = ||x0|| +(1-||x0||) =1.
13 Points
then there is a natural number N>0 so that if n>N then ||fn- f0 || <

Good Luck