Monolithic

:
A monolithic structure is something carved or cast from a single piece of a material. Usually
(and literally, from the translation of monolith being "one stone") the material is stone, but it
could equally be applied to a structure cut from a single block of metal, or cast in metal in a
single piece

DEFFERENCE BETWEEN SHELL, MEMEBRANE & PLATE (ETABS)
Hi.. Someone asked here for the differences between shell, membrane, and plate on slab category
using in Etabs and when to apply what. OK.. here I am clearing the fact in details that you can see
from the attached image. In general for Etabs modeling, shell is used but when in practical designing
in high rise structures, we can use membrane as then the moment generated by Etabs for the slab
will be greater, as a result the reinforcement will be increased,hence factor of safety will be increased
but always keep in mind about the economic condition. So, frequently use the shell option. Again,
use the options to take the values for specific parameters.(FACEBOOK)

REPAIR OF SMALL AND
LARGE CRACKS IN
CONCRETE
Repair of small, medium and large
cracks in concrete and repair of
crushed concrete is required to
enhance the strength and
durability of damaged concrete
members.
Repair of small and medium
cracks in concrete:

Small and medium cracks in reinforced concrete and masonry structures reduce
their strength considerably to bear the design loads. Thus repair of such cracks
is necessary to restore the designed strength of members.
The repair of small and medium cracks is done by first marking out the critical
damaged zones in concrete members. Then these cracks can be repaired by
injecting cement grout or chemical grouts or by providing jacketing. The smaller
cracks less than 0.75 mm width can be effectively repair by using pressure
injection of epoxy.
The surface of the member near cracks is thoroughly cleaned. Loose materials
are removed and plastic injection ports are placed along the length of crack at
an interval equal to the thickness of the structural member. These ports are
placed on both sides of the member and
secured in placed with the help of epoxy seal.
When the epoxy seal has hardened, the low
viscosity resin is injected into one port at a
time starting from the port at lowest level and
moving upwards. The injection through port is
continued till the resin flows out from the
adjacent port or from the other side of the
member. Then the current injection port is
closed and epoxy injection is continued from
the adjacent port.

This process is carried out in sequence till all
the ports and cracks are filled with the grout. This method can be used for all
types of structural members such are beams, columns, walls and slabs. This
method can also to repair of small cracks in individual masonry blocks or for
filling large continuous cracks.
Repair of Large Cracks and Crushed Concrete:
Repair of large cracks (cracks wider than 5mm) and crushed concrete and
masonry structure cannot be done using pressure injection or grouting. For
repair of large cracks and crushed concrete, following procedure can be
adopted:

1. The surface of cracks or crushed concrete is cleaned and all the loose
materials are removed. These are then filled with quick setting cement mortar
grouts.
2. If the cracks are large, then these cracks are dressed to have a V groove at
both sides of the member for easy placement of grouts.

Fig: Filling of cement mortar and stone chips in large cracks in masonry walls.
3. For cracks which are very large, filler materials such as stone chips can be
used.
4. Additional reinforcement and
shear reinforcements can be used for
heavily damaged concrete members
or wherever necessary based on
requirements.
These additional reinforcement
should be protected from corrosion
by using polymer mortar or epoxy
coatings.
5. For damaged walls and roofs,
additional reinforcement in the form
of mesh is used on one side or both sides of the members. These mesh should
sufficiently tied with existing members.

Fig: Reinforcement meshes in repair of roof slabs and walls. 1. Wire mesh on
front face, 2. Clamps, 3. Wire mesh on back face, 4. Cement plaster, 5. Crack in
member.
6. Stitching of cracks are done to prevent the widening of the existing cracks. In
this case, holes of 6 to 10mm are drilled on both sides of the crack. Then these
drilled holes are cleaned, legs of stitching dogs are anchored with short legs.
The stitching of cracks is not a method of crack repair or to gain the lost
strength, this method is used to prevent the cracks from propagating and
widening.

Percentage of Bricks and Mortar in a Masonry Wall
Case 1: When thickness of the wall is 4.5” and that of mortar
is 12mm, having the following plan.

In this case
Height of the wall along with the mortar = (10 x 3) + [(9 x 12)/25.4] = 34.252″
In the above equation
10 = No of Brick Layers
9 = No of layers of Mortar of 12mm each
3 = Brick Height in inches
Width= 4.5”
Length of the wall along with the mortar= (5.5 x 9) + [(5×12)/25.4]
Volume of the wall along with the mortar= L×W×H
Volume of the wall along with the mortar= 7993.72 cubic inch
Volume of the wall along with the mortar= 4.626 cft

Now Number of Bricks= 55
Volume of One Brick= (9/128) cft
Total volume of bricks used= 55 x (9/128) = 3.867 cft
%age of bricks used = (3.867 / 4.626)*100 = 83.6 = 84%
%age of mortar used= 16.4%

Case 2:When thickness of the wall is 9” and that of
mortar is 12mm, having the following plan.

In this case
Height of the wall along with the mortar = (10 x 3 ) + [( 9 x 12 )/25.4] = 34.252″
Width of the wall along with the mortar = (9+12/25.4)” = 9.472″
Length of the wall along with the mortar= (5.5 x 9) + (5 x 12/25.4) = 51.862″
Volume of the wall along with the mortar= L×W×H
Volume of the wall along with the mortar=16826.678 cubic inch
Volume of the wall along with the mortar= 9.7376 cft
Now Number of Bricks= 110
Volume of One Brick= 9/128 cft
Total volume of bricks used= 110 x (9/128) = 7.7344 cft
So
%age of bricks used = (7.7344 / 9.7376) x 100 = 79.43% = 80%
%age of mortar used= 20.57% = 21%

Case 3: When thickness of the wall is 4.5” and that
of mortar is 10mm, having the following plan.

In this case
Height of the wall along with the mortar = (10 x 3) + (9 x 10/25.4) = 33.543″
width = 4.5″
Length of the wall along with the mortar= (5.5 x 9) + (5 x 10/25.4) = 51.468″
Volume of the wall along with the mortar= L×W×H
Volume of the wall along with the mortar= 4.4959 cft
Now Number of Bricks= 55
Volume of One Brick= 9/128 cft
Total volume of bricks used= 55 x 9/128 = 3.8672 cft
%age of bricks used = (3.8672 / 4.4959) x 100 = 86%
%age of mortar used = 14%

Case 4:When thickness of the wall is 9” and that of
mortar is 10mm, having the following plan.

In this case
Height of the wall along with the mortar = (10 x 3) + (9 x 10/25.4) = 33.543″
width = (9 + 10/25.4)” 9.3937″
Length of the wall along with the mortar= (5.5 x 9) + (5 x 10/25.4) = 51.468″
Volume of the wall along with the mortar= L×W×H
Volume of the wall along with the mortar= 9.38513 cft
Now Number of Bricks= 110
Volume of One Brick= 9/128 cft
Total volume of bricks used= 110 x 9/128 = 7.7344 cft
%age of bricks used = (7.7344 / 9.38513) x 100 = 82.4% = 82%
%age of mortar used = 17.6% = 18%

Conclusion

Where in it
W= wall thickness in inches
m= thickness of the mortar in mm
The answer will be the %age of mortar, and for better results round it off.
Its Verification is given below after the example from observation.
EXAMPLE:
If thickness of the wall is 4.5” and that of mortar is 12mm, then what will the percentage of mortar
used in the wall?
Solution: