

I,
ANALYTICAL STRENGTH
ASSESSMENT
5t h Edition
II
I
VDMA Verlag
Forschungskuratorium
Maschinenbau
I
FKMGuideline
ANALYTICAL STRENGTH ASSESSMENT
OF COMPONENTS
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
5 th , revised edition, 2003, English Version
Translation by E. Haibach
Title of the original German Version:
RECHNERISCHER FESTIGKEITSNACHWEIS
FUR MASCHINENBAUTEILE
5., iiberarbeitete Ausgabe, 2003
Editor:
Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM)
Postfach 71 0864, D  60498 Frankfurt / Main
Phone *49  69  6603  1345
(c) 2003
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ISBN 3816304257
3
This FKMGuideline was elaborated under contract between
Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e. V. (FKM), Frankfurt / Main, and
IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik Gmhfl, Dresden,
as contractor in charge,
by
Dr.Ing. Bernd Hanel,
IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik GmbH, Dresden,
Prof. Dr.Ing. Erwin Haibach,
Wiesbaden,
Prof. Dr.Ing. TimID Seeger,
Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Fachgebiet Werkstoffmechanik,
Dipl.Ing. Gert Wlrthgen,
IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik GmbH, Dresden,
Prof. Dr.Ing. Harald Zenner,
Technische Universitat Clausthal, Institut fur
Maschinelle Anlagentechnik und Betriebsfestigkeit,
and it was discussed among experts from industry and research institutes
in the FKM expert group "Strength of components" .
Financial grants were obtained from the "Bundesministerium fUr Wirtschaft (BMWi, Bonn)" through
the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen 'Otto von Guericke ' e.V. (AiF,
K6ln)" under contract AiFNo. D156 and B9434. The "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e.V."
gratefully acknowledges the financial support from BMWi and AiF and the contributions by the experts
involved.
Terms of liability
The FKMGuideline is intended to conform with the state of the art. It has been
prepared with the necessary care. The user is expected to decide, whether the
guideline meets his particular requirements, and to observe appropriate care in
its application. Neither the publisher nor the editor, the involved experts, or the
translator shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with
respect to any liability, loss, or damage caused or alleged to have been caused
directly or indirectly by this guideline.
as well as for components from aluminum alloys and cast aluminum alloys at temperatures from 40°C to 200 °C. with additional fatigue classes of welded structural details and with the local stress analysis for welded components.allows an assessment in considering nominal stresses as well as local elastic stresses derived from finite element or boundary element analyses. .is valid for components from steel. . The preceding editions of the FKMGuideline observed a remarkably great interest from which the need of an up to date guideline for analytical strength analyses becomes apparent. Moreover the interest of users was confirmed by the well attended VDI conferences on "Computational Strength Analysis of Metallic Components". consisting of statements. Most of the included figures have an explanatory function only. and with the experimental determination of component strength values. with the assessment of multiaxial stresses. Based on former TGL standards and on the former guideline VDI 2226. The employed symbols are adapted to the extended requirements of notation. cast steel. The user has to make some decisions only. the latter according to an assessment of the fatigue limit.describes the assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength. of the constant amplitude fatigue strength. . A uniformly structured calculation procedure applies to all of these cases of application. For ease of application each of these chapters gives a complete description of the particular calculation procedure. Frankfurt/Main. or from measurements. The FKMGuideline is a commented algorithm." with financial support by the Bundesministerium fur Wirtschaft (BMWi). that describe the assessment of the static strength or of the fatigue strength with either nominal stresses or local stresses. or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the service stress conditions. from theoretical mechanics solutions. for shellshaped (2D) and for blockshaped (3D) components under consideration of all relevant influences. This guideline was elaborated by an expert group "Strength of components" of the "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM). or by welding. Presently available are the PC computer programs "RIFESTPLUS" (applicable for a calculation using elastically determined local stresses. although this results in repetitions of the same or almost the same parts of text in the corresponding sections. The calculation procedure is almost completely predetermined. that were organized for presentation of the FKMGuideline at Fulda in 1995. Textual declarations are given where appropriate to ensure a reliable application. in particular with shellshaped (2D) or blockshaped (3D) components) and "WELLE" (applicable for a calculation using nominal stresses as it is appropriate in the frequently arising case of axles or shafts with gears etc). . and referring to more recent sources it was developed to the current state of knowledge. Its content complies with the state of knowledge to an extend that may be presented in a guideline and it enables quite comprehensive possibilities of calculation. with the section factor for assessing the static strength. The presented calculation procedure is complemented by explanatory examples. An essential formal change in the third edition was a new textual structure providing four main chapters. respectively. and tables. with the technological size factor. with the fatigue limit of grey cast iron and of malleable cast iron. formulae. .is applicable in mechanical engineering and in related fields of industry. The FKMGuideline . or cast iron materials at temperatures from 40°C to 500 °C.is applicable for components produced with or without machining. Practically the described procedure of strength assessment should be realized by means of a suitable computer program.allows the analytical strength assessment for rodshaped (lD).4 Preface to the English Version of the 5th Edition. For engineers concerned with construction and calculation in mechanical engineering or in related fields of industry the FKMGuideline for analytical strength assessment is available since 1994. . The contentsrelated changes introduced with the third edition from 1998 were mainly concerned with the consideration of stainless steel and of forging steel. with the specification of an estimated damage sum smaller than one for the assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength. 1998 and 2002. by the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen 'Otto von Guericke" and by the "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau.
and even of the numbering of the pages. cast steel and cast iron materials so far. The translation observes an almost identical structure of the headlines. Notes of the translator This English translation is intended to keep as close as possible to the original German version.de . indices and formulas. and the fatigue assessment of extremely sharp notches.5 equals 1. The applier of this guideline is kindly asked to accept the more or less unusual kind of notation which is due to the need of clearly distinguishing between a great number of variables. It had to be recognized. ). however. that some of the relevant factors of influence were not yet examined with the desirable clearness or that available results could not be evaluated objectively due to large scatter. that a comma ( . for example. mainly formal amendments being introduced. In these cases the decision was based on a careful consideration of substantial relations.fkmguideline. as well as their numbering. The decisions necessary to include aluminum materials were derived from literature evaluations.5 The major change in the forth edition from 2002 is the possibility of considering structural components made from aluminum alloys or cast aluminum alloys by applying the same calculation procedure that was developed for components from steel. The involved research institutes and the "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM)" will appreciate any reports on practical experience as well as any proposals for improvement. ) is used with numerical values instead of a decimal point ( . It is presented in both a German version and an English version with the expectation that it might observe similar attention as the preceding editions on a broadened international basis of application. For updates and amendments see www. Concerning an analytical strength assessment of components from aluminum alloys or from cast aluminum alloys this guideline is delivered to the technical community by supposing that for the time being it will be applied with appropriate caution and with particular reference to existing experience so far.5 . of the paragraphs and of the sentences. the technical meaning of the sentence and/or of the paragraph is maintained. has not been modified in order to insure identity with the German original in this respect. Further improvements may also be expected from ongoing research projects concerning the procedure of static strength assessment using local elastic stresses. hence 1. In particular the original German notation of the mathematical symbols. while only the verbal terms have been translated. Last not least the fifth edition of the FKMGuideline is a revision of the forth edition with several necessary. Chapter 3. of the chapters. but by using a common vocabulary and simple sentences. If the given translation is different from a literal one. Also the tables and the figures as well as their numbering and headlines are adapted as they are. however. In particular the applier is pointed to the speciality.
: Ermiidungsfestigkeit. 4. Bauteillebensdauer Nachweiskonzepte. *1 /18/ FKMForschungsheft 1831 (1994). Related Conference Proceedings Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile. Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile. 19996 /10/ Haibach. 2. ISBN 354043142X. Betriebsfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile. . Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile. Aufstellung und Uberlagerung von Beanspruchungskollektiven. /21/ FKMRichtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile. Bemessung und Konstruktion. Schweillverbindungen II. ISBN 3540440631.Aufl. VDIVerlag. Deutscher Verband fur Materialsforschung und prufung. 1 1'" and 2 nd Edition ofthe FKMGuideline . D. 3. A. Empfehlungen fur Entwicklungsingenieure und Konstrukteure. Grundlage fur Leichtbau. Diisseldorf. VDI Berichte 1698. /17/ FKMForschungsheft 1832 (1994). /6/ Richtlinie VDI 2226 (1965). XIII153996 / XV84596. /11/ Radaj. (Eurocode 3). VDIVerlag. Abbington Publishing. Empfehlungen fur Entwicklungsingenieure und Konstrukteure.Neue Entwicklungen bei der Lebensdauerberechnung von Bauteilen. /7/ DIN 18 800 Teil 1 (1990). erweiterte Ausgabe (2002). Richtlinie. Empfehlung fiir die Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile. /14/ FKMForschungsheft 227 (1997). VDI Berichte 1227.. /20/ FKMForschungsheft 143 (1989). DVMBericht 800. /19/ FKMForschungsheft 180 (1994). Berlin 2003. Abbington. /5/ TGL 19 352 (Entwurf 1988). Wechselfestigkeit von Flachproben aus Grauguss. Deutscher Verband fur Materialsforschung und prufung. Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Alumininiumwerkstoff. Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten.. Diisseldorf. Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile. /8/ DIN ENV 1993 (1993).: Betriebsfestigkeits . /4/ TGL 19 350 (1986). Randschichthartung. VDIVerlag. Mehrachsige und zusammengesetzte Beanspruchungen. Kommentare. Zeitfestigkeit von Achsen und Wellen. Betriebsfestigkeit . England. Schweillverbindungen I. Lebensdauervorhersage II.: Fatigue design of welded joints and components. 1998. /2/ TGL 19 341 (1988). VDI Berichte 1442. Dauerfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile. /16/ FKMForschungsheft 221 (1996). /22/ FKMRichtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile. Abbington Hall. Berlin 1997. Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Eisengusswerkstoffen. /15/ FKMForschungsheft 2212 (1997). Stahlbauten. Empfehlungen fur Konstrukteure und Entwicklungsingenieure. 1995.Verfahren und Daten zur Bauteilberechnung. Berlin und Heidelberg: SpringerVerlag. vollstandig iiberarbeitete und erweiterte Ausgabe (1998). Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile. /3/ TGL 19 333 (1979). 2002. 2003. Ermiidungsfestigkeit. Schwingfestigkeit. /9/ Hobbacher. Berlin und Heidelberg. 2002. DVMBericht 802. Ermiidungsfestigkeit.. Cambridge CB1 6AH. Recommendations of the Joint Working Group XIIIXV. /12/ FKMForschungsheft 241 (1999). /13/ FKMForschungsheft 230 (1998). Maschinenbau und Stahlbau. SpringerVerlag. Teil11: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln..6 References /1/ TGL 19 340 (1983). E. Dusseldorf.
3 Scope Technical background Structure and elements 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 1.2 2.1 0.1 4.3 1.10 Approximate assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of nonproportional multiaxial stresses 5.1 2.3 5.5 2.2 5.4 6.0 4.0 2.5 6.2 3.2 0.4 4.3 2.0 3.7 Assessment using classes of utilization 5.5 3.2 4.5 7.6 Shaft with shoulder Shaft with Vbelt drive Compressor flange made of grey cast iron Welded notched component Cantilever subject to two independent loads Component made of a wrought aluminum alloy 97 103 106 113 125 127 131 178 187 195 209 216 218 222 223 226 227 230 231 236 241 245 250 256 7 Symbols and basic formulas 7.4 3.11 Experimental determination of component strength values 5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength of welded components 5.2 7.7 Contents Page 0 General survey 0.1 5.6 Abbreviations Indices Lower case characters Upper case characters Greek alphabetic characters Basic formulas 260 261 262 8 Subject index 263 259 .6 Adjusting the stress ratio of a stress spectrum to agree with that of the SN curve and deriving a stepped spectrum 5.4 1.0 1.3 7.6 General Parameters of the stress spectrum Material properties Design parameters Component strength Safety factors Assessment 41 47 50 57 68 70 5 Appendices Page 5.5 4.12 Stress concentration factor for a substitute structure 6 Examples 73 6.6 General Characteristic stress values Material properties Design parameters Component strength Safety factors Assessment 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 4.4 7.1 7.1 3.6 General Parameters of the stress spectrum Material properties Design Parameters Component strength Safety factors Assessment 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses 3.2 General Characteristic stress values Material properties Design parameters Component strength Safety factors Assessment 1.1 6.1 1.9 An improved method for computing the component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous multiaxial stresses 5.3 3.5 1.6 2 9 19 22 30 33 34 36 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 2.4 Material tables.3 4.2 6.8 Particular strength characteristics of surface hardened components 5. Stress concentration factors Fatigue notch factors Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of structural steel and of aluminum alloys 5.3 76 85 89 90 93 6.4 2.
8 .
3.3.25°C to 500°C for cast iron materials and from. what critical points of the considered crosssections or component. with a sufficient probability they should be higher than most of the normally occurring loadings *3. . also stainless steel. the latter as an assessment of the fatigue limit. in particular the former TGLStandards.3.0 General 0.5 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses 16 14 15 0. The strength values are supposed to correspond to an anticipated probability of 97. of stability.40°C to 500°C for steel.for milled or forged steel.3.3.3. and that they are faultless in a technical sense. as well as an experimental assessment of strength *1. the former VlrlGuideline 2226. The guideline is valid for components produced with or without machining or by welding of steel.3.2 0.3. of the constant amplitude fatigue strength or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength. for components with welded joints. .for component temperatures from.regulations of DIN 18 800.3.1 0.11 "Experimental determination of component strength values" is not the realization of an experimental assessment of strength.3. and in detail . as for example for bolted joints.5 % (average probability of survival Po = 97.3.4. or if more specific design codes are applicable.3.5 %). according to the service stress conditions.3.4.3 0. o General survey 0.3. for example of safety against brittle fracture.dog 0.3 0.3.4.for fatigue loading with more than about 104 constant or variable amplitude cycles. cast iron materials as well as aluminum alloys or cast aluminum alloys.4 0. material and workmanship.1 Procedure of calculation 0. 3 Usually this probability can hardly be quantified. of iron or of aluminum materials that are intended for use under normal or elevated temperature conditions.25°C to 200°C for aluminum materials.2 0.3.4. that is. The service loadings are to be determined on the safe side.3 Kinds of components General Rodshaped (lD) components Shellshaped (2D) components Blockshaped (3D) components 13 0.3 Structure and elements Page Contents 0.9 o General survey lRo2 EN.1 Scope This guideline is valid for components in mechanical engineering and in related fields of industry.for components with geometrical notches.3. If an application of the guideline is intended outside the mentioned field of application additional specifications are to be agreed upon.1 Methods of strength assessment General Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses.3.0 0. Before applying the guideline it has to be decided  what crosssections or structural detail of the 2 component shall be assessed * and what service loadings are to be considered. 2 In particular. Chapter 4 0.2 Service stresses 0. . Chapter 1 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses. or of deformation under load.3. the IIWRecommendations and Eurocode 3.4 9 10 11 12 13 0. The guideline is not valid if an assessment of strength is required according to other standards. .3.for a noncorrosive environment. rules or guidelines. from. for static loading. 0.3. but the question how specific and sufficiently reliable component strength values suitable for the general procedure of strength assessment may be derived experimentally.0 General An assessment of the static strength is required prior to an assessment of the fatigue strength. .0 0. however. Chapter 3 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses. For components subjected to mechanical loadings it allows an analytical assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength. It is presupposed. as well as the. 1 Subject of Chapter 5. that the components are professionally produced with regard to construction. Chapter 2 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses. Moreover the guideline was developed to the current state of knowledge by taking into account the results of more recent investigations. Its application has to be agreed between the contracting parties.2 Technical Background Basis of the guideline are the references listed on page 7. Other analytical assessments. are not subject of this guideline.
1 Procedure of calculation The procedure of calculation for an assessment of the static strength is presented in Figure 0.3. Sequential procedure of calculation Safety factors o General survey At the assessment stage (box at bottom of either Figure) the characteristic values of service stress occurring in the component (box at top on the left) and the component strength values derived from the mechanical material properties and the design parameters (middle column) are compared by including the required safety factors (box at bottom on the right).3. Chapter 0.6.5. There is a need to distinguish the names and subscripts of the different components or types of stress. except the stress amplitudes.1. In Figure 0.00. 6 The elastic stress at the root of a notch exceeds the nominal stress by a stress concentration factor.0. The stresses are to be determined according to known principles and techniques: analytically according to elementary or advanced methods of theoretical mechanics.~~l. All stresses. 4 A survey on the analytical procedures of assessment based on the equations of the guideline may be found in Chapter 7. are combined with a sign.0..1 and Figure 0. effective 6 notch stresses or structural (hot spot) stresses * (notation o and r).1 Procedure of calculation for an assessment of the static strength. also termed geometrical or hot spot stresses. numerically after the finite element or the boundary element method. In case of doubt several reference points are to be considered.it~~~~~~~l forzeromean stress . the almost identical procedure for an assessment of the fatigue strength in Figure 0. 5 Nominal stresses can be computed for a well defmed crosssection only. that may act in rodshaped (lD).  Characteristic service S~resses Sequential procedure of caJc. for example in the case of welded joints the toe and the root of the weld.0.2 *4.2 Service stresses Figure 0.0. In the case of welded joints effective notch stresses are applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength only.3.6. To perform an assessment it is necessary to decide about the kind of stress determination for the reference point considered: The stresses can be determined as nominal stresses *5 (notation S and T). 0. as elastically determined local stresses.10 0. In specifying component fatigue strength values the mean stress and the variable amplitude effects are regarded as essential factors of influence.ulation For an application of the guideline the stresses resulting from the service loadings have to be determined for the socalled reference point of the component. Component fati. in shellshaped (2D) or in blockshaped (3D) components.0. : Component fatigiielimlt forthe actualmean stress Component fatigue strength i I .~~ JI Safety factors Figure 0. For further information see Chapter 5. The assessment of strength is successful if the degree of utilization is less or equal 1. are normally in use with welded joints only.0. or experimentally by measurement. that is the potential point of fatigue crack initiation at the crosssection or at the component under consideration. in particular compressive stresses are negative. Structural stresses.2 the arrangements of the individual boxes from top to bottom illustrate the sequential procedure of calculation. Chapter 1.2 Procedure of calculation for an assessment of the fatigue strength.4. where the degree of utilization is defined by the ratio of the characteristic service stress to the component strength value that has been reduced by the safety factor. respectively. .
of the bending stress. Chapter 3.~.3 Methods of strength assessment 0.3 Organization of the guideline. \ ".is allowed for by means of temperature factors.strength at elevated temperature and creep strength./ Static strength aSseSSlllent ~~..or blockshaped components. Chapter 2. ~ Fatii:ue strength Chapter 4: o General survey . Chapter 1. For materials with a yield strength less than 0.. and for the throat section with 7 According to rod. Sb. respectively.. that are determined from the largest amplitude and the related mean value of a stress spectrum.3. stresses Nominal stresses I Fatigue strength' assessment ~tb 0. divided by the allowable nominal static component strength value. yield strength at elevated temperature and I% creep limit .g.3. .ou.n. LO.0. and so forth *7 *8. strength ) .2.Li . estr.3. The nominal values of the static component strength are derived from the tensile strength. The interaction formula to be applied to that combination allows for the ductility of the material in question.0 General In order to present the guideline clearly arranged and userfriendly..3: . shape of crosssection. If there are several stress components or types of stress their individual degrees of utilization are combined to obtain an entire degree of utilization. and stress concentration factor.4.3. 0.according to yield strength. The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree of utilization is less or equal 1. From the section factor and from further parameters an overall design factor is derived.0. The procedure of calculation using local stresses has to be applied to blockshaped (3D) components. Assessment of the static strength using local stresses. if the stresses are determined by a finiteelement or a boundaryelement calculation. which follows from the nominal static component strength divided by the safety factor. or (concerning the assessment of the static strength) in the case ofbrittIe materials. .1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses. Chapter 1.00 . Chapter 1.75 times the tensile strength the safety factor is 1.0.) . Chapter 1.cal.ali..3. The degree of utilization for an individual stress component or type of stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service stress value.3.4. Chapter 1.3. and moreover in general.11 Correspondingly the component strength values are to be determined as nominal strength values or as local strength values of the elastic local stress. .. As common in practice the safety factor against the tensile strength is 2. The procedure of calculation using nominal stresses is to be preferred for simple rodshaped (lD) and for shellshaped (2D) components. e. it is organized in four chapters.5. Design parameters are the section factors. The influence of an elevated temperature on the material properties . . . Static strength LNoml?al Nominalstresses ) . With the procedures of calculation structured uniformly for both types of stress determination it is intended that more or less identical results will be obtained from comparable strength assessments based on either nominal stresses or local stresses. Chapter 0.r" Chapter 3: "<. shell. Relevant material properties are the tensile strength and the yield strength (yield stress or 0.5 against the yield strength.c. IAcalstrcsses/" Stresses \. A technological size effect is taken into account if appropriate.2 proof stress) as well as the strength values for shear derived from these. In particular the procedure of calculation is completely presented in everyone of the four chapters.1. Szd. type of loading. Under favorable conditions these safety factors may be reduced. by which an experienced partial plasticity of the component is allowed . Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses. ( Stade.~ ~~ Figure 0.·. Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses. For welded components the assessment of the static strength has to be carried out for the toe section as for nonwelded components. if stress concentration factors or fatigue notch factors are not known. Chapter I. Figure 0. divided by the respective overall design factor. 8 The extreme maximum or minimum stresses for the assessment of the static strength may be different from the maximum and minimum stresses for the assessment of the fatigue strength.6. even if this results in repetitions of the same or almost the same parts of text in Chapter I and Chapter 3 or in Chapter 2 and Chapter 4.. however. nominal values of the axial (or tensioncompression) stress. of the effective notch stress or of the structural stress.Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses. Chapter 1 Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the extreme maximum and extreme minimum values of the individual types of stress or stress components. Chapter 4. Chapter 1. if there are no welldefined crosssections or no simple crosssection shapes.
by which the respective surface properties are accounted for. The nominal values of the component fatigue limit for completely reversed stresses follow from the derived fatigue limit values of the material. 11 The assessment ofthe static strength using local stresses on the basis of Neuber's formula and the plastic limit load is an approximation which has to be regarded as provisional and is to be applied with caution only.3. The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal stresses. e. and shape of the component. divided by the respectiveoverall design factor. Chapter 2. The allowable 9 This assessment of the static strength for welded components is according to DIN 18 800 part 1.3. as their individual degrees of utilization are combined to obtain the total degree of utilization.5. Chapter 2. stainless steel. o General survey amplitude value follows from the nominal amplitude of the derived component fatigue strength divided by the safetyfactor. Chapter 3. stainless steel.g. allowing for the design of the component (shape. Chapter 2. as well as the roughness factor and the surface treatment factor.3. The section factors are calculated on the basis of Neuber's formula. The combined effect of mean stress and of residual stresses in welded components is considered by means of a mean stress factor together with a residual stress factor *10.section factors and from further parameters an overall design factor is derived. Chapter 3. weldable cast iron materials or weldable aluminum alloys are concerned. Under favorable conditions this safety factor may be reduced. Relevant material properties are the fatigue limit for completely reversed axial stress and the fatigue limit for completely reversed shear stress of the material in question. Chapter 2. size and type of loading).g. They are determined for the individual stress components or types of stress. From the . The interaction formula to be applied to that combination allows for the ductility of the material in question.3. that is computed from the components of nominal stress acting in the weld seam *9. Chapter 3.3 *11.2.00 . The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree of utilization is less or equal 1.2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses. Sa. amplitudes and mean values of the nominal axial (tensioncompression) 7 8 stresses.4. divided by the allowable amplitude of the component fatigue limit or of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength. They are independent of the tensile strength of the base material (which is different to nonwelded components). Design parameters are the section factors.3. and of the shear (shear and/or torsional) stress * *8. local values of the normal (axial and/or bending) stress. by which an experienced partial plasticity of the component is allowed according to yield strength. Relevant material properties are to be determined as for nominal stresses. Chapter 3. The local values of the static component strength are derived from the tensile strength. From these fatigue limit values the amplitudes of the component fatigue limit according to the mean stress values (or the stress ratios) are to be derived. The basic value of the safety factor is 1.1.2. Chapter 3 Relevant characteristic local service stresses are the extreme maximum and extreme minimum stresses of the individual types of stress or stress components. . A technological size effect is taken into account where appropriate. 0.4. If there are several stress components or types of stress 0. 10 The assessment of the fatigue strength for welded components makes reference to the llWRecommendations and Eurocode 3. e.5.1. weldable cast iron materials or weldable aluminum alloys are concerned this kind of calculation is provisional and may be applied with caution only. and so forth * *.2. type of loading. The degree of utilization for an individual stress component or type of stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service stress amplitude. but by observing individual upper bound values that follows from the plastic limit load (plastic notch factor). By specific combination of all these factors a summary design factor is calculated. Design parameters to be considered in particular are the fatigue notch factors.4. For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded components using nominal stresses basic fatigue limit values for completely reversed stress are given.12 an equivalent nominal stress. They are converted by design factors that follow from a classification scheme of structural weld details.zd and Sm. Chapter 2. As far as conditionally weldable steel. Chapter 2. divided by the respective design factors. The amplitudes that specify the variable amplitude fatigue strength of the component are obtained from the fatigue limit values multiplied by a factor depending on the parameters of the stress spectrum (total number of cycles and amplitude frequency distribution).1. As far conditionally weldable steel.zd.6. Chapter 2.3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses. that is in the same way as for the assessment of the static strength. 7 o.3.5. Chapter 3. Chapter 2 Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the largest stress amplitudes in connection with the respective stress spectra and the related mean stress values. Chapter 2.4. the rules of DIN 18 800 are provisional and may be applied with caution only. The influence of an elevated temperature is allowed for by means of temperature factors.
Chapter 4. Figure 0.3. The relevant material properties are determined as for nominal stresses. nominal stresses by means of a mean stress factor together with a residual stress factor *10. . Chapter 4.g. They hold for effective notch stresses without conversion. Chapter 3.4 Kinds of components 0. e.0.4. Chapter 4. Chapter 4 Relevant local characteristic service stresses are the largest stress amplitudes in connection with the respective stress spectra and the related mean stress values.1 Rodshaped (ID) components For rodshaped (10) components .0.3. Chapter 4. 0. Chapter 4. are of concern. For welded components the assessment of the static strength using local stresses is carried out using structural stresses (not with notch root stresses).6.4.and zaxes are the main axes of the crosssection that are to be specified so. allowing for the design of the component (shape and size). Chapter I and 2.0. but with the respective local values of the characteristic service stress and the local component strength values. T.4. however. Mz and ofthe lateral loads Fy. amplitudes and mean values of the local normal (axial and/or bending) stress. for the weld toe as for nonwelded components.0 General Rodshaped (10). but for structural stresses they have to be converted by factors given for some typical weld details. The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal stresses..2 to 4. They are determined for the individual stress components or types of stress.. and the procedure of calculation is the same in all cases.4.z . For the equations given in Chapter 1 and 2 it is provided. shaft. as well as the roughness factor and the surface treatment factor. 12 The indices y and z describe the direction ofthe related vectors ofthe bending moments My. Ts.1. Nominal stress S. The combined effect of mean stress and of residual stresses in welded components is to be considered as for 'z Figure 0.3. identified by differing symbols and subscripts. as in each case other stress components or types of stresses. by which the respective surface properties are accounted for. 0. For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded components using structural stresses or effective notch stresses the same basic fatigue limit values for completely reversed stresses apply as for nominal stresses.y and Sb. but with the respective local values of the characteristic stress amplitude and the value of the component fatigue limit or of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength.4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses.6.the following system of coordinates is introduced: xaxis is the longitudinal center line of the component.rod.· The local values of the component fatigue limit for completely reversed stresses follow from the derived fatigue limit values of the material. divided by the respective design factors.3.4 Rodshaped (ID) component (round specimen with groove) in bending. that is to be derived from the structural stress components acting in the weld seam *9. y. act in the xzplane.5. bar. for the root of the weld using an equivalent structural stress.2. Sb from a bending moment.4. from a shear load.4. shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) components are to be distinguished. The conversions to the amplitude of the component fatigue limit and to the amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength are as for nominal stresses. "0.1.3. and maximum local stress O"m"" at the reference point W. 0. and/or Tt from a torsional moment acting at the respective section. the nominal stresses to be computed at the reference point are Szd from an axial load. By specific combination of all these factors a summary design factor is calculated. The distinction is only a formal one. The assessment by means of the degree of utilization is as for nominal stresses.3.3. Calculation using nominal stresses If the assessment of rodshaped (ID) components is carried out by using nominal stresses. Design parameters to be considered in particular are the KtKf ratios. and so forth * * .z are to be considered *12. Specific particulars apply to welded components. Otherwise stress components Sb. Chapter 4. 7 8 0"a and O"m .y and Ts. Chapter 4.13 o General survey The assessment is carried out by means of the degree of utilization as for nominal stresses. that for the moments of inertia Iy~ Iz is valid. that both the bending stress Sb and the shear stress T. Fz . or beam for example .
0"2. from loadings in the x. =JrS~. Calculation using local stresses If the assessment of shellshaped (2D) components is carried out using local stresses.the following system of coordinates is introduced: The x. the local normal stresses at the reference point from axial and from bending loading (in xdirection).x at the reference point W (peak value) and aa. see Chapter 0. if the calculation yields the complete local state of stress at the reference point (as for example a finiteelement calculation does). The normal stress and the shear stress in thickness direction are supposed to be negligible.x.z ' 2 (0. if the calculation yields the complete local state of stress at the reference point (as for example a finiteelement calculation does). Additional stresses at notches (as for example the circumferential stress associated with an axial stress of a shaft with groove) may be included in the stress concentration factor. However. Chapter 3 and 4. azd = a as well as the local shear stresses "ts = "t from shear and from torsion (normal to the xdirection) are considered.3.ru. 0"3 are computed *14 and treated as described for blockshaped (3D) components. Calculation using nominal stresses If the assessment of shellshaped (2D) components is carried out using nominal stresses. If the local stresses are calculated from the nominal stresses by multiplication with the respective stress concentration factors. Calculation using local stresses If the calculation of rodshaped (ID) components is carried out using local stresses *13.2 Shellshaped (2D) components (ID) welded components Rodshaped For shellshaped (2D) components . the local stresses at the reference point azdx = ax and azdy = a y in the x. = T from a shear loading. Figure O. Rodshaped (ID) welded components For rodshaped (ID) welded components *15 the notations a and "t apply to structural stresses and the notation aK and "tK apply to effective notch stresses *16. and Szdy = S.0"3 are computed *14 and treated as described for blockshaped (3D) components. s. the principle stresses 0"1.5. In the general case of not rotationally symmetrical crosssections a calculation using local stresses is normally to be preferred. If the local stresses are computed from the nominal stresses by multiplication with the respective stress concentration factors. Chapter 1 and 2. 1. 14 Principle stresses are independent of the chosen coordinate system. 0"2. Figure 0. or shell for example . box or other crosssections connected or joined with butt welds and/or fillet welds. the zaxis is normal to the surface in thickness direction. . In the special case of a proportional loading the directions of the principle stresses remain fixed to the coordinates of the component.5.and ydirections and T. tube. 15 Rodshaped (ID) welded components are rolled sections with circular.3. o General survey 0.disk. plate. the equations given in Chapter 3 and 4 are applicable.4. the nominal stresses at the reference point to be computed are the normal stresses Szdx = S. In the more general case of nonproportional loading the directions and the amounts of the three principle stresses will change with time.and yaxis are placed in the surface at the reference point. the principle stresses 0"1. 5 Shellshaped (2D) component (shell with cutout detail).y+S~. at the neighbouring point B.0. O.z The equations given in Chapter 1 and 2 may be applied to Sb and T.3. Chapter 3 and 4. the equations given in Chapter 3 and 4 are applicable. Local stresses aa. However. otherwise they will be neglected. = t are considered.14 In case of rotationally symmetrical crosssections with circumferential notches a resultant bending stress and a resultant shear stress can be calculated from these stress components.1) 2 Ts = Ts. 13 The assessment of rodshaped (ID) components should preferably be carried out using nominal stresses whenever possible.y +TS.and ydirections and the local shear stress r.
and for these the . ._ _ :.7 Shellshaped (2D) welded component... O"Ky and 'tK apply to effective notch stresses *16 ..max In general stress gradients exist for all three principle stresses. 17 For blockshaped components the determination of a nominal stress is not possible since there is no well defmed crosssection. .0. . Example: Cruciform joint and butt weld. .8 Blockshaped (3D) component (flange)..s and 0"2. After Radaj /10/.Radius r = 1 mm / F I \ \/ F Figure 0. Relevant is the stress at the reference point W (at the toe line of the weld). .. see Figure 0. Calculation using structural stress: Maximum stress O"x. Bottom: Profile.. Local longitudinal stress 0"1 and circumferential stress 0"2 at the reference point W (peak values).S x /Io{ (It'd <.  .. The calculation is supposed to yield the complete state the reference point (as for example a . The fictitious notch radius r = 1 rom applies to welded joints from structural steel. J~.+~"'i nO)'jJIr'rtfl.. O"Kx.7 . that it is applicable for other kinds of material as well.are computed *14...fI"c(<lC<{ 1 : . Example: Strap with longitudinal stiffner. degrees of utilization are determined. cylindrical or spherical type. From that the principle >tl~esses_~!.{ *17 ~~'" For blockshaped (3D) components the coordinate system at the reference point may be of cartesian. stresses O"u. it is supposed that 0"1 and 0"2 are the principle stresses at the surface.~2. although this has to be considered as a preliminary specification for welded aluminum materials so far. 16 Structural stresses can be applied to the assessment of the static strength and to the assessment of the fatigue strength. Chapter 3 and 4 _. .~ . Effective notch stresses can be applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength.finiteelement calculation does).~s at neighboring point B..~~~. It is supposed.4. Figure 0. of local stress at If the reference point W is located at a free surface of a blockshaped (3D) component.. Calculation using effective notch stresses: The maximum stress O"Kx... Top: Joint.. Calculation using nominal stresses: Stress Sx .70.. ( . . /~ . Figure 0. while the principle stress 0"3 is supposed to point normally to the surface inwards the component. however..8.max obtained from extrapolating the stress distribution towards the weld toe. unless the real radius is r > 1 rom (the fictitious notch radius is intended for the assessment of the fatigue strength only). but not to the assessment of the static strength... .0. Blockshaped (3D) components can be calculated as shellshaped (2D) components if the stresses O"x .3 Blockshaped (3D) components For shellshaped (2D) welded components the notations o"x . while the stress gradients for 0"1 and 0"2 in any directions of the surface and the gradients of 0"3 can not.' = .0. After Radaj /l0/... O"y and 't at the load free surface are of concern only.0. Figure 0.. ¥ . 0':«. '. However.15 o General survey Shellshaped (2D) welded components 0... In the general case blockshaped (3D) components are to be calculated using local stresses.3.max occurring at the toe or at the root of the weld has to be computed by introducing a fictitious effective notch radius r = 1 rom. ·both normal to the surface and in either direction of the surface.6 Shellshaped (2D) welded component.0. Centre: Stress distribution.. Calculation using effective notch stresses: Maximum stress occurring at the weld toe. only the stress gradients for 0" 1 and 0"2 normal to the surface can be considered in the procedure of calculation.x'1l!~. O"y and 't apply to structural stresses and the notations O"Kx .
Proportional stresses Normally proportional stresses result from a single loading acting on the component. In general components are subject to multiaxial stresses. Then the notations G x . For the assessment of the static strength the most unfavorable case to be considered is that the extreme values of all maximum and minimum stresses occur simultaneously. Chapter 1. the interaction formulas given in Chapter 2. . Hence all stress spectra are of similar shape.9. synchronous stresses. but may differ in intensity (amount of their characteristic maximum stress). Left: multiaxial stresses in a sheet section.6 or 3. Figure 0. any further stresses are small. ~ t Sy "+T x t': ~ {Q:Jt. In this guideline a basic principle is defined both for an assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength in case of multiaxial stresses: the individual degrees of utilization for everyone of the computed types of stress or stress components have to be determined and assessed separately in a first step. and thereafter these individual degrees of utilization will be combined by means of an appropriate interaction formula to obtain the entire degree of utilization for final assessment. O"Ky and 'tK apply to the notch root stresses at the surface. however.:' ~ Figure 0.6. or at an unloaded edge of shellshaped (2D) or blockshaped (3D) components. for their part.". or normal stresses and shear stresses occur at the reference point. Further.3. Figure 0. The amounts of the stresses. the principle stresses observe nonchanging directions relative to the component. If this single acting loading is varying with time. Nominal stresses Sx. An uniaxial stress occurs under special circumstances only. the latter even if several loads act on these components simultaneously.+ t T f  +~ +~at . Assessment of the fatigue strength For the assessment of the fatigue strength *18 multiaxial stresses varying with time have to be distinguished as follows: proportional stresses. may be converted by constant factors. all multiaxial stresses are varying proportionally to that loading and proportionally to each other. change proportionally with time as well. Then several stresses of the same kind are to be overlaid additively. which also is true with regard to their amplitudes and their mean values. Then two or three normal stresses.Sy and T. by comparison. as a consequence. For proportional multiaxial stresses.0.16 o General survey Blockshaped (3D) welded components Assessment of the static strength Welds at a loadfree surface of blockshaped (3D) components having no inner defects can be assessed as shellshaped (2D) welded components. In both cases an uniaxial stress or multiaxial stresses may result at the reference point. Accordingly the entire degree of utilization has to be computed. s. or the bending and torsional stresses of a round cantilever loaded eccentrically by a single load. also in the stress amplitude spectra. In addition an uniaxial stress may be assumed at the reference point if.0. stresses of different sign that will decrease the entire degree of utilization are to be included only if they definitely occur together with the remaining stresses. if the related rules of signs are observed.by several loads acting simultaneously.. or nonproportional stresses.9 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses. Right: uniaxial stress in a sheet section at the edge of a cutout. 18 Both for the assessment ofthe fatigue limit and for the assessment of the variable amplitude strength.6 and 4.6..6 are exactly valid in the sense of material mechanics. However. 0. as for example in a tension loaded prismatic bar.0. Examples of proportional stresses are the circumferential and the longitudinal stresses of a cylindrical vessel loaded by internal pressure. Gy and 't apply to structural stresses and the notations O"Kx .5 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses The stresses occurring in the crosssection or at the reference point of a component may be caused by a single load or . Proportional stresses my also result from several loadings that act on the component simultaneously and.
In order to reach an optimum degree of utilization of the component fatigue strength in the case of nonproportional multiaxial stresses. an experimental assessment of the fatigue strength has to be recommended according to the contemporary state of the art. o General survey determined degrees of utilization for the individual loadings are then added linearly in order to estimate the entire degree of utilization. however nonproportional with regard to their mean values. that is varying with time. Chapter 5. Appropriate methods of calculation proposed for the assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of nonproportional stresses. where the longitudinal stress is nonproportional to the circumferential stress because of the bending stress from the dead weight is additively overlaid.6 and 4. that a thorough stress analysis is performed in every case and that careful evaluation of the result is performed finally.are valid as a useful approximation.9. however. Or a long. Nonproportional stresses Nonproportional stresses result from the action of at least two loadings that vary nonproportionally with time in a different manner. Therefore only an approximate way of calculation for the assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of nonproportional multiaxial stresses can be given. An improved procedure for the assessment of the component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous multiaxial stresses is presented in Chapter 5. . They are proportional with regard to their amplitudes. however. Examples are a shaft with a nonchanging torsional loading and a rotating bending loading. Compared to usual interaction formulas developed for proportional stresses the linear addition may be assumed to produce results on the safe side *19. A necessary reservation for applying this approximate way of calculation is. The so 19 For nonproportional multiaxialloadings the reference point may be at different positions in the case ofthe combined loadings and in the case of each ofthe individual loadings. The case of variable directions of the principle stresses can not be considered with the interaction formulas given in Chapter 2. because they are applied to the stress amplitudes. the interaction formulae given in Chapter 2. For synchronous multiaxial stresses. respectively. In this most general case of nonproportional loading different spectra apply to the individual types of stress that result from the combined loadings. the full damaging effect of each loading may be assumed to be superimposed at the reference point in question.6 and 4. Their plausibility is currently subject of investigations. different kind of loading.6 .6. lying cylindrical vessel under pulsating internal pressure. Normally synchronous stresses result from a combined action of a constant loading with a second.if observing the related rules of sign . This is because the most damaging stresses from the combined loadings may occur at positions different from the positions ofthe maximum stresses from the individual loadings. In particular the amounts and the directions of the principle stresses are variable with time. By the above mentioned approximation.6. Additional rules for considering the mean stresses are required. require much computing effort and are applicable with computer programs for short stress sequences only.17 Synchronous stresses Synchronous stresses are a simple case of nonproportional stresses.10: As proportional stresses result from each of the acting loadings the degrees of utilization of these individual loadings can be correctly computed and assessed as described in Chapter 2. and because the fatigue strength is determined by the stress amplitudes in the first place. that have been developed from a material mechanics point of view.6 and 4. which are proportional to each other.
18 o General survey .
ex. are relevant for a shortterm loading (related to the high temperature strength or high temperature yield strength).0.ex.5 % .. Both the maximum and minimum stresses can be positive or negative. Kt..l = Sm..zd.0 1.1. The related maximum and minimum values are Smax.'.zd..5 % .1.ex. F ~ _ . 2 Because extremely high local strains are associated with a very high stress concentration factor. and the related mean value is Sm. In the case of very high stress concentration factors the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses according to Chapter 3 *2.1.i .zd.ex. refer to a stress distribution with a stress gradient.1. 1 .A ~ __ c.i and the mean values Sm.zd. If in those cases it becomes necessary to make best use of the longterm load bearing capacity of the component general the values Smax.1 Different sections for a static failure occurring as a local failure (A) or as a global failure (B).ex.ex..zd..~+.. For blockshaped (3D) components the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses according to Chapter 3.ex.ex.0 General 1. F Figure 1. Relevant are the extreme maximum and rmmmum stresses Smax.ex.l .1 1.1.1. GS. For a longterm·loading (related to the creep strength or 1% creep limit) correct results will only be obtained in case of a constant (static) tensile stress Smax.zd. unnotched or moderately notched section of the component may be determining..l + Sa.doq 1.1 1.zd. 1 and Smin.. 3 In 1 Because these materials lack sufficient plasticity. for all sorts GT and GG as well as for cast aluminium alloys the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses according to Chapter 3 *1._. and Smin.Sa.zd.1 Characteristic stress values Contents 1._.zd and Smin. In a stress spectrum which issupposed toapply tonormal service conditions they do not have tobe considered therefore. while for the rest of time the stress is lower.The values Smax. The largest amplitude ofthis stress spectrum is Sa. It is assumed. 1. but hardly for the assessment ofthe fatigue strength.zd..1 Characteristic stress values 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses IR>11 N. A'2 12.1. of the individual stress components expected for the most unfavorable operating conditions and for special loads according to specification or due to physical limits *3. In case of elevated temperature the values Smax... . milled steel and forgingsteel) and for smaller stress concentration factors of rodshaped (lD) and of shellshaped (2D) components the assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses is applicable.l .0 General According to this chapter the characteristic service stress values are to be determined..0 General According to this chapter the assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out. and Smin. A < 12.19 1.zd.zd.zd and Smin. .zd.1.1. The stress concentration factor Kt = 3 ofaflat bar with a hole issuggested asa limit value. 1.l .zd may be different from the values Smax.. Likewise a global failure occurring at a different. and/or if they refer to the peak values of a variable stress history. . In all other cases of constant or variable loading the assessment will be more or less on the safe side if the values Smax.ex. Figure 1.l and Smin.zd.. .zd..l = Sm..ex.0. .zd.2 Characteristic stress values General Rodshaped (ID) components Shellshaped (2D) components Page 19 20 It should be observed that not necessarily the component static strength is determined by a failure occurring at a notched section. that all stresses reach their extreme values simultaneously.zd . This is because extreme.1. For the assessment ofthe fatigue strength a stress spectrum is tobe derived from that history consisting ofstress cycles ofthe amplitudes Sa. Chapter 2.zd for the assessment of the static strength are the extreme values of a stress history.zd and Smin.1. For all other kinds of material (GGG sorts and wrought aluminium alloys with high elongation.zd equally distributed over the section of concern. 1 . very seldom occurring events are important only for the assessment of the static strength. which are of short duration only. Elevated temperature For GGG sorts and wrought aluminium alloys with low elongation..zd.
Rodshaped (ID) welded components For rodshaped (ID) welded components the nominal stresses are in general to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section *7. For the same type of stress (for example tension and tension Smax. Such an analysis is beyond the scope of the present guideline.ex. T WV.ex.1. Normally Swv.l.zd ' (1. 7 4 Stress components having different signs may cancel out each other in part orcompletely..1.b. page 36. After DIN 18800. Right: Fi)let weld.. 8 According to DIN 18 800 part 1.. Smin.1 Components of nominal stress SII' Til' SJ.t . Figure 1.ex. The nominal stress SII (normal stress parallel tothe orientation ofthe seam) istobeneglected.ex.1.wv. T min. Tmax.. Smin.L.. 9 .ex.zd Shear stress normal to the weld seam.zd.6.1.ex.zd.wv..zd positive. (1.ex.ex. the nominal stress isto becomputed with the throat thickness a.1.s and T wv.2 .t. For the toe section the nominal stresses are to be computed as for nonwelded components.exs .. The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are Smax.zd will result mainly from S. Eq.1.zd.1 Characteristic stress values Figure 1. 5 6 Particularly inthe case ofcast iron materials with different tension and compression strength values aswell asinthe case ofunsymmetrical crosssections.ex. as well as nonwelded and welded components are to be distinguished.zd posiuve. 1.zd. Part 1. Left: Butt weld. The extreme maximum and minimum values of the equivalent nominal stresses are Smax.L. Smin.1.1 .Lzd.0 General Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D).ex.) exists for each type of stress *4. Bending and shear in two planes (components y and z) are to be considered if appropriate.ex.t in analogy.ex. in welds.wv.zd Shear stress parallel to the weld seam. .4.20 1.b. For shear and for torsion the highest absolute value is relevant.. 1.zd. are not to be overlaid however. or tension in direction x and tension in direction y) the superposition is to be carried out at the assessment stage.zd negative for instance) are generally to be considered separately.b.zd .zd = S. *5 and/or a torsional stress T t are to be considered.ex. Superposition If several stress components act simultaneously at the reference point. Stress components acting opposed to each other and which do not or can not occur simultaneously..1 *8. .zd Axial stress normal to the weld seam T.. Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components For rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components an axial stress Szd .wv.. For shear and for torsion the highest absolute value is relevant. see Chapter 0.ex.3. For welded components ingeneral anassessment ofthe static strength isto be carried out for the toe section and for the throat section. Tmax.ex.3) Stresses of different sign (Smax. Swv. . so that in the following a single stress value (Smax. Chapter 1. .For the throat section equivalent nominal stresses have to be computed from the nominal stresses resulting from the particular types of loading. The assessment for the throat section is to be carried out with the equivalent nominal stress Swv.zd and Smin.1 Characteristic stress values 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses (because otherwise the assessment cannot be achieved) an expert stress analysis is recommended to define the appropriate stress value to be used for the assessment. and TJ.zd.1.ex. 11. Smin.1.1) Stresses of different sign (Smax.s.L. 2 2 2 Swv. (1.1. ) the superposition is to be carried out at this stage. The assessment for the toe section istobecarried out asfor nonwelded components..zd negative for instance) are generally to be considered separately *6.2) S.. TII. a bending stress Sb. they are to be overlaid.1 Rodshaped (ID) components (1.zd + T.1) . For different types of stress (for example bending and torsion.zd + 1j1 . Smax. however. Further types of loading analogous.L. Tmin. a shear stress T. Smax. because the crosssectional areas may be different and because the strength behavior is evaluated in a different way..
y = Sy as well as a shear stress Ts = T are to be considered.1. And moreover because the second normal stress Sy may reduce the degree ofutilization.wv. 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses .x .0. Eq.ex.x .. Smin.x = Sx and Szd. For shear the highest absolute value is relevant. For the throat section equivalent nominal stresses Swv.x as negative..ex.4) Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses (negative) are generally to be considered separately *10.y and Twv have to be computed from the nominal stresses resulting from the particular types of loading.wv.ex.wv.1. Swv. The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are Smax. Tmax.21 1. (1.ex. Figure 1. Tension and compression are generally to be considered separately.2 Shellshaped (2D) components Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components For shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components normal stresses in the x. (1.4). Smin. Smax.. Shellshaped (2D) welded components For shellshaped (2D) welded components.5) In case of opposing effect Smax.1.ex.y .x is to be regarded as positive and Smin. according to Eq (1.ex. the nominal stresses are in general to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section *7.ex .2).ex. . For shear the highest absolute value is relevant. (1. The extreme maximum and minimum values of the equivalent stresses are Smax.1 Characteristic stress values 1.1.ex .1.6.1.1. Tmin. 10 See footnote *6.and ydirections Szd.wv.x and Smin.y .1.ex. Figure 0.x .x. For the toe section the nominal stresses are to be computed as for nonwelded components.
N.z and Rp. although specimens for tensile tests may usually have diameters different from determined experimentally.v have been 2 This definition is the basis of the presented calculation. Rm =:. Top: All kinds of material except GG. or values specified by drawings.2 Technological size factor General Dependence on the effective diameter Effective diameter 1.0 General 1.z.2. Rp. All mechanical material properties are those of the material test specimen.z ) are valid for the effective diameter cleft' of the component.tanqai"ds Component values  fIg) 27 Temperature factors General Normal temperature Low temperature Elevated temperature 1.2. and therefore they 7. Specified values according to drawings Rm.N. GG or cast aluminum alloys.2.z and Rp.0 General 1. yield strength R.22 1.5 % and depend on the effective diameter cleft' and on the technological size factor. R. R.2.n.2. they normally apply to a probability of survival Po = 50 % .2. Component values The component values <Rm .1 1.5.2.dog Contents 1.3 Anisotropy factor Compression strength factor and shear strength factor 1.2.0 General According to this chapter the mechanical material properties like tensile strength R. 1. Values according to standards The values according to standards <Rm.' liCCj)tding. Rp. 24 26 values '. Semilogarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties with the effectivediameter deft'.2.n. Rp.2.4.2.. Bottom: GG.r .2.2..n.1 1.5.1 Compression strength factor 1.4. component values and component values according to standards are to be distinguished.1.n. Figure 1.1 Values according to standards and component values according to standards. Chapter 3. Rp.2.N . Rm =:.2.2.2.z . they are needed for the assessment of the fatigue strength only. Values according to standards.2 Component values according to the drawing 1.4.5 1.2. Special case of actual component values .5. R. however.3 to s.1.5 mID diameter *2 .2 Shear strength factor 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses Page 22 23. 1 If in this chapter values are given for GT. but not for the assessment of the static strength. R. If specific values for a component <Rm. Rp =:.2.2 1. they may correspond to different probabilities of survival Po .4 1. Figure 1.2.5. Rm.1 Component values according to standards 1.1. Rm and Rp. which is to be carried out using local stresses for these materials. . or ~ Rm. Chapter 2.N .2.N .1 Component values according to standards of semifinished products or test pieces 1.2.5mm.z .2 Material properties 1.2.2 Material properties 11m EN. Rp) correspond to an average probability of survival Po = 97.2. Doublelogarithmic decrease of the mechanicalmaterial propertieswith the effectivediameter deff.1. Material test specimen In the context of this guideline the material test specimen is an unnotched polished round specimen of do = 7.3 Special case of actual component values 1.2.1.0 1.2.2 1.0 1.0 General 1. and further characteristics for nonwelded and welded components are to be determined *1.
The probability of survival of the lowest ofn=3 tests may be estimated to 75 % (= 1 .N . of the component.N.94 .z .z to a component value R. Rm. .5 % follows from Eq. . As a special case the experimentally determined actual component values. Component values according to standards The component values according to standards <Rm . 1. To determine the tensile strength Rm and the yield strength R.2. fora subsequent assessment of the strength of the particular component in case of a service failure. 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses product *4 . The yield strength R.N .N js the guaranteed minimum value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished 3 The term yield strength is used as a generalized term for the yield stress (of milled or forged steel as well as cast steel) and for the 0. In the case of steel or wrought aluminum alloys the tensile strength.23 1. delI. Chapter 1.5.00 in addition. .1. values of the semifinished product or of a test piece defined by standards. Kd.p . Rm and R.N and Rp.2. Rm. and for elevated temperature the temperature factors Kt. Rm.5 % is assumed for the component according to standards Rm. (1.N ' Rp. if for that purpose all safety factors are set to 1.Z . for shear stresses the shear strength factor :4 .2. Chapter 1. They may be used. KJ. Chapter 1.0 <Teneral The component values according to standards.1 Component values according to standards 1.2. but not for the entirety of all those components.1) technological size factors. Rm .2. valid for the entirety of all those components. This probability of survival should also apply to the values Rm ' Rp calculated therefrom. RID.3) Rm. is Rm = 0..2.1..p .N . .z . Rp. Chapter 1.75). and of the yield strength.N. in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it is the value from the test piece defined by the material standard. corresponding to the tensile strength Rm is *7 . As the value Rm. may be applied.1/(n+l) = 1 .11(3+1) = 0.z is normally verified by random inspection of small samples only *6. *3 the technological size factor.p KA Rm. 1.r .m (1. 5 A probability of survival Po = 97.2.N .1. K A' Rp.2. (1. Rp) apply to an average probability of survival Pu = 97. 7 A conversion proportional to Rp N I Rm N would not be correct since the technological size effect is more pronounced for the yield strength than for the tensile strength. = KJ. Rm.m.2.2.5 % and are valid for the effective diameter. for instance.2) The component value according to the drawing Rm..2) converts the value Rm.3.4. are to be determined from the values of semifinished products or of test pieces defined by standards. Rp= Kd. KJ. 4 If different dimensions of that semifinished product are given by the standard. Rp. 1. Chapter 5. are Rm = KJ.2 proof stress (of nodular cast iron or malleable cast iron as well as aluminum alloys).1 .2 Material properties are valid only for the particular component. anisotropy factor.2.2. Moreover there are to be considered: for compressive stresses the compression strength factor f. Rp. (1. Their application is not limited to a particular component.2. Rp. Chapter 1. Rm. and may be assigned to Rm.N technological size factors. Chapter 1.1 Component values according to standards of semifinished products or of test pieces The component values according to standards of the tensile strength.m' K A' Rm. the anisotropy factor and the temperature factors are to be considered in general.r and Rp.N (1.2. or from the component value specified in the drawing. and therefore they may be used for an assessment of strength.m.N . values of the semifinished product or of a test piece defined by standards.5 %.5 % .2). The yield strength. Eq. it is assumed to have a probability of survival less than Pu = 97. where every test has to reach or to exceed the required value. that is expected to conform with the probability of survival of Pu = 97. Chapter 5. is the guaranteed minimum value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished product *4 or for the test piece defined by the material standard *5.2. Rm. Furthermore compression strength and shear strength values are to be considered.2.z is the tensile strength of the material specified on the drawing.1 .2. prop~ies 6 The value Rm Z is checked by three hardness measurements (n=3) for exampl~.2 Component values according to the drawing The component value of the tensile strength.4. R. With a likely coefficient of variation of 4% the conversion to Po = 97.
0.p = 1. Rp.N.2.8) (1. To these values the technological size factors Kt.m = For GG the following technological size factor applies to the tensile strength: For cleff 5 7. 8 The influence factors according toChapter 1.4) for cleff > 7. 7686· ad.max.1 Dependence on the effective diameter Nonwelded components :KI. for cleff ~ deff.m = Kt.p .2.max.2 .N.m = 1.2. cleff.~p Ueff / 7 .5 mm *9 Kt. and of the yield strength. Chapter 1. (1.3 (KA ).m = defl.24 1. (cleff /7. For all other kinds of material there are no upper limit values cleff.r.m. are given in Chapter 5 according to the type of material and its condition.7686 = l/ig 20.2.207 .2 Technological size factor Aluminum alloys 1. (.m ·lg(deff.2.9) defl.2.2. f't) and Chapter 1.2.max.m)· cleff cleff.5mm) . 9 1.1.m Kt.1 and 1.5 mm Kt.m (cleff.m = Kd.2.2.4 (fer.6 .11) unless otherwise specified in the material standards.2.2. Footnote and Eq.p .p = 0.2.2. Steel and cast iron materials (1.N.p = 150 mm v.2 . part 1.r is known the value of the yield strength Rp.p = 250 mm. page 40..m = defl. .m it is: Kt..max. Rm .r may be computed from Eq.N.2.. deff.13) = 150 mm :KI. 11 Valid for steel.~m .m = deff.1.3 Special case of actual component values If only an experimental value of the tensile strength Rm.2.2. 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses For milled steel there is deff. (1. It is different for nonwelded and for welded components *8 For cast aluminum alloys the technological size factors for the tensile strength and for the yield strength are as follows: For deff~ defl. For the determination of the effective diameter cleff two cases are to be distinguished as to the kind of material. (1.2 for deff~ defl.2.m = 1.m *10: (1.m = Kt. (1..max.2. Figure 1. stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be applied with caution.max. !Cd.0.2.3. (1. 1.N.m = :KI.m .2 Effective diameter For components with a simple shape of the cross section the effective diameter is given according to the cross section in Table 1. (1.2.max.5mm) .m = :KI. For wrought aluminum alloys the component values of the tensile strength. m 1. = v.. and ~p (except for GG).max.m = Kd.5 (KT m. Chapter 1.I.1922 .2.14) Welded components *11 For all kinds of material the technological size factor for the toe section and for the throat section of welded components is *12 (1.12) for 12 mm < deff < defl. constants.max.I .5) For stainless steel within the dimensions given in material standards there is Kt.7) For all other kinds of steel and cast iron materials the technological size factor is: For cleff 5 cleff.) aresupposed tobe valid for both nonwelded and welded compon~ts. 12 For structural steel and fine grain structural steel according to DIN 18800. = 1.3) with Rm = Rm. .N.2.2.0 <ieneral The technological size factor accounts for a decrease of the material strength values usually observed with increasing dimensions of the component. 7686·ad.N. 1 .0. Considering the yield strength the values Kt.m ·lg(deff /7.· . 10.15) For materials such as conditionally weldable steel. In general the upper limit of the effective diameter is specified in the material standards.p = 12 mm 1.2.2.207.2. cast iron material and aluminum alloys.m /7.p .max.p = 1. and depending on the thickness or diameter of the semifinished product. (1.. (1.N.2.2.10) effective diameter. 5 mm) ..6) cancelled. and ~m have to be replaced by the values Kt. It is specified as a function of the effective diameter. Table 1.m < cleff 5 cleff. ~m (1. 10 0.p =1. for cleff.2 Material properties 1.p = 1 apply.2.5 mm) .m.I.
mandad. of case hardening steel.m ad. for level V II deff..15 0.N. 9 GGG DIN EN 1563 GT~4 DIN EN 1562 100 100 300 ~1 300 0. . 3. of fine grained structural steel. DIN 17 205 Heat treatable steel casting. amn.1 Constants deff.3 0. V /0. n DIN EN 100831 Case hardening steel.2.25 0 0.16) Volume and surface of the section of the component considered. of heat treatable cast steel.p as above.3 0.7. n SEW 550 deff.2 to Table 5. tempered. ~4 No technological size effect within the dimensions mentioned in the material standards.N. 2 as above .2. V. and iron materials Cast steel DIN 1681 Heat treatable steel casting.25 0. Case 1.15 0.2 0. types ~2 No. bh DIN EN 10 0831 Nitriding steel. or of aluminum materials. The diameter cleff according to the first sequence of machining is an estimate on the safe side .25 0. and adm.p ad. Table 1.p as given above.15 0.5.mand ad. values ad.. In general it is: deff= 4 . .m .3 100 100 200 200 200 200 500 500 60 60 15 15 0. n=normalized. q&t SEW 550 ~5 Steel for big forgings.m ad. GT or GG. ~3 Case 2 Components (also forgings) made of nonalloyed structural steel. Kinds of material ~ 1 Nonalloyed structural steel DINEN 10 025 Fine grain structural steel DIN 17102 Fine grain structural steel DIN EN 10 113 Heat treatable steel.m cleff.2.2 Constants deff.mand ad. .d..N. ~2 For 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16: deff N m = 40 mm. of normalized quenched and tempered steel.p 3.mandad. Values in the lower rowreferto the yield strength R p .15 0. Valid for strength level V I.15 0. for steel Values in the upper row referto thetensile strength R m . The effective diameter cleff from Table 1.p = 100 mm with values ad.. In case of machining subsequent to the heat treatment the effective diameter cleff is the largest diameter of the rod.3.25 1..3 0. bh=blank hardened ~ Table 1.3.7.4 0.15 0.m deff. values ad. DIN 17 205. of nitriding steel.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses Table 1. ~4 The values for GT are needed for the assessment of the fatigue strength only. .15 1 Within the kinds of material there are thetypes of material. 8 as above types No.p inmm ~2 40 40 70 40 100 30 16 ~3 16 16 16 16 16 40 40   250 250 250 250 0.2 0. ' .3 0. The effective diameter d eff is equal to the diameter or wall thickness of the component.N.5 0.30 q&t=quenched a..m = deff..1.N. Case 2.O (1.11.15 0.1.N. for cast Values in theupper row referto thetensile strength Rm ' Values in the lower row refer to the yield strength R p . 4 as above types ~3 No.15 0.5 0.1.3 0.m = deff.3 0. ~5 For 28 NiCrMoV 8 5 or 33 NiCrMo 145: deff.p asgiven above.N.2.3 0.3 0.15 q&t= quenched and tempered ~ 1 For GS30 Mn 5 or GS25 CrMo 4 there is deff N m = 800 mm or 500mm respectively.m. Rodshaped (1D) components made of quenched and tempered steel The effective diameter is the diameter existing while the heat treatment is performed. 6.p inmm 0..15 0.1. q&t.2. ~2 Material types see Table 5.p = 500mm or 1000 ~ resp. of cast steel. .N. values ad. applies. of GGG. types No. .2 0.3 0.p as gi~ed above.N. both nitrided or quenched and tempered. q&t DIN EN 10 0831 Heat treatable steel.1 0.3 0. q&t DIN EN 10 0831 stainless steel DIN EN 10 0882 ~4 Steel for big forgings..N. Kinds of material cleff.. In case of machining prior to the heat treatment the effective diameter cleff is defined as the local diameter in question. Case 1 Components (also forgings) made of heat treatable steel. ~2 More precise values depending on the kind of material (except for nonalloyed structural steel) seeTable 5. . .
13 With material properties depending on the direction. for which material standards specify the strength values as depending on the testing direction. (1.2.2.4.3 Anisotropy factor KA • 1. 1.90 0.22)  For the strength values transverse to the main direction of processing the anisotropy factor from Tab.4 is to be applied. Table 1.80 KA 1.eneral The compression strength factor allows for the fact that in general the material strength is higher in compression than in tension. up to 600 from 600 from 900 above to 900 to 1200 1200 The shear strength factor allows for the fact that the material strength in shear is different from the tensile strength.18) For milled steel and forgings *13 the anisotropy factor in the main direction of processing is (1. the anisotropy factor is not to be applied: d (1.20) For forgings ·13. the anisotropy factor is KA = 1.2.2 Material properties Table 1.95 0.1 Compression strength factor For tensile stresses (axial or bending) the compression strength factor is (1.2. and also with shear stress.21) ~ 2s 3 ~ 2s s 4 ~ 2b·s s 2 r:£13 5 For aluminum alloys the anisotropy factor for the strength values in the main direction of processing is s (1.4 Compression strength factor and shear strength factor 1.2. Cross section ~ 1 deff 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses Aluminum alloys The anisotropy factor for cast aluminum alloys is deff deff Case 1 Case 2 d KA = 1.2.m and the yield strength in compression Rc.ss 0.00 0. The anisotropy factor for cast iron material is = in Mpa Aluminum aIIovs: up to 200 from 200 from 400 Rm in Mpa to 400 to 600 1. (1.4.19) For the strength values transverse to the main direction of processing the anisotropy factor from Table 1.0 (.2. (1.17) Steel and cast iron material 1.4 is to be applied. KA 0. .3 Effective diameter No.23) For compression stresses (axial or bending) the tensile strength Rm and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced by the compression strength Rc.2.2.2.2. In case of multiaxial stresses.2.4 Anisotropy factor K A b+s Steel: Rm b b The anisotropy factor allows for the fact that the strength values of milled steel and forgings are lower transverse to the main direction of milling or forging than in the main direction of processing.2.2.90 1.26 1.2. It is to be supposed that the specified strength values are valid for the main direction of processing.86 o.p: .
. Steel and cast iron materials Normal temperature.65 0.2.T as well as for the longterm values Rm. Rs.m and the yield strength in shear Rs.m and KT. also valid for welded components..26) 1. for agehardening aluminum alloys from 25°C to 50°C. Rc.up to 500 °C for 1.27) temperature factors.J3. Eq. Mises criterion.2. = I.2 Low temperature Temperatures below the values listed above are outside the field of application of this guideline.m .T or by the 1 % creep limit Rp. The values Rc. ~1 0. The temperature factors allow for the fact that the material strength decreases with increasing temperature.577 0. Rm . . f. The values Rm. Case harden'g steel Stainless steel Forging steel Other kinds of steel GS GGG Aluminum alloys for tension 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 f.T and Rp. for cast iron materials from 25°C to + lOO°C.577 0.2. 1 1 1 1 1 1. for other kinds of steel from 40°C to + lOO°C.m = Rc.the influence of the temperature on the mechanical properties is to be considered.3 Elevated temperature In the field of elevated temperatures . Eq.3). (1. Kt.2.5 Compression strength factor f. Rp .577 = 1 /.2. according to v. KT. (1.2.p 14 Tensile strength and yield strength in compressionare supposedto be positive.5. 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 1.577 0.0 General (1.F = f.2.2.p = f't .2.3).25) Rs.2. (1.2.24) f" compression strength factor. Rm.1) to (1.m = .p .4.35) apply.p. For shear stresses the tensile strength Rm and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced by the shear strength Rs.2.577 0.1 Normal temperature Normal temperatures are as follows: .p are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the strength. as only the temperature factors KT.27) to (1.T = KT.m and Rc. Table 1.5. Rp. KT.5 Rm .5. (1.m and KT. ~ 1 0.2. is needed *14.2.2. T or by the creep strength Rrn. Rp tensile strength and yield strength.p: For the shortterm values Rm.2. Shortterm values f't shear strength factor.5 Temperature factors 1.Tt and Rp.577 0. for compress. According to the temperature T the temperature factors apply as follows: . as only the compression strength factor f. Rm .33). For normal temperature the temperature factors are Table 1.2.Tt Eq. therefore for compressionfcr > 1. Rm.m. Rc. see Eq.2.2 Material properties Rc. and shear strength factor f.2.27 1. 15 The relevant temperature factors will be applied in combination with the safety factors at the assessment stage.T are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the static strength. Eq.p are needed. . Table 1.2. (1. Kinds of material r. Rp tensile strength and yield strength. (1. In case of elevated temperature the tensile strength Rm is to be replaced by the high temperature strength Rrn.1) to (1.T and Rp.m and Rs. low temperature and higher temperature are to be distinguished.2. 1.1) to (1.2.for fine grain structural steel from 40°C to 60°C.p > 0.m = f't .5. Rm.3 1 f.3). for nonagehardening aluminum alloys from 25°C to lOO°C. tensile strength and yield strength. (1. (1. Rp 1.Tt *15.T = KT. as only the shear strength factor f't is needed.28) to (1.577 KT. Rp. R m.2.2 Shear strength factor steel and cast iron materials and up to 200°C for aluminum materials . R p .rn.5. Tt • The yield strength Rp is to be replaced by the high temperature yield strength Rp.p are not explicitly neededfor an assessment of the static strength.. Short term values of the static strength are The values Rs.
Tt/Rm=KTt. 10 3 • T / DC.31) Kr. Rp.for not agehardening aluminum alloys: T> 100°C. For a temperature above 350°C they are valid only. for agehardening aluminum alloys: T > 50°C.p/Rp= KT.1. .2. .T strength Eq.p = 3 .p 17 For stainless steel no values are known up to now.0. Safety factors according to Chapter 1.zd. 'jm.Tl.2.. jp = Jmt = 1. if the relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms. (1.2.2 Material properties 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses for fme grain structural steel.T as well as Rm.2..2.2. Rm. (1..21.5: Jm = 2..~. (T / °c  (1.2.30) 100).4.p = 1.T 1 R.Strength I~TI Rm. O'W.2.33) Kr..2. .5 and 2. Figure 1.2. o.34) = KTt.4.32) 16 There is an insignificant discontinuity at T = 60°C.T/Rm= KT.j Rp..Tt for t = 10 5 h.m.4.0.1.28) for other kinds of steel *17.1 If.3 temperature factors. Kr.Jn = 1. for GS. Rm.28) to (1.30. Eq. KTt.2 and 1."f' 0. Figure 1. 10 3 .28 1. jp = Jmt = 1.2..29) 3 KT.31) are valid from the indicated temperature T up to 500°C.s High temperature Rm. Jn = 1. Figure 1.5 .1.. 2S0 TIT.1. T> 100°C: 1 . 300 Figure 1.m and KT. 10 3 ..I I 0/0 creep Iimit' Rp.0 o o 100200 300 400 500 ~~ Tin'C Figure 1.++~+. (T / °C .35). R m 'JD Rm."' i..5 . KTt. 3 Kr.0 ..p/Rp= KTt. 10 3 .High temperature Rp'Rm'}pt fatigueslrength O. and in general only.2. Eq. 10 3 .5 and 2.5: jm = 2. (1.p for aluminum alloys apply as follows:  Static strength values: Rp. Rp I Rm = Rei Rm = 0.p.zd.Tt Rp=KTt.2. if the relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms. (T / °C . T > 100°C: 1 .zdiT.Tt/Rm=KTt.2 Temperature dependent values of the static strength of nonalloyed structural steel plotted for comparison. tensile strength and yield strength.3 te~+'+~*+~'ThiL.Tt R"" R.2. Eq.2.3 (1.p = 11. Longtenn values Long term values of the static strength are R""Tt = ~. (T / °C .3)..65.2 .p 5 Rm. Aluminum alloys According to the temperature T the temperature factors KT.m = Rp. .2.T.m (1.1.100) ~ 0. Rm. (1.5 . T > 60°C = KT.ep.l CreepStreiiglh RmiTt O.Tt.T I O'w.1p .. Cre.m = 1 .2.2. KT.50) ~ 0.TiR p I I . O'W.TI...p =  for GGG.3 Temperature dependent values of the static strength of aluminum alloys plotted for comparison. I Q () ISO 5&lliQ 20. I ~'jml' . jpt = 1.7' 10. rr.T/Rm = KTm = Rp.5. m = Kr.zd I Rm = 0..5 .+~i'\f'\.m= KTt..2. I CW.1~~ ·c:sw.m • R".p • R. 5 . T > 100°C.zd = KT.".5' 10..2. .m= KT..p = 1 . KTt.p· r Rm..1) to (1.100) ~ 0.50) > KT=..2: (1. T / "C) 2. Safety factors according to Chapter 1.Rp.4.3 (1.p Rm.5 . (1.2.2. (10 K r.. .1'. jpt = 1. (1..33) are valid from the indicated temperature T up to 200°C.32) and (1.D.0"1 *16...5 .0 . Figure 1.3.• (T / °C100).2..Ul. Fatigue limit for completely reversed stress (N = 106 cycles): O'W. Rp..T/R = KT. (T / °C .Tt for 1= 10 h.4 .+\~1 <rW..m = KT.m = 1 .m = Kr. 1.
71 Creep strength Aluminum alloys aTt.4 *20.127 .456 20 Cast iron materials GS <¢>6 GGG<¢>7 . (C m + 19(t/ h)).227 .001 3.1.m and KTt.m bTLm CTtm 5 For aluminum alloys and t = 10 hours Krt.83 0 20 1 % Creep limit aTtn bTt. Pp+ CTt.1. Pm+ CTt.2. Eq. <¢>3 Initially for St38.4 Temperature factor Krt.Tl are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the static strength. The absolute values Rill. 20 The temperature factor Kt.7 Constants aTt.260 20 .35) aTLm bTLm cTt. <¢>5 Initially for C 45 N (normalized) with Rm = 620 MPa.t200 .582 8. (1.52 .Tt are thesame asfor St38.001 and 3.m+ bTt.n bTLn Cn n Cn .3.p are relevant instead. 19 Because the values would be unrealistic for temperatures T < 350°C.636 20 . Figure 1.942 .p according to temperature T and operation time T has notbeen specified for aluminum alloys uptonow. applicable from about 350°Cto 500°C.0 R""TI I R".3.2.994 2. but only for stresses acting on long terms.. 0.2 Material properties The values ~Tl and ~.m ~ Rm. <¢>6 Initially for GSC 25 with Rm = 440 MPa. Pp Cp ~1 em = 10 .0.m .n for aluminum alloys and t = 105 hours. c7 18 LarsenMillerparameter P andLarsenMillerconstant C. (T / C + 273) . Rm = 490 MPa.485 .Tt/ Jmt .35) apply to temperatures from approximately 350°C up to 500°C.7.Tt / jpt is more or less equal to Rill. It may be assumed.127 2. In general they do not apply to temperatures below about 350°C *19.019 7.260 20 1.m . C p constants.894 3. the absolute values Rill. Table 1.352 9.2.m K np =10(aTt.2.607 35. 1. (1.4 0.Tt arethe same asfor C45N.33) applicable to derive the values of KTt. see Figure 1..2.2. with Rm = 550 MPa the constants 3.27 1 % Creep limit aTt. as only the temperature factors KTl.3.728 17.. <¢>4 Initially for H 52. . (T / C + 273)' (C m + 19(t/h)).m. similar toSt37. aTt.252 5.10. where the values KT. .4.305 .p apply.m.m and KTt. .485 .1.2.2.198. however. For C 35 N.2..p .6. .0 andjmt = 1.32) or(1.2 *18 K Tt.1.p+ bTt.2 o 2. Pm = 10 4. thattheterm Rp. similar to StE 355. Pm 2 ) = lO(aTt.5).n \ \ I RT 7.D cTt.2.Rm = 360MPa. Pp2 ) Creep strength .m and KTt. as it is essential for the assessment of the static strength.29 1. \.p is not defmed up to now.8 em 1\ \ 0. operation time in hours h atthe t temperature T..1. 300 400 TrC Figure 1. except that the factor (1 /jm ) isdifferent.6 0.5.2.417 19.2 (required safety factorsjpt = 1.m and KT.76 <¢>2 Not valid for stainless steel.12 1. Initially for GGG40 with Rm = 423 MPa.2.Tt I R.28 18 <¢>1 Approximate values.987 .1. 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses Table 1.423 24.57 100 Co : 0...p .m .252areto bereplaced by 2.p are needed. Steel Nonalloyed structural steel Fine grain structural steel Heattreatablesteel ~2 ~3 ~4 ~5 Steel and cast iron materials Depending on the temperature T and on the operation time t at that temperature the temperature factors Krt.949 and 3.50 .3. ALarsenMiller equation similar to Eq.2.524 9. The given curve is the same as in Figure 1. (1.m is given by Figure 1.
3. For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as for nonwelded components.b and npl.t allow for the influence of the stress gradient in bending and/or torsion in connection with the shape of the cross section on the static strength of components.3.s = 1/ a.w.1.0. They can be both rodshaped (lD) or shellshaped (2D).b .1.3.zd = = 1 means.dog Page 1.t . npl.3. Therefore other sections may have to be considered in addition. KsK.y = I. It has to be observed.w.w ).0 General According to this chapter the design parameters are to be determined.2 Welded components For welded components the design factors are generally to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section. for shear and for torsional stress are KSK.0 and Figure 1. KSK.2. 1 KsK. a.3.3.3.3.3 Design parameters Contents 11m EN.zd = is npl.1 Design factors 1..zd=l.. For the throat section of rodshaped (lD) welded components the design factors for axial (tension or compression).1. . Figure 1..b = I / npl.3.1.1) 1. however.w (1.1. KsK. and for torsional stress are KSK. KsK.x= 1/ a.zd = 1/ a. see Chapter 1. a. that the value ofthe related section factor = 1. weld factor. npl. a. For the throat section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the design factors for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are KsK.3.3.0 1.b = I / (npl.b . Figure 1.3.2. 31 1.3. .3.1 1.2 Section factors section factor *1. KsK.b .w are given for tension. For tension and tension in bending a.w.1.w 30 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 1.t .s = I.2) The section factors npl..3.30 1. KSK.3.3.0 General Nonwelded and welded components are to be distinguished. KSK.3.y= 1/ a.3 Section factors Weld factor a.s = 1. (1.3 Design parameters 1. Weld factors a.3.w .2 1. (1.t = I / (npl.3.2 Design factors General Nonwelded components Welded components 1. 1.4) (1. for compression and for shear stress.w .s = I / a.1 1. For shear and for torsion a w for shear is to be applied. Chapter 1. Chapter 1.1.0 General 1.1 Nonwelded components The design factors of rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components for axial (tension or compression). The design factors of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are KSK.1. For compression and compression in bending a. KSK.w for compression is to be applied.b .1.x= I. An essential condition is the existence of a stress gradient normal to the surface of the component. They serve to make best use of the load carrying capacity of a component by accepting some yielding as the outside fiber stress exceeds the yield strength. Chapter 1.w ).3.3.t = I / npl. that the derived section factors only apply to the notched section considered and not to the component as a whole. for bending.3. KSK. 1. for shear.5) section factor. for bending.w for tension is to be applied. KsK.
Kp.t are relevant and not the givenmaterial dependentsectionfactors..(b I B) . for shear. it may observe cracks when yielding occurs. GS and GGG *4 the section factors for tension or compression. otherwisethere is 3 K p t = 1.zd = 1. Bending moment Mb.31 1.3.2 Plastic notch factors Kp. Light straight line: fictitious distribution of the stress calculated elastically.t t constant. and for torsion are npl.3. Table 1.b.b . (h I H)2 Kp b = 1.5· '''':. Table 1.15) b.s = Rp. thinwalled.b.t . section factor npl.27 = 4 / It.70 = 16/ (3 .b = MIN (JRp.2.SSK.t).6) Table Bending Torsion Kp.8) npl. 1.for example as a result of case hardening . Chapter 1.14) d. npl.1 Constant Rp. H inner and outer hight.b I Rp . see Table npl.b = Kp.b for bending of a notched bar. npl.3. Kp. Kp.9) npl.1 Constant defining an upper bound value of the sectionfactor dependingon the kind of material. Surface hardened Components The section factors are not applicable if the component has been surface or case hardened. .5 *2 (1.t = MIN (JRp.33 = 4/3.b and Kp.3. GS GGG Rp. 250 c. and for torsion are *5 *6 (1.33' 1.33 ~3 1 ~5 Isection or box ~6 Crosssection Steel and cast iron material rectangle ~ 1 circle For austenitic steel in the solution annealed condition *3 the section factors for tension or compression.00 .t circular ring 1. D inner and outer diameters. . 6 Upper and lower bound values of the section factors are the plastic notch factor and 1. ~2 1.zd = I.3. static component strength for bending SSK. npl.b) 1. 1.5 1.max ~ 1. Kp. Solid angular line: real stress distribution when providing elastic idealplastic material behavior. 2 Because the plasticity of a hard surface layer .b ). plastic notch factors.is limited.(dID) . particularly at notches where the calculation of nominal stress neglects the stress and strain concentration. ~ 5 thinwalled. Possibly this rule is too far on the safe side.2. yield strength.70 ~2 1. npl. 1.27 ~4 1.max / R p .3.b = SSK. 3 Because of the high ductility of austenitic steel in the solution annealed conditionthe plastic notch factors Kp. 5 MIN means that the smaller value from the right side of the equation is valid.max / R p .max'/ MFa 1050 320 Aluminum alloys.s = 1. B inner and outer width. n p1. for 1.t = Kp.3.(b I B)· (h I H)3 (1.t . Figure 1.3.b (npl.max n. ~6 1. 1. for bending. yield strength R p .b and Kp.1 Definition of the section factor npl. for instance. h. as npl = 1.3.R p ~I+""':: shear.b . ~4 (1.3. = I 2.b Kp. (1.. It).3. Kind of material Steel.3 Design parameters 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses For other types of steel. 4 GT and GO are not consideredhere becausethe assessmentof the static strengthhas to be carried out using local stressesfor these materials.1. for bending. or plate.1 is allowedfor case hardenedshafts accordingto the recent DIN 743 (launchedin 2000). 1(dID)4 ~1 d  1. Table 1.
It applies to the throat section of welded components only.3 Weld factor Uw The weld factor Ci.9) *7. Type of RmS stress 360 MPa Rm > 360Mua Compression ~2 1. Tab. ~3 Butt welds of sectional steel from St 372 or USt 372 with a product thickness t> 16 mm. Table 21 and Eq. 8 For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as for nonwelded components.3.0 10 not verified partial all Compression 0.3 *8.3.80 or fillet Tension 0.3. 1. 7 Less ductile aluminum alloys (A < 12.55  055 ~1 According to DIN 18 800 part 1.3 Design parameters Aluminum alloys For ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A 2 12.80 weld all welds butt weld ~3 all Shear Tension 0.95 penetration or 0.5 %) the section factors are to be determined from Eq (1.32 1.3 Weld factor Ci. 1.3. Table 1.w accounts for the effect of a weld.0 Tension 1. ~2 For aluminum alloys (independent of Rm ) the values typed in in boldface should be applied for the time being. 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses .5 %) and cast aluminum alloys are not considered here because the assessmentof the static strength has to be carried out using local stressesfor these materials. (75).w ~1 Joint Weld quality full penetration all weld or with verified back weld .
1. Chapter 1.s. Rut/ KsK.1. shear strength factor. Chapter 1.x = fa .33 1. Rut/ KsK. even if inthe case ofa low Rp / Rm ratio the yield strength should to be used for the assessment ofthe static strength. Rut KsK. The difference instatic strength inbending compared tothe static strength intension orcompression is accounted for by the design factor. for bending.zd = fa' Rut/ KSK.y = fa .4.4. SSK.1) (1.do~ Page 1..t = f't .5.5.2.4) . TSK. for shear.zd.2 Welded components For welded components the strength values are generally to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section. TSK = f't' Rut/ KsK.2. (1. Rut/ KSK. Chapter 1. design factor.1. Rut/ KsK.t.5) compression strength factor.s.4. SSK.4. 1. Rut/ KSK. TSK.2 Welded components 33 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 1. for bending.4. Rut/ KsK.zd .zd.1.b .4. 1 The component static strength values are different for normal stress and for shear stress.zd. Basically the tensile strength Rm is the reference value of static strength..4. 1. . SSK. and for torsional stress are * 1 *2 *3 SSK. fa Rut SSK. and for torsional stress are SSK. shear strength factor. Chapter 1.b = fa .x .x . Rut/ KSK. TSK = f't' Rut/ KsK. Rut/ KSK.4.b = fa . Nonwelded and welded components are to be distinguished. Torsional static strength inanalogy. For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as for nonwelded components. tensile strength. 2 3 The tensile static strength isthe reference value for the bending static strength. Chapter 1.4.s = f't . too.1 Nonwelded components The nominal values of the component static strength of rodshaped (lD) components for axial (tension or compression).2.y = fa .b . Chapter 1. TSK. For the throat section of rodshaped (lD) welded components the nominal values of the component static strength for axial (tension or compression).4.2. tensile strength. SSK. for shear.4.4.4 Component strength Contents 1R14 EN.2. (1. TSK.t .y .4..0 General 1.zd = fa' Rut/ KSK. design factor. They can be both rodshaped (10) or shellshaped (2D).s. however. f't fa The nominal values of the component static strength of shellshaped (2D) components for normal stresses (tension or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are (1.4 Component strength 1.x = fa .3.s.4.2) compression strength factor..0 General According to this chapter the nominal values of the component static strength are to be determined.t = f't' Rut/ KSK. Chapter 1.2.y . f't For the throat section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the nominal values of the component static strength for axial (tension or compression) stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are SSK. and moreover they are different due todifferent section factors according tothe type ofstress.1 Nonwelded components 1. Chapter 1.s = f't' Rut/KSK.3. a fact that is accounted for in Chapter 1. SSK.
in particular all types of GS and some types of GGG.3 1.5 Safety factors 1.4 1.0 1.5.2 1. Those high quality cast components have to meet special demands and checks on qualification of the production process.5. as well as on the quality and extent of product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their mechanical properties. Fornonductile materials the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out with local stresses according to Chapter 3. 1.dog Page General Steel Cast iron materials Wrought aluminum alloys Cast aluminum alloys Total safety factor 34 Table 1.5 %. ¢4 Jpt high 35 1.22 to 5.0 1.5 % and are considered as nonductile materials.5.6 1.5. Compared to Table 1. Reduction by approximately 15 %. 1. ¢1 Consequences offailure jm ¢2 severe moderate jp ¢3 jmt ¢5 .0 1.12. 1.5. The safety factors given in the following are valid for ductile materials.2 1.5 1.5 IR015 EN. in particular all types of wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation A5 ~ 12. Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given in Table 1.5 Safety factors Contents 1. 1Statistical confidence S = 50 %.5.5 % are considered as ductile. see Table 5.35 1.5.1. 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses Probability of occurrence of the characteristic.1 1.2. for example stresses due toanapplication ofproof loads ordue to loads during anassembling operation. The safety factors are valid under the condition that the design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and that the material properties correspond to an average probability of survival of Po = 97. . see Table 5.0 does not seem possible up to now.5.2 Cast iron materials Cast iron materials with an elongation As ~ 12.5 1. A safety factor jF = 1. ¢6 or only infrequent occurrences of the characteristic service stress values.0 ¢1 referring tothe tensile strength Rm ortothe strength at elevated temperature RmT .3 1. In this respect any types of steel are ductile materials. too. to the creep strength and to the creep limit are given in Table 1.1.3 Wrought aluminum alloys Safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are the same as given for steel in Table 1. as well as cast iron materials and wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation A5 ~ 12.5 %.5. ¢2 referring tothe yield strength Rp ortothe hot yield strength Rp.75 1.8 1.30 ·2.1. 1. ¢3 referring tothe creep strength Rm.4 Cast aluminum alloys Cast aluminum alloys are nonductile materials for which there is no need of giving safety factors here ·2. The safety factors are valid for both nonwelded and welded components.0 may be applied to high quality cast components in the aircraft industry however. Wrought aluminum alloys with elongations As < 12.1 Steel Safety factors that generally apply to the tensile strength and to the yield strength.1.Tt . Tt .5.5.5.1.1 Safety factors jm and jp for steel (not for GS) and for ductile wrought aluminum alloys A5 ~ 12.5. 3 In mechanical engineering cast components are of standard quality for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jF = 1. 2 All types of GT.5.5 % *1 . ¢5 moderate consequences offailure of a less important component in the sense of"no catastrophic effects" being associated with a failure.5.2 1. ¢4 referring tothe creep limit Rp.0 1.34 1.3 1.5 %). that is depending on the probability of occurrence of the characteristic stress values in question and depending on the consequences of failure. The safety factors may be reduced under favorable conditions.5.35 1.5 % are considered asnonductile materials. The factor is different for castings that have been subject to nondestructive testing or have not *3 .T . for example because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statically undeterminate system.0 General According to this chapter the safety factors are to be determined. service stress values low ¢6 2.1 they are higher because of an additional partial safety factor jp that accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in castings. *2. Reduction by approximately 10 %.0 1. GG and cast aluminum alloys have elongations As < 12.
for Rp / Rm > 0.1. as they wil produce misleading results. 4 MAX means that the maximum value of the four terms in the parenthetical expression isvalid.9 1.8 2. 6 The terms containing the factors KTt.2 1.65 1.2.5.. 5 Applicable to the tensile strength Rm orthe yield strength Rp toallow for the tensile strength at elevated temperature ~ T ' the creep strength Rm. the hot yield strength ~.m and KTt.1 anadditional partial safety factor iF = 1.5 1..25 is introduced.75.2.m = KT.4 1.9 1.1 1. (1.5 1.55 2.25 of the characteristic low 2.5.2 Safety factors jm and jp for ductile cast iron materials (GS.8 2. Chapter 1.m··· Simplifications The following simplifications apply to Eq.5 Safety factors Table 1.9 Probability of occurrence 1.4 low of the characteristic 2. 7 If there is a ratio ofthesafety factors ip lim = 0.4 1.1 and 1.25 2.Tt . respectively.7 1.  j for Rp / Rm~ 0.5. for which it isassumed that a higher quality ofthe castings isobviously guaranteed when testing.4 isintroduced toaccount for inevitable but allowable defects incastings.5.f must not beapplied in the case of normal temperature.2 stress 1.75 the second term has no relevance *7.25 safety factors. and moreover there is KT.9 1.5 *5.65 1. .65 1.5. Kt. GGG with A 5 ~ 12. ~2 Compared to Table 1. ~3 Compared toTable 1.1 Probability of 1.7 1.5 Total safety factor From the individual safety factors the total safety factor jgesis to be derived *4: Jpt castings not subject to nondestructive testing ~2 high 2.65 1. Table 1.8 occurrence 1.5 1.5. ~3 2.5.45 2.Tt .5 %) ~1 jm jp jmt Consequences offailure severe moderate 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 1.25 stress 1.T' or the creep limit Rp.75 the first term has no relevance.5.35 1.4) : In the case of normal temperature the third and fourth term have no relevance *6.1 anadditional partial safety factor iF = 1. temperature factors.4 castings subject to nondestructive testing high 2. Explanatory notes for the safety factors see Table 1.25 ~1 jm .0 1.p = 1.
6.as a rule . sK. shear or torsional stress are aSK. extreme maximum stresses according to type of stress.:s:. (1.z and Sb. .. SSK.z and Ts.5..36 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 1.6. . Smin. The allowable static stress is the quotient of the nominal component static strength.occur atdifferent points ofthe crosssection..0 General 1.1 1.6. / . are different types of stress.2 1.s :s:. The degree of utilization is always a positive value.) divided by the allowable static stress at the reference point *4.y .b = S max..ex. (1.6 Assessment 1.2. If different types of stress like axial stress.6.12) is that ofa strength hypothesis.zd .T.ex. In general the assessments for the extreme maximum and the extreme minimum stresses (axial stresses in tension or compression and/or bending stresses in tension or compression) are to be carried out separately.' Sb.ex. are to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses. 1 It is a general principle for an assessment of the static strength to suppose that all types of stress observe their maximum (or minimum) values atthe same time.6... TSK.. 6 Only inthe case ofstresses acting simultaneously the character of Eq. also shear stresses intwo planes. For steel or wrought aluminum alloys and a symmetrical crosssection the highest absolute value is relevant *3. The calculation applies to both nonwelded and welded components. SSK. 1.zd  aSK.. they have the character ofan empirical interaction formula only.1) Smax. divided by the total safety factor jges . 1.a rule bending will be more important.1.s Jges _ Tmax.b . SK.zd. the particular extreme maximum stresses and the extreme minimum stresses are to be overlaid as indicated in the following.0. see Figure 0.6. This is in order to examine the degrees ofutilization ofthe individual types ofstress ingeneral.zd .1.zd / Jges (1.ex.1.. For example the extreme stresses from bending and shear will . *5 are to be considered and if the resulting 37 38 39 state of stress is multiaxial.1.6.6.. Chapter 1.s .2 Shellshaped (2D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress 36 Superposition For stress components of the same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter 1.1.4) and (1.y.2.t / Jges Smax. As.ex. 2 Not so for cast iron materials orcast aluminium alloys with different static tension and compression strength values orfor an unsymmetrical crosssection. and inparticular ifthey may occur separately. so that different reference points W are to be considered. the extreme minimum stresses.1 1.2 Rodshaped (ID) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress 1. 1.6. bending stress . 5 Bending stresses in two planes.ex. If Eq. bending. dog Page 1.zd < 1 . Ts.9 *6. SSK.. . Moreover see Footnote 1. 3 4 The reference point is the critical point ofthe cross section that observes the highest degree ofutilization.6 Assessment Contents 1*16 EN.6. Chapter 1.1 Individual types of stress Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components The degrees of utilization of rodshaped nonwelded components for the different types of stress like axial.6. total safety factor.4.4) and (1.zd.Tmax. . For welded components assessments are generally to be carried out separately for the toe section and for the throat section as indicated in the following. Chapter 1. related component static strength.6.. SSKzd . Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished.1 1. They can be both nonwelded or welded In general the assessments for the individual types of stress and for the combined types of stress are to be carried out separately *1 *2.0 General Kinds of component According to this chapter the assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.1.:s:. In the context of the present Chapter the degree of utilization is the quotient of characteristic service stress (extreme stress Smax.6.12) are applied inother cases. a .5.6.t .t aSK. .ex.6. 1.1. 1.1.1 Rodshaped (ID) components 1.b / Jges Degree of utilization The assessments are to be carried out by determining the degrees of utilization of the component static strength. .
5.s = Tmax.577 0. For GOG is q = 0. 1. 1..5 %)..b Jges asK. are to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses. bending.2.7) and Table 1. Chapter 1.q)' aoH:::. Contained inthese are the section factors for tension or compression.2 Combined types of stress (1.t . shear and/or torsional type of loading follow from the equivalent nominal stresses..wv.b ...:::.5. (1.6) with different signs (subtraction) *12.zd and SSK. SK.6. . according to Eq.2.2) . npl.wv.zd + aSK. however.b are overlaid linearly when computing the value s.t Jges Smax. 11 For example a tension stress from axial loading and a compression stress from bending acting atthe reference point. and (1.1 Constant q(f.6. 1 SK. In general axial stresses (tension and compression) and bending stresses (tension and compression) are to be considered separately.zd. SSK.6. .t :::. total safety factor. Table 1. values. or shear and torsion.b and/or asK. SK. 9 Table 1.zd and aSK.s .wv. 10 For example a tension stress from axial loading and a tension stress from bending acting at the reference point. For the throat section of rodshaped (lD) welded components the degrees of utilization for an axial. related component static strength.b are defined by the static component strength values SSK.ex. Cast GG Alallovs Alallovs Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components (1. (1. extreme maximum stresses (equivalent nominal stresses).5.6. .6. SK.264 Caution: Here only ductile wrought aluminium alloys are considered (elongation A > 12. Eq.Smax. (1.7) f. where both result from the same single extemalload affecting the component 7 The applied strength hypothesis for combined types of stress is a combination ofthe normal stress criterion (NH) and the v. .wv.1: a a SK.. Wrought GOG For rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stresses is *7 q 0.1. aNH+ (l .6. npl. f'.zd = S max. For shear and torsion the highest absolute value of shear stress is relevant. Mises criterion are of partial influence. and for GT or GG) the assessment of the static strength istobe carried out according toChapter 3. .wv.. *ll. =Js 2 2 +t . . shear strength factor. Smin. For shear and torsion the highest absolute value of shear stress is relevant.6) t = aSK.6. 1.264 so that both the normal stress criterion and the v.ex.zd.wv. . Mises criterion (GH).1.b . T /.zd .ex. TSK.zd Jges (1. the degrees of utilization aSK.b :::. then the result will be on the safe side.t 2).wv.ex. degree of utilization..1).5) = aSK. Chapter 1.65 0. For steel is q = 0 so that only the v.t are to be inserted into Eq.zd and aSK.zd . aSK.wv.zd and aSK.6. Chapter 1.S / .s and asK.zd < 1 S /.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). respectively) always act unidirectionally at the reference point *10.zd .6) with equal (positive) signs (summation). All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero).37 1. For nonductile wrought aluminium alloys (as well asfor cast aluminium alloys. (1.1. aoH Rodshaped (ID) welded components S For the toe section of rodshaped (lD) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components. 1. Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress (axial and bending.4.s / Jges T aSK. aSK.1.1. and for bending. 8 Inthe the case ofassessing the static strength the degrees ofutilization aSK.6.). where both result from the same single external load affecting the component. Mises criterion isof effect. Steel.4) aSK. where *8 aNH=~{lsl+~s2 +4.1.6. If they act always opposingly.b .b . Compared to a more precise solution this procedure is on the safe side. In general axial stresses (tension and compression) and bending stresses (tension and compression) are to be considered separately.1.6.6. Chapter 1.Sv = q .wv.00 GT.wvt= max. For shear and torsion in analogy. .s + aSK.ex. the extreme minimum stresses. 12 Stress components acting opposingly may cancel each other inpart or completely. they are to be inserted into Eq. 0. (1.ex. Depending on the ductility of the material the combination is controlled by a parameter q as a function off.
1.s Jges Smax.wv.s and T min.. SK.wv.1 Individual types of stress Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components The degrees of utilization of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for the types of stress like normal stress in the directions x and y as well as shear stress are Smax.1. For the throat section of rodshaped (10) welded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stresses (or loadings) is *14 Smax. Chapter 1.x / jges All extreme stresses may be positive or negative (or zero).b .wv < 1 T.x < 1 SK. Smin.ex. Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with Smin.8) aSK. extreme maximum stresses according to type of stress. are to be considered in the same way as the .y < ..s = T. Jges total safety factor.wv. Smin. wv.x = Rodshaped (1D) welded components For the toe section of rodshaped (10) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components. 1 .wv.. respectively) always act unidirectionally at the reference point *10.5.wv.without knowing whether the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly '13 . (1. are to be considered in the same way as the extreme maximum stresses.ex. 1. Chapter 1.6) both with equal or with different signs. J(aSK. Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with Smin.x aSK.ex. . (1. related component static strength.1.y / Jges a 13 For example. the degrees of utilization aSK. Shellshaped (2D) welded components For the toe section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components.ex. .wv.t are to be inserted into Eq.8) both with equal or with different signs.6.1.zd .zd .wv.y aSK.s and Tmin.Swv = s SSK.without knowing whether the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly *13 .x Jges (1. or shear and torsion.6.x .8) with equal (positive) signs (summation). / .wv.ex. degree of utilization.ex.6.wv. ex.38 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 1..2 Shellshaped (2D) components 1. Chapter 1.wv.wv. (1..x .6..b)2 +(aSK.WV.ex. extreme maximum stresses (equivalent nominal stresses). Smin.wv.wv.5.wv.6.zd.2.1. It is an approximation which has to be regarded as provisional and therefore it istobeapplied with caution.t are to be included in this comparative evaluation. (1. For shear stress the highest absolute value is relevant. .S / .6.s = Tmax.t )2 .. In general tension and compression stresses are to be considered separately.s and aSK.zd and aSK.6. In the general case .2).x .y = 1. (1.b and/or aSK. the extreme minimum stresses.the degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq.ex. however. SK. . iftwo loadings vary with time in a different manner.wv. SSK. maximum stresses..ex.y =ISmax.6.6.8) with different signs (subtraction) *12.ex. *11.max.9) aSK. SSK.wv.Smax.ex. (1.2) onpage 20 in all respects.wv. Chapter 1... then the least favorable case is relevant.y / jges (1.. Smax. For the throat section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the degrees of utilization for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress follow from the equivalent nominal stresses.x .6 Assessment In the general case .wv.x . then the least favorable case is relevant. SSK.6. Tmin.the degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq.1..4. .ex.2.ex. (1.6. the extreme minimum stresses. 1. they are to be inserted into Eq.ex.1. Eq. ::. SK.1. 14 Eq.10) I aSK. Smin.ex.s +aSK.8) does not agree with the structure ofEq. aSK.. T min. .t are to be included in this comparative evaluation. s 1·.x . If they act always opposingly.Zd +aSK. then the result will be on the safe side.b .2: a .1. Chapter 1.ex. (1.ex TSK / jges Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress (tension or compression and bending.
wv. the degrees of utilization aSK.2. then the least favorable case is relevant. 1. For shear stress the highest absolute value is relevant.6.y are to be inserted into Eq. degree of utilization.Sv = q .6.9).6.2.y and Tmin.16) 1. SSK. (1. aSK.wv. For the toe section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components.x. (1. and (1..6.12) where aNH=1{lsx +syl+~(Sx _Sy)2 +4.without knowing whether the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly *13 .14) Sy= asK.5.y. aNH + (1 .13) 2 2 2 aaH= Sx +Sy sx 'Sy +t .6. For the throat section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stress (or loadings) is *14 222 asK. ..x +aSK. If they always act opposingly.x and aSK. (1.x'" Shellshaped (2D)"welded components total safety factor. Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with Smin. Chapter 1.y are to be inserted into Eq. 15 For example tension in direction x and tension in direction y from a single loading affecting the component. aGH:::.ex. Table 1.15) f't shear strength factor.x and asK.6.6.ex.14) both with equal or with different signs. .2. All extreme stresses may be positive or negative (or zero).10).4. .14) with equal (positive) signs (summation).q) .2 Combined types of stress aSK.Swv = aSK. (1.wv.5.14) with different signs.6. Eq..wv. Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components The degree of utilization of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for combined stresses is *7 aSK. In general tension and compression stresses are to be considered separately. (1. Eq.ex. the degrees of utilization aSK.the degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. Smin.6.x.y +aSK. degree of utilization..6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses related component static strength.s.39 1.x. J sx= aSK.5. Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress always act unidirectionally at the reference point *15.s' (1.6. (1. 16 For example tension in direction x and compression in direction y from a single loading affecting the component. t = aSK. In the general case .s are to be included in this "comparative evaluation.6. however *16.x .t 2)' (1. (1. Chapter 1.
40 1.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses .
5.1.1. and the related mean values Sm. .0 2.i = Sa.41 2.3.1.1.1. For different types of stress (for example bending and torsional stress or axial stresses in x.zd.b. Sm.2.1. consisting of one step i = j = 1 only. Sm. 2.1.2 Shellshaped (2D) components 42 2.zd.t..zd.zd.1.zd.i .0 General According to this chapter the parameters of the service stress spectra are to be determined.Z.4 Determination of the parameters of a service stress spectrum General Standard stress spectrum Class of utilization Damageequivalent stress amplitude 2.4.1.0 General 2.zd. Sm.3 several proportional or synchronous stress components act simultaneously at the reference point. a shear stress T s.zd. Ta. Sm.2..zd.zd.i s Tm.s.2. Ta.i.zd = Sm.1 and Sa.1 2.zd.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum Contents 2. = Sm.) exists for each type of stress *2.i .zd.3. Chapter 0.zd.2 2. according to the required fatigue life *1. (2. so that in the following a single stress component (Sa. 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 1R21 EN.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses A special case is the constant amplitude spectrum.1. 2.1.0 General Rodshaped (10) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished. Relevant are the stress spectra of the individual stress components.4. . i = 1 to j .i = Sm.zd. 2 Stress components acting opposingly can cancel each other inpart or completely.1 Sm.1.. giving the amplitudes Sa.1) S.1 Rodshaped (lD) components 2.5. Sa.1.zd.10.1 d .1.2. Spectra are applicable for N > 104 cycles approximately.1..i Zd. as well as the related numbers of cycles n. 2. . Sm.) the superposition is to be carried out at this stage. .zd. They are specified by a number of steps.1. For axial stress there is Sa.1 Characteristic service stresses according to the kind of component 2.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match the component constant amplitude SN curve 2.1 Characteristic service stresses according to the kind of component 44 45 2..t.6.1 d·· S.l..1..4. Figure 2..1.i.0 2. They may be both nonwelded or welded.and a torsional stress Tt are to be considered *3 .and ydirection) the superposition is to be carried out at the assessment stage.1..zd.1.2 .1.i.1.1 Rodshaped (ID) components Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components For rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components an axial stress Szd .2 Parameters of the service stress spectrum General Mean stress spectrum Stress ratio spectrum 2.zd.1.i ..s.i . Chapter 0.Z. a bending stress Sb . Chapter 2. For the same type of stress (for example unidirectional axial stresses Sa. see footnote 3 on page 19.b.i .do~ 2.1 . Tm. they are to be overlaid. + Sa. stress ratio: . The respective amplitudes and mean values are Sa.zd.zd.f .zd. Stress cycle Example: stress cycle (axial stress).i Figure 2.1.0 Page General 41 2. If Nonproportional stresses 43 If several nonproportional stress components act simultaneously at the reference point.0 General Superposition According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.4.. The largest amplitude Sa zd 1 ofa service stress spectrum with its related mean stress value Sm. of stress cycles.1.i .1 2. Sm.i Sa.2 2.1. they are to be overlaid according to Chapter 5.1. Proportional or synchronous stresses 2.zd = Sa.1.1 R t 1 As a rule a stress spectrum is to be determined for normal service conditions.1.1 Sm. .1' defme the step i = 1 and serve as the characteristic stress values.
zd. ND..10) where 1<" is the exponent of the component SN curve.4. Szdx = Sx and Szdy = Sy. i = 1 to j.0 General A stress spectrum describes the stress cycles contained in the stress history of concern *5 • If the stress cycles show variable amplitudes a stress spectrum is to be determined for every stress component *6.1. equal to the amplitude in step 1 Sa.42 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 2.1.1 related number of cycles in step i. respectively. step for the smallest j amplitudes damage potential. The terms niIN and hi I H are equivalent. oran assessment for fmite life based on the constant amplitude SN curve (formally similar to an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength) if N = N < ND.i . Sa. (2.total num~ ofcycle!!j!fa given spectrum . 7 In this case an assessment ofthe fatigue limit is to be carried out for type I SN curves if N = N ~ ND 0" oranassessment ofthe endurance limit for type 11 SN curves if N:" N ~ ND. Respective amplitudes and mean values see Eq. 6 In this The damage potential is defined by *5 *9.6.2 Shellshaped (2D) components Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components For shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components the (nominal) axial stresses in x. for example.x.i amplitude in step i. (2. 4 5 In the following all variables and equations are presented for the axial stress component Szd only.1. 2. Tm.1.zd. lOA mean stress spectrum. but ingeneral the respective stresses and fatigue classes FAT are different. . Sm. for example.i.zd 1 characteristic (largest) stress amplitude of the .3.4) Shellshaped (2D) welded components For shellshaped (2D) welded components. The amplitudes Sa.O". stress values are in general to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section *4.and if .1 Characteristic service stresses (2. Figure 2. Sm. The values ka = 3 and k't = 8 are valid for welded components. stress spectrum.i are always positive. The respective amplitudes and related mean values are Sa. h·1 related number of cycles in step i. Yzd 2.zd. Sa. The constant amplitude stress spectrum may be regarded in the following as a special case '7 .l and hi /H describe the shape of the stress spectrum. see Chapter 0.i :s: 1.i .i kO" L=""' ' i=l H [ Sa.8) N= N = ni = n1 Where appropriate bending and shear stresses in two planes are to be considered (components yand z).1).zd. 3 For welded components separate assessments ofthe fatigue strength for both the toe section and the throat section ofthe weld are to be carried out. N total number of cycles corresponding to the required fatigue life (required total number of cycles).i.total number ofcycles required .O" or N = N ~ ND. Hi = Lhi (summed up for 1 to i). Sa. Figure 0. but written with the appropriate indices they are valid for all other types ofstress aswell.1 . (2.1. results for a crane hook when lifting variable loads.1.9) Rodshaped (ID) welded components Parameters of the stress spectrum are: For rodshaped (lD) welded components the (nominal) stress values are in general to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section *4.2. As a rule a restriction to the following kinds of stress spectra is possible: Mean stress spectra and stress ratio spectra (with the fluctuating stress spectra as a special case). the mean values Sm.4). N. = 8 for shear stress are valid for nonwelded components..zd.1.zd. Sm.l .O" or ND. Both assessments are ofthe same kind. total number of steps.2 *10. II for Typ I orTyp 11 SN curves.zd. The term hi I H may be replaced by ni IN. results from a static load with dynamic loads superimposed.1.2.i . The values ka = 5for normal stress and Ie. Ta.O". or zero.y.and ydirection.zd = Sa. = Lni (summed up for 1 to i).zd.i may be positive. 11 . = T are to be considered.zd.2 Parameters of the stress spectrum 2.0.i / Sa. Chapter 2.i mean value in step i.l ) (2. Sa.x.4.zd.zd. as well as a shear stress T.O".1. n.are different ingeneral. The valuesN .i+ 1 / Sa. Yzd = ke j hi Sa zd. respectively. N = Lni (summed up for 1 to j).3.i.1. (2. negative. a fluctuating stress spectrum. case an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength isto be carried out. step. Respective amplitudes and mean values see Eq. .i = Sa. 8 9 The damage potential is a value characterising the shape of a stress spectrum. H total number of cycles of a given spectrum.y.zd. . 8 H = Hj = Lhi (summed up for 1 to j) * .i > 0. for which i = I and Sa. 11 isthe number ofcycles at the fatigue limit ofthe component constant amplitude SN curve. Sa.1.
i = Sm.i) 2.zd.1.1.12) where ~d = (Sm.i ' and constant mean stress values Sm. the steps of which do not have the same stress ratio *11.zd.1. 2.the determination of the parameters of a stress spectrum may be simplified by applying a standard stress spectrum.2 Stress ratio spectrum RZd.zd.1.13) 11 Applies to a mean stress spectrum.3.1.~d)' (2.i = (1 + ~d) / (l .4 Determination of the parameters of a stress spectrum In case of existing experiences . Chapter 4. From a measured and graphically presented continuous stress spectrum a stepped stress spectrum may be obtained according to Chapter 5.1. a coefficient p = 1/3 . A mean stress spectrum.16) 2.Sa.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses or Sm.i / Sa. but not for a stress ratio spectrum or a fluctuating stress spectrum.zd. or by measurement.6. (2.zd ' and consequently the individual steps have different stress ratios Rzd.zd. has different amplitudes Sa. and extrapolated to the required total number of cyclesN.2.i .11) A constant stress ratio applies to all steps of a stress ratio spectrum: (2.zd=O Figure 2. (2.zd. Chapter 5. Chapter 4.4. The determination of the stress spectrum from a stress history has to be realized according to the rainflow cycle counting procedure or in the sense of this procedure. or in case of high demands on its accuracy.2. To allow the proper application of Miner's rule. (2.4.2 Stress spectra Top: Mean stress spectrum.1. a total number of cyclesH = 106 . is derived for a constant stress ratio Rzd .1. for instance.i + Sa.3.2. 2. by simulation. must have or must be converted to that stress ratio RZd.1.zd. . or a damageequivalent stress amplitude. Midle: Stress ratio spectrum.6. Example: The presented stress spectra are standard type stress spectra. all steps of a spectrum.i = Rzd.2. "1" Smin.i) / (Sm. a class of utilization.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match the component constant amplitude SNcurve This chapter mainly applies to stress spectra.4.i .1.1. the parameters of the stress spectrum are to be determined by calculation.i = Rzd .zd.43 2.zd.zd.i = 1.depending on the component and its application .i / Sa.0 General If the stress spectrum of a component under consideration is not known.zd.15) or Sm. 2.14) Special case: Fluctuating stress spectrum A constant stress ratio of zero applies to all steps of a fluctuating stress spectrum: (2.1.1. however. Bottom: Fluctuating stress spectrum.zd. for example.i = Sm. basicaUy defined by a binomial frequency distribution.1. On the other hand the component constant amplitude SN curve.1 Mean stress spectrum A constant mean stress applies to all steps of a mean stress spectrum: Sm.
400 0.zd.868 0.1.0 1 I"""~' hi HI 2/3 1 0. for standard stress spectra having a binomial or exponential frequency distribution.i / Sa.l 0. normal stress k. Table 2.430 0.1.967 0.856 0.l and hi.499 0. i = 1 to j. for normal stress and shear stress (exponents of the constant amplitude SN curve 1<:" and k.3 Standard stress spectra. are presented in Figure 2.725 0.739 0.375 0.125 1. ).275 0.850 0.l characteristic (largest) stress amplitude ofthe stress spectrum.983 0.958 0.430 0.297 0.417 0 1 0..125 Sa' / Sa 1/3 1 0.667 0.908 0.155 0. 2 P 2/3 vzd = 1 0.712 0.zd.4.573 0.500 0. = 5 1<:" = 3 0.950 0. Spectrum parameter p.869 0. damage potential Yzd for an = exponent ko = 5 of the component constant amplitude SoN curve.875 0.717 0. binom.527 0..~·1 Sa. equal to the amplitude in step 1 N Yzd P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 required total number of cycles.917 0.917 0.5 . Bottom: Exponential distribution (Straight line distribution).713 0.426 0..499 0.1 Characteristic service stresses 2.875 0.275 0..739 0.417 hi HI 2/3 1 0.326 0.10) and Figure 2.517 0..868 0.366 0.615 0.900 0..1 Standard stress spectrum 1 Standard stress spectra are used to describe the shape of typical stress spectra.615 0.297 0..44 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 2.1 are given in the graphical presentations.~.lO 106 Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum Step i Sa.zd.196 0..792 0.739 0.617 0.j. expon.483 0.713 0.625 0.627 0.575 0. according to the shape of the standard stress spectrum Sm.750 0.750 0.1 Sa.608 0.330 0..zd.267 0.500 0.438 0.... I expon..196 0.""'1/3 Step i P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 0..5 a 0.833 0. In addition.856 1 1 1 1 shear stress k.570 0.399 0.. (These apply to an exponent of the component constant amplitude SN curve 1<:" = 5 and a total number of cycles H = 106 ). p Vzd 0 1/6 1/3 1/2 2/3 5/6 1 v.750 0. for nonwelded and welded components. (2.. damage potentials Vzd according to Eq.569 0.808 0.708 2 2 18 16 280 298 2720 3018 20000 23000 92000 115000 280000 395000 604982 1000000 .1.858 0.425 0.. i = 1 to j.713 0.400 0.zd.286 0..zd.868 0. = 5 0.817 0..758 0.570 0. 0 1/6 1/3 1/2 2/3 5/6 1 nonwelded welded binom.708 2 2 10 12 64 76 340 416 2000 2400 13400 11000 61600 75000 924984 1000000 Figure 2.856 0.i mean values.326 1/3 . or Sa.499 0.1.250 0.3. Standard stress spectra having a binomial or an exponential frequency distribution that may be modified by the spectrum parameter p .1 Damage potentials Vzd and v. Top: Binomial distribution. modified by the spectrum parameter p. total number of cyclesII = Hj E hi = 106.326 0..833 0.583 0.. .1.743 0. number of steps j = 8 .1. = 8 k.950 0.452 0. a total number of cycles H = 106 ..856 1 1 1 1 Sa' / Sal 1/3 1 0.737 0.
1 and hi of the steps i = I to j from Figure 2.1. Application of the data on Sa.zd.. axial stress. 12 According toDIN 15018.C" it allows an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength to be performed as an assessment ofthe fatigue limit.7. S. the required total number of cycles.zd:.zd. Chapter 2..UI'l S.4 Spectra corresponding to the same class of utilization.1.2 Class of utilization *12 A class of utilization is an approximately damageequivalent combination of different shapes of stress spectra and of specific figures of the required total numbers of cycles. Table 5. Application of the damage potential Vzd.4. Sm. equal to the amplitude in step 1 class of utilization (a combination of the shape of B the stress spectrum and of the required total number of cycles).zd. 2. All three stress spectra are approximately damageequivalent and correspond tothe same class ofutilization B5.zd.3 for an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the consistent version of Miner's rule.zd. Figure 2.~tr~~"""""..3 Damageequivalent stress amplitude The appropriate standard stress spectrum has to be specified separate from this guideline.4. Figure 2. 1/2.4. The damageequivalent stress amplitude is a constant stress amplitude with an assigned number of cycles equal to the number of cycles at the knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Analytical relationship:For standard stress spectra with spectrum parameters p > 0 (p = 1/6. stress spectra with binomial distribution.45 2.C" ' component variable amplitude fatigue life curve.zd.3.eff isassigned toND. 2.: 2..10) for an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the elementary version of Miner's rule.5 Damageequivalent stress amplitude.1.5' N Figure 2. Chapter 2. and the largest stress amplitude Sa. ND.1 p=o (2.17) Application: In case of existing experiences about the shape of the stress spectrum a suitable standard stress spectrum may be applied to assess the variable amplitude fatigue strength in two ways: Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum characteristic (largest) stress amplitude of the stress spectrum.zd.1 p Sa.zd mean stress *13.7..6.zd.4. It is damageequivalent to the stress spectrum in question. 2.1 S.zd = 100 %. Application: In case of existing experiences about the shape of stress spectrum and the required total number of cycles a class of utilization may be applied to assess the variable amplitude fatigue strength.4.cr . As the damageequivalent stress amplitude Sa.p) . In particular it is defined by the shape of stress spectrum.i Sa.. WL.zd.3).zd.. number ofcycles atthe knee point ND. see also Chapter 5.zd. 5/6) there is J J . Component constant amplitude SN curve.1. Shown is the situation when full use is made of the fatigue strength capacity of the component (degree of utilization aBl(. Eq. (2.2.7.z!il WL Sa. 1/3.1. required total number ofcycles N.1..3.i / Sa. 2/3. Eq. ~. Sa. Chapter The class of utilization has to be specified separate from this guideline.3. Example: Welded component.1.1.1.5.. N.i = p + (l .l.4.1. Analytical relationship: See Chapter 5.<J". characteristic stress amplitude Sa.i [ Sa.b Figure 2. .>.4.1.[Sa.1.t.1.
It allows an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength to be performed as an assessment of the fatigue limit.1. ka Application: In case of existing experiences about the damaging effect of the stress spectrum a damageequivalent stress amplitude Sa. (2.zd.zd. Sm.1.zd Related mean value.zd. '" N .a number of cycles at the knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve j. .eff 1 = k j _ .10).1.« 1=1 = (N / NO. Eq. seeEq.46 2. Analytical relationship: Based on the elementary version of Miner's rule the damageequivalent stress amplitude is obtained as *14 Sa. The damageequivalent stress amplitude has to be specified separate from this guideline.eff may be applied.a ) (2.18) 111m. Chapter 2.4. (2. i.i D.1..1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Parameters of the so derived stress spectrum Sa. Yzd damage potential.1 .3.9). exponent of the component constant amplitude SN curve No. 14 Eq.L . Vzd .18) is valid for a damage sum OM = 1 .eff Damageequivalent stress amplitude (damageequivalent to a combination of the shape of the stress spectrum..zd. Sa. the required total number of cycles and of the largest amplitude in the stress spectrum). (2. ni. .zd.1. see Chapter 2. Il:1 ·ska a.6.
1.2. 6 The values crw.cr = No. (2.cr fatigue strength factor for completely reversed normal stress. Kd.1.1.5.s = 'tw.2. Values derived from an average relation of0. KA . semifmished product fatigue strength value according to standards.s computed from Rm .w = 92 MPa.2 2.3. Chapter 5.0 General 2.ll= 108 cycles.'t.w correspond tothe fatigue limit which is equal tothe endurance limit ofwelded steel and cast iron material aswell as of welded aluminum alloys. 106 cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at N ~ No.w and 'tw. KA anisotropy factor. Caution: For nonwelded wrought and cast aluminum alloys the fatigue limit is different from the endurance limit associated with N ~ NO.3 Temperature factor General Normal temperature Low temperature Elevated temperature 48 2.zd.5 and Chapter 5. but not of aluminum alloys.s = 'tw.1.0 2.0. Steel and cast iron materials According to this chapter the material fatigue strength values (component values according to standards) are to be determined.3.1 Component values according to standards For the toe section and for the throat section of professionally welded components from weldable structural steel *5 specific values of the fatigue strength apply independent of the kind of material. (2.5 % ispresumed.zd .do~ Contents Page 47 2. 108 cycles *6.m . as well as further characteristics *2.2. 2 An influence offrequency on the material fatigue strength values isnot considered up to now although itmight be ofimportance for aluminum alloys. Figure 2.N . crW.1.N.s = fw.3.2.cr = 5 .. Chapter 1.2.'t = 1 . (1.zd = crw.2.s.2.2 Component values according to standards General Nonwelded components Welded components 2.1) Chapters 2. Rm tensile strength. Chapter 5. crW. 2.zd and 'tW.2.2.m technological size factor asfor the tensile strength.2 and 4.2.s.2.3) Caution: For other kinds of material (stainless steel conditionally weldable steel. 108 cycles *6.3.2. 'tw.2.1.5.6 and Chapter 5. Chapter 5. 2.0 General crW. 7 .'t = 106 are *4 I fw. a probability of survival Po = 97.1.2.2.0 General The determination of the material fatigue strength is different for nonwelded and for welded components. KA' crW. Chapter 2. 3 For the tensile strength according to standards.w = 13 MPa.zd = crw.0 2.2. That probability should also apply to the values crW.zd = fw.2 are identical.1) applies here too: crW.2. 2.0.2 Welded components For the base material of welded components the material fatigue strength values for completely reversed stress are the same as for nonwelded components. .2 Material properties *1 11m EN. Figure 2. Rm . however.36 ofthe FAT classes for aluminum alloys and for structural steel..s = I<d. 'tW.cr. 2..N . Chapter 5. (2. 5 Weld imperfections occurring with normal production standards are allowable.'t = 1 .1.II =NO. crW.2.w = 33 MPa.zd.m .4.2.2.2 Material properties 2. weldable cast iron material) these values are to be considered as provisional and are to be applied with caution.3. Moreover Eq.4. These are for completely reversed normal stress at N ~ No.2. Chapter 2.1 Nonwelded components For nonwelded components the values according to standards of the material fatigue strength for completely reversed normal stress and shear stress *3 and for a number of cycles N ~ No.1 2. fw.cr· Rm.2.4) Caution: These values are provisional and are to be applied with caution *7 4 The values crW. and shear stress.2.2) 'tW.1 2.zd = I<d.zd.1.zd and 'tw. 'tw.'t' crW.2.1. 'tw. Chapter 1. These are the material fatigue limit for completely reversed normal stress. crW. correspond tothe fatigue limit which is equal to the endurance limit of steel and cast iron material.2.4.2 Fatigue strength factors for normal stress and for shear stress 2. 'tW. (2.1.1 2.'t fatigue strength factor for completely reversed shear stress.2.2. Chapter 1.47 2.cr = 5' 106 cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at N ~ No. These are for completely reversed normal stress at N ~ NO. 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Aluminum alloys For the toe section and for the throat section of professionally welded components from aluminum alloys *5 specific values of the fatigue strength apply in analogy to steel independent of the kind of material.2.3 2.2.w = 37 MPa.
2.up to 500°C for steel and cast iron materials and up to 200°C for aluminum materials .D Constant.2.2.D = 1. (2.2 Constant aT.1 and 2.2. (T / °C_ 100). Table 2.D arenot known up to now.2.2 Fatigue strength factors for normal stress and for shear stress The fatigue strength factor for completely reversed normal stress.~ c. Figure 1.for nonagehardening aluminum alloys from .577 ~2 ~3 0. Table 2.3 .1: KT. low temperature and elevated temperature are to be distinguished.45 0. and shear stress.D = 1.2. according tothe v.3 Elevated temperature In the field of elevated temperatures .2' 10 3. considers that the material fatigue strength is lower for shear stress than for normal stress. T KT. Chapter 2. .50)2. T / oC)2.2. T > 50°C: KT. Chapter 2. Table 2.O" does not correspond tothe endurance limit for N = <:i) According to the temperature T the temperature factor KT. Chapter 2.577 0.s. fw.D . c.2.~ Case hardening steel Stainless steel Forging steel Steel other than these GS GGG GT GG Wrought aluminum alloys Cast aluminum alloys 0.40 ~4 0.2. Table 2.D temperature factor. for other kinds of steel from 40°C to + 100°C.2. 2.3.3. Also valid for welded components.577 0. T / DC. Kind of material fw.2. The fatigue strength factor for shear stress. 'tW. material fatigue strength value for completely reversed shear stress. 'tw.2. Table 1. T> 100°C. (2. 'tw.for agehardening aluminum alloys from 25°C to 50°C.D = 11. fw.D is for fine grain structural steel. crW. Kind of material aT.8) here! for GS. .  (2.1 Normal temperature Normal temperatures are as follows: for fine grain structural steel from 40°C to 60°C. (2. Figure 2.. 1 and 2. Mises criterion.48 2. T > 100°C.2 Material properties 2.10) The temperature factors considers that the material fatigue strength for completely reversed stress decreases with increasing temperature. .34 0.3. for cast iron materials from25°C to + 100°C. 2. (2.30 ~5 0.. > 60°C: (2.D = 110.D *8.3 .2.7) to (2.3 . crW. (10 .577 0.~ . (2.6) KT.85 0.577 0. is the quotient of the axial fatigue strength value for completely reversed stress divided by the tensile strength. Normal temperature. ~2 Bl~hardened.2.O" and fw.2.0 General for GGG.O" .40 ~4 0. fw.2.2.zd.. T > 100°C: KT.3.2.30 ~5 0.0 Forstainless steel values aT.1.11) .40 ~2 0.2. (T / °CIOO).9) aT.T = KT. The influence of the carburization on the component fatigue strength is to by considered by the surface treatment factor.3 Temperature factor 2.1. (2. 1.75 0.the influence of the temperature on the fatigue strength is to be considered. (T / °C .D .s . 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses For normal temperature the temperature factor is KT.1. Ko.1: KT.75 fw.2 Low temperature Temperatures below the values listed above are outside the field of application of this guideline. Eq.11). Figure 2. GT and GG.2. ~ arevalid for a number of cycles N = 106 • fw ~ equal to f~ .D 8 GGG 1.5. 2.zd.34 0. ~3 0. Table 2.O" fw.1.2. For elevated temperature the fatigue strength values for completely reversed normal stress and shear stress are crW.1.4' 10.2.30 0.3 GG 1.3 in the Chapter 1.1 Fatigue strength factors for completely reversed normal stress. 2.2.aT.D = 11.zd.5) 2.2 .2.2.O" . fw.1.6 GT 1.D .2.1. ~4 Preliminary values.65 0.s. for aluminum alloys. 10 3.2.25°C to 100°C.577 0.1 ~5 fW.30 0.2.7) for other kinds of steel *7.. .577 = 1 / J3.T = KT.2.3. material fatigue strength value for completely reversed normal stress.D = 1.2.2.4.
Rp / Rm = n.2 Material properties Higb 'temperature strength Rm.zd/ Rm = 0. 1m Crecp. For elevated temperature. Bottom: GG.m.7) to (2.T . jm = 3.1 F:=:q:~::J=.1. Rp.5 .2.TI Rrn. Rm.2.zd. as in Figure 1..5. Jm = 2. Fatigue strength value at elevated temperature: crW.zd/ Rm = 0. Rp.T are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the fatigue strength.4.45.T as well as Rill. Rm.0.Ld~~ oW~Z(n aW.zd = KT...2. Ojlf~= o o lOO 200 300 400 500 Tin·C nt. In = 1.T / Rp = KT.T. jp = Jmt = 1.65.Tt for t = io' h.t 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Eq. Safety factors j according to Chapter 1. plotted for comparison.Tt / Rp = KTt. Eq.m o o 100 2.~ R ln . and in particular when the mean stress Sill.Tt/Rm = KTt.1 Temperature dependent values of the static strength and of the fatigue strength.5 or 2.2.T/Rm = KT.Stn~ngth It.lb 200 300 400 Tin·C 500 Figure 2. . Jmt = in = 2.2. crW.zd.49 2. (2.Tt J ~:m'jlJ1t 0.2.T and "CW. (2. / Rm = 0.11) applies to aluminum alloys up to 200 o e. respectively.Tt.T / crW. crW.2.5. Jpt = 1. as in Figure 3. Rm.O· Top: Nonalloyed structural steel.p .0.T 1i1ghtemperature yieidStl'ellgthRp.30. Rp.p. as only the temperature factor KT. Rrn. The values crW. i. the fatigue strength in terms of the maximum stress may be higher than the static strength so that the assessment is governed by the static strength.2. Rp.0 .m.10) apply to steel and cast iron materials from the indicated temperature T up to 500 o e.0.D is used.s.
To a major part the FAT values where derived with reference to the nw recommendations and Eurocode 3 (Ref 191.cr K y ·K s . .4. The design factors are supposed.3.3.c.cr K y . KwK. 1 _ KR.E 1 KwK.1. (2. .KNL.3.3. since the crosssection values. 2.2.2) Page 50 KwK.E KWK.3 Design parameters 2.E). welded components are to be Steel and cast iron material The design factors of welded rodshaped (lD) components made of steel or of cast iron materials *2 for axial.0 2.zd . reduces the effect 'of roughness for components with sharp notched (Kj is large) incomparison tocomponents with mild ornonotches (Kf '" 1).3.4 2.3.3. the nominal stresses and the fatigue classes FAT may be different.3. 1 .E Fatigue classes (FAT) Thickness factor 55 56 Kf.2 Fatigue notch factors computed from experimental values 2.0 General According to this chapter the design parameters are to be computed in terms of design factors.y=[K f y +_1_ _ 1) . Rodshaped (10) and shellshaped components are to be distinguished.3.K s 51 52 54 Roughness factor Surface treatment and coating factors Constant KNL. Chapter 2.0 General 2.1.1 2.1 Design factors (2D) .'t Ky.K s .1 2. KWK.2. surface treatment factor. KWK.KNL.s = [Kf.1) 1 KWK.1.'t Ky.2.3.2.2 The design factors of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are (2.3. weldable cast iron materials).0 General Nonwelded and distinguished.zd .s = 145/ (FAT' it· Ko ).3.welded 2. constant for GG. KR. 1 KR.4) . Chapter 2..3 Fatigue notch factors for superimposed notches 2.b = KWK.cr K y ·K s .2.0 General 2.'t Ky.3.3.1 Nonwelded components KWK. 2.3.1.1.zd = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL. Chapter 2.1 Fatigue notch factors computed from stress concentration factors 2.7 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 1 KwK. 2. for bending.4. fatigue notch factors.Zd=[K f Zd +_1__ 1)' . dog Contents 2. Chapter 2.K s The design factors of shellshaped (2D) welded components made of steel or of cast iron materials for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are 1 The additive combination of the fatigue strength notch factor Kfzd . roughness factor.KNL..1.x +_1_ _ 1) .KNL..S +_1__ 1)' KR. =[K x Design factors General Nonwelded components Welded components f .3.3.6 2. KR..2 Welded components For the base material of welded components the design factors are to be computed as for nonwelded components. stainless steel.3.3. with the reciprocal roughness factor Kk.S +_1__ 1) .3.3 Design parameters 1R23 EN.50 2.5 2.3. The design factors of rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components for axial.5. 2. for shear and for torsional stresses are *1. for shear and for torsional stress are.3. Rodshaped (10) and shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components are to be distinguished.3. 2. KR.cr K y ·K s . 2 1 .3. For the toe section and for the throat section of welded components the design factors are in general to be determined separately. to be valid notonly for weldable structural steel but also for other kinds of iron based materials (conditionally weldable steel.3 2.s . .3.3. 18/).K s (2.s = [Kf.3. Chapter 2. KWK.3. coating factor. KR.E .2 Fatigue notch factors 2..3.E KWKb=[K fb +_1__ 1) .t =[K f t +_1__ 1) .. for bending. however.t = KwK.
(2. '" < 1 the realistic value to be applied is *7.Kt.t = KwK. for all weldable aluminum alloys.11) yield a fatigue notch factors Kfzd. Kf.12) The KtKf ratios for normal stress.s = 145/ (FAT' it· Ky). KWK. Chapter 2. KtKr ratios for normal stress 2.3.1 mrrr ! <G cr .0.3. (2. Chapter 2.. KwK. Kf. K (2. surface treatment factor.11) . The fatigue classes FAT are in general different for normal stress in the direction x and in the direction y.0 General The fatigue notch factors.3. n crx r _ Kt. 6000 and 7000..3. *5.zd = .3.3 Design parameters KwK. for normal stress in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress of shellshaped (2D) components are Ktx Kf. KwK.E).. 0. ratios.3..zd . ncr (r) and ncr (d). Caution: IfEq.s .3. 1 mnr ! there is for 1 mrrr 3 Tosome part the FAT values where derived with reference tothe IIW = 1. Chapter 5.y = 225 / (FAT' ft' Ko KNL. ncr (r) . 100 mnr ! there is 1 +~Gcr rnm '10 (aG + R m ) a G.y = 81 / (FAT' ft' Kv Ks).. constant for GG. KwK.E). Chapter 2.x = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ke : Ks). however.5) 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses concentration factors.14) < Gcr. 4 As (2. Numerical values see Footnote 6 onpage 47.3.3.6.15). for bending.3. stress concentration factor according to type of stress. (2. Kf. bo constants.2.2 Fatigue notch factors 2.. Ocr = 1 +G cr .4 *4. Chapter 2. Chapter 2. FAT ft Kv Ks KNL.s .. The fatigue notch factors .3.2 are to be computed from the stress Kf.. are to be computed from the related stress gradients Gcr(r) and Gcr(d).Day (r) . except for the aluminum alloys 5000.x = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL. (2.x ='() .zd . from experimental values. KWK. ratio of the component for normal stress or for shear stress as a function of d. They are to be computed from stress concentration factors or. coating factor. (2.. 2.15) .3.1 Fatigue notch factors computed from stress concentration factors ForG cr . mmTO (a G .n't (r) .3.2.. as well as for shear stress. Table 2. .3.10) Aluminum alloys The design factors of rodshaped (lD) welded components made of aluminum alloys *3 for axial. that isKy = 1. thickness factor. KjK.s = 52 / (FAT' ft' Kv Ks).3. The fatigue notch factors.3. . KtKf ratio of the component for normal stress or for shear stress as a function of r. nt(r) . Moreover the design factors are supposed tobevalid. for bending.y.3. K.2. ncr (d). KWK.y Kf.7) fatigue class.3. .3.3.4.1 mrrr ! there is Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished.3... Ilo(d) .13) to (2. l1o(r) . (2.5 + R m ) bG·MPa .MPa.b = KWK. .1.13) for 0. allow for the influence on the fatigue strength resulting from the design (contour and size) of a nonwelded component.51 2.3.. Eq. Ocr = 1 +~Gcr'rom ·10 vo = ! (aG + R m ) bG' MPa.10) or (2.5.2. Figure 2.7.6) The design factors of shellshaped (2D) welded components made of aluminum alloys for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are KwK.3. (2.s = 52 / (FAT' ft). for axial.E (2.zd = 81 / (FAT·:tt· Ky' K s). Kt.. n'[(d) . .. . r notch radius at the reference point. (2. KwK.. for shear and for torsional stress of the rodshaped (lD) nonwelded structural details presented in Chapter 5.x .zd . d diameter or width of the net notch section. for shear and for torsional stress are KWK.. if these are not applicable or not known.zd . recommendations.s f. and from the KjK. . a rule Ky isnot relevant for welded components. bG.
2 0. V:/VlI 1/.Kf ratio for a crack originating in the hardened surface layer is lower because the tensile strength R m of the hard surface layer is higher than the tensile strength Rm of the core material according to the material standard.(r) and G. ·/l/Pl/ f/ l/ Related stress gradients 1.cr' Rm)· . l Indicated numerical values 1/0.3.020.K r ratios are lower than for non surface hardened components *9 * 10.267' G cr (d) =G.1. .2 Fatigue notch factors computed from experimental values G(Jinmm~l Figure 2.. ) in the core material has decreased from its maximum value at the surface. See the summary of special features ofthe fatigue strength of surface hardened components.05· 850 GGG 0.3.2. As this equation. In particular the fatigue strength value crW.13) to (2.3.95: Difference of the fatigue limit for completely reversed stress in tensioncompression and in bending. Accordingly in case oftorsion.02 The related stress gradients as a function of the notch radius r at the reference point.69 for Rm = 95 MPa and smallest value: ncr = 1. The related stress gradients from bending and torsion as a function of the diameter or width d at the notch net section are V/tVI Z I do= '1111 I 0.50 0. Table 2.2. are to be computed from the related stress gradients G. Kind of material Stainless steel l1G bG 0.52 2.3.2 V. (r) und n. The Kt .15). Not included in the figure 2. Rm.3 . 10 The tensile strength of the surface layer may be estimated approximately as Rm = (3. The diagram may be extended up to G cr = 100 mm r (2.88 for Rm = 330 MPa.SteeV 1200 ~~V~~{t~V 1.(r).(d) = 2/ d. Chapter 5.05 3200 GT GG 0.25 2700 2000 Wrought Alalloys 0. are to be determined from Table 2.65 to 1/0. where fw" is the fatigue strength factor for shear stress.3.b / Ilo (r) < 1 then Kt. IJ 1/ 0. 8 Does not apply to cold rolled or shot peened surfaces.3.27 for Rm = 400 MPa and smallest value: ncr = 1.05 3200 9 The Kt . V 800 .1 KjK. (2.18 for R m = 590 MPa.05 3200 3200 Cast Alalloys 0. valid for the material test specimen ofthe diameter do = 7.5 mm.5 5 2 1 to 2.zd * fW. 7 Exception in case of bending: IfKt.(d) according to Eq.1: Stainless steel.02 for Rm = 130 MPa and smallest value: ncr = 1. it is to be applied with caution.05 0. 5 The fatigue notch factor depends on the notch root radius r and moreover in the case of bending or torsion on the diameter or width d at the notch net section. 6 See footnote 12.3. KtKr ratios for shear stress r /VV .zd of the hardened surface layer must not be derived from that estimate of the tensile strength (crW.14 for Rm = 1070 MPa. n. Threshold values forGcr = I mm 1 : largest value: ncr = 1.1 0. ratios ncr for normal stress. (d).2 Constants l1G and bG . was not specifically established for hardened surface layers. Cast aluminum alloys: Threshold values for: G cr = 1 mm 1 : largest value: ncr = 2. Table 2. G cr (r) andG.01 0.1 The KiK. HV) MPa . however.8. after having replaced cr by 't and the tensile strength Rm by fw" .80 1.3.050. where HV is the Vickers hardness number. 0. / /1 . ratios for shear stress.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses For surface hardened components *8 (components with thermal or with chemothermal surface treatment) the K.Kf ratio for a crack origgiating ~the core material is lower because the related stress gradientGcr (or G.40 2400 Kind of material l1G bG Other GS kinds of steel 0. I 1 I I 101 . Wrought aluminum alloys: Threshold values forGcr = 1 mm 1 : largest value: ncr = 1. "".3.17) Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished.b / Ilo (r) = 1 is to be applied (without considering Ilo(d) ).
19) n crx r r t Mb~rb ) r .3. I K 2.3 are to be computed from the experimentally Kf. for axial. fatigue notch factor of the test t Mb~b B .25 ort! b > 0.3.b. ncr r K.. ~4 The related stress gradient G~(r) applies to shear stress and to torsion stress. fatigue strength value for completely reversed bending stress of the notched component of the diameter or width d.b fatigue strength value for completely reversed axial stress of the unnotched test specimen of the diameter do . . SWK.25. A possible incorrectness that may occur will be reduced by the division of ncr(rp ) / ncr(r).. approximately they apply to round members with a central borehole too.zd/ SWK.b (d p) = SW.zd f.3. .xP' ()' (2.3 '(l+<p) r Fzd 1. (l +<P)  specimen according to type of stress. Kf.. and from the respective Kf particular K *II .b. . nevertheless there is a difference for torsion because of the KtKfTatio n~(d) additionally contained in Eq.20) Kf. ~2 q>= rp = 0 for t! d > 0.b for bending is: t!b~ 0.P fatigue limit for completely reversed bending stress of the unnotched test specimen of diameter dp.3 r Mb _(.t for torsion in analogy. however. SWK. Chapter r FZd ~5 t Mb  2. The . ratios. stress or for shear stress according to r p *14. I Fzd Fzd '.zd 5. G Structural detail .18). derived fatigue notch factors of test specimens given there..xf..10) and (2. ncr (rp). a procedure for components being surface hardened and for components made of cast iron materials and aluminum alloys is described there.( Bb Fzd  2 .3..~Efr \~.b ) (t Fzd ' 2.21) SW. KtKf ratio of the component for normal stress or for shear stress according to r *14. stress or for shear stress according to d. d' ~ Fzd cr The fatigue notch factors for shellshaped (2D) non r r welded components applying to normal stresses in the FZd I directions x and y as well as shear stress are: t MbBtfb _( D ·d' FZd x. KtKf ratio of the test specimen for normal ncr (r) .. In (2.K (d) n crx (rp ) f.18).3.3 *13.zd (dp). (2.3. The equations are valid for round members.18) Kf.53 2..3.P Fatigue limit for completely reversed bending stress of the notched test specimen of diameter dp. for bending..P / SWK.under the provision that the unnotched and the notched specimen have the same diameter dp .3.25.2."0 Round specimen or flat 5.. KtKf ratio of the component for normal ncr (d).zd . (1+<p) Fzd ~5 Kf. 1I(4.10) and (2.b.M +2) for t!d~ 0.is: The fatigue notch factors. ~5 flat member of thickness s. (2. for shear and for torsional stress of the rodshaped (lD) nonwelded structural details presented in Chapter crW.15 ..3 Related stress gradients G c (r) andG't (r) for simple structural details ~ 1. Particularly for cases that may produce some doubt the radii are specified in Chapter 5. nevertheless there is a difference for bending because of the KtKfTatio ncr(d) additionally contained in Eq.b = crW.25 or 11 In this case the fatigue notch factor depends on the notch radii r and rp and for bending and torsion on the diameter or width d at the notch net section. 13 The fatigue notch factors given in Chapter 5.. 14 For computing KtKf ratios the notch radii.3. (2.defmition of the fatigue notch factor for bending derived from experimental data . (2. r or rp .b ' ~3 The related stress gradient Gcr(r) applies to axial stress and to bending stress.3 are applicable to components from steel without surface treatment. 12 The basic definition of the fatigue notch factor Kf.P. Kf.3 Design parameters 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Table 2.t for torsion in analogy. Kfb in bending is dependent on the notch radius r and on the diameter or width d of the notch net section. are required. .K (d) ncr (rp ) f.3. Additionally.b.b is dependent on the notch radius rp and on the diameter or width of the notch net section d. ~5 member ~ 1 r > O. Kf. (r) ~2~3 G~(r) ~4 1 2 ·(I+<p) Mb~r ~(iD .zd p ' ().
1.l! 0.\.b(lip ) .b(lip) . Because of similarity of the component it is ..::.'t Table 2.1:'.1.3. and for shear stress are *17 KKR.cr lg (Rz /um) lg (2Rm!Rm.cr Rz constant.".. Figure 2. Cfu'G. KR.3.3. . according to DIN 4768. notch radius of the test specimen..26) = 1 . Bottom: Cast iron materials with skin.1). Accordingly in case of torsion.. test specimen and . <.00 Caution: If a fatigue notch factors Kf. so that the traditional equations based on a roughness value have to be accepted for the time being.1 . 19(2Rm I Rm. N. 15 Exception in case of bending: If Kr..~~. = 200 11m applies. According to the current state of knowledge.3.Uil Rlil in MPil 2.'t = 1.1> •r:::.aR.cr = KR. = 1.2.N.4. Ilo(rp) / Ilo(r) = 1 is to be applied (without considering Ilo(d) ).0 1.: ~ ::::: r. <.. . KKR. 25 ~~ '\ r'.3. fw. .fw. Chapter 1.3 Fatigue notch factors for superimposed notches For superimposed notches (for example a fillet and a borehole). aR.3. Table 2. 63 '\( ~. 2bo (2.3. the resulting fatigue notch factor in the most unfavorable case is Kf= 1 + (Kf..3. The KtKf ratios Ila (rp). diameter or width of the component.2. min). r.4 300500 700. .. 19 (Rz 111m ) . a forging skin or the skin of castings an average roughness value R.2 .: ::\. 40n 2.2..1 Q~ ~~~'\ ~ " ~"":..1) + (Kf. (2.54 2. (2..1 and Kf. 16 The distance of 2 r is likely to be on the safe side. Figure 2.. Rm Rm..3.min ).24) If the distance of notches is 2 r or above (where r is the larger one of both notch radii) *16 a superposition does not need to be considered.3.l.cr (2.. tensile strength. < 1 is obtained from Eq.zz: <.22) 0. $ i' rid = rpl dp..3.. rather than the surface roughness. Top. Steel.cr . Ilo(rp ) / Ilo(r) < 1 then Kf.. improved regulations to allow for the surface effect are not yet developed..9 '!o.. 1000 2000 2.cr .18) or (2.'t .3. 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 1. O~9 KR. steel with rolling skin for comparison The roughness factors for normal stress..: (2. .cr or KR.!.. however.3 Roughness factor KR... Table 2. aR. 12 ..'t= = 1 .19) the realistic value to be applied is *15 Kf.6 J. 100 OJ.ta ~ ~ i'.N. the partial fatigue notch factors of which are Kf.'": i"'. are to be computed according to the related stress gradient Gcr(rp ) with reference to Chapter 2.3.3. (2. 32 . diameter or width of the test specimen.1. GT "r . 17 In particular residual stresses as a result of manufacturing and of a surface treatment are determining the influence of the surface on the component fatigue limit. average roughness value of the surface in 11m .12) 0. The roughness factor KR...3 Design parameters r d rp dp notch radius of the component.3.3 Roughness factor 600800 lOtIO Rm hll\IPafiir as.zd = ..+~+"""'t. fatigue strength factor for shear stress..min minimum tensile strength. J 200 30ll 400 R m in MPa fUr G~ The roughness factor valid for a polished surface is KR. 0.2.25) For a rolling skin..4.2...zd .t accounts for the influence of the surface roughness on the fatigue strength of the component.
N.p average surface roughness of the specimen in urn.5. see also FVAworksheet "Schwingfestigkeitssteigerung (increasing the fatigue strength)". in the case of experimentally determined fatigue notch factors the roughness factor does not need to be considered (KR. KR.4 mm (1.'t = KR.40 .50 .1 (1.3 (1.1.20 Surface hardness 700 to 1000 HV 10 Case hardening Depth of case 0.50) 1. ~ 2 The given values typically apply to the component fatigue limit.1..10 .80 (1.20 0. in the case of fatigue notch factors that are experimentally determined for specimens with a different surface roughness..28) 1.2.55 2.cr ~.16 0.10 .min Wrought aluminum alloys 0.50 (1..N.5) 1.cr (Rz.20 . Surface treatment aR..15 Depth of case 0.00) inMPa Kind of material unnotched components Cast aluminum alloys 0.30 .22 133 notched components ~3 Steel Chemothermal treatments 1.'t = 1).4 Constant aR. Kv .cr (Rz ) / KR. Cast iron materials 1. KR.p)..3. . Otherwise. because of the higher tensile strength ~ of the hardened surface layer *10.8 mm Surface hardness 670 to 750 HV 10 For surface hardened components *8 and an expected crack origine at the surface the roughness factor is less favorable (smaller) than for components not surface hardened.80) Depth of case 0.1 (1.0.5) 1. The surface treatment factor.15 .4) 1.27) 2.2) Cold rolling 1.20 .min 400 400 400 350 100 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Table 2.10 .2 (1.50 (1.1.2 (1.1 (1.30) Thermal treatment 1. Values applying to the variable amplitude fatigue strength are in general somewhat lower.'t (Rz.25 Cold rolling (1.50 .2.80) 1.1.1 (1.00 (1.cr 0.06 Rm. Rz.22 0.'t are to be replaced by K R.25) (1.2..3 Design parameters Table 2. 0. the Kovalues for cast iron material may approximately be taken into account.5 (1. ~ 3 For unnotched or slightly notched components.2.15 ) Nitriding 1. Kind of material Steel GS GGG GT GG aR.3.1.3.20 .2.6) ~ 1 Concerning typical component values and further kinds of treatments.50 Inductive hardening (1. 18 Provided that the procedures of surface treatment can be applied to components of aluminum alloys.1.50) Carbonitriding Depth of case 0.3.2.5 Upper and lower limits of the surface treatment factor for steel and cast iron materials ~H·2.o = KR.1.00 Nitriding 1. Upper and lower limits of the surface treatment factors for steel and cast iron materials are given in Table 2.20 (1. (2.30 . for the kind of material considered.1. allows for the influence of a treated surface layer on the fatigue strength of the component. Mechanical treatment 1.3) Inductive hardening.2) Case hardening 1.10 (1.3.cr and KR.cr and nummum tensile strength.00) 1.10 ..1) Shot peening 1.5 mm Surface hardness 51 to 64 HRC (2.2.cr = KR.8 mm Surface hardness 670 to 750 HV 10 133 inMPa 1.'t (Rz) / KR.40) Shot peening 1.. For components with surface treatment *8 the surface treatment factor depends on whether a crack origin is to be expected at the surface or in the core. ~l1. Flamehardening Rz average surface roughness of the component in urn.p ).3. as well as the ratio of the local stress values on the surface and in the core just below the surface layer.12 0.90 .9) 1.2.2 .10 .4 Surface treatment and coating factors (1.9 .1.1.60) Flamehardening Normally. 0. A definite value is to be determined by the user *18.60 . Essential factors of influence are the ratio of the fatigue limits of the surface layer and of the core material. Without a surface treatment there is Kv= 1.min .20 .2 . 1.3. values in parenthesis for specimens of 8 to 15 mm diameter.10 . The values are valid for specimens of 30 to 40 mm diameter.N.1.20) 1.30 .50 (1.3 (1.50 .1.
. I I.E = 1.3.LL.7.a .7 Exponent n for the thickness factor.3 0.31) Ks for example after Figure 2. (2. For all kinds of material except for GG there is KNL.56 2.E The constant KNL.I 'B. dH~~JJ....3. .toe ground transverse butt welds.s 1'111T1n . or .E = 1.of layerinp. l _ "j j :!:J'iJ ! f4+!.025 e..3. 19 Different from an assessment with structural stresses or with effective notch stresses. 100 for shear stress.•: . transverse Tjoints. longitudinal welds or attachments.. A complete catalogue of fatigue classes with reference to the IIW Recommendations is given in Chapter 5. ••I• "f I r.7 ~ o.. . .29) For aluminum alloy without coating there is Ks = 1. o. are considered here: for steel FAT::. .075 I GG GG 20 25 1.ID Figure 2.~ I!' . 21 The thickness factor is supposed to be valid for steel.J ! Q~ Ii o ..5.3.E accounts for the nonlinear elastic stress strain behavior of GG when loaded in tensioncompression or bending.J 0.r.1 o . Provisional values. 50 for normal stress and FAT::.3.as welded butt welds ground flush. (2. of the shape of the weld seam and of the weld seam itself on the fatigue strength of the toe section or of the throat section) *19.E ~ I. The thickness factor ft is of no effect.3 Design parameters The coating factor K s allows for the influence of a surface coating on the fatigue strength of a component made of an aluminum alloy.. base material.2 0.1 *20 For aluminum alloy with coating there is K s < 1.6 Constant KNL.if there is no transversely loaded weld. In these cases the thickness factor is ft = 1. (2. .3.... 11'rn.•. Table 2.1 Table 2.3.4.3.3.4 Influence of anodic coating on the fatigue limit (at 106 cycles) of a component from aluminum alloy as a function of the layer thickness (after Wilson)...3. 36 for shear stress. Kind of material KNL.I 0. except those for the base material.1! _. plates with transverse attachments .ld··· rirti.1 For unnotched or slightly notched components in tensioncompression KNL.6 Fatigue class (FAT) The fatigue classes (FAT) for nominal stresses allow for the influences of both the form of welded components.if there is no weld. 'Ks .2 0. (2.33) For a transversely loaded weld and a sheet metal thickness t > 25 min the thickness factor is a function of the sheet metal thickness t (in mm): :tt = (25 mm / t) n. .'ffi'!r ~:.3 and Chapter 5.r' I ! !'.3.! 10 1 100 Thickness ·.7 Thickness factor When using nominal stresses for the calculation of transversely loaded welds the thickness factor ft accounts for the influence of the sheet metal thickness on the fatigue strength *21 .E GG 10 I GG 15 1. for aluminum alloys FATS. iiTi'Y '_H''l~..9 0.1i :1 _ r .3. !..30) 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 2.3.E for GG after Table 2..if the sheet metal thickness is t :::: 25 mm.1.5 Constant KNL..as welded or ground n 0. I .3. (2. 2.6. 20 All fatigue classes.... The assessment ofthe base material ofwelded components is to be carried out as for nonwelded components.34) n after Table 2. For steel and cast iron material there is Ks = 1. but also for aluminum alloys.iH+iH 0.1 .3.. . 2.32) KNL. see Chapter 4.4 (provisional values). however. .rr I I 1 I TT~i l:\!. .as welded . Type of the welded joint cruciform joints.. 140 for nomial stress and FAT::.05 GG 30 I GG 35 1.. (2."L. "'" '""" .
design factor.1. Forshear and torsion inanalogy.3. and on the design factor. Eq. 'tw.2.2.4 Component strength \R24 EN.1.2.zd.4.s = 'tw. Chapter 2.4.3. (2.1) or (2.zd.4. (2.s 61 62 2. bending.4.5) and (2.4).2. design factor. 64 The component fatigue limits of shellshaped (2D) components for completely reversed normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are SWK.3.1 Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress According to this chapter the component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress is to be calculated in considering the design factor.3.7). Step 2: component fatigue limit in considering the mean stress factor.1) material or weld specific fatigue limit for completely reversed stress.zd I KWK.2.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum Elementary version of Miner's rule based on the damage potential Calculation according to the consistent version of Miner's rule Calculation using a class of utilization Calculation using a damageequivalent stress amplitude 2. It applies to nonwelded and to welded components.3.4. 1 The component fatigue limits for completely reversed stress are different for normal stress and for shear stress.4.57 2. It applies to nonwelded and to welded components.1 Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress 2. Chapter 2.2.y .1 Mean stress factor Calculation for type of overloading F2 Calculation for type of overloading Fl Calculation for type of overloading F3 Calculation for type of overloading F4 2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength 2A.zd I KWK. (2..x = crW.4.1) or (2.4.2) material or weld specific fatigue limit for completely reversed stress.zd .2 Individual or equivalent mean stress 2.2.4 Component strength 2. and moreover because of different stress gradients ordifferent weld characteristics depending onthe type ofstress..G General 2..2) is based on the fatigue limit for completely reversed stress.0 General 2.2. 57 Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished. Chapter 2. .0 General 2.3.4.2) or (2. shear and torsional stress are *1 59 60 SWK. (2.2. TWK. (2.4.4).zd l KwK. crW. 2. .3) and (2.4.1) or (2. (2.3) and (2. (2.4. Eq.s I KwK.2. Eq.4.4.1. Step 3: component variable amplitude fatigue strength in considering the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.1.x.6). TWK = 'tw.4.4. SWK.b = crW.x .3..1 Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress 2.s .3. Eq.3. 58 The component fatigue limits of rodshaped (lD) components for completely reversed axial.zd I KwK.dog Content Page 2. 'tW. Chapter 2.4) and (2.y = crW.2. (2. Eq. Chapter 2.2 Component constant amplitude SN curve 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength with nominal stresses 63 KWK.3 Residual stress factor 2.zd = crW. The difference is allowed for bythe design factor. Eq.1.2.4.t = 'tw.2. Chapter 2.2. According to this chapter the component fatigue strength is to be calculated as follows: Step 1: component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress in considering the design factor. TwK.sl KWK.t.0 General crW.3.1) is based on thefatigue limit for completely reversed stress.4.zd. 65 66 2.s.3.4.2. 2 The material fatigue limit forcompletely reversed stress isthebasis for both axial and bending stress.s KWK.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress 2. Chapter 2. SWK.4 Mean stress sensitivity Caution: See the comment in the second paragraph of Chapter 4.b *2 .4.4.sl KwK. and on the design factor.
..x . Figure 2. SWK. TAK. mean stress factor.cr' SWK..4. 2 For more details see Chapter 5. Chapter 2.. KE.dog 2.1.3. are to be replaced by Sm.2. KE.TypeF4: the maximum stress Smax. (2. .4. KE.. . SWK. The mean stress factor.4. is dependent on the type of overloading. For bending.4) The residual stress factor accounts for the influence of the residual stress on the fatigue strength.zd = KAK.cr . SAK. that is for normal stress as follows: ..y..58 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 2.0 General According to this chapter the amplitude of the component fatigue limit is to be determined according to a given mean stress. SWK.t = KAK. Chapter 2.zd .x.. Chapter 2. .t . residual stress factor. *1 *2.s. KE.cr.4.7) applies to nonwelded arid to welded components. KE.s ..'t' TWK...zd.4. for shear and for torsional stress are SAK..'t . see Chapter 2. four fields of mean stress are to be distinguished. component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress.1.zd...t .2.2.. Rzd.Type FI: the mean stress Sm. KE.b . = I.1.y . T rn. for bending..cr . allows for the influence of the mean stress on the fatigue strength.s' KE. respectively.3.Rt . for which the stress ratios of allsteps are identical..zd remains the same. component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress.x.s .zd remains the same. Observing the specific input values the calculation applies to nonwelded and to welded components. or T m.9. KE.. (2.6.cr . ..y = KAK. Therefore it is to be determined in the sense of "safety of operation in service". .b.4.4. and where appropriate... KE.2.4.. R zd.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress 2. ~. or of wrought or cast aluminum alloys the component fatigue limit is different from the component endurance limit for N = 00 .4 Component strength 2. Chapter 2.2.. Shellshaped (2D) components The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component fatigue limit of shellshaped (2D) components for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are SAK.4.5) Rodshaped (ID) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished..Type F3: the minimum stress Smin. SAK. in considering a multi axial state of stress.4..4.3. An improved procedure for nonwelded components of steel to compute the component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous multiaxial stresses is given in Chapter 5. residual stress factor...b..zd.t . Chapter 2.zd . . KAK. . 1 This definition is necessary only for mean stress spectra. or on the mean stress Sm. . (2.6) applies to nonwelded and to welded components.4.1.t.7) mean stress factor. shear or torsion Sm. Without mean stress the mean stress factor is KAK.4. not for stress ratio spectra or for fluctuating stress spectra.4. (2. SWK. FI to F4. These are dependent on the stress ratio Rzd. TWK. Chapter 2..2. commonly refers to step I of the stress spectrum (maximum amplitude). ..zd remains the same.zd. . Eq. Eq.2..zd = . Type of overloading The mean stress factor KAK. Fields of mean stress In determining the mean stress factor KAK.4. Comment: For nonwelded components of austenitic steel. ..zd ..s = KAK. It distinguishes the way how the stress may increase in the case of a possible overload in service (not by crash).zd.6) KAK.4.Rg.4.x = KAK.1. Intermediate types of overloading are possible. Dependent on the type of overloading the amplitude of the component fatigue limit is different.cr' SWK.4.1.4. For nonwelded components the residual stress factor for normal stress and for shear stress is (2.l. TAK.b = KAK. Rodshaped (ID) components The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component fatigue limit of rodshaped (lD) components for axial.TypeF2: the stress ratio Rzd remains the same.. In combination with a stress spectrum the indicated stress ratio Rzd.x . (2. Chapter 2.. .2. TWK. TAJ( = KAK. Figure 2.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress 1R242 EN. .
ex) ~ Rzd~ 0. Sm. types of overloading F1 and F2.zd For bending b the index zd is to be replaced by the index b.4.zd For torsion the index s is to be replaced by the index 1.2. < 0.5.9) Rzd Ma Sm. Chapter 2.4.4.2. Rzd > 1 is the field of alternating tension stress. and "compression stress" by "compression bending stress".s ~ O. KAK.1 Amplitude of the component fatigue strength as a function of mean stress or stress ratio (Haigh diagram). equivalent maximum stress. Field IV: stress.5: AK.5.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress Figure 2. 6 Or equivalent mean stress.ex) is the zero compression stress.11) .4.) Example: Nonnal stress.1 ~ Rs~ 0 Field III: 0 < n. mean stress sensitivity. 5 Sm.4. (lower boundary changed).(I+M ) 2 cr ' (2.4 Component strength 2. Normal stress: Field I: KAK. Chapter 2.4. increasing amplitudes for Rzd < 1 (negative mean stress).2.zd 1+ M cr /3 I+M cr M S 3 K 2. Rzd = 1 is the completely reversed stress.Rzd ) avoids numerical probl~. where Rzd = 0 is the zero tension stress.12) Sa.zd.zd .2.5 Field IV: Rs~ 0. 0< Rzd < 0.zd / Sa. when the stress ratio becomes Rzd =. field of high fluctuating tension KAK.zd Sa. is dependent on the mean stress and on the mean stress sensitivity. 4 The type of overloading F2 is described first because it is of primary practical importance . stress amplitude.zd (M~=M<T/3) (M~=O) ® b2U for the types of overloading F1 and F2.1 Mean stress factor 1 1+M cr . Rzd~ 0. . where Rzd < 1 is the field of alternating compression stress.zd=(l+Rzd)/(lRzd)' (2. mean stress *6. stress ratio Rzd . field of fluctuating tension stress. Tm.10) 1+ _cr_ . The mean stress factor KAK. / Sa.zd Field III. Field II: .zd = (not existing).. Chapter 2.zd ' (2. For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.13) stress ratio *6. Chapter 2. service stress amplitude Sa. equivalent minimum stress.zd .Fl stress SWK. where Rzd = + or . "tension stress" by "tension bending stress". Rzd ~ Rzd > 1: 1/ ( 1 Ma) . Normal stress: Calculation for the type of overloading F2 * 4 Field I: Rzd > 1.zd 3+M cr 3. described in four fields of mean stress 59 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Rad== ® Rzd =1 (M~=M.4. (unchanged).4.zd = Field III: 0 < Rzd < 0.2. 3 The fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for normal stress shows . field of fluctuating compression stress. (unchanged).4.2.s = O.2. as the mean stress in shear is always regarded to be positive. (2.5 (2. Given: S . Derived: Amplitudes of the componentfatigue limit SAK. m.2. For negative mean stress the fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for shear stress is the same as for positive mean stress and symmetrical to Tm.4.4.4.zd .4. Using the term Sm zd I Sa zd instead of (1 + Rzd ) I (1 . Practically it is restricted to the fields of positive mean stress or a stress ratio Rs ~ 1 . WK.zd Component fatigue strength for completelyreversed SAK.zd Field IV.5: Shear stress: *3: Field I: Field II: ..00. In case of a possible overload in service the stress ratio Rzd remains the same. 0.2.
For KAK. Chapter 2.2.zd ~ 0 there is 1M cr . Chapter 2.s 1 (KE.zd  (2.cr SWK. Sm.4.4.zd s 1 1 (1 + Ma) there is Ma .s .cr . component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress. tm. Calculation for the type of overloading F3 In case of a possible overload in service the minimum stress Smin. is replaced by M.zd IM cr KAK. tm. For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t. component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress.2.cr' SWK. Chapter 2.2. residual stress factor. For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.< .4. ~ 1 . Ma) s KAK. (I+M oo Y there is 3+Moo ( )2' 3· I+M oo (2.s ~ 0 or .2.zd.zd) applies inthe following to Smin.4.s Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted to positive mean stresses R.s Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted to positive mean stresses tm.SWK.15) Field III (2.?: _2 . For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.zd is replaced by tmin.zd < ( )2 I+M oo I+M cr Ma)~ for .19) (2.. Smax.s ~ 0. the same equations are valid if M cr is replaced by M.zd = < KE.4.18) Smin. (2.zd M.4. d .zd I+M oo (2.oo .s) ~ 1/(1 + M"t)..Smin.17) Sm.zd = < . M. . For positive mean stress.4.1 s tmin.s and M. 7 The abbreviation Srn.zd < there is 3 (1 + M cr )2 1+M cr 13 M cr 1+ M .zd is replaced by tm.2. mean stress *6.4. 3+M oo for 0 < Smin.1.< ' TWK. For KAK. is replaced by M r .zd.4. ~ 1 .zd / (KE.3' Smin.zd 1 Smzd For Sm.16) 2..4. Calculation for the type of overloading Fl In case of a possible overload in service the mean stress Sm.2.4. Chapter 2.there is ' KE.s = Tmin. . residual stress factor.2 1(1  Sm.s = Tm. Chapter 2.M cr).zd. For positive mean stresses.zd remains the same. 3 + Moo 3 K AK. there is Field II (2. the same equations are valid if Smin. TWK. For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t.4.4._ _"'cr _ z I+Moo 13 Field III 1 3 +M cr for . the same equations are valid if Sm. or R.zd .2.s and M.zd KE.4.2. mean stress sensitivity..4.zd KAK.4.3. Shear stress: Shear stress: For KAK. mean stress sensitivity. accordingly.zd = Sm..s ~ 0 or o ~tm.s I(KE.zd = 11 (1 .1. Chapter 2.4.21) minimum stress *6.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress Shear stress: 60 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses For positive mean stresses.zd = 1  *7 IMoo Ma )..4.zd = 1 1 (1  *7 KAK. Chapter 2.14) Field II for 1 1 (1  2 there is (2.20) Field IV Field IV for Smin.< Sm. Chapter 2.4 Component strength 2.2.zd For Smin.zd remains the same. Normal stress: Normal stress: Smin.3.s ~ 0 .4.s) s 0 .s Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted to positive mean stresses Tm. tm.SWK. For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t.
zd .zd .. Smax.s . Chapter 2.zd .v Smin. =~S2m +3. Rs.2.zd = Sm. and Smax.v l Smax.28)..v + Sa.4. For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.v .zd is used to determine Smin.NH ~ (ISml+~S~ +4. Smax.zd .v = Sm.IM cr /3 (2.v = q .v Smax. (2. smax.4.26) Smax.2.zd For Smax. (2. residual stress factor..25) Smax..3.zd. Sm.1. shear and torsion the appropriate variables are Smin.. component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress.Sa.v . . They are derived from an equivalent mean stress Sm.2.v = Smin. ~. which is typical for numerous applications in machine design.NH + (l .v .24) ~ .... shear and torsion the appropriate variables are Smin.b. . Smin.v and Rzd..v.4.zd.. 13 (l/fc) 131 Sm.SWK.zd.GH.zd + Sa.v = Sill..v. (2. Smax.4.zd Equivalent mean stress In the case "bending and torsion".cr . for normal stress is Sm. (2.zd .4.v..t.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress 61 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Calculation for the type of overloading F4 Individual mean stress In case of a possible overload in service the maximum stress Smax.v (2. Rt· Field II for O:s. Chapter 2.q) .zd.4.. or Tmin. Normal stress: Smax. and in similar cases.zd and Rzd .zd remains the same.s. . . 3 +M cr there is for .4. The mean stress may be taken either as the individual mean stress according to type of stress or as an equivalent mean stress from the individual mean stresses of all types of stress..zd <I+M cr 3 (1+ M cr)2 1+ M cr 13 M .zd> stress amplitude. ~.4. For normal stress the respective equations are Smin. 3 3+M cr ( )2 1+ M cr there is (2. to be computed as a function of the respective individual mean stress values. minimum stress. where normal stresses are combined with shear stresses.zd Sa. Field IV for Smax.zd Rzd. For normal stress there is Smin.zd.. For bending..zd s 2 1 (l + 110) there is IM cr 'smax IM cr (2.zd . Tmin..v..).zd. stress ratio. Sa..b...zd = KE.v are to be used..Tm2 . equivalent minimum stress. (2.2.28) Shear stress: For shear stress the type of overloading F4 (Tmax. Eq.4. maximum stress..t .. .cr .zd .zd = 1 1 (l  < 0 there is *7 110. (2...4. . equivalent maximum stress.zd 1 Smax. Eq.4.. R.Sa.4.4 Component strength 2.zd = ..2.4.4.zd = Sm. Rzd= Smin.zd .zd K E•cr SWK. determined by mean stress and stress amplitude.." .22) KAK..zd Rzd maximum stress *6. Sm. As a rule the individual mean stress Sm. equivalent stress ratio..29) .zd Smax. mean stress sensitivity.27) individual stress amplitude. Rzd. where q= 2. .4.vGH . are .s remaining constant) can practically not being realized.4.zd Smin.zd.zd 1+ M cr 3 KAK.T~ ) Sm.v or Tmin.< Smax.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress In each case Rzd . . For bending..27).v .v.2.v Rt.zd KAK. Chapter 2. Smax.v The equivalent mean stress.. Tmin. Chapter 2.23) Field III 2 4 .zd.v. the variables Smin.zd...
0 .2.0.1.32). It is The mean stress sensitivity M.1. 8 Not applicable to components being cold rolled or shotpeened.1 Residual stress factor KE. It is (2.35 0. Sm.1.31) and (2.35 .2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress material dependent parameter after Table 2..04 Cast aluminum alloys 1. It is given for normal stress and for shear stress in Table 2. Tm individual mean stress.4.6.2.v.28) is to be computed only if Sm. for example by observing a suitable weld sequence. Values are given in Table 2. .1.n of the hardened surface being higher than that of components not surface hardened.t and mean stress sensitivity Mcr.1.2. (2. Table 2. Sm.zd. is Sm. Figure 2.5. Chapter 2. Eq.4.17 ~ 1 For Shear Stress there is M't = fw r ' Mcr Table 2.cr Mcr KE.x (or Sm = Sm. q (2.y = 0 and Sm.54 0 0.4.x.b. .. or if residual stress may evidentially be excluded.4.1.4.s + Tm. is dependent on the intensity of the residual stress..00 1.32) Sm = Sm. individual mean stresses.n of the base material. applicable in case of normal or elevated temperature.34) Steel ~1 0.4 Component strength 2.05 0. T m = Tm.4.'t = 0.0. ' Sm. Kind of material aM bM Table 2. = aM' 10 3. Mq.4.35 0.t. KE. fw.2 ~ 1 also stainless steel. (2.4. applicable in case of normal or elevated temperature. " (2. fw " shear fatigue strength factor.4.b . (2.. or M.zd .1.2.1.4. For welded components the mean stress sensitivity for normal stress and for shear stress.s and Tm.s.0 0. . Tm.'t M't ~1 1.4.. M.1 GS GGG GT GG 0.2. see also Chapter 5.1.31) Sm.4.y).1.2.4. Moderate residual stresses are to be assumed in case of welding with residual stress reducing precautions.28) is to be computed only if Sm.b ~ O. describes to what extent the mean stress affects the amplitude of the component fatigue strength.t = 1.:f.15 1.zd + Sm.31) with proper sign to be added or subtracted.zd + Sm.4.33) For components that have been surface hardened *8 the mean stress sensitivity is greater because of the tensile strength R. Table 2.30 1.4. moderate or low residual stresses. (2.v=fw. bM constants. individual mean stress. see also Chapter 5.2 Constants aM and bM .4. Chapter 2.4 Mean stress sensitivity For rodshaped (lD) components the equivalent mean stress after Eq. for welded components. Rm/ MPa + bl\. Low residual stresses are to be assumed in case of welding with subsequent stressrelief heat treatment. For shear stress there is fw" 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses High residual stresses are to be assumed in case of welding without residual stress reducing precautions. Tm = Tm.15 0.4.08 0. For welded components of structural steel and of aluminum alloys the residual stress factor is different for high. in connection with the mean stress factor.cr .3 Residual stress factor The residual stress factor for nonwelded components is KE.4. Sm .cr = KE. Sm = Sm.09 0. (2. aM.5 Kind of material Wrought aluminum alloys aM bM 1.5. but independent of the tensile strength R.2. Table 2. For nonwelded components the mean stress sensitivity for normal stress and for shear stress. 62 shear strength factor.t are to be inserted into Eq.35 0.1.x ~ 0 (or in reverse).4.1.13 0 0. 2. Table 2.577 .30 0 0. Residual stress high moderate low KE.26 1.2. M. M't = fw" . .30) Tm. Rodshaped (ID) components 2. (2. Shellshaped (2D) components For shellshaped (2D) components the equivalent mean stress afterEq.00 1.
Itis N = N + (N *. component fatigue limit SAl(.3: SSK. Figure 2.t .4.b.4. N* Componentfatigue lifecurve N ComponentScbrcurve The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK. ~mber ofcycles N aft3the com. 4 According to this chapter the amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength is to be derived from the stress spectrum and the component constant amplitude SN curve.. whether in case of a constant amplitude spectrum an assessment of the fatigue limit (or endurance limit) or an assessment of the fatigue strength for finite life is intended. TSK.2.s s 0. In each case the way of calculation is the same..N Figure 2. Chapter 2..I . and influence of the critical damage sum DM . Rodshaped (10) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished.4 Component fatigue strength 2. Figure 2. SSK. but the variable amplitude fatigue strength factors are different.4.4.N7 O. SAK. SSK.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength 2. and in addition it depends on the type of stress (normal stress or shear stress). Observing the specific input values the calculation applies to both nonwelded components (component constant amplitude SN curve model I or model II) and to welded components (component constant amplitude SN curve model I only). component fatigue limit.4.SBK respectively. Highest amplitude in stress spectrum SBK . TAK.t .b. SAK. to be calculated depends on the stress spectrum.4.75 f"t' Rp' Kp. Chapter 2.4. TAK.4.zd.ctra ofincreasing damage potential and the exact nu~er of cycles N = N for the constant amplitude stress spectrum as N * .3. Except for GG.t plastic notch factors. bending stress. that is on the required total number of cycles '1 and on the shape of the stress spectrum.s . 2 In .0 General 63 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Rp yield strength.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength \R243 EN.2 Component constant amplitude SN curve.2.t = KSK.b = KSK. Table 1.b . or of the maximum value Sm + SBK and the minimum value Sm .3. component fatigue life curve derived by the consistent version of Miner's rule.75 Rp' Kp.3 Restriction of the amplitudes of the variable amplitude fatigue strength. number ofcycles N after the component constant amplitude SN curve."t .s = KsK. Chapter 2. the following restrictions apply. . This formula implies that a number ofcycles N 7 N isobtained for se:..£?nent fatigue life curve for DM < 1 or N * for DM = 1. or whether in case of a variable amplitude spectrum an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength is intended *2. TSK.5.1.zd .b s 0. DM. a simplified manner the variable amplitude fatigue strength can be derived on the basis ofa damageequivalent stress amplitude. variable amplitude fatigue strength factor. SBl<.. N. Kp.41) KSK. TsK. SAK.2. (2.75 Rp.zd = KSK. .3. in relation to the yield strength. as well as on the component constant amplitude SN curve.2. . displayed in terms of the Haighdiagram.zd s 0. In German the fatigue life curve is usually termed 'Gassner curve' and the constant amplitude SoN curve is usually termed 'Woehler curve'.2.4.3. TSK.4. Rp .1.2.42) 1 Required total number ofcycles and required component fatigue life are corresponding denotations.s .t.4.t ~0.zd .zd. The calculation for a constant amplitude stress spectrum is a special case of the more general case of calculation for a variable amplitude stress spectrum.4.b. SBK. Rodshaped (1D) components The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum) of rodshaped (lD) components for axial stress.N) . . (2. shear stress and for torsional stress are. ~ shear strength factor.zd . Kp.dog 2..75 fW. Table 1. Figure 2. Then the assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength turns out to be an assessment ofthe fatigue limit being sufficient. N. Chapter 1. It has to be distinguished.1.2.
SBK.3.2.cr. (2.75 Rp .4 Component fatigue strength 2. ko..4.. (2.4. In an even more simplified manner the variable amplitude fatigue strength can be derived on the basis of a damageequivalent stress amplitude.2.cr .43) KBI<. Moreover.2. .cr number of cycles at knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve. .cr slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N > No.54) . (2.1.3. No. the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computed directly as follows *5.zd.cr for No.44) yield strength.zd = (N O.cr.e factor by which the endurance limit is lower than the fatigue limit.4..4.4.y ::.2.cr.4.e N forN > NO.3. Table 2.y . The results obtained from the elementary version of Miner's rule approach the results obtained from the consistent version of Miner's rule on the safe side.4. .55) .x s 0.3.'t . Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite life: KBK.4.4. the so derived results approximately correspond to those obtained by the elementary version of Miner's rule.2. Chapter 2. 6 When computing the damage potential (and also in the following equations) the values ni and N according to the required total number of cycles can be replaced by the values hi and H according to the total number of cycles in the given standard type spectrum. SAK.zd = 1 forN > No.zd .75 Rp .zd = (N O. Assessment ofthe endurance limit: KBK.49) KBK. TBK. SAK. the following restrictions apply. 5 Direct calculation without iteration. 0.2. but applies to (2.x .x.cr / N) l/k cr for N'< No. Assessment ofthe fatigue limit: KBK. Chapter 1.=' ..3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength The amplitudes of the component variable fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress of shellshaped (2D) components for normal the directions x and y as well as for shear Figure 2. Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum As a rule the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computed by using the elementary version of Miner's rule (not necessary for a constant amplitude stress spectrum). NO.51) 4 For welded components only model I of the component constant amplitude SoN curve is of concern.5.II.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor The variable amplitude fatigue strength KBK.4. 7 Instead of Alcon after Eq.zd = f n. Chapter 2. not model II. k". f n. (2. component fatigue limit.4. see Chapter 2.2. variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.cr .2..y .e / N) l/k cr forN ::.4. TBK. are to be derived as follows *3: factors Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum *4 Component constant amplitude SN curve model I: horizontalfor N > ND.1..s .x" .zd = (N o.4.i Vzd_ k cr L.3. Table 1. . N (v zd) M where the damage potential is *6 *7 (2. Chapter 2.3.cr .cr<N s NO. Rp .2. the classes of utilization can be applied as a simplified method of calculation.4.s = KBI<.4. 0.4.'t 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses ka Shellshaped (2D) components SBK.4.52) number of cycles of the component constant amplitude SN curve. TAK . Chapter 2. 64 (2.4. Rp fw. Chapter 2.cr. other types of stress accordingly. amplitude spectrum) stresses in stress are.2.4.zd . .1..zd.zd = [( 1 cr I). SAK.58) is here A ele = 11 (v zd)kcr (2. Chapter 2.47) Assessment ofthe fatigue limit = endurance limit: KBK. Elementary version of Miner's rule based on the damage potential Using the elementary version of Miner's rule.4. (2. Figure 2. 2.. The calculation applies to both component constant amplitude SNcurve model I and model II (2.48) Component constant amplitude SN curve model II: slopingfor N > ND. Figure 2.4.x. i=l H Sa.50) 3 The following is written for axial stress. Chapter 2.cr (steel and cast iron material) slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N < No.4.4.cr.cr.3.x = KBK.l l (2. N required number of cycles.53) Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite life: KBK. (2.II .s ::.4. may be obtained by using the consistent version of Miner's rule.3. KBK.75 fw. SBK. Except for GG. SBK.3. KBK.cr (nonwelded aluminum alloys) k )kcr '"j h i (S a.4. Somewhat more favourable results.1.4.D + 1] k~ .4. however. Chapter 2.4. shear strength factor.II number of cycles at second knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve.cr / N) l/kO. No. ( N~cr ) :0 .zd = 1 forN > No.2.y = KBK.
4.4.4. Table 2.4.4.59) a.1. GS. component constant amplitude SN curve model I. ND.4.zd.l ) N (lg) (2.zd. Component constant amplitude SN curve model I: horizontal/or N > ND.4. S .3.57) s N = {[ Akon . (2. GT. (2.0 8 hi / H may be replaced by n.62) Figure 2.l _ [S.4.4.4.60). 65 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Calculation according to the consistent version of Miner's rule *9 *10 Using the consistent version of Miner's rule the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computes! iteratively for differing values of Sa.cr number of cycles at knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve. component constant amplitude SoN curve according toChapter 2.cr or slope kD.zd. number of cycles of the component constant amplitude SN curve. ka slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N < ND.2. Chapter 2.l . N Table 2. If for a component constant amplitude SN curve model I (horizontal for N > ND. ~ i=l H [ Sa.cr ) a value KBK.4 Elementary version of Miner's rule.u (Steel and cast iron material) In case of a component constant amplitude SN curve model I ( horizontal for N > ND. Aluminum alloys GGG.i stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum.Sa.3. Sa.zd..zd. Chapter 2.Zd.zd (2. Sa.2.3.zd Zl = sa Z2 = ~AK'Zd [ a. (2.:. related number of cycles in step i. 9 The consistent version of Miner's rule allows for the fact.cr . j total number of steps in the spectrum.zd. Chapter 2.3.2.2. Steel.4. For the summation of the term Z2. [S Stress spectrum d.s ~ 106 .1 [S _ Sa.zd.4.l is (2. until a value N equal to the required total number of cycles N is obtained.zd. total number of steps in the spectrum.zd. nj number ofcycles instep i according tothe required fatigue life.cr ) a value KBK.l where from Eq.4.zd'v )k v. A simplified version allowing for the decrease ofthe fatigue limit became known as the modified version orthe Haibach method ofMiner's rule. .4.: ~ ~ i=l H Sa.2.4. (2.50) or (2.zd < 1 is obtained from Eq.1 ] . DM + I}' SAK. N Required total number ofcycles according to the required fatigue life.4.52) is to be used.56) If for a component constant amplitude SN curve model II (sloping for N > ND. ND.4.4.4.2. it is to be observed that Sa. H H = H.cr .cr number of cycles at knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve.4.3.0 1.zd. N2=L .V+1 )k a.i )k v h.58) (2. [ZI j Z2] + L Nl v=m N2 )k cr1 kcr.4.53) that is smaller than the value obtained from Eq.j+l = O.zd amplitude of the component fatigue limit.i stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum.zd.3 welded components 0. Eq.l cr1 h.l ) cr1 .3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N < ND.60) (2.3.l a. a.3.zd is obtained [ . h·1 Hi = L hi (summed up for i = 1 to i) *8.2.4 Component fatigue strength 2.zd. Sa. then the higher value from Eq. = L hi (summed up for i = 1 toj). GG nonwelded components 0. j number of the step in the spectrum.4.m .61) kcr (2. The respective value of Sa. Sa.l stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum.l cr m1 Nl= L .cr .3. Table 2.53). ND. then the value to be used is KBK. Chapter 2. Chapter 2.zd = 1. Sa.52). that the component fatigue limit will decrease as the damage sum increases. / N .zd.l stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum. N = ~ ni (summed up for 1toj). The decrease applies tocomponent constant amplitude SN curves model I as well as tomodel II for ND.4. (2.5 1. recommended value. DM critical damage sum.l )k Ak _ [ on SAK. Characteristics ofthe stress spectrum according toChapter 2.l is used to derive the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.zd.4.zd. [~a. 10 The consistent version ofMiner's rule was first developed by Haibach. total number of cycles of the given spectrum. DM critical damage sum.50) or (2. DM = 1. SAK.3 Critical damage sum DM .zd.4.o = (0) the number of cycles N to be computed for an value Sa.l (lg) 2:U )kcr cr1 (2.zd.
.4 Component fatigue strength 2.1 = SAK.4.65) after Eq. The particular number of cycles at the knee point ND. (2. The component constant amplitude SN curves for welded components are valid for the toe section and for the throat section.4..4.1 the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as 66 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Calculation using a class of utilization The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK.62) and the explanations as before.O' .4.zd = Sa.58) to (2. 13 With reference to nWRecommendations and Eurocode 3. .O' is obtained from Eq. is to be continued for differing values Sa.zd is to be determined according to the appropriate class of utilization "12 .4.O' .4.zd.a < (0) the number of cycles N is first to be computed for a . (2.4. It provides a result that corresponds to a calculation based on the elementary version of Miner's rule. .3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength i m H number of the step in the spectrum. hi The computation is to be repeated iteratively for differing values Sa.zd.4. The component fatigue limit SAK.63).4.4. If a value N = N* ~ N is obtained then the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is (4.4.zd = fn. is the reference fatigue strength value for calculation. (fn.O' )1/3 / SAK.!alue N equal to the required total number of cycles N is obtained. It is an approximately dam~e equivalent combination of the required total number of cycles N with the shape of a particular standard stress spectrum the frequency distribution of which is of binomial or exponential type modified by a spectrum parameter p. Instead of the values of slope kO' = 5 and k.2. 12 Class of utilization as a characteristic of the stress spectrum. From the respective value of Sa.64) Component constant amplitude SN curve model II: slopingfor N > N D.zd. = 25 .4.zd.O' or slope kD. while for SN curves Model II (valid for nonwelded components of austenitic steel or of aluminum alloys) they are different by a factor fn.68) II Simplified and approximate calculation.69) (2.4.. number i = m of the first step below SAK.2 Component constant amplitude SN curve Component constant amplitude SN curves for nonwelded components (without surface hardening) and for welded components *13 are shown for normal stress and for shear stress in Figure 2.1 the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as KBK.67) then the value to be applied is KBK.[SAK'Zd)k M S a.4. Chapter 5.3.65).4.zd < I is obtained from Eq. 0' (nonwelded aluminum alloys) *11 In case of a component constant amplitude SN curve model II (sloping for N > ND.4. (2. Eq. If a value N = N* > N is obtained then the calculation of N.zd.67) If a value KBK. are given in Table 2.O' ) as follows O N={[A kon 1]'D +1}.zd.l with Akon fn. and the values of slope ka.1 .4.zd / ( fn.while the number of cycles at the knee point ND.4.zd = 1. 14 Not applicable to cold rolled or shotpeened components. then the value to be applied is = 1.7. H = Hj = L hi (summed up for I to j). A lower boundary of the numbers of cycles is implicitly defined by the maximum stress being limited according to the static strength requirements. It follows from Chapter 2.5.1 > SAK. number of cycles in step i.zd stress = Sa.66) 2.zd. factor by which the endurance limit is lower than the fatigue limit.. (2.2.4.zd / (fn. (2.5 and 2. .a < kD. the values that apply to surface hardened components are ka = 15 and k.zd.4.4. From the respective value of Sa.8. Table 2.4. Table 2.4 and Figure 2.O' and ND. KBK.'t remain unchanged.6.zd (2.1 / SAK. = 8 for not surface hardened components.zd.. .O' )1/3 until a value N equal to the required total number of cycles N is obtained.4.zd . For surface hardened components "14 the slope of the component constant amplitude SN curves is more shallow. ' 1/3 smgle value Sa.4.4. Hi = L hi (summed up for I to i) "8.. Calculation amplitude using a damageequivalent When using a damageequivalent stress amplitude the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor for both constant amplitude SN curves model I and model II is KBK.n for N = 00 are identical. (2. For SN curves Model I the fatigue limit SAK and the endurance limit SAK. see also Chapter 5. total number of cycles in the given spectrum.63) KBI<.zd.zd. Table 2.1 > SAK.zd (2. Chapter 1. until a. If a value KBK..a ( II a )kal3 (2.zd < fn.O' f ND.O' .
"t = co Aluminum alloys and austenitic steel (Model II): Sloping for N > ND cr. IkD.cr = co or for N>ND. kD.t. Normal stress Component Shear stress IND.s.'10 6 N (lg) T AC II TAK."t.""_ N (Ig) ails bildw. IkD.0 welded 110 115 1Aluminum alloys (SN curve model II \ 6 8 nonwelded 10. Shear stress T.ll Ik. kD.cr. ND'7 8 =10 N (lg) Figure 2...].83 110 110 18 125 8 welded 11.o IND.t 1 ND. s (lg) (Ig) TAK.cr) 11ko = 0.4 Component fatigue strength 2.2.0 110 115 115 ' 106 11.. kD o» or for N > ND:"t. .zdf~"~ II SAK. SAC SAK.~~~~".. horizontal for N > ND cr II. k D.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength 67 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Table 2.o Steel and cast iron materials ( SN curve model I ) 6 nonwelded 1. and values of fu.t.t fu.cr.736 and TAK.457.74 15 115 6 welded 1.s / TAC = (Nc / ND. kD. SAK.o fu.0 115 1110 Sa."t.6 Component constant amplitude SN curve for welded components *13 Top: Bottom: Normal stress S. except austenitic steel. Steel.4. kD e II = co or for N > ND:"t.~.zd.II Ik.s + I .o.4..5 Component constant amplitude SN curve for nonwelded components *14 Top: Bottom: Normal stress S.4. (Model I): horizontal for N > ND. Shear stress T.s Nc= .0 15' 10 113 1 Component IND."8 aif. welded (Model I): horizontal for N > ND.4 Number of cycles at the knee point."t=co NC is the referencenumber of cycles correspondingto the characteristic strength values SAC and TAC.4.zd/ SAC = (Nc / ND.'. slope of the component constant amplitude SN curves."t ) 11 kr = 0.IlIt.II 1+.it" ' kD:"t:II= co.cr = co or for N > ND. kD. cast iron materials and aluminum alloys.and fu.::. bildwl6 TAK.0 welded 13 1Aluminum alloys (SN curve modell II nonwelded 110 6 1108 0.o.:c~~ NDo= 5 .zd Nc = 6 2 '10 aila bIJdw12 T a •s Ta .~=~s.0 nonwelded 110 118 18 1. Steel and cast iron materials. 06 N (lg) ails bildll'l5 Figure 2.t Steel and cast iron materials (SN curve model I) 6 1.zd (lg) (Ig) SAK.
~3 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring. JD Consequences of failure severe moderatev! I castings not subject to nondestructive testing ~2 regular no 2. This value may be reduced under favorable conditions.3 2.docl Contents Page 2.in = 1.1) ~2 Compared to Table 2.5 % are considered as ductile cast iron materials.5.2.5.5.5.1 they are higher because of an additional partial safety factor jF that accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in castings *4. Reduction by about 10 %.5.5. for example because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statical indeterminate system.0 2. 3 Steel is always considered as a ductile material. castings subject to nondestructive testing ~4 regular no 1.1 2.3. 'IS (2.4 is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects in castings.0 General Ductile and nonductile cast tron materials are to be distinguished. Compared to Table 2.1 2.5 Safety factors *1 !R25 EN .5.1 Steel 2.1 an additional partial safety factor jF = 1.5 Safety factors 2.5.1 Ductile cast iron materials 69 Cast iron material with an elongation As :2: 12.0 General 2.5.9 I 1.5. .25 is introduced. Reduction by about 15 %.8 yes ~3 Inspection 1.1.2 Cast iron materials 2.68 2.5.2 Cast iron materials General Ductile cast iron materials Nonductile cast iron materials 2. 50 %. for which it is assumed that a higher quality of the castings is obviously guaranteed when testing.2.4 Cast aluminum alloys 2.0 2.5. .5.5 and 4. Consequences of failure moderate ~1 severe jD regular inspections = no 1.5 %).65 yes ~3 Inspection 1.9 I 1. Values of elongation see Table 5.35 1. Table 2. 2.5.1. A safety factor jF = 1.5.0 may be applied to high quality cast components in the aircraft industry however.5 % *2.0 General According to this chapter the safety factors are to be determined. Table 2. in particular all types of GS and some types of GGG.5 Total safety factor 68 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 2.5.5.12.1 Safety factors for steel *3 (not for GS) and for ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A:2: 12.3.1. 2 Statistical confidenceS . Those high quality cast components have to meet special demands on qualification and checks of the production process. as well as on the extent of quality and product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their mechanical properties.5.2. 1 Chapters 2. components are of standard quality for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jF = 1.3.2 2.5.2.2. ~4 jF Table 2.:2: 12.1 an additional partial safety factor 1.5.5%\ The safety factors are valid under the condition that the design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and that the material properties correspond to an average probability of survival of Po = 97. ~2 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring.5 are identical. GGG) (A. The factor is different for severe or moderate consequences of failure and moreover for castings that have been subject to nondestructive testing or have not.5. Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given in Table 2.5.2 Wrought aluminum alloys General Ductile wrought aluminum alloys Nonductile wrought aluminum alloys 2.5 2. 2.5 yes~2 1. Compared to Table 2.5.5.0 does not seem possible up to now.7 I 1.5.2 Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials GS.5.2 ~1 Moderate consequences of failure of a less important component in the sense of "non catastrophic" effects of a failure.2.1 Steel The basic safety factor concerning the fatigue strength ~1 See footnote ~1 of Table 2.3 1. Reduction by about 10 %. that is depending on the possibilities of inspection and on the consequences of failure.5. 4 In mechanical engineering cast.7 The safety factors apply both to nonwelded and welded components.1 I 1.
1.5.0 (.4 Cast aluminum alloys Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as nonductile materials. Chapter 1.5. The value for GG is AS = O.5 % are considered as ductile materials. (2.S + O. 31 to 5.3. Values of elongation for GGG and GT see Table 5.1.5 Total safety factor Llj o 1U 12. respectively.2) for AS = 0).0 (2.5 Safety factors 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 2. Values of elongation see Table 5.1.5. S For example the safety factor for GG is at least in Gn = I. (2.1.5.3. All safety factors from Table 2.5.1. Jn Kt.5.2). 2. (2.3.5 % are considered as nonductile materials.5.5.5 2.5 % (for GT A3 < 12.5.30. For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety factors from Table 2.5 Similar to an assessment of the component static strength.1.4) T.5.22 to 5. Chapter 2.2.22 to 5.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation A"C. Eq.5. For nonductile cast iron materials the safety factors from Table 2.S.1.2. in particular some types of GGG as well as all types of GT and GG.3. 12.5.2. a "total safety factor" jges is to be derived: 20 As . 2. Values of elongation see Table 5.D safety factor. to be replaced by A3 for GT. 2.69 2.S = 2.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value Llj.2.2) AS Elongation.5.D i D .1 or 2. j = O. Values of elongation see Table 5.S after Eq. Eq.S.2 Nonductile wrought aluminum alloy Cast iron materials with an elongation AS < 12.1 are to be increased by adding a value Llj .5.1 *s: Llj = 0. temperature factor.A3 in % jges = Figure 2. . Table 2.5. Safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are the same as for steel according to Table 2.2). Figure 2. Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation A < 12.13.1.5. (2.3) = 1.5. defined as a function of the elongation As or A3 .5 %) are considered as nonductile materials. GG 0. 38.3 Wrought aluminum alloys 2.5.5 JAs /50%.1 Value Llj to be added to the safety factor In .30.5.eneral Ductile and nonductile wrought aluminum alloys are to be distinguished.1.2 Nonductile cast iron materials 2. (2.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value Llj .5.12 or 5.5 from Table 2.
6.12) have the character of an empirical interaction formula. the degree of utilization is the quotient of two amplitude which always are positive..2 2. Kinds of component Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished. As a rule bending will be more important. Sa.2 Rodshaped (lD) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress 71 2. In the general context of the present Chapter the degree of utilization is the quotient of the (nominal) characteristic stress amplitude Sa.5 and Figure 0.5. They are applicable for proportional stresses and approximately applicable for synchronous stresses. .b. an approximate procedure applicable for nonproportional stresses is proposed in Chapter 5.l .6.zd. . Only under special conditions ofproportional stresses the character ofEq.3. damageequivalent stress amplitude. More general Eq.s.3. Chapter 0. or 72 2.zd . 4 Bending stresses intwo planes..cr (2.1) Sa.2) in case of a damageequivalent stress amplitude. both the individual types of stress and the combined types of stress are to be considered as described below *5. Superposition For proportional or synchronous stress components of same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter 2.6. In general the assessments for the individual types of stress and for the combined types of stress are to be carried out separately *1..2.zd.z ' are different types of stress.b. (2.1.3. . The procedure of assessment applies to both nonwelded and welded components.10..0 General 70 2. Degree of utilization The assessment is to be carried out by determining the degree of utilization of the component fatigue strength. . The allowable stress amplitude is the quotient of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength after Chapter 2. so that different reference points W are to be considered.zd. also shear stresses in two planes. and inparticular ifthese may occur separately.6. divided by the total safety factor jges . . I = Sa.y and T a.9.2. (2.6 Assessment Contents 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 1R26 EN.4. . and (2.zd.eff. In each case the calculation is the same when using the appropriate variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK. . SBI<.9.6.1 2.4) and (2.. Sa.4) 1 It is essential to examine the degree of utilization not only of the combined types ofstress but also that ofthe individual types ofstress in general.. synchronous and nonproportional multiaxial stresses are tobe distinguished.6. constant stress amplitude for which the required number of cycles is N. as a rule . Chapter 2. and when taking (2. . 3 As . divided by the allowable (nominal) stress amplitude of the component fatigue strength at the reference point *2.cr number of cycles at knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve.l ~ Sa. Chapter 0. in case of a constant amplitude spectrum. .eff and N = ND.2 Shellshaped (2D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress An assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength and an assessment of the fatigue limit or of the endurance limit are to be distinguished.6.· bending stress.0.. They are to be carried out in the same way.zd .z .6. Chapter 2.6.3. If different types of stress like axial stress.3. *4 act simultaneously and if the resulting stress is multiaxial.1. nominal stresses and fatigue classes FAT as these are in general different for the toe and throat section. For nonproportional stresses they are not suitable.occur atdifferent points ofthe crosssection. 2 The reference point is the critical point ofthe considered crosssection that observes the highest degree ofutilization.s. For example the extreme stresses from bending and shear will . an improved procedure for nonwelded components is given in Chapter 5. .. but using the respective crosssection values..4.1 2.zd. Sa.6.6. .2.1. 5 Proportional.zd.4. ND. . They can be both nonwelded or welded..dog Page 2.6.. . The degree of utilization is always a positive value *3..70 2.6.0 General According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out. T a..6.1 2..zd. Sa.12) is that of a strength hypothesis from a materialmechanics point ofview..6 Assessment 2. For welded components assessments are generally to be carried out separately for the toe section and for the throat section.y and Sa.
65 0 0. that is neither proportional nor synchronous. respectively) always act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of utilization aSK.5.6 Assessment 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses Table 2.5 .6. however.6.2.4) asK.1 Individual types of stress 2.759 Exceptions: For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation q = 0.2 Combined types of stress The degree of utilization of rodshaped components for combined types of stress is *6 aSK.5... GGG wrought AI alloys 0. (2.x = where aNH=1(lsal+~s. Table 2.'" degrees of utilization after Eq.t • aSK.71 2. (2.7) shear fatigue strength factor. (lD) The degrees of utilization of shellshaped (2D) components for variable amplitude types of stress like normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as shear are (2. q fw. Otherwise there is.6.zd aSK. s.3) SBK.zd. Rules of signs: If the individual types of stress (axial and bending.b.s. (2.12) isa combination ofthe normal stress criterion (NH) and the v.l :5: 1. Sa = aSK.6.1. Chapter 2.q) .4.5 is to be applied.264 :5: 1.. jges total safety factor.t according toEq.y / jerf Ta.t. T a.Sv = q' aNH + (1 .6) are not applicable and the procedure proposed in Chapter 5.1.6.1 Values of q as dependent on f W •t ~1 2.b .6.zd •.6.2).6. 6 Eq.5) aSK.6.6.y = <lGH=JS~+t~ .zd + aSK.1 Individual types of stress The degrees of utilization of rodshaped (lD) components for variable amplitude types of stress like axial.6. (2.l :5: 1.l ~1 Steel. (2.1.10 is to be applied instead.6. the above degrees of utilization are to be inserted in Eq.6.5 %) q = 1. Mises criterion (GH). If they act always proportional or synchronous 1800 out of phase.1. 7 For example a tensile axial stress and a tensile bending stress acting at the reference point that both result from the sam single external load affecting the component.zd.t are to be inserted in Eq. :5: 1. (2.4) to (2.t / jerf Sa.4) or (2.3). bending. For instance q = 0 for steel so that only the v.s and aSK.l SBK.1. for surface hardened or welded components A < 12.b and/or aSK.y. 1 GT.6.s Sa.!./31 (2. 8For example an tensile axial stress and a compressive bending stress acting atthe reference point that both result from the sam single external load affecting the component. (2.s aSK.l :5: 1. 2.1. . TBK.1 or 2. cast AI alloys 0. Mises criterion isofeffect.1 Rodshaped (ID) components 2. For surface hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be applied.6) ta = aSK.1 and Eq.1. TBK.t = Sa.577 0. :5: 1.6.7) and Table 2.544 GG 0.6..6.1 • .zd. T BK / jerf aSK.8) SBK. SSK. Chapter 2. +4. <lGH:5: 1. related amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength. (2.3. (2.• characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress amplitude in the spectrum) according to type of stress. the Eq.6.6. For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12. If the individual types of stresses act nonproportional.1) or (2.85 0.Zd / jerf Sa. 9 Stress components acting opposingly may cancel each other inpart or completely. :5: 1.6) with the same (positive) signs *7.6. Depending on the ductility ofthe material the combination is controlled by a parameter q as a function of tW.264 for GGG so that both the normal stress criterion and the v.6.6.X / jerf (2. Table 2.6.75 0.6. while q = 0.s / jerf Ta.b / i.b aSK..6) with oposite signs *8 *9./3 (l/fw.'t . shear and torsional stress are fWt Q aSK. SBK. .5 %) q = 0.'t) . Mises criterion are of partial influence.6.2 Shellshaped (2D) components 2.). or shear and torsion.s + aSK.zd and aSK.2. (2. Chapter 2.
11) with oposite signs *11. t a = aBK.x + sa.2 Combined types of stress The degree of utilization of shellshaped components for combined types of stresses is *7 aBK.5. Chapter 2.72 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 2. ).sa.x and aBK. 2 2 2 1lGH = sa. 2. 11 For example a tensile stress indirection x and a compressive stress in directions y that both result from the same external load affecting the component.1.yl+~~a.y = aBK.y .y .t.4.5. however.6. For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12.5 %) q = 0. For surface hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be applied.y)2 +4.x.9) (2. (2.y are to be inserted in Eq. .5 is to be applied.. the degrees of utilization aBK.6.x . 1.y are to be inserted in Eq.1.1. 1lGH:::.6.6.6. related amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength.'t shear fatigue strength factor.2)..11) are not applicable and the procedure proposed in Chapter 5.1 or 2.1) or (2. .x = aBK..'t) 131 (2.6.6.10 is to be applied instead..6 Assessment Sa.. SB!(.12) fw.x and aBK. Table 2.6.3.2 and Eq.9) to (2. If they act always proportional or synchronous 1800 out of phase.. where (2D) (2. jges total safety factor. Chapter2. Sa.x .. (2. Otherwise there is. Rules of signs: If the normal stresses Sx and Sy always act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of utilization aBK.1 .y + t a ' J (2.x .10) aNH =~{Isa.6.8).Sv = q .6. Table 2.s.11) with the same (positive) signs *10.11) sa. (2. If the individual types of stress act nonproportional. (2. aNH + (1 . Chapter 2. degrees of utilization after Eq.x +sa.6.q) . the Eq. characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress amplitude in the spectrum) according to type of stress.. sa. q 13 (lIfw. . that is neither proportional nor synchronous. (2. aBK.6.6.1.x.6. 10 For example a tensile stress in direction x and a tensile stress in directions y that both result from the same external load affecting the component.2.x Sa.1.
Chapter 3.ex ..ex equally distributed over the section of concern.. . unnotched or moderately notched section of the component may be determining. Also the assessment of the static strength for welded components using structural stresses has to be regarded as provisional and therefore it is to be applied with caution.1 Different locations for a static failure occurring as a local failure (A) or as a global failure (B).1.0 3.1 .2.. In all other cases of constant or variable loading the assessment will be more or less on the safe side if the values O"max.1 = Grn. so that in the following a single stress value (O"max. The related maximum and minimum values are Gmax.1 Characteristic stresses 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses maximum and mirumum stresses can be positive or negative.1. For same type of stress (for example normal stress and normal stress. and O"min. while for the rest of time the stress is lower...2 3. . are relevant for a shortterm loading (related to the high temperature strength or high temperature yield strength). of the individual stress components expected for the most unfavourable operating conditions and for special loads according to specification or due to physical limits *2.1. 3 Stress components having different sign may cancel out each other in part or completely. It should be observed that not necessarily the component static strength is determined by a local failure occurring at a notch. is an approximation that has to be regarded as provisional and therefore it should be applied with caution. 2 In general the values Gmax.1 + Ga.1 3. . 3._.73 3. however.1. For the reference point.1.ex may be different from the ..1 .ex . . 73 Superposition If several stress components act simultaneously at the 74 75 3.ex.1. Such an analysis is beyond the scope of the present guideline.. and O"min.1 3.ex . ) exists for every type of stress *3. .1 .1 Characteristic stress values Page 3. The largest amplitude of this stress spectrum is Ga. It is assumed.'do'q rI Elevated temperature 3. . but hardly for the assessment of the fatigue strength. O"max.0. limit load. or normal stress in direction x and normal assessment of the fatigue strength a stress spectrum is to be derived from that history consisting of stress cycles of the amplitudes Ga.ex . Likewise a global failure occurring ata different.ex and O"min.1 = Grn. .1 .ex and Gmin. If in those cases it becomes necessary to make best use of the longterm load bearing capacity of the component (because otherwise the assessment cannot be achieved) an expert stress analysis is recommended to define the appropriate stress value to be used for the assessment. This is because extreme.0 General According to this chapter the assessment of the static strength using local stresses is to be carried out *1.i and the mean values Grn. I. ) the superposition is to be carried out at this stage. that all stresses reach their extreme values simultaneously.3 Characteristic stress values General Rodshaped (ID) components Shellshaped (2D) components Blockshaped (3D) components For a longterm loading (related to the creep strength or 1% creep limit) correct results will only be obtained in case of a constant (static) tensile stress O"max.e.ex.0.x and Gmin. Contents In case of elevated temperature the values O"max.ex for the assessment of the static strength are the extreme values of a stress history..1. F Figure 3. very seldom occunng events are Important only for the assessment of the static strength. as well. they are to be overlaid.ex . IU1=EN'. For different types of stress (for example normal stress and shear stress. which are of short duration only.. Figure 3. .1. . The values Gmax. Both the 1 The assessment of the static strength with local stresses based on Neuber's rule and the plastic.and Gmin.0 General According to this chapter the characteristic service stress values are to be determined as elastic stresses.1.Ga.. In a stress spectrum which is supposed to apply for normal service conditions they do not have to be considered therefore.values Gmax.3..1 and Gmin..1. _. . . and/or if they refer to the peak values of a variable stress history.1 .0 General 3. refer to a stress distribution with a stress gradient.1.1 ' and the related mean value is Grn.i' Chapter 2. 1 . Relevant are the extreme maximum and minimum stresses O"max. .ex. O"max.1...
shear and/or torsion) may also occur independent of each other.ex negative for instance) are generally to be considered separately *6. Figure 3.1.l "II "wv normal stress normal to the weld seam shear stress normal to the weld seam.74 3. shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) as well as nonwelded and welded components are to be distinguished.1. The extreme maximum and muumum values of the equivalent nominal stresses are O'max.ex positive. The structural stress is to be computed with the throat thickness a.1 Rodshaped (ID) components RodshapedHD) nonwelded components For rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components a normal stress O'zd = 0' and a shear stress ".wv. in analogy.1.1.ex .1.l.1).wv positive. Hence it cannot be presupposed that nominal stresses can be determined as well. are not to be overlaid however.ex.ex . (3. An assessment of the 'stailcstiength'.0 General Rodshaped (lD).6. For shear and for torsion the highest absolute value is relevant.()fwelcleclcomponents using effective notch stresses is not possible up to now *4.wv negative for instance) are generally to be considered separately. This case is not considered in the following. .ex.. Eq.1 Characteristic stress values 3. O'min.3) Stresses of different sign (O'max. and moreover because of the nonlinearelastic stressstrain characteristic of grey cast iron. however. The assessment for the toe section is to be carried out as for nonwelded components. bending. When using local stresses it is not necessary that a well defined crosssection does exist. The structural stress (JII (normal stress parallel to the orientation ofthe weld) is to be neglected.0. 4 See Figure 0. Chapter 3. For the weld toe the local stresses are to be computed as for nonwelded components.ex. and which do not always occur simultaneously.wv and O'min. O'min. 9 Normally (Jwv will result mainly from (J. *8 (3.. =" are to be considered *5.1) O'min. shear stress parallel to the weld seam. ". "min. 8 According to DIN 18 800 part 1.1.7 for definition of structural stresses and of effective notch stresses.1. For shear and for torsion the highest absolute value is relevant. 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses / t~·· / 3. "max. 6 Particularly in the case of cast iron materials with different tension and compression strength values. For the root of the weld equivalent structural stresses have to be computed from the structural stresses resulting from the normal and shear loadings.6 and 0.ex. because the crosssectional areas may be different and because the strength behavior is evaluated in a different way. Rodshaped (ID) welded components For rodshaped (I D) welded components the local stresses (structural stresses only) are generally to be determined for the weld toe and for the root of the weld separately *7. .1 Characteristic stresses stress in direction y) the superposition is to be carried out at the assessment stage. as it is supposed that (J will contain all normal stresses and t will contain all shear stresses.1. The assessment for the throat section is to be carried out with the equivalent structural stress (Jwv. 5 For rodshaped (ID) components the different types of stress (axial. page 36.ex . (3.. For welded components the local stresses are _to be 'determined as structural stresses.1. For effective notch stresses the assessment procedure has not been developed up to now. *9.. Right: Fillet weld.ex . 'twv in analogy.2) O'.1. Stresses of different sign (O'max. The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are 3.1. Left: Butt weld. Stress components acting opposed to each other.0. 7 For welded components in general an assessment of the static strength is to be carried out for the toe section and for the throat section. (3.L O'max.
x .y= O"y as well as a shear stress "ts = r are to be considered. Eq.max.. <JZ.1.ex.2 Shellshaped (2D) components The calculation for shellshaped (2D) components can be applied also for blockshaped (3D) components. Tension and compression are generally to be considered separately. Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components For shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components normal stresses in the x. <JZ.x .min. 't at the surface are of interest only. And moreover because the second normal stress 0y may reduce the degree ofutilization.x positive. (3.0.y . are of interest only.3 Blockshaped (3D) components Blockshaped (3D) nonwelded components For blockshaped (3D) nonwelded components the principal stresses <J1.6.zd = <J3 are to be considered. and O"zd. 11 See footnote *6.2) and Figure 3.ex .ex.1.1.6) Note: Independent of the value of the stresses the directions of the stresses <J1 and <Jz are parallel to the free surface. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) welded components. (3.min. the local stresses (structural stresses only) are in general to be determined separately for the weld toe and for the root of the weld *7.4).1.ex . An moreover because the second and/or third principle stress 0zand 03 may reduce the degree ofutilization.ex.1. for example by surfacing welds. otherwise Chapter 3. <J1.max. Blockshaped (3D) welded components For certain applications blockshaped (3D) components may be welded at the surface.y and"twv in analogy. O"rnax.x and O"min. . O"rnin. For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.wv. Shellshaped (2D) welded components For shellshaped (2D) welded components.ex .1 Characteristic stresses 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses 3.1. . O"y. Eq. For the weld toe the local stresses are to be computed as for nonwelded components.x = o. <Jmin.1.ex. <JZ. O"wv. The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are O"rnax.ex .5) Stresses of different sign (<Jmax.4) Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses (negative) are generally to be considered separately *10 . For the root of the weld an equivalent structural stresses.1. <J1. The extreme maximum and minimum values of the equivalent stresses are O"max.wv..3 applies.ex. <J3.x negative for instance) are generally to be considered separately. <JX' <Jy and 't.ex.and ydirections O"zd. <J3.1.zd = <J1 .ex. (3.y . has to be computed from the structural stresses resulting from the loading in xdirection. Figure 0.wv.ex . For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.y. 'trnin. The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are 10 See footnote *6.ex. "trnax.75 3.min. and direction 3 points normally to the surface into the interior of the component. Stresses O"wv.zd = <Jz and <J3. Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses (negative) are generally to be considered separately *11.wv.1.1. (3.ex.1.ex. if the stresses O"x.ex .max.1. 3. if the stresses at the surface. (3.x . O"rnin.
Rp.2. they normally apply to a probability of survival Po = 50 % .1. .2.2. Rm ::: Rm. component values and component values according to standards are to be distinguished.N .n.2.2. Figure 3. but not for the entirety of all those components.N Values according to standards Component values  3. R" ::: R".1 3.dog Contents 3. They may be used. According to this chapter the mechanical material properties like tensile strength R.N deff (Jg) Figure 3.0 3. Material test specimen Component values In the context of this guideline the material test specimen is an unnotched polished round specimen of do = 7.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values 77 3.n.z ) are valid for the effective diameter deff of the component.2.1 Values according to standards and component values according to standards.N Semilogarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties with the effective diameter d.N.1 Compression strength factor 3.2 Material properties 3.z. Bottom: GG.2.1 Component values according to standards 3.r) have been determined experimentally.3. and further characteristics for nonwelded and welded' components are to be determined..2.2. however.2 Shear strength factor 3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 76 Rm.r . Rm.4.2.2.1 3. Rp) correspond to an average probability of survival Po = 97. Top: All kinds of material except GG.2 Material properties 1R32 EN.2. The values according to standards (R.5 mm. yield strength R. Values according to standards All mechanical material properties are those of the material test specimen.2. If specific values for a component (R.5.5.n.2.5. The component values CRm . Rp.z and Rp.5 % and depend on the effective diameter deff and on the technological size factor. Special case of actual component values 1 This definition is the basis of the present calculation. Rm .2.2. R.4. or values specified by drawings. they may correspond to different probabilities of survival Po.1.2 3.2.1 Component values according to standards of semifinished products or test pieces 3. although specimens for tensile tests may usually have diameters different from 7.0 General 3. Rp.z .2 Technological size factor General Dependence on the effective diameter Effective diameter 78 3. for instance.2.0 3.2.5 mm diameter *1. Specified values according to drawings Rm. R.2.4.4 3.2.2.z and R".5 3.n.2. Doublelogarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties with the effective diameter dell'.1.0 General 3. Values according to standards.2.2 3. Rm and Rp.1.0 General Page 76 3.0 General de ff . Rm ::: or ~ Rm.n. and therefore they are valid only for the particular component.3 81 Temperature factors General ~ormal temperature Low temperature Elevated temperature 3. for a subsequent assessment of the strength .3 Anisotropy factor 80 Compression strength factor and shear strength factor 3.2 Component values according to the drawing 3.N .2.N .Z .5.
the anisotropy factor and the temperature factors are to be considered in general. R.0 General The component values according to standards.. = 97. With a likely coefficient of variation of 4% the conversion to P.2. Chapter 3.N .3. For GG the yield strength is not defined and Eq.z . Chapter 3. Chapter 3.r and Rp.p .N .2. Rm .m .5 % . Rp. . it is assumed to have a probability of survival less than PD= 97. KA ' Rp.1) technological size factors. . are to be determined from the values of semifinished products or of test pieces defined by standards.N. and for elevated temperature the temperature factors Kt. Chapter 3. Rm. if for that purpose all safety factors are set to 1.2 proof stress (of nodular cast iron or malleable cast iron as well as aluminum alloys). Rm. is the guaranteed minimum value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished product *3 or for the test piece defined by the material standard *4.N . Rm. Component values according to standards The yield strength.4. corresponding to the tensile strength Rm is *6 . Rp.2. Chapter 5.2.5 % is assumed for the component properties according to standards Rm. = K<J. Rp.N . in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it is the value from the test piece according to the material standard. . K<J. are Rm = Kd.1 Component values according to standards of Moreover there are to be considered: for compressive stresses the compression strength factor fa .r . of the component.2) The component value according to the drawing Rm.2. values of the semifinished product or of a test piece according to standards. The component values according to standards <Rm .5 %.4. KA ' Rm.5 % and are valid for the effective diameter.2.2. K<J. 4 A probability of survival Pii = 97. Rm. Rm.N. or from the component value specified in the drawing. = 97. and therefore they may be used for an assessment of strength. Chapter 3.N.2. 6 A conversion proportional to R p N f R m N would not be correct since the technological size effect is more pronounced for the yield strength than for the tensile strength. 3. can be applied. Chapter 5. (3. Rp. for shear stresses the shear strength factor f.z is the tensile· strength of the material specified on the drawing.1) is not applicable.N Kd.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 77 of the particular component in case of a service failure.z.p .2. product *3 . c1eff.3. and may be assigned to R m Z . 3 If different dimensions of that semifinished product are given by the standard. Eq. As the value Rm. Their application is not limited to a particular component.1 . and of the yield strength.2).I/(n+ 1) = 1 . This probability of survival should also apply to the values Rm ' Rp is calculated therefrom.2.1/(3+1) = 0. Rm. = Kd. The yield strength R.N and Rp. (3.2. Rm.2.2. In the case of steel or wrought aluminum alloys the tensile strength.N .2 Component values according to the drawing The component value of the tensile strength. (3.m. 3.p KA Rm. The probability of survival of the lowest of n = 3 tests may be estimated to 75 % (= I . (1.1 . R. where every test has to reach or to exceed the required value.1. *2 the technological size factor.1. To determine the tensile strength Rm and the yield strength R.1 Component values according to standards 3. . is Rm = 0. 5 The value R m Z is checked by three hardness measurements (n=3) for exampl~.1.m .2. As a special case the experimentally determined actual component values. Rp) apply to an average probability of survival PD = 97.5 % follows from Eq.3) technological size factors.2) converts the value Rm•z to a component value Rm that is expected to conform with the probability of survival of Pr. Rp. Rm and R.2.N (3.94 .2. anisotropy factor. Chapter 3. Furthermore compression strength and shear strength values are to be considered.75).2.5. valid for the entirety of all those components.. (3.2.. values of the semifinished product or of a test pieces defined by standards. semifinished products or of test pieces The component values according to standards of the tensile strength. is the guaranteed minimum value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished 2 The term yield strength is used as a generalized tenn for the yield stress (of milled or forged steel as well as cast steel) and for the 0. 3.z is normally verified by random inspection of small samples only *5.00 in addition.m Rm.N .
J. .12) 1.p = 12 mm 3. Rm . 8 Footnote an Eq.2. (3. deff. (3.~p Ueff /7 . and act. deff.m.5mm) for deff ~ deff. = 1.N.. It is specified as a function of the effective diameter.N. 10.2 Technological size factor Aluminum alloys 3. part 1. Table 3. 10 Valid for steel. (3.m < deff :s..207' (deff/7.m = Kct.2.5 (KT m.2.m = :KI. = :KI.1 and 3. 7686·ad. (d .p = 00 .m = Kd. (3.11) deft:max.10) effective diameter.max.2.2. page 40.2.2.2. In general the upper limit of the effective diameter is specified in the material standards. and ad.~m .5 mm *8 Kd.) are supposed tobe valid for both nonwelded and welded compon~nts.p = Steel and cast iron materials (3..m = deft:max. For all other kinds of material there are no upper limit values deff. .m = For GG the following technological size factor applies to the tensile strength: For deff :s.5) For stainless steel within the dimensions given in material standards there is Kd.9) 10.2.4 (fer.N.. cast iron material and aluminum alloys. .m = 1.p = 1 apply.as far as a cross section may be defined . (3.p (except for GG).2.m KcI. Figure 3.5mm) .3.m). .p ..2 Effective diameter For components with a simple shape of the cross section . and of the yield strength.max.14) *10 For all kinds of material the technological size factor for the toe section and for the throat section of welded components is *11 KcI.lg(deff.m = deft:max.. 7686·ad.2.2. Considering the yield strength the values Kct.2. 9 0.2.the effective diameter is given according to the cross section in Table 3.m it is: ~m = ~m (deff. (3. deff deff. ad. unless otherwise specified in the material standards..4) for deff > 7.1922..2. .m.2.2.0 General The technological size factor accounts for a decrease of the material strength values usually observed with increasing dimensions of the component.p = 0. are given in Chapter 5 according to the type of material and its condition.m = deft:N.2 .2. 11 For structural steel and fine grain structural steel according to DIN 18800. Chapter 3. deft:max.2.I. Chapter 3. 5 mm) for deft'~ deft:max.15) For materials such as conditionally weldable steel.2. stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be applied with caution.2.p = 1.m *9: KcI.p =1.3 Special case of actual component values If only an experimental value of the tensile strength Rm. Table 3.N.p :KI. for 12 mm < deft' < deft:max..2. (3.3) with Rm = Rm. f't) and Chapter 3.N.p = 250 mm.2. (3.1 Constants deff.6) cancelled.I is known the value of the yield strength Rp..p =1.1 Dependence on the effective diameter Nonwelded components :KI. It is different for nonwelded and for welded components *7 For cast aluminum alloys the technological size factors for the tensile strength and for the yield strength are as follows: For deft':::.5 mm)0.N.3. 1 . For the determination of the effective diameter deff two cases are to be distinguished as to the kind of material.8) . and depending on the thickness or diameter of the semifinished product.2. For milled steel there is deff.m = 1.2. .m (3.2.J.13) = 150 mm (3.m . constants.6 .m .1. 3.5 mm Kd.N. deff.I may be computed from Eq.2 . for deff. Rp. = v.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 78 3. and adm.m .m = Kct.1.m = deff.m /7.. To these values the technological size factors Kj.max.207.3 (KA).2.7) For all other kinds of steel and cast iron materials the technological size factor is: For deff s deff.2. 7. (3.m (3. For wrought aluminum alloys the component values of the tensile strength.m = :KI. Welded components 150 mm 0.2.p = v.7686 = 1 fig 20.max.max.2.2.. deft:N. .m ·lg(deff /7.max.2.m have to be replaced by the values ~p . 3. for steel 7 The influence factors according toChapter 3.
2 0. 8 as above types No.30   250 250 250 250 0. Rodshaped (ID) components made of quenched and tempered steel The effective diameter is the diameter existing while the heat treatment is performed. Values inthe lower row refer to the yield strength Rp .p (3.N.11..2. bh DIN EN 10 0831 Nitriding steel. 3.1.N. .. of case hardening steel. . ¢o4 No technological size effect within the dimensions mentioned in the material standards. .2 0. In case of machining prior to the heat treatment the effective diameter deff is defined as the local diameter in question.3 0.3. q&t SEW 550¢os Steel for big forgings. apply.1.p ¢o2 40 40 70 40 100 30 16 ¢o3 16 16 16 16 16 40 40 0. values ad.2 as above types No..15 0.1. GT or GG.m ad..7.O ~.15 0... ' . DIN 17205 Heat treatable steel casting. n DIN EN 100831 Case hardening steel. of heat treatable cast steel. In general it is: deff= 4· V / 0.~ ~s given abo~e.15 0. DIN 17 205. 9 GGG DIN EN 1563 GT¢o4 DIN EN 1562 ° 0.15 q&t= quenched and tempered » l For GS30 Mn 5 orGS25 CrMo 4 there is deff. n SEW 550 cleff.4 as above types s No.m = 800 mm or 500 mm respectively. of fine grained structural steel.3 0. or of aluminum materials.1 Constants deff.p asgiven above.15 0.4 0.1 0.15 0. »s For 28 NiCrMoV 8 5 or 33 NiCrMo 145: deff N m = deffN p 500mm or 1000 mm resp. and adm' . of GGG.3 0. ¢o2 Material numbers see Table 5.3.3 0.15 0. The effective diameters deff from Table 3. q&t.N.2.7. Table 3.. Values inthe upper row refer tothe tensile strength Rm .N.15 0.5 0.m mm.N.1. . .2 toTable 5. for cast iron materials Values inthe upper row refer tothe tensile strength R m .3 0.N.m and ad. In case of machining subsequent to the heat treatment the effective diameter deffis the largest diameter of the rod. and adm. 6.2 Constants cleff.. Case 1 Components (also forgings) made of heat treatable steel.3 0.3 0.25 Cast steel DIN 1681 Heat treatable steel casting.m . ¢o2 More precise values depending on the kind of material (except for nonalloyed structural steel) see Table 5.N. values ad. n=normalized. Values inthe lower row refer to the yield strength Rp .2 0.16) Volume and surface of the section of the component considered.p Case 2 Components (also forgings) made of nonalloyed structural steel. ¢o3 Valid for strength level V I.m and ad.N. for level V II deff.5 0..2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 79 Table 3.m = 100 mm with values ad. ¢o2 For 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16: deffN m = 40 values ad. of nitriding steel both nitrided or quenched and tempered.p asabove.3 0.2..3.5.2.3 100 100 200 200 200 200 500 500 60 60 15 15 0.3 0.25 0. . of cast steel. q&t DIN EN 10 0831 Heat treatable steel. q&t DIN EN 10 0831 stainless steel DIN EN 10 0882 ¢o4 Steel for big forgings.m cleff.p Kinds of material inmm ad. case 2.m.2. . = deff.p asgiven above. bh=blank hardened eI Within the kinds ofmaterial there are the types ofmaterial.3 0. ~.N.15 0. tempered.m cleff. of normalized quenched and tempered steel. The diameter deff according to the first sequence of machining is an estimate on the safe side. The effective diameter deff is equal to the diameter or the wall thickness of the component.p inmm 100 100 300 ¢o1 300 0.m and ad. V. types ¢o2 No. for steel Table3. Kinds of material ¢o1 Nonalloyed structural steel DINEN 10 025 Fine grain structural steel DIN 17 102 Fine grain structural steel DIN EN 10 113 Heat treatable steel. Case 1.15 0.m and ad. = deff.25 0.15 q&t=quenched a.
inMpa (3. up to 200 from 200 from 400 to 400 to 600 The shear strength factor allows for the fact that the material strength in shear is different from the tensile strength.0 (. Rp . for which material standards specify the strength values as depending on the testing direction.3 Effective diameter defi' No.83 0.2.4 is to be applied.4 is to be applied. The anisotropy factor for cast iron material is KA = 1.2.24) . In case of multiaxial stresses.19) For the strength values transverse to the main direction of processing the anisotropy factor from Table 3.00 (3. 0.95 (3.2.m and the yield strength in compression Rc.18) For milled steel and forgings *12 the anisotropy factor in the main direction of processing is KA = 1.1 Compression strength factor For tensile stresses (axial or bending) the compression strength factor is fa = 1.2.22) 2s s 2b·s s  for the strength values transverse to the main direction of processing the anisotropy factor from Tab.3. Rc.2.90 3. 3.2 Material properties Aluminum alloys Table 3.4.2.2.4 Anisotropy factor K A b+s .20) For forgings ·13.2.80 Alumtnum aIIoys: Rm 3. It is to be supposed that the specified strength values are valid for the main direction of processing. the anisotropy factor is KA = 1.2. Table 3.m =fa ' Rm. and also with shear stress.2.4 Compression strength factor and shear strength factor 3.2.90 0.23) For compression stresses (axial or bending) the tensile strength Rm and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced by the compression strength Rc. 12 With material properties depending on the direction.p: Rc. Steel' Rm b b inMpa up to 600 from 600 from 900 above 1200 to 900 to 1200 KA 0. the anisotropy factor is not to be applied: (3. (3.2.2.3 Anisotropy factor The anisotropy factor allows for the fact that the strength values of milled steel and forgings are lower transverse to the main direction of milling or forging than in the main direction of processing.2.21) 2 ~ 3 ~ 4 ~ 5 s[ r:fE 2s For aluminum alloys the anisotropy factor for the strength values in the main direction of processing is s (3.4.eneral The compression strength factor allows for the fact that in general the material strength is higher in compression than in tension. 0. 3. (3. Cross section 1 ~ 3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 80 The anisotropy factor for cast aluminum alloys is defi' Case 1 defi' Case 2 d d KA = 1. (3.2.F = fa .2.86 0.17) Steel and cast iron material KA 1.
the influence of the temperature on the mechanical properties is to be considered. ~l 0.75 0.2 Material properties compression strength factor.Tt .rn.577 0. 3.65 0.for cast iron materials from 25 DC to + lOODC. (3. low temperature and higher temperature are to be distinguished. In case of elevated temperature the tensile strength R m is to be replaced by the high temperature strength Rrn. Temperatures below the values listed above are outside the field of application of this guideline.2. (3. For the shortterm values Rm. .3 Elevated temperature For shear stresses the tensile strength Rm and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced by the shear strength R.p: ' f. 3. Rs.2.1) to (3. Rp tensile strength and yield strength.p = f.2.Tt the Eq. Eq.3.2.25°C to lOODC. 13 Tensile strength and yield strength incompression are supposed to be positive.2.4.5 Temperature factors 3.3). Normal temperature.25) .5.577 0. for agehardening aluminum alloys from 25 DC to 50 DC.5 R m. .p are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the static strength. m and the yield strength in shear Rs. For normal temperature the temperature factors are KT. .2.3 1.2.577 0.5.2. The yield strength Rp is to be replaced by the high temperature yield strength Rp.5 f.2.5 Compression strength factor fa and shear strength factor f. Rp.5 2.m = .T or by the 1 % creep limit Rp.p > 0. according tov. 14 The relevant temperature factors will be applied in combination with the safety factors at the assessment stage. (3. (3.2 Low temperature ~ 1 0.2.for fine grain structural steel from 40°C to 60°C.26) 3. .5.0 General The values Rc. Rc. 1 1 1 1 1 1..2.2 Shear strength factor 3.up to 500°C for steel and cast iron materials and up to 200 °C for aluminum materials .m and Rc.1 Normal temperature Normal temperatures are as follows: .m and Rs.75 The temperature factors allow for the fact that the material strength decreases with increasing temperature. 3. *13.2.2.35) apply.3). The values Rs. = 1.577 0.p are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the strength. Table 3. (3..2.5. In the field of elevated temperatures . Kinds of material Case harden's steel Stainless steel Forging steel Other kinds of steel GS GGG GT GG Wrought aluminum Cast aluminum 3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 81 fO" for tension 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 fO" for compress. therefore for compression fO" > 1.m = f.2.85 0.27) to (3. tensile strength and yield strength.Mises criterion. is needed. see Eq.2. .T or by the creep strength Rrn.577 0.T as well as for the longterm values Rm.577 0.1) to (3.T and Rp. Table 3.2.577 = 1 /.Tt *14. as only the shear strength factor f.5.for other kinds of steel from 40 DC to + lOODC. Rc. Rs. Table 3.for nonagehardening aluminum alloys from .J3. shear strength factor. Rm.Tt and Rp.5 1 1. also valid for welded components. as only the compression strength factor fa is needed.
R m . for GGG. For a temperature above 350° C they are valid only. Rp.0 1.2.2 OA r.p are needed.. (T / C .T Rm 'jm High temperature strengtli R...Tt fort = 105 h.31) are valid from the indicated temperature T up to 500 DC.m.28) to (3.3.m .0..4 2. Rm. R p . for GS..p' Top: Nonalloyed structural steel with Rp / Rm = Re / Rm = 0.m = KT.m .. Jm= 3.2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 82 Shortterm values For GG a yield strength value is not defined and therefore the value Rp.29) KT.p = 1. R m. Bottom: 00. .2.Tt I ~'jmt The values Rm...2.T are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the static strength.. KT.Tt / Rp = KTt.6 Rm.3. as only the temperature factors KT.30) 3 0 Rrn. jp =Jmt= 1. Jm= 2.. T / DC) 2.65. Kt.m and KT.21~++++>o&.2.T CreepStrength Rrn. (T / °C 100).2.1..T. Jpt= 1.T does not exist. Steel and cast iron materials o According to the temperature T the temperature factors KT.28) KT..2. T > 60 °C *15: (3.p = 1.2. for other kinds of steel *16. Kind of material GGG GT GG aT.Tt Rp. Rm. T / DC. T> 100D C : KT. o 160 200 360 400 500 Tin ·C 1. T > 100D C. (3.2: K T.2.2b 100 200300 400 Tin ·C 500 Figure 3.Tt/ Rm = KTt.T1> Rp.p.100).2.aT.m..2.T = KT.m .2.2.2 Temperature dependent values of the static strength of nonalloyed structural steel and of GG plotted for comparison. tensile strength and yield strength.33).2' 10... T > 100°C.p = 1 .T/Rp=KT..31) Constant Eq..T/Rm= KT. Safety factors after Chapter 3. jmt= 2.m. if the relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.p = 11.TI I Rm'jmt 0.3: Itt=""'.1) to (3. (3.j 0.3).m 2.m = KT.Tt O.T aswell as Rm..4.1114'44'\1. (3.m 3. Table 3.2. Eq.21+++·+\. I % creep limit Rp.2: (3.m = Kr.Tt 0. (10 aT.m = KT.1.2.T aswell as Rm. GT and GG.. Figure 1.. Short term values of the static strength are Hightemperarure Rm.5 . Figure 3.28) to (3. 10 (3. R p yield strength Rp •T (3.5. Rm.0.T = KT. Eq. Rm.7' 10..2. 15There isan insignificant discontinuity at T = 60°C.p .T and Rp.6 Constant aT.2. 16 For stainless steel no values are known up to now.5 .:c/' RIlj.""1 .m and KT..p. (3.". Rp. o 3..3 .27) temperature factors.2.Tt fort = 105 h. Rp.0.p apply as follows: for fine grain structural steel. Rp.Tt Rp I ~'RII1'jpt Creep Strength R.
Tt does not exist.m. Fatigue limit for completely reversed stress (N = 106 cycles): crW.00W••d o o so np = 10(aTt.T .3. Eq.2. Figure 3. R""Tt ~. (T / C + 273)' (C m + 19(t/ hj).:: 0.5 .2.5 .33) Kr..Tt = KTt.Tt / Rp = KTt.zd.2 *17 R.Rp.p .p for aluminum alloys apply as follows: Long term values of the static strength are   for agehardening aluminum alloys: T > 50 DC.p are relevant instead. Figure 3.2. 10 3 . (3.2.3).33) are valid from the indicated temperature T up to 200°C.2.2. (3.5 .3 (3. 10 3. Cp constants.Tt/ Rm = KTt. Static strength values: Rm. tensile strength and yield strength.__+\_~ R.35) applies to temperatures from approximately 350°C up to 500°C.1.p' Rm.50) .32) Kr.1 . . 'Jm CrecpStrellgth . KTt. The values R""Tt and ~.mand KT..30 .7.35).T / crW. aTt.5 .4. . t operation time in hours h at the temperature T. Steel and cast iron material For GG a yield strength value is not defined and therefore the value Rp.1) to (3.1. .p+b Tt. (C m + 19(t / hj).2 Material properties 3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 83 Aluminum alloys Longterm values According to the temperature T the temperature factors KT.35) . but only for stresses acting on long terms. crW.zd.3 (3. (3. Table 3.p apply. 0. (T / DC .2 and 3. 100 T/'C Figure 3.4.5 and 4. 18 Because the values would be unrealistic for temperatures T < 350°C. In general they do not apply to temperatures below about 350°C *18.4.. KTt.1.2.34) temperature factors. (T / DC .m 100 150 200 1.m = 1 . Kr.Tt for t = 105 h.Tt.3 250 Eq. for nonagehardening aluminum alloys: T> 100°C.2.p = 1 .o.zd / Rm = 0. (T / °C .m = 1 .5 High temperaturc strengthRm.2.Tt K 1 }fn7'jlllt I 0.m .Tt are not needed explicitly for an assessment of the static strength.m and KTt. Pm ) = lO(aTt. where thevalues KT.4.50) .D . and in general only.2. Pm+ cTt.m = Rp.m .p . ..32) and (3. 2 K Tt.. Figure 3. IR.>.p Rm.2.:: 0. = KTt. Kr.100) ~ 0. Pp = 10 .p ·Pp+cTt. (T / C + 273) .m and KTt.d. Eq. Pm = 10 4. Rm. ~.4. (T / °C .Gw.1.p .Tt Rm.100) ~ 0. R.2. Figure 3. Eq.p are needed.3.jo1 6W.. (3.t'""'+~f++l.2.pp2 ) .m. as only the temperature factors KTt.d . Safety factors according to Chapter 3.T Ri'D.5: 17 LarsenMillerparameter P andLarsenMillerconstant C.p = 1 .zd = KT.3 Temperature dependent values of the static strength of aluminum alloys plotted for comparison.m andKT.2.T/Rm = KT.2.m = Rp.m . Higll temperature fatigueslrength crw. 10 3. (3. if the relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.m+ bTt. (3.'l'l Depending on the temperature T and on the operation time t at that temperature the temperature factors KTt.2.T/Rp = KT.2.2. 10 3. R.
Tt / jmt . Rm = 360 MPa. see Figure 1.607 35. .1.3. except that the factor (1 / jm ) is different. ~6 Initially for 08C 25 with Rm = 440 MPa.4 \ 0.260 20 aTt. 19 The temperature factor Kt. as it is essential for the assessment of the static strength.894 .3.76 0. ~2 Not valid for stainless steel. R.5).524 9. according to temperature T and operationtime T has not been specifieffor aluminum alloys up to now.n 1.m ~ R.36 0.n Co Cast iron material 0.n.8 \ 0.352 9.33) applicable to derive the values of KTt.0 R".n Cn . Rm = 490 MPa.001 3.Tt are the same as for C45N.127 2. similar to 8tE 355.10. however.3. .46 2.1.2.2. Creep strength aTt. i RT 100 i ~ 200 300 400 Trc Figure 3. Creep strength aTtm bTtm CTtm Cm 7.001 and 3. For C 35 N. ~7 Initially for 00040 with Rm = 423 MPa.2.7 Constants aTt.90 25 1 % Creep limit aTtn b Tln CTt.4 *19.942 .260 20 1.6.GT GG ~6 ~7 ~8 \ 0. ~3 Initially for 8t 38.949 and 3.27 .252 5.3. applicable from about 350 0 e to 500 o e.0. ~5 Initially for e 45 N (normalized) with Rm = 620 MPa.2.198.1.2.1.32) or (3.2 (required safety factorsjpt = 1.2 Material properties Table 3 Assessment of the static strength 84 3.Tt/ 5 aluminum alloys and t = 10 hours..28 18  <I Approximate values.2 o 1 % Creep limit bTt.456 20 .423 24.127 .417 19.TI {R".227 .1.6 .252 are to be replaced by 2.485 .4 Temperature factor KTl. ~7 Initially for 0025 with Rm = 250 MPa.3. It may be assumed.2.5.83 ° 20 1. (3. A LarsenMillerequation similar to Eq.p is not defmed up to now.m.582 8. The absolute values Rm.n for The given curve is the same as in Figure 3. that the term Rp.019 7.50 .2.728 17.Tt / jpt is more or less equal to Rm.12 1.n cTt.636 20 .71 GS GGG.57 2.52 . the absolute values Rm.0 andjmt = 1.2.485 .Tt are the same as for St 38. similar to sr37. C p ~1 using nominal stresses Aluminum alloys 105 hours KTt.m b Tlm Figure 1. ~4 Initially for H 52. .305 .2...1.987 .m is given by For aluminum alloys and t = Steel ~2 Non Fine grain Heat alloyed structural structural steel steel treatablesteel ~3 ~4 CTtm Cm ~5 .994 2.m and KTt. with Rm = 550 MPa the constants 3.3.
t . 88 (3.4.a . An essential condition is the existence of a stress gradient of the stress a and/or 1: normal to the surface of the component. CI. Weld factors CI.3..4 3.1 3.~ . 2 and 3 (normal to the surface of the component) *1 are KSK. fJ. KNL). KsK.1.3) section factor.w · KNd .2 weld factor. Figure 3. KSK. npl.3. (3. constant for GG. npl.a .ax = 1 / (npl. Chapter 1. KSK.a .w' KNL ).3.1. shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D). KNL).3.~ = 1 / (npl.t = I / npl.1.1 Design factors fJ. for example by surfacing welds. . a y .3.85 3. ax = 1/ (npl.1.a = 1/ (npl. and a2the stress gradient of interest is normal to the direction ofthestress.1 3.3. KsK.w ) .2) The design factors of blockshaped (3D) nonwelded components for the principle stresses (tension or compression) in the directions 1.3. Chapter 3. CI.1. A stress gradient of a3it is not considered and np l.2 Welded components For welded components the design factors are generally to be determined separately for the toe and for the root of the weld. The design factors of rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components for normal stress (tension or compression) and for shear stress are KSK.3. For the root of the weld of rodshaped (ID) welded components the design factors for normal stress (tension or compression) and for shear stress are 87 KSK.1.3.a = 1/ (npl. a y and 1: are of interest only.ay = I / (npl. KSK. fJ.a..3 Design parameters Contents 1R33 EN. Chapter 3.KNL ).dog Page 3.3. KSK..a .~ = 1 / npl. (3.2 Section factors The section factors npl. t. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) welded components. CI.5) section factor.2 Design factors General Nonwelded components Welded components 3.a2 = I / (npl.0 General According to this chapter the design parameters are to be determined.3..a .ax .a . KNL). Chapter 3.cry = 1 / (npl.3. (3.1 Nonwelded components For certain applications blockshaped (3D) components may be welded at the surface.3.3.3. .5 Section factors Plastic notch factors Weld factor CI.w).cry .w (3. They serve to make best use of the load carrying capacity by accepting some yielding as the outside fiber stress exceeds the yield strength. allow for the influence of the stress gradient in connection with the shape of the cross section on the static strength of the component.w are given for tension. KNd. .~ ..3.3.3.3.0 General KNL Nonwelded and welded components are to be distinguished. Figure 1.4) For the root of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded components the design factors for normal stress (tension or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for shear are 3.3. 3.w Constant KNL 85 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses 3.0 3. KNd.2.a . They can be both rodshaped (lD). KNL 3.4 1 For the stress components ax. for compression. if the stresses at the surface ax.2 3.a .1.. Chapter 3. for shear and for torsion of the throat section.1) The design factors of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for normal stress (tension or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for shear are KSK.3.3 Design parameters 3.1.~ = 1 / (npl.w .3. a. Figure 3. K SKa3 = 1/ KNL *'.3. A stress gradient parallel to the surface is not considered for the section factor *1.1. 3.3. KSK. KsK.3. constant for GG.53 = I .~ . because the stress gradient as defined above isparallel toa3.al = 1 / (npl.3 3.5 3. For the toe of the weld the calculation is to be carried out as for nonwelded components..3.3.0 General 3.3.
5%. = 1. Possibly this rule is too far on the safe side.2.a and Kp.3. For Aj z 12.3.70 2 ~3 means Sertr = 0. Continuous curve: Fictitious distribution of the elastically computed stress.. (3.6) Steel and cast iron material For GG as well as for types of GT or GGG with small elongation.1.~ . Kp.a = . Chapter 3. For A~ 12. A '< 8 %. Aluminum alloys 10 3. see Table 2.1 Definition of the section factor npl.9) Young's modulus.may observe cracks when yielding occurs because of the limited plasticity of the hardened surface layer.3.1 Young's modulus E and limit values of total strain Eertr .3.a = aSK / Rp . the section factors are to be determined from Eq. load F. A:2: 8 %.t = K p. ~3 Valid for A < 12. plastic notch factors. 5 MIN means that thesmaller valuefrom the rightsideofthe equation is valid. Table 3..3.~). 2 A hard surface layer . Surface hardened components Kinds of material Steel GS GGG GT AI alloys 105. 2. (3.7 2 ~2 1.86 3. yield strength. = . Top: Detail of the component.1 5 2.1. the section factors are *3: npl. 4 Because of the high ductility of austenitic steel in the solution annealed condition the plastic notch factors Kp. Curve limited to Rp: Real stress distribution providing elastic idealplastic material behavior.a ~rlr E .for example as a result of case hardening and particularly at notches .5% thereis Sertr = 5 %..3. .10) For ductile wrought aluminum alloys.3.8 2 0. (3. the section factors are *3: npl. Young's' modulus E...8 the section factors for normal stress (tension or compression) and for shear stress are *4 npl.a .5% thereis Sertr=4%. = 1. (3.3. Plastic notch factor Kp.5 *2: npl. 6 Section factor based on Neuber's formula.3.3.05 ~2 Valid for As < 12. (3.r are relevant instead of the material dependent sectionfactors. Table 3.3.a = .~ = MIN (~E·t:ertr /R p . A 3 < 8 % or A5 < 8 %.a = Kp. for instance. npl. npl.5 %. npl'''=R (3.9)..a).a of a notched component. as npl = 1.1 15 ~ Rp/E For cast aluminum alloys as well as for wrought aluminum alloy with small elongation. = 1. Yield strength Rp .a . limit value of total strain. npl. Kp. Bottom: Stressstrain curve of the component (relative scales).7) 3 Because of the low plasticity of these materials.8) For all other kinds of material the section factors for normal stress and for shear stress are *5 *6 = MIN (~E·t:ertr /R p . E / MPa Eertr/ % ~1 ~ 1 Sertr / % '" 5 The section factors are not applicable if the component has been surface or case hardened. limit value of total strain Sertr .a Figure 3. Table 3.1 is allowed for case hardened shafts according to the recent DIN 743 (launched in 2000).3. component static strength for normal stress aSK section factor npl.1.1 5 1.3 Design parameters 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses For austenitic steel in the solution annealed condition according to Table 5.
70=16/(3'1t).t' Kt.a = Kp. Table 21 and Eq.2.80 all Shear Tension 0. It has to be observed.. Table 3.3.95 or 0.~ = Kt.b. H inner and outer hight.3 Plastic notch factors The section factors according to Eq. The plastic limit load of a component may be obtained most reliable from an elasticplastic finite element analysis. Cross section Bending Torsion rectangle ~ 1 circle circular ring Isection or box (3.b ~3 1. 3.b .0. (75). It applies to the root of the weld of welded components only.3.w ~1 3.3.a and Kp.. ~2 For aluminium alloys (independent of Rm ) the values typed in boldfaceshould be applied for the time being. Entering the yield stresses o = ± Rp and 't = ± f~' Rp into the plotted cross section (f~ from Table 3.3. Kp. thinwalled.11) The elastic limit load for normal stress (and for shear stress) is defined as the load for which the maximum local stress exceeds the yield stress.27 ~4 1.a Uw all Tension fillet weld all bun weld ~3 0. Kp.3.w accounts for the effect of a weld. for bending.1. . the plastic notch factors are as follows: = Kt.3. plastic notch factors. To reduce the computing effort for such an analysis a simplified elasticidealplastic stress strain curve may be used and the finite element mesh may be less fine than for computing notch stresses.3. ~5 thinwalled. 7 Usually stress concentraction factors do nor exist in combinationwith local stresses. given in Chapter 5.4 Weld factor Particular case In case of a component for which nominal stresses may be defined for the section of concern. B inner and outer width. see Chapter 3.(b 1 B) . ~6 Kp.15) 3 1.3. ~21.0 and Figure 3.80 1.8) and (3..9) are limited by the plastic notch factors Kp.zel. for shear and for torsion are known *7 *8.t. ~n~ ~1 or plate.o and Kt. Chapter 5.70 ~2 1.0 not verified partial penetration or = Kp. D inner and outer diameters. 1..3 *9 . (h 1 H) b. that the soderived plastic notch factors only apply to the notched section considered and not to the component as a whole.t 1. 1.33 ~3  p5  ~6 ~4 K Kp. 133 1(dlD)3 r4 ' 1(dlD) (3. ~3 Butt welds of sectional steel from St 372 and USt 372 with a product thickness t > 16 mm. h.2. Approximately the plastic limit load may be derived as follows: Definition and plotting of the cross section which will determine the limit state. Kt.zd. Therefore other sections may have to be considered in addition.5).(b 1 B)· (h 1 H)2 (3. otherwisethere is p. Table 3.1 only and should not be used in the present context.~ that depend on the plastic limit load: K K p. p.a.b = 1.t = v Kp.5 . 9 For the toe of a weld the calculation is to be carried out as for nonwelded components.1. and the corresponding stress concentration factors for tension or compression.2.87 3.~ = plastic limit load elastic limit load = 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses Table 3 3 2 Plastic notch factors Kn. Joint back weld Kp.~ Kt. 1.55  055 ~I Accordingto DIN 18800 part 1.5 1.b . The weld factor CJ.14) d.3 Design parameters . however.3.12 for a substitute structure are intended to be used in Chapter 4.0 verified or with Rm > 360 MPa Tension 10 Compression 0.3. Weld quality Type of stress full all Compression weld Kp. Table 3. . 8 The stress concentration factors Kt. (3.13) Kp.27 = 4/1t.o and K . In general realization of the described procedure is not easy and the formulation of an appropriate algorithm is difficult.3. .3. Balancing the areas of the section under + Rp and Rp to obtain a similarity between these stresses and the external loading situation. stress concentration factor. 360 MPa ~2 penetration (3.33=4/3.3 Weld factor CI. R m ::.s.
4 Constant KNL c.15 1.Druck 0.87 0.3.4.05 KNL.10 1.3.91 0.1. For all kinds of material except for GG there is K NL = 1.87 0.Zug and KNL.5 Constant K NL The Constant KNL allows for the nonlinear elastic stress strain characteristic of GG in tension and compression or in bending. Type of material GG GG GG GG GG GG 10 15 20 25 30 35 KNL. Table 3.3 Design parameters 3.3. (3.Zug (3.Zug 1.Druck = 1/ KNL.Zug apply to the tension side of the cross section (tension or tension from bending).10 1.3.05 1.88 3.3.15 1. Values of the KNL.95 0.95 ~ 1 For unnotched and slightly notched components at tension or compression there is KNL = 1.3.91 0.18) apply to the compression side of the cross section (compression or compression in bending). The reciprocal values KNL.Druck from Table 3.17) K NL = KNL. 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses .16) For GG the values (3.
fa For certain applications blockshaped (3D) components may be welded at the surface.. (3. design factor.1.2.y = fa .4.~ .dog Page 3. For the toe of the weld the calculation is to be carried out as for nonwelded components. Rm I KSK.. 'tSK = f~' Rml KsK. shear strength factor. The local values of the component static strength of shellshaped (2D) components for normal stresses (tension or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are O'SK. The local values of the component static strength of blockshaped (3D) components for the principal stresses (tension or compression) in the directions 1.4. Chapter 3.1 Nonwelded components 3.a2 .3..5.SK = fa . csx = fa . a fact that is accounted for in Chapter 1. or blockshaped (3D). (3. even if in the case of a low Rp / Rm ratio the yield strength is to be used for the assessment of the static strength.cry .4. Rm I KsK.1. chapter 3. O'SK.4.2 Welded components For welded components the strength values are generally to be determined separately for the toe and for the root of the weld.4. shellshaped (2D). Chapter 3. for example by surfacing welds.4.ax . 0'2.4. 2 and 3 are O'l. 2 Basically the tensile strength Rm is the reference value of static strength.~.SK = fa . design factor.~ .0 General According this chapter the local values of the component static strength are to be determined. Chapter 3.2. They can be both rodshaped (10). tensile strength.~. shear strength factor.2.2 Welded components 89 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses 3.4) For the root of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded components the local values of the component static strength for normal stresses (tension or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are 3. For the root of the weld of rodshaped (lD) welded components the local values of the component static strength for normal stress (tension or compression) as well as for shear stress are 3.5) compression strength factor. . and moreover they are different due to different section factors according to the type of stress.a3 .1. Rm design factor.x = fa . Rm I K SK.3. if the stresses at the surface crx .4.3) compression strength factor. 0'3.1 Nonwelded components crSK.a . 'tSK = f~' Rml KsK. Chapter 3.3.x = fa . Chapter 3.SK = fa . The local values of the component static strength of rodshaped (lD) components for normal stress (tension or compression) and for shear stress are *1 *2 O'sK=fa'Rm/KSK.2.y = fa .89 3.2. fa 1 The component static strength values are different for normal stress and for shear stress. TSK = f~' Rml KSK.1.4 Component strength Contents 1R34 EN.5.4.4. (3.4.4 Component strength 3. f~ tensile strength.a. Rm I KSK. a.cry . (3. Nonwelded and welded components are to be distinguished.1. Chapter 3.2.4. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) welded components.1) 'tSK = f~ . Rm I KSK.al .4. Rm I KsK.ax .0 General 3. . Rm KSK. crSK.2.1. Chapter 3.4.. cry and r are of interest only. tensile strength. Chapter 3. (3.2.a1 .4. Rm I KSK. KsK.4.2) compression strength factor. Chapter 3. Rm I KSK. Rm I KSK. Chapter 3.
The safety factors are valid under the condition that the design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and that the material properties correspond to an average probability of survival of Po = 97. >4 referring tothe creep limit Rp. cast components areof standard quality for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jr = 1. but with the difference.2 1. GG and cast aluminum alloys have elongations As < 12. Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given by Table 3.5 %).5 %.1 Steel Safety factors applicable to the tensile strength and to the yield strength.S % are considered asnonductile materials. >S moderate consequences of failure of a less important component in the sense of "no catastrophic effects" being associated with a failure.5. 4 In mechanical engineering.5 1.5.0 1.0 3.0 does not seem possible up to now.2.5.2 Cast iron materials The safety factors given in the following are valid for ductile and for nonductile materials.90 3.4 3.35 1. >2 referring tothe yield strength Rp ortothe hot yield strength Rp.5.0 1.docl Page 90 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses Table 3. Values of elongation see Table 5.2 3.3.3 1.1 3.12.0 >1 referring tothe tensile strength Rm ortothe strength atelevated temperature RmT.2. 1 The safety factors in Chapter 1.5.2 3.2.0 may be applied to high quality cast components in the aircraft industry however. The safety factors may be reduced under favorable conditions.0 General Ductile and nonductile cast iron materials are to be distinguished. 3 All types of GT.5.2 3. for example due to anapplication ofproof loads or due to loads during anassembling operation.5. that nonductile cast iron materials and nonductile aluminum alloys are considered here as well. Those high quality cast components have to meet special demands and (cont'dpage 91) .6 1.1 3.5 General Steel Cast iron materials General Ductile cast iron materials Nonductile cast iron materials Wrought aluminum alloys General Ductile wrought aluminum alloys Nonductile wrought aluminum alloys Cast aluminum alloys Global safety factor EN . Reduction byapproximately IS %. Compared to Table 3.5 Safety factors 3.1.5. that is depending on the probability of occurrence of the characteristic stress values in question and depending on the consequences offailure. GG and cast aluminum alloys are always considered as nonductile materials here. to the creep strength and to the creep limit are given in Table 3. 2 Statistical confidence S = SO %. >3 referring tothe creep strength Rm.5.5. The safety factors are valid both for nonwelded and welded components. in particular all types of GS and some types of GGG (not GT and not GG). too.35 1.75 1. for example because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statically undeterminate system.0 3. A5~12.5.5.5 3.5 are the same.0 General According to this chapter the safety factors are to be determined *1.Tt . Consequences of failure jm >1 >2 severe moderate jp >3 jmt >S jpt >4 high 91 92 3.T . In this respect any types of steel are ductile materials.3.S % and are considered as nonductile materials here. Probability of occurrence of the characteristic service stress values low >6 2. A safety factor jF = 1. The factor is different for castings that have been subject to nondestructive testing or have not *4 . Reduction byapproximately 10 %. For nonductile materials the assessment of the static strength is to be carried outwith local stresses.1 3.5.5.5. while GT.0 1.1 Safety factors jm and jp for steel (not for GS) and for ductile wrought aluminum alloys As> 12.2.1 they are higher because of an additional partial safety factor jF that accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in castings. 3.3.5 Safety factors 1R35 Contents 3.5.5.5.3 1.1 Ductile cast iron materials Cast iron materials with an elongation % are considered as ductile.5 % *2.5.Tt. >6 or only infrequent occurrences of the characteristic service stress values.0 1.5.5.3 3. as well as cast iron materials and wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation As~ 12. 3.2.0 3.8 1.2 1.1.2.5 1. Wrought aluminum alloys with elongations As < 12. *3 3.
4 castings subject to nondestructive testing }3 high 2.1.2 Probability of occurrence of the characteristic service stress values GG 0.5.9 1.25 2. AS Elongation.5 % are considered as ductile materials.13. For cast aluminum alloys all safety factors from Table 3. }3 Compared to Table 3.25 is introduced. Figure 3.0 + O.8 2. GGG with A5~ 12.1 an additional partial safety factor jF = 1.1 Nonductile wrought aluminum alloys Wrought aluminum alloy with an elongation A < 12.65 1.5. Figure 3. The safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are the same as for steel.9 1.1. Figure 3.2 1.65 1.S . as well as on the quality and extent of product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their mechanical properties.5.1 and Eq.4 2. 5 For GG the values Jp and Jpt are not relevant since the yield strength and the creep limit of GO are not specified.25 1.1 1.1.91 3.65 1. ( jm = 2.2) ).3.5.1 1.5 ~A5 /50%.S for AS = 0 from Eq. ~j O.5 Aj o Jpt Probability of occurrence of the characteristic service stress values 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses low 1.55 1.1 *6: L\j = 0. The value for GG is As = 0 *5.8 2.3.12 or 5. 3.2 are to be increased by adding a value L\j.2 are to be increased by adding a value L\j.5.5.2) 3.5 1.1 Value L\j to be added to the safety factors jm and jp . to be replaced by A3 for GT.2. 3.5.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys Wrought aluminum alloy with an elongation A ~ 12. (3.38. 3.2 Safety factors jm and jp for ductile cast iron materials (GS.5.22 to 5. = (3.25 1. Values of elongation see Table 5.4 is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects in castings.8 1. nondestructively tested. defmed as a function of the elongation As or A3 respectively.0 from Table 3.4 2.0 General Ductile and nonductile wrought aluminum alloys are to be distinguished.2).30.9 1.45 low 2.4 Cast aluminum alloys Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as nonductile materials. 3.7 1.5.S.1 and Eq. For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety factors from Table 3.5.5 1.5. 3.25 }1 Explanatory notes for the safety factors see Table 1U 12.5.1.0 1.2).3 Wrought aluminum alloys 3.5. Values of elongation see Table 5. 6 For example the safety factor Jm for GG is at least jm (3.S = 2.5 % for GT) are considered as nonductile materials.31 to 5.3.1 an additional partial safety factor jF = 1.1.2 Nonductile cast iron materials Cast iron materials with an elongation As < 12. For nonductile cast iron materials the safety factors from Table 3.5.1.5.25 2.30.5.5 %) }1 Consequences of failure severe moderate jm jp jmt castings not subject to nondestructive testing}2 high 2.A3 in % Figure 3. moderate consequences.1.3) = 2. in particular some types of GGG as well as all types of GT and GG.5.5 % are considered as nonductile materials.1.65 1. Values of elongation for GGG and GT see Table 5.2. low probability.1. (3.5 Safety factors Table 3.5.5 % (A3 < 12. (3. }2 Compared to Table 3. for which it is assumed that a higher quality of the castings is obviously guaranteed when testing. Table 3.7 1.5 20 As .2 are to be increased by adding a value L\j.5.5 2.1.5. . Values of elongation see Table 5.4 1.5.9 1.22 to 5.S. checks' on qualification of the production process.5.
.Tt. 11 Since a yield strength and a creep limit are not specified. R p ' KTt. or the creep limit Rp.1 and 3.2.5. Simplifications The following simplifications apply to Eq.75 the second term has no relevance * 10.m ' KT..p .5 Safety factors 3.5 Total safety factor From the individual safety factors the total safety factor is to be derived *7: jges (3.. (3.75.m ' KTt. 3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses . Table 3. for Rp / Rms 0. 7 MAX means that the maximum value of the four terms in the parenthetical expression is valid.92 3. 8 Applicable to the tensile strength Rm or to the yield strength Rp to allow for the tensile strength at elevated temperature ~ T ' the hot yield strength ~.2.lm ..m . temperature factors. for Rp / Rm > 0.p n. for GG the second and fourth term have no relevance *11. Chapter 3. 10 If there is a ratio of the safety factorsjp I jm = 0.Rm] KT. . respectively' 9 The terms containing the factors KTt.T' the creep strength Rm.4) jges = MAX(~ ~.75 the first term has no relevance.5.5.5.m = K T.p must not be applied in the case of normal temperature.5.5 *8.Rm ~ ~.m and KTt.Tt . Kt. p =1 .4): In the case of normal temperature the third and fourth term have no relevance *9. safety factors. as they will produce misleading results. and moreover there is KT.
For welded components assessments are generally to be carried out separately for the toe and for the root of the weld as indicated in the following. divided by the total safety factor jges.1) CiSK / jges 'tmax. . . the extreme minimum stresses. (1.occur atdifferent points ofthe crosssection.. Moreover see Footnote 1.0 General According to this chapter the assessment of the component static strength using local stresses is to be carried out.1.2. They can be both nonwelded or welded 3.6. related component static strength...1. The degree of utilization is always a positive value.2.6. .0 General 3.2. For shear the highest absolute value of shear stress is relevant.6.4) and (1. .4. .~ Degree of utilization The assessments are to be carried out by determining the degrees of utilization of the component static strength..5.ex.1. Chapter 3.12) isthat ofa strength hypothesis.6. O"SK .6.6.6.2 Rodshaped (ID) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress 3.... Page 3. 3 4 The reference point isthe critical point ofthe cross section that observes the highest degree ofutilization. and in particular if they may occur separately.6. .1 3.1. All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero).6. For steel or wrought aluminum alloys the highest absolute value of stress is relevant *3.2.ex 'tSK / jges s 1.2 3. (3.5. As a rule bending will be more important. O"SK.1 Rodshaped (ID) components 3.6.1 Individual types of stress Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components The degrees of utilization of rodshaped nonwelded components for the different types of stress like normal stress or shear stress are The calculation applies to both nonwelded and welded components.. extreme maximum stresses according to type of stress. If different types of stress like normal stress and shear stress act simultaneously and if the resulting state of stress is multiaxial. . Chapter 3.1. (1.93 3.dog strength.6. .0.ex.9 *5. jges total safety factor. In general normal stresses in tension or compression are to be considered separately. aSK.6.1 3.. see Figure 0.ex ~ 1. In general the assessments for the extreme maximum and minimum stresses (normal stresses in tension and compression and/or shear stress) are to be carried out separately.2 3. they have the character ofan empirical interaction formula only.1.6.6 Assessment Contents 3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses !R36 EN.) divided by the allowable static stress at the reference point *4..6.6. 96 Kinds of component 3.1 3. In the context of the present Chapter the degree of utilization is the quotient of the characteristic stress (extreme stress O"max. so that different reference points W are to be considered.4) and (1. shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) components are to be distinguished. the particular extreme maximum stresses and the extreme minimum stresses are to be overlaid as indicated in the following.1.12) are applied in other cases.1. 2 This is in order toexamine the degrees ofutilization ofthe individual types ofstress in general. Chapter 3. = Cimax.. . If Eq. 5 Only in the case ofstresses acting simultaneously the character ofEq.O' = aSK.2 Shellshaped (2D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress 3.1 3.6.6.2 Blockshaped (3D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress 93 94 95 Superposition For stress components of the same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter 3.6 Assessment 3.6. The allowable static stress is the quotient of the component static I It is a general principle for an assessment of the static strength to suppose that all types of stress observe their maximum (or minimum) values atthe same time.ex. Different in the case ofcast iron materials or cast aluminium alloys with different static tension and compression strength values. In general the assessments for the individual types of stress and for the combined stress are to be carried out separately * I *2. are to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses. O"max. O"min. Rodshaped (lD).. For example the extreme stresses from bending and shear will as arule .
q) .6. 1. r. . degree of utilization . For steel isq = 0 so that only the v..577 0.5 %) there is q = 0.cr. Extreme maximum stresses according to type of stress.$. Chapter 3...6./3(l/f't) For the root of the. Extreme maximum equivalent structural stresses.759 Caution: For nonductile wrought aluminium alloys (elongation A < 12. Smin.e = / . For GG isq = 0. the extreme minimum stresses.2 Shellshaped (2D) components The degrees of utilization of shellshaped (20) nonwelded components for the types of stress like normal stress in the directions x and y as well as shear stress are 3.ex.. O"max. Chapter 3. O"SK. aNH + (l . Mises criterion isof effect.6 Assessment Rodshaped (ID) welded components For the toe of the weld of rodshaped (lD) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components.5.$.6.6.y . In general normal stresses in tension or compression are to be considered separately. q 6 The applied strength hypothesis for combined types of stress is a combination ofthe normal stress criterion (NH) and the v. is an approximation which has to be regarded as provisional and therefore itis tobe applied with caution.ex.544 0.5...2.y / Jges Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components (3.2.'t = .ex. O"min. .1. .$. 1.6. Depending on the ductility of the material the combination is controlled by a parameter q as a function off. aSK.4) where s = aSK.. 'tSK / Jges O"SK. For the root of the weld of rodshaped (lD) welded components the degrees of utilization for normal stress and/or shear stress follow from the equivalent nominal stresses.85 0.75 0. .2) on page 74. ex.wv. Chapter 3. according to Eq. 1.9) 't max. . . .cr . Rodshaped (ID) welded components For the toe of the weld of rodshaped (lD) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components.1.1.2) q f. For shear the highest absolute value of shear stress is relevant. Chapter 3.5 .94 3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses 3. .5.crv = q . (3.264 0..1. Eq. are to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses. Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components total safety factor. Mises criterion are of partial influence. (3. (1.6) t = aSK.1.6. are to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses. (3.. Steel.00 GOO GT.2 Combined types of stress asK. O"SK.1.ex.2). ex II. O"SK Jges (3... 8 Eq.6. O"max.1.7) and Table 1.1 Constant q(f t ) ..6..1. (3. All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero).4.2.wv.6.6. Eq.ex..8) aSK.5.1. Mises criterion (GH). . For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12.8) does not agree with the structure ofEq.6. aNH=±{lsl +~s2 +4. 1.cry = O"max. Chapter 3./31 shear strength factor. (3. Chapter 3..2. Cast GG Alalloys 0.x .5) (3. It .x / Jges asK..1. Table 3.1). Wrought AIalloys 0.759 so that both the normal stress hypothesis and the v.1 Individual types of stress related component static strength values. 1. weld of rodshaped (ID) welded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stress (or loadings) is *8 'tmax.ex. (3.t 7 *' 3.wv aSK.6.cr.cr .1.wv.1.$. llGH. 'tSK / jges For rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stress is *6 2)' (3. 3.1: .65 0. 1. the extreme minimum stresses.6.6.1.crx = O"max.x . otherwise O"max.5 %) there is q = 0.. wv. aSK.'.x. 7Table 1.6.wv .$.6. degree of utilization.7) . (3.ex wv aSK.zd .$.
2. however *10.crx. total safety factor.t = max.. t = aSK. Total safety factor. For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12. Chapter 3.the degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq..without knowing whether the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly *11 .y and 'tmin.x ... aSK.ex.14) with different signs. O"SK.6..6.4. . 10 For example tension indirection xand compression indirection yfrom a single loading affecting the component.1.x .wv.1. Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with crmin.. then the least favorable case is relevant. Chapter 3. 'tmax.6. Eq. (3.ox  aSK.crx +aSK.wv. (3. the degrees of utilization aSK.wv. In general normal stresses in tension or compression are to be considered separately. (3.) .6.ex.crx and aSK.cry . asK. For shear stress the highest absolute value is relevant. iftwo loadings vary with time ina different manner. Eq.2.2:  0" ~ 1. Chapter 3. otherwise Shellshaped (2D) welded components .wv. shear strength factor.wv .. . where <lQH~ 1.. <lQH= sx+Sysx'Sy+t (3.6.6 Assessment 3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses J related static component strength.ex.1. 3.cry are to be inserted into Eq./3 (lIf.cry are to be inserted into Eq.ex.. crmin. For the root of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded components the degrees of utilization for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress follow from the equivalent local stresses.x . aNH + (l .x / .1. Chapter 3. extreme maximum stresses (equivalent local stresses).14) with equal (positive) signs (summation).crx and asK. O"min.wv.5.. In the general case .ov = q .5 . the degrees of utilization aSK. (3. Chapter 3.95 3. crwv = aSK. 2 2· 2.5 %) there is q = 0. O"SK..10).cry +aSK.s are to be included in this comparative evaluation.x Jges max. (3.wv. ~ 1.wv. All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). crSK.y / . Sy = aSK.1. For the root of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stress (or loadings) is "8 (3.crx.6. q related static component strength values. Chapter 3. (3.14) both with equal or with different signs.crx .14) Sx = aSK.2. 11 For example. ' aSK.5..6.1. are to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses.12) 9 For example tension in direction x and tension in direction y from a single loading affecting the component.ex.6.5.15) f. degree of utilization. In general normal stresses in tension or compression are to be considered separately.2 Combined types of stress Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components The degree of utilization of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for combined stresses is *6 aSK.cry  0" s 1 .wv.5.ex..10) (3.9). SK. .ex.wv. degrees of utilization.6. All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). For shear stress the highest absolute value is relevant. . If they always act opposingly.q).6.4. a wv. .ex.6.wv./31 * ' 9 For the toe of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components. 'tSK / J ges O"max.16) J 2 2 2 aSK..5. Table 3. .y Jges (3. O"SK.. Shellshaped (2D) welded components For the toe of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components. Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress always act unidirectionally at the reference point *9. the extreme minimum stresses. .
(lIf't) *9 /31 ' (3. however *14.~x 1~ (J2.6.the degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq.cr3 are to be inserted into Eq.min.O'I . the degrees of utilization aSK.cr2 and aSK. In the general case .without knowing whether the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly ..max. (3. (J2. . (3. max.min. Chapter 3. total safety factor.ex are to be included in this comparative evaluation.3 Blockshaped (3D) components 3. the extreme minimum principal stresses.1 . O'I.crl .5 .4.ex < .. 1 / . related static component strength.6.ex and 0'3.1 Individual types of stress The degrees of utilization of blockshaped (3D) nonwelded components in terms of the principal stresses in the directions 1. 13 For example tension in direction 1 and tension indirection 2 from a single loading affecting the component.O'3 = I (J3.22) s2 = aSK. Rules of sign: If the individual principal stresses always act unidirectionally at the reference point *13.6.O'3 .ex.max. s3 = aSK.2. 12 Max means that the maximum value of the three parenthetical expression is valid. aSK. ex <1 (Jl.ex . .17) 1.5 %) there is q = 0.6. the degrees of utilization aSK.q) . Table 3. aNH + (l .O'2 .6.6. O'SK.min.. ..SK Jer O'I. (3.cr2 and aSK. (3. are to be considered in the same way as the extreme maximum principal stresses. degrees of utilization.SK / Jerf (3. terms in the 14 For example tension in direction 1 and compression in direction 2 from a single loading affecting the component. If they always act opposingly.5.'" extreme maximum principal stresses. Tension and compression are generally to be considered separately.1.1.1. (3.6.6.crv = q .22) both with equal or with different signs.min. aSK.20) where *12 (3. Eq.17).3. 1(J3.ex . aoH~ 1. otherwise 3.cr3 are to be inserted into Eq. Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with O'l.22) with equal (positive) signs (summation).max.23) f't Shear strength factor. 0'1.O'I aSK. 3.SK / jges ... Chapter 1.O'I . aSK. .22) with different signs.6. Chapter 3.3. All extreme principal stresses may be positive or negative (or zero).O'2 =1 q /3. then the least favorable case is relevant.96 3 Assessment of the static strength 3. (3.. 0'2.2 Combined types of stress The degree of utilization of blockshaped nonwelded components for the combined principal stresses is *8 aSK.6. (J I.21) SI = aSK.3.6.6 Assessment using nominal stresses For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12.6.3..5. aSK.2 and 3 are aSK.
1Chapters 4.0 4.1. a . Chapter 4.1.2 4. so that in the following a single stress component (O"a.1 are basically identical.=do'q Stress cycle 4.1. For normal stress there is O"a = O"a.1. . crm.2.1.1.1 4.1.4..1. giving the amplitudes O"a.1.1.1. 0"m. They are specified by a number of steps.1. O"m . For welded components the local stresses may be determined as either structural stresses or effective notch stresses.1. and the related mean values O"m.0 General 4.1.1.5.1 and 2.. Figure 4. . stress ratio a .0 General Rodshaped (lD). they are to be overlaid according to Chapter 5.3 Figure 4. see Footnote 2 on page 73. Chapter 0. 4. For different types of stress (normal stress and shear stress or normal stress in x.. of stress cycles.1. Local stresses may be applied even if nominal stresses can not be computed because a nominal crosssection can not be clearly defined. as well as the related numbers of cycles ni according to the required fatigue life *2.i t A special case is the constant amplitude spectrum.10..2 4.i .1.6.4 Determination of the parameters of a service stress spectrum General Standard stress spectrum Class of utilization Damageequivalent stress amplitude 4.1.4.0 General Example: According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses is to be carried out.4.1.1 ofa service stress spectrum with its related mean stress value am.i = O"m.2) the superposition is to be carried out at this stage.0 General simultaneously at the reference point. they are to be overlaid.2 Parameters of the service stress spectrum General Mean stress spectrum Stress ratio spectrum 4..i. consisting of one step i = j = 1 only.0 4.1. 4.1serves as the characteristic stress value.1 4.1 .2 . .1 4.2 4. Spectra are applicable for N > 104 cycles approximately. i = I to j .3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match the 100 component constant amplitude SN curve 4. The largest amplitude 0a.1.2.1. For the same type of stress (for example unidirectional normal stresses 0"a. According to this chapter the parameters of the service stress spectra are to be determined (spectra for elastically determined local stresses).1 and O"a.and ydirection) the superposition is to be carried out at the assessment stage.1.1. If Nonproportional stresses If several nonproportional stress components act 4.4. 2 As a rule a stress a spectrum is to be determined for normal service conditions.1. They may be both nonweldedor welded.3.0 4. Chapter 0. 3 Stress components acting opposingly can cancel each other in part or completely. Rai= m. 0"m.1 4. O"m = O"m.1 Characteristic service stresses according to the kind of component Relevant are the stress spectra of the individual stress components. shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) components are to be distinguished.1.1 97 stress cycle (normal stress).1 Parameters of the stress spectrum Contents Page 4.l .1.i = 0"a.i + 0' a. 4.97 4.3.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses *1 C"IR::4l:=EN::.1 a.) exists for each type of stress *3. Superposition 98 99 102 Proportional or synchronous stresses several proportional or synchronous stress components act simultaneously at the reference point.5..1.2.3 Characteristic service stresses according to the kind of component General Rodshaped (lD) components Shellshaped (2D) components Blockshaped (3D) components 4.1.
i. as well as a shear stress 't are to be considered. 7 An alternative is an assessment of the throat section using nominal stresses.x. 'ta.5) Cl"m. Cl"K .i . Cl"a.i .i .m. the normal stresses in the directions x and y . When performing a calculation of welded rodshaped (ID) components with effective notch stresses a normal stress Cl"K and a shear stress 'tK are to be considered.i .i .a.i. The respective amplitudes and mean values are Cl"K.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 4. Cl"a.5 6 For welded components separate assessments of the fatigue strength for both the toe and the root of the weld are to be carried out.x.0. 'tm.1.y.i .6) . however.1. The respective amplitudes and mean values are (4. For shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components the (local) normal stresses in x.m.a. 4 Rodshaped (10) components may be subject to normal stresses resulting from tensioncompression and from bending and to shear stresses resulting from shear and torsion.m.i .i.a. 'ta. (4. (4. When performing a calculation of welded shellshaped (2D) components with effective notch stresses.1. Calculation with structural stresses When performing a calculation of welded rodshaped (ID) components with structural stresses a normal stress (normal stress) rr and a shear stress 't are to be considered.i .x. 'ta. Figure 0. as well as a shear stress 'ts = 't are to be considered.i. The respective amplitudes and mean values are The calculation for shellshaped (2D) components may also be applied to blockshaped (3D) components.6 and 0.i » 'ta. Cl"m. Calculation with structural stresses Structural stresses are to be applied to the toe of a weld only.1.3) For shellshaped (2D) welded components.m. Cl"m.y.i· Rodshaped (ID) welded components For rodshaped (lD) welded components the local stresses (structural stresses or effective notch stresses *5) are in general to be determined for the toe and the root of a weld separately *6.0.2 Shellshaped (2D) components For rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components a local normal stress Cl"zd = cr and a shear stress 'ts = 't are to be considered *4. are to be considered.a. Cl"K.1 Rodshaped (ID) components Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components 4.i » Cl"a. The respective amplitudes and related mean values are (4..i.i . 'tK. if the stresses Cl"x. respectively.0.y.0. 'tm.x.i .1. The respective amplitudes and mean values are Cl"K.1) Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components Cl"m.7.i .m. (4. For the root of a weld the calculation is to be carried out with effective notch stresses *7 • When performing a calculation of welded shellshaped (2D) components with structural stresses.y.1.'tm. Cl"y and 't at the surface are of interest only.4 and 5.98 4. as well as the shear stress.7.1. Cl"K.i .i . The respective amplitudes and mean values are Cl"a.1.4) Cl"m.x. 'tK. 'tK.i .1. 'tK .y. 'tm. Shellshaped (2D) welded components Structural stresses are to be applied to the toe of a weld only.i . 5 Definition of structural stresses and of effective notch stresses see Figure 0.and ydirection. the normal stress in the direction of the maximum effective notch stress.i . Cl"zdx = Cl"x and Cl"zdy = Cl"y. Chapter 5.2) Cl"m.i . is not considered here.i· (4. Cl"a.6 and Figure 0. Both assessments are of the same kind. as both tensioncompression stresses and bending stresses as well as both shear stresses and torsion stresses are supposed to be contained in cr or in 't. The case that these stresses may occur separate from each other. Cl"x and Cl"y . 'tK.i .i· Calculation with effective notch stresses Cl"K. the local stresses (structural stresses or effective notch stresses) are in general to be determined for the toe and the root of a weld separately *6.i .y. Cl"a. but in general the respective stresses and fatigue classes FAT are different.a. Calculation with effective notch stresses Effective notch stresses may be applied to the toe and to the root of a weld *6. Cl"K.x. For the root of a weld the calculation is to be carried out with effective notch stresses *7.i.1.
i.zd = 0"3 .11) N= N = nj = nl Parameters of stress spectrum are: 0"a.2. for example. respectively. is the exponent ofthe component SN curve.cr or N= N . related number of cycles in step i.1.1 Characteristic service stresses 4. As a rule a restriction to the following kinds of stress spectra is possible: Mean stress spectra and stress ratio spectra (with the fluctuating stress spectra as a special case). 8 In the following all variables and equations are presented for the local stress o only.1. 0"2.. the mean values O"m. N = Lni (summed up for 1 to j). Ye = ke J. 0"3.I where k. O"a. The term hi IH may be replaced by ni IN . total number of steps.2.cr. ND.2.a.i N Blockshaped (3D) nonwelded components For blockshaped (3D) nonwelded components the (local) principal stresses in the directions 1. are to be considered.:: ND. The terms ni IN and hi I H are equivalent. if the stresses o"x.i characteristic (largest) stress amplitude equal to the amplitude in step 1 of the stress spectrum.1. 12 The damage potential is a characteristic for the shape of a stress spectrum.m.'  i=1 H (4. lOin this case an assess~nt ofthe fatigue limit isto be carried out for type I SoN curves if N= N .7) O"I.1. Hi = Lhi (summed up for 1 to i). If the stress cycles show variable amplitudes a stress spectrum is to be determined for every stress component *9. for which i = 1 and O"a = O"a. i = 1 to j. 4. H = Hj = Lhi (summed up for 1 to j) *11.1. 13 A mean stress spectrum. 2.I and hi / H describe the shape of stress spectrum. N.i may be positive.cr. (4. results for a crane hook when lifting variable loads.12) 11 The values N total number ofcycles required and II total num~ ofcycles ofa given spectrum .2. or zero. O"I.1.i are always positive. damage potential.i. total number of cycles corresponding to the required fatigue life (required total number of cycles). .:: NDcr II .i . Chapter 2.4.zd = 0"2 and 0"3.1. step for the smallest amplitudes. O"a. The amplitudes O"a. The respective amplitudes and related mean values are (4.1.1 . respectively.1. 2 and 3. 0"2. n'I H h·I j Vzd mean value in step i.i = O"m· (4. normal 9 In this case anassessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength is tobe carried out.i = Res . (4. O"I. related number of cycles in step i.cr orND.i+1/ O"a. 0"3.i . Blockshaped (3D) welded components For certain applications blockshaped (3D) components may be welded at the surface.20 an assessment ~ the variable amplitude fatigue strength) if N = N < ND. 0"2. the direction 3 to point normally to the surface into the interior of the component. The values kcr = 3 and ~ = 8 are valid for welded components.m.i = 0"a. negative.10) 0" a. I.2 *13. II for Typ I orTyp II SoN curves. The constant amplitude stress spectrum may be regarded in the following as a special case *10. a fluctuating stress spectrum. O"a. results from a static load with dynamic loads superimposed.i > 0. for example.8) 4. for example by a surfacing welds.m.. total number of cycles of a given spectrum.1.cr. The damage potential is defined by *12. .2r an assessment ofthe endurance limit for type II SoN curves if N = N .are different ingeneral. Then the calculation can be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) welded components. The values kcr = 5for normal stress and k't = 8for shear stress are valid for nonwelded components.zd = 0"1 .1. step.:: ND.0 General A stress spectrum describes the stress cycles contained in the stress history of concern *8. amplitude in step i. Figure 2.2 Parameters of the stress spectrum 4. L h· [ O"ai )kcr.1 Mean stress spectrum A constant mean stress applies to all steps of a mean stress spectrum: O"m.1 O"a.3 Blockshaped (3D) components 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses O"m.2 Stress ratio spectrum A constant stress ratio applies to all steps of a stress ratio spectrum: Res.99 4.i s 1.i .i· Caution: Independent of the particular values of the principle stresses the directions 1 and 2 are defined here to be parallel to the free surface.i /O"a.a.3.1. oran assessment for finite life based on the constant amplitude SoN curve (formally similar.a. O"y and 't are of interest only. but written with the appropriate indices they are valid for all other types ofstress as well. II isthe number ofcycles at the fatigue limit ofthe component constant amplitude SoN curve. = Lni (summed up for 1 to i).
Chapter 4. A mean stress spectrum. according to the shape of the standard stress spectrum Sm. is derived for a constant stress ratio Ra .i ' and constant mean stress values Gm.1.1. extrapolated to the required total number of cyclesN. 4.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 4. where 4. or by measurement. (4.6.2. i = 1 to j.4.100 4. a total number of cyclesH = 106 . characteristic (largest) stress amplitude equal to the amplitude in step 1 of the stress spectrum.l If the stress spectrum of a component under consideration is not known. basically defined by a binomial frequency distribution.1.4. by simulation. Bottom: Fluctuating stress spectrum.2 Stress spectra *14. On the other hand the component constant amplitude SN curve.i = Ra. however.i mean values. or in case of high demands on its accuracy.2. In case of existing experiences . Chapter 4. Example: The presented stress spectra are.1. "I" 20'a. all steps of a spectrum. (4. a class of utilization or a damageequivalent stress amplitude. according to Eq. Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum or Ga. standard type stress spectra.Ra). Chapter 5.4. must have or must be converted to that stress ratio Ra. (These apply to an exponent of the component constant amplitude SN curve k.15) Gm. '.10) and Figure 4.16) Standard stress spectra are used to describe the shape of typical stress spectra. and Ra = (Gm. a coefficient p = 1/3 .i =Ra = 0.i . damage potentials v.1 O'roin = 0 6 H=10 From a measured and graphically presented continuous stress spectrum a stepped stress spectrum may be obtained according to Chapter 5.1.1.6.l N or Ga. To allow the proper application of Miner's rule.i / Ga.1 Standard stress spectrum Top: Mean stress spectrum. has different amplitudes Ga.H' = 106 4. .dependent on the component and its application .3. are presented in Figure 4.i / Ga. The determination of the stress spectrum from a stress history has to be realized according to the rainflow cycle counting procedure or in the sense of this procedure.1. In addition.13) Gm. and modified by the spectrum parameter p .1.1. Vcr 14 To derive the steps of a spectrum see chapter 5.4.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match the component constant amplitude SNcurve This chapter mainly applies to stress spectra the steps of which do not have the same stress ratio.i = (1 + Ra) / (l . for example.i / Ga.i = Gm ' and consequently the individual steps have different stress ratios Ra.the determination of the parameters of a stress spectrum may be simplified by applying a standard stress spectrum.i .4 Determination of the parameters of a stress spectrum <Tmin '.0 General <T max 1 20'a.1.i) (4. the parameters of the stress spectrum are to be determined by calculation. Figure 4.3.1.6. = 5 and a total number of cycles H = 106 ).14) or Special case: Fluctuating stress spectrum A constant stress ratio of zero applies to all steps of a fluctuating stress spectrum: Ra. i = 1 to j.2. Midle: Stress ratio spectrum.3.1.1.1. Standard stress spectra having a binomial or an exponential frequency distribution.i) / (Gm.i = 1..l and hi .1 are given in the graphical presentations.i + Ga. (4.Ga. (4. required total number of cycles.
858 0.286 0.869 1 ° 1/6 1/3 1/2 2/3 5/6 1 p 8 0. total number of cycles H = Hj = ~ hi = 106.i ) Application: In case of existing experiences about the shape of the stress spectrum a suitable standard stress spectrum may be applied to assess the variable amplitude fatigue strength in two ways:  Application of the damage potential v.792 0.856 1 0.758 0.750 0.527 0. damage potential Vcr for an exponent k cr = 5 of the component constant amplitude SN curve.856 1 2/3 0.5 1/3 Analytical relationship: For standard stress spectra (p = 1/6.1 Damage potential v.750 0. and v.l ° H1 k.250 0.868 1 k.868 1 =3 0.615 0. Eq.4.1. ).868 1 =8 0. Chapter 4.570 0.908 0.1.713 0.1. modified by the spectrum parameter p.713 0.725 0.400 0.739 0.575 0.125 i/ hi Gal 1/3 2/3 1 0.917 0.452 0.for standard stress spectra having a binomial or exponential frequency distribution.297 0.569 0. welded nonwelded Expon.17) a. binom.155 0.712 0.856 1 0. = 5 0.833 0.950 0.583 0.430 0.399 0.275 0.i / Ga.967 0.3 Standard stress spectra Top: Binomial distribution. 0. for nonwelded and welded components.983 0.101 4.850 0.608 0. and k.425 0.737 0.326 0. number of steps j = 8 . 1/3.i) : a. Spectrum parameter p.1 and hi of the steps i = 1 to j from Figure 4.875 0.1.500 0.615 0.l p=o H·1 2 2 10 12 64 76 340 416 2000 2400 11000 13400 61600 75000 924984 1000000 Figure 4.3. with spectrum parameters p > 5/6) there is ° [ Step i P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ga ° 1 0.430 0.438 0..10) for an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the elementary version of Miner's rule.833 0. = p + (1.573 0.[:a. for normal stress and shear stress (exponents of the constant amplitude SN curve k.708 a.3.125 1.l p (4.739 0. a total number of cycles H = 106 .366 0.817 0.713 0.. Chapter 4.708 2~3 1/6 1/3 1/2 2/3 5/6 1 2 2 16 18 280 298 2720 3018 20000 23000 92000 115000 280000 395000 604982 1000000 k.808 0.958 0.326 0.500 0.3 for assessing the variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the consistent version of Miner's rule.297 0.517 0.917 0. I expon.1.950 0.856 1 shear stress Vt 1 4 aa. 1/2.499 0. Bottom: Exponential distribution (straight line distribution).1.717 0.499 0.196 0.627 0.4. The appropriate standard stress spectrum has to be specified separate from this guideline.625 0.1.275 0. (4.375 0.617 0. 2/3.p) .900 0. .417 1 0.667 0.417 1 0. 0.400 0. binom.1 Characteristic service stresses 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses Table 4.483 0.i aa.267 0.426 0.  Application of the data on Ga.750 0. normal stress p Vcr ka= 5 Step i ° P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 0.875 0.196 0.0 h·I Ga i / Ga I 1 1/3 2/3 1 0.570 0.330 0.743 0.
1 .4. Chapter 16 The determination ofan individual mean stresses crm.i is not possible.i .1. see (4. i. WL cra.eff may be applied.1 Characteristic service stresses 4..2 Class of utilization *15 A class of utilization is an approximately damageequivalent combination of different shapes of stress spectra and of specific figures of the required total numbers of cycles.18) (N / ND.5 Damageequivalent stress amplitude Figure 4.1..eff damageequivalent stress amplitude O"m related mean value. Eq.. The damageequivalent stress amplitude O"a..10). In particular it is defined by the shape of the stress cra.eff is.4. ND CJ • It is damageequivalent to the stress spectrum in O"a..7.1. Chapter 2.. assigned to ND. 1.6.. stress spectra with binomial distribution.1.Q' N Iii' Figure 4.. '" L. Application: In case of existing experiences about the damaging effect of the stress spectrum a damageequivalent stress amplitude O"a.5.4 Spectra corresponding to the same class of utilization Component constant amplitude SN..1. spectrum.3 Damageequivalent stress amplitude The damageequivalent stress amplitude is a constant stress amplitude with an assigned number of cycles equal to the number of cycles at the knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve.1. Figure 4. damage potential. . 17 Eq. n. Characteristic stress amplitude 0"a..1. required total number ofcycles. 4.1. (4.7.1. Vcr .7. class of utilization (a combination of the shape of the stress spectrum and the required total number of cycles).. 4.1. Analytical relationship: See Chapter 5.1.O" j.eff "" k n' ·crak<!I N _ . exponent of the component constant amplitude SN curve ND.9). 1 D. The damageequivalent stress amplitude has to be specified separate of this guideline. Chapter 2. VO" number of cycles at the knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve.18) is based on a critical damage sum DM = 1. Example: Welded component. mean stress *16.cr i=1 ' (4.. It allows an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength to be performed as an assessment of the fatigue limit.1 B O"m characteristic (largest) stress amplitude equal to the amplitude in step 1 of the stress spectrum.1.4. Application: In case of existing experiences about the shape of stress spectrum and the required total number of cycles a FEMclass of loading may be applied to the assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength. number of cycles at the knee point ND cr.102 4.1 Cl'a.4.cr )11ks . 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses question. All three stress spectra are approximately damageequivalent and correspond to the same class of utilization B5. 15 Following DIN 15018. N normal Parameters of the so derived stress spectrum Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum 0"a.4. Figure 4. The appropriate class of utilization has to be specified separate from this guideline. stress.~~ ND. . 0"a. curve WL. see also Chapter 5.. (4. Table 5. component variable amplitude fatigue life curve LL..3. the required total number of cycles and the characteristic (largest) stress amplitude..O" and hence itallows an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength to be performed asan assessment ofthe fatigue limit.3.cJt ~~.4. Analytical relationship: Based on the elementary version of Miner's rule the damageequivalent stress amplitude is obtained as d7 1 j 0"a.
zd = fw.1.1. "Cw.2. however.2.1. Chapter 5.2.0 General Fatigue strength factors for normal stress and for shear stress 4.s = "Cw.2 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength with local stresses according to 4.2. 7 Values derived from an average relation of0.zd. "Cw.2.3. rw. = fW. 5 Weld imperfections occurring with normal production standards are allowable.2.4) Caution: These values are provisional and are to be applied with caution *7 .5 % ispresumed. and shear stress.103 4. "tw~ = Kd:n· KA'"tW s'N'. Chapters 2.w = 13 MPa. Chapter 5."t = 1 .m For the toe and the root of the weld of professionally welded components from aluminum alloys *5 specific values of the fatigue strength apply in analogy to steel independent of the kind of material.3.2.5.1.zd and "tw.4.w = 33 MPa.n =ND. For the toe and the root of the weld of professionally welded components from weldable structural steel *5 specific values of the fatigue strength apply independent of the kind of material.1 Component values according to standards 4.2.2.2. I (4.2 are identical.dog Contents 4.2 Material parameters 4.cr = 5' 106 cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at N ~ ND.zd and "tW.2.zd = aw. but not of aluminum alloys. 4 The values crW. 2 An influence offrequency on the material fatigue strength values is not considered up to now although it might be ofimportance for aluminum alloys. Chapter 4.2.e. aW.36 ofthe FAT classes for aluminum alloys and for structural steel. 108 cycles *6.2 and 4.1.zd.1) aW..5.3) Caution: For other kinds of material (conditionally weldable steel.1.2.1.1 Nonwelded components For nonwelded components the values according to standards of the material fatigue strength for completely reversed normal stress and shear stress *3 and for a number of cycles N = 106 *4 are aW. 4.. R m tensile strength.w = 92 MPa.s = "Cw.2.1.w correspond tothe fatigue limit which is equal tothe endurance limit ofwelded steel and cast iron material aswell as of welded aluminum alloys. Chapter 3. (1.3 4. Aluminum alloys 4.1.cr fatigue strength factor for completely reversed normal stress.w = 37 MPa.n= lOS cycles.3.4.2. That probability should also apply to the values crW. Chapter 5.2. crw zd N. KA crW. Moreover Eq.0 4. Chapter 3. "Cw."t = 1 .2. Kd..5 and Chapter 5. 106 cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at N ~ ND.2 4.1 Nonwelded components 4.3.2. KA .1 4.4. 3 For the tensile strength according to standards.3 Temperature factor General Normal temperature Low temperature Elevated temperature 48 4. lOS cycles *6.6 and Chapter 5.2. 6 The values crw.1. weldable cast iron material) these values are to be considered as provisional and are to be applied with caution.2.N. Figure 4.0.1) applies here too: crw zd = Kd m."t. (4.2. These are for completely reversed normal stress at N ~ ND.0 Page 47 General 4.zd .0. Figure 4. fW. a probability of survival Po = 97.cr .2.2.s ' as well as further characteristics *2 4.3. (4. Rm .cr = 5 .2 Material properties *1 1R42 EN.2) " technological size factor as for the tensile strength."t' aW.2 Welded components 4. .0 General According to this chapter the material fatigue strength values (component values according to standards) are to be determined.2 Welded components For the base material of welded components the material fatigue strength for completely reversed stress are the same as for nonwelded components.2. . semifinished product fatigue strength value according to standards. Rm .s correspond tothe fatigue limit which isequal to the endurance limit of steel and cast iron material.1. aW. Chapter 4.2.s computed from Rm .0 General The determination of the material fatigue strength is different for nonwelded and for welded components.2.2."t fatigue strength factor for completely reversed shear stress.1 Component standards values fw. These are for completely reversed normal stress at N ~ ND.2. Caution: For nonwelded wrought and cast aluminum alloys the fatigue limit is different from the endurance limit associated with N ~ No. These are the material fatigue limit for completely reversed normal stress.zd = aw. " (2.2. Chapter 5. anisotropy factor.w and "tw. Chapter 3. Steel and cast iron materials 4. stainless steel.
T> 100°C: KT.O" Case hardening steel Stainless steel Forging steel Steel other than these GS GGG GT GG Wrought aluminum alloys Cast aluminum alloys 0. Chapter 4. 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength with local stresses For normal temperature the temperature factor is KT.3. . .577 0.11).s. material fatigue strength value for completely reversed normal stress.2.D 8 (4. ~4 Preliminary values. Figure 4. ~2 Bla'nkhardened. T / 0C)2.3 Elevated temperature Table 4. 1.zd. The fatigue strength factor for shear stress. For elevated temperature the fatigue strength values for completely reversed normal stress and shear stress are <JW.2.2.2.2. The influence of the carburization on the component fatigue strength is to be considered by the surface treatment factor.~ 0.2. according tothe v.45 0.D .2 .2.3 in the Chapter 3.D' (10 .2.30 0.65 0.577 0.2' 10 3.~ .D *8.D = 11.s ~1 temperature factor. Kind of material aT. low temperature and elevated temperature are to be distinguished.1: KT. Mises criterion.3.0 General (4.2.2.2 Constant aT.34 0.2.30 ~5 fw.30 ~5 0.1.2.2 Fatigue strength factors for normal stress and for shear stress The fatigue strength factor for completely reversed normal stress. for GS.577 0.up to SOO°C for steel and cast iron materials and up to 200°C for aluminum materials .for agehardening aluminum alloys from 25°C to 50°C. Figure 3. Kind of material fw.D is for fme grain structural steel. Kv. aT.2. (4.40 ~2 0.5) 4.3. 4.O" . (T / °C100).D"'I1O3'T/oC.1.2 Low temperature Temperatures below the values listed above are outside the field of application of this guideline.3 GG 1. Table 4. 't:w.2. <JW.4.2. > 60 DC: (4. for GGG. considers that the material fatigue strength is lower for shear stress than for normal stress.3.2.4' 10.D . GT and GG. and shear stress.the influence of the temperature on the fatigue strength is to be considered. .3.1.for other kinds of steel from 40°C to + 100°C. Also valid for welded components. fw.2 Material parameters 4.30 0.11) . (4.2.zd.D Constant.2. T> 100°C. (T / °C.577 = 1//3. T > 100°C.2.zd 't:W. 10 3.2.1 Normal temperature Normal temperatures are as follows: for fine grain structural steel from 40°C to 60°C.T = KT. ~5 fW.T = KT.100).~ ~1.D'" 1.577 0.2. fw.3. Chapter 4.aT.1.2.9) GGG 1. 1 and 4. is the quotient of the axial fatigue strength value for completely reversed stress divided by the tensile strength. Table 3.1 Fatigue strength factors for completely reversed normal stress.D <JW. Table 4. (4.1.8) KT. ~3 0. material fatigue strength value for completely reversed normal stress.6)  The temperature factor considers that the material fatigue strength for completely reversed stress decreases with increasing temperature.2.40 ~4 0.6 GT 1.1.O" .2.10) for aluminum alloys.577 ~2 ~3 0.2.3 Temperature factor 4.34 0. 't:W.3. Normal temperature.7) to (4.7) for other kinds of steel *7. 4. fw.1 and 4.2.s .50)2. fw.2. Eq. (4.for nonagehardening aluminum alloys from 25°C to 100°e.75 0.2. T KT. 4.2. for cast iron materials from 25°C to + 100°C. Table 4.5. Figure 4.D = 1.O" does not correspond tothe endurance limit for N = co here! In the field of elevated temperatures . T > 50°C: KT.D'" 1.1.1: (4.577 0. Chapter 4.75 fw 0" and fw ~ are valid fora number of cycles N = 106 • fw' ~ is equal 'to f~ .2.D = 1. According to the temperature T the temperature factor KT. Table 4. (T / °C . KT.85 0.2.104 4.2.40 ~4 0.0 Forstainless steel novalues are known up to now.
crW. Rm. Tt..2..TI Rm = KT.1b 200 300 400 Till 'c 500 Figure 4.. (4. as only the temperature factor KT..5 or 4. as in Figure 3.3tK:+".7) to (4.T as well as Rm..5.1 Temperature dependent values of the static strength and of the fatigue strength plotted for comparison.2. For elevated temperature.D· Top: Nonalloyed structural steel.0. Jm = 3. Jrnt = in = 2.Tt . Eq.2. in = 1...2.s. Rp I Rm = n.m.T and 1:W.5 .zd I Rm = 0. Rp.T.....Tt l Rp = KTt.0 .2.2. Jpt = 1.zd = KT....45. and in particular when the mean stress Sm.4 ..105 4..zd..1.T I I Rp I Rp'R m ' jp o4 I~+''r~:."'f. Rm.Tt It p '1 0. i:... crW.Tt 0...p.~=+~fu~1 Rm.65 .Tt Rm.. Fatigue strength value at elevated temperature : crW.T I crW. Bottom: GG. (4.. ..Tt l Rm = KTt.2 Material parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength with local stresses Rm.2 m .:t''':ttr..D is used. Eq..p' Rm. respectively.. The values CYW."""' jmt 0.11) applies to aluminum alloys up to 200°C.+1 o o 100 Z. Rp.. Rp.T 1 % creep limit Rp..T I Rp = KT.zd I Rm = 0.2.0. Rp. Rm ' jpt Creep Strength R..5.1 t====J=::='=bL.2. 300 400 Tin "C 500 Creep$trengthR.Rp.J R p .=1. I R m = 0.. Safety factorsj according to Chapter 3...0.1 o o 100 ZOO 2. High temperature yieldstreilgth Rp. the fatigue strength in terms of the maximum stress may be higher than the static strength so that the assessment is governed by the static strength.T . as in the Figure 3. Rp.T~ 1 R'.m. Jm = 2.T are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the fatigue strength.2. Jp = jmt = 1..30.Tt 5 for t = 10 h..2..T R m 'jm High temperature strength Rm..zd...Tt I Rm 'jmt 0.10) apply to steel and cast iron materials from the indicated temperature T up to 500°C.
2) 1R43 EN.K s KR.3.E ncr.cr3 = ++ ~f 4.3.3.3 4.cr Page 4.3. Chapter 4.3.1.3.3. welded components are to be 4. 2 The KtKf ratio in direction 3 normal to the surface. I)J Ky l Ks ( > 109 110 III 112 The design factors of blockshaped nonwelded components for the principle stresses in the directions 1. .~ = ~ n1. 1 About the purpose ofthe constant Kf see Footnote 1 inChapter 2.~/n~.3) ~ n:. Chapter 4.~ = =_1 n. ".3.7 Roughness factor Surface treatment and coating factor Constant KNL.3.1 {1+ ~f (K~. The design factors of rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components for normal stress and for shear stress are ·1 KWK.1 4.crl = (4.5 4.3 Design parameters (4.1. 2 and 3 (normal to the surface) are *2 KWK. Table 4.3.(_1 1))' 1 x.3.3.~ The design factors of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are A better estimate of K f may be obtained from stress concentration factors Kt.« KWK..3.cr = (4.K s . Kind of material Steel wrought Alalloys GS GGG GT cast Alalloys GG Kf 2. .2.3. Chapter 5.0 4.2 KtK f ratios General Computation of KjK.~ of a substitute structure.12.(_1 1)] n cr.cr and Kt.3.cr2 = 4. .106 4.KNL.1 4.2 Kf K R.5 1.3.(1+2.crx = 4.3.3.E Fatigue classes (FAT) Thickness factor 106 w K : .1: Kf~Kt:cr=Kt.3) since a stress gradient normal tothe surface isnot considered. ratios KjK. ratio for superimposed notches 4.1) ~ n1 {I+ ~f K~.y 107 108 '(1+~.3.3.3. Chapter 4. KR.3.E KwK.O"Y1= ncr.4.0 General 4. '(1+~..0 General Nonwelded and distinguished.KNL. constant for GG. if no better estimate is available.2.0 1. constant.K s .1.o I)) >K y >KS\N~E 0 ( ( K~o I)) KYKS\N~E > KtK f ratio.2.4 4.3. Chapter 4.1 4. Ky surface treatment factor.2. shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) nonwelded components are to be distinguished. Chapter 4.~=Kt..cr 1 K y . (4.6 4.2.3.1.5.x Kf KR.2 1.3.0 4.3. 1 =_1 . is not contained in Eq. ..0 ' KWK.3.dog Content =_1_'(1+_1_.1.3.3.2 Design factors General Nonwelded components Welded components 4.4.(_1_ _ 1)) ncr.3.2 4. roughness factor. KNL..1.0 2.E ' 1)1 ) K y . Ky.3. Ks coating factor.cr. Chapter 4.o I)) >KYKS\N~E K WK.1 Constant K. Kf Table 4.1 Nonwelded components Rodshaped (lD). .3.1 Design factors 4.0 General According to this chapter the design parameters are to be determined in terms of design factors.3 Design parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses KwK. {1+ ~f K~.cr/ncr or Kf~Kf.3.(_1 Kf KR. and the KtK f ratios.
however. 6000 and 7000.E fatigue class. (4. KWK.5. Chapter 4.cr = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL. 3 To some part the FAT values where derived with reference tothe IIW reco~endations (Ref. ) where FAT = 225. KWK.107 4. surface treatment factor. Chapter 4..9) surface treatment factor.E ).1. (4.E). Moreover the design factors are supposed to be v. The design factors for the toe and for the root of a weld are in general to be determined separately. Then the design factors are to be calculated as for shellshaped (2D) welded components.3. Chapter 4.3. KNL. The fatigue classes FAT are in general different for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress.. Rodshaped (lD).ahd. Chapter 4. for all weldable aluminum alloys. In combination with effective notch stresses the thickness factor ft is not applied.E).crK = 1 / (Ko .crK = 225 / (FAT . Numerical values see Footnote 7 on page 103.E (4. Chapter 4. and of a1uminum alloys for normal stress and for shear stress are *6. however.4 *5.3. KwK. 145 / (FAT . for example by surfacing welds. KWK.~ = 52/ (FAT' fi' Ky' Kg).3. Then the design factors are to be calculated as for shellshaped (2D) welded components. For certain applications blockshaped (3D) components may be welded at the surface. /91).4 *5.~ = The design factors of shellshaped (2D) welded components for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are KWK. thickness factor.crx = 225 / (FAT' ft' Ky' KNL. (4. stainless steel) and weldable cast iron materials).7) To some part the FAT values where derived with reference to the IIW recommendations and Eurocode 3 (Ref. KWK. Chapter 4.cr = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ky' Kg). KWK. since the local stresses and the fatigue classes (FAT) may be different. /81). 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses FAT ft Kv Kg KNL.~K = . Kg .3.3.~K = 1/ (Ky' Kg). for example by surfacing welds.5) The design factors of rodshaped (lD) welded components made of ~ steel. Chapter 4.cry = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL. KWK.3. as a rule. KwK. Aluminum alloys The design factors of rodshaped (lD) welded components from aluminum alloys *4 for normal stress and for shear stress are. Chapter 4. Calculation with structural stresses Calculation with effective notch stresses Steel and cast iron material Steel and cast iron material as well as aluminum alloys The design factors of rodshaped (lD) welded components made of steel or of cast iron materials *3 for normal stress and for shear stress are. Weld quality conforming tonormal production standard. The calculation can be carried out with structural stresses or with effective notch stresses. constant for GG.sx = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ky' Kg). ) where FAT = 145.3.~ = 145/ (FAT' ft' Ko ). constant for GG.E). only the effective notch stress in direction of the maximum effective notch stress and the corresponding shear stress are to be considered.3. Moreover the design factors are supposed tobe valid. not only for weldable structural ste~1 but also for other kinds of steel (conditionally weldable steel.6) KwK. coating factor.~ = 145/ (FAT' ft' Ko )..crK = 1/ (Kv Kg' KNL. (4.4) The design factors of shellshaped (2D) welded components for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are KWK. The design factors are as before KWK.5 For certain applications blockshaped (3D) components may be welded at the surface. For shellshaped (2D) welded components. 52 / (FAT' ft' Ky' Ks).3.sy = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ky' Kg).E).6. since the thickness effect isaccounted for by the stress analysis.3.4. that is Ky = I.3. 4 5 As a rule Ky is not relevant for welded components. aluminum alloys accordingly.8) Kv Ks KNL.2 Welded components For the base material of welded components the design factors are to be computed as for nonwelded components.4. /9/. coating factor.3. 6 On and K~K. except the aluminum alloys 5000. (4. principle for steel: KWK.3 Design parameters 4..3. KwK.7.3. of cast iron materials l'' .~K = 1/ !Ky' Kg). shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) welded components are to be distinguished. KwK.
0.2 KtKr ratios GG~V 400 //'~~it// 800 4.1 Computation of KtKr ratios ForG 0" /2..2 0. This restriction concerns blockshaped (3D) components only. Not included in the figure 4. Other kinds of steel 0.3.1 The KtKr ratio for normal stress.3.02 0.70 1.1 KtKr ratios Ocr for normal stress. / / KtKr ratios for normal stress 1.1 *7. Rm ) bo ·MPa .02 for Rm = 130 MPa and smallest value: "cr = 1.:: 350 ~m in R) m bo·MPa The diagram may be extended up to GO".1 rnm" 1 there is n 0" = 1 +G 0" . Wrought aluminum alloys: Threshold values forGO" = 1 mm 1 : largest value:"cr = 1. / / 110. '.80 / / G S:/ : 1/0.3. 100 mm" 1 there is n0" = 1 +~G 0" rnm l O IIV~ .05 3200 GT GG 0.69 for Rm = 95 MPa and smallest value:"cr = 1.108 4..13) (a o 0. Indicated numerical values 1/0.75 V/ /V 1 1.3. Table 4...1: Table 4. For surface hardened components *8 (components with thermal or with chemothermal surface treatment) the KcK r ratios are lower than for non surface hardened components *9 *10...2 100 MP.5+ r for 0.85 800 : 400 //' 800 Stah~ 1200 :V V /{. MPa / 1 10..267 ! 2 5 10 (4..3 Design parameters 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 3 4. mm .5 R) m bo .3.05 0.05 3200 3200 Wrought Alallovs Alallovs 0. . Figure 4. Cast aluminum alloys: Threshold values for: GO" = 1 mm 1 : largest value: "cr = 2. 8 Does not apply to cold rolled or shot peened surfaces./J ~ /I/.65 to 1/0. mm Itl (4.5 mm.18 for Rm = 590 MPa.02 v ~/1/ ~/I//il / 1. 0..3. 1 mm" 1 there is n 0" = 1 +./ I / / / / 400 j {III ill II 1/ Iff.8 .4 4. = 1.ao+ r ao...3.95: Difference of the fatigue limit for completely reversed stress in tensioncompression and in bending.95 /v / // 1~ /II til ~(f. See the summary of special features of the fatigue strength of surface hardened components.3.3. \ I I 1./ .2.05 850 0..01 . bo 1/ ~/10.3.~ G 0" .ao+ ( .2 Constants Kind of material Stainless steel aa 0. is to be computed from the related stress gradient GO" after Eq. .05 0.3.·~ 900 2 1.14) .40 2400 bo Kind of material aa bo Stainless steel.88 for Rm = 330 MPa.13) to (4.3. aa and bo .1.04 V.!~ . ratios nO".2. Threshold values forGO" = 1 mm 1 : largest value.I "/V 7'"" i 1/0. ratio is a stress gradient normal to the direction of stress as shown in Figure 3.1 mm" 1 <00" . ~ [GGG: . allow for an influence on the fatigue strength resulting from the design (contour and size) of a nonwelded component.50 2700 GS GGG 0. n.14 for Rm = 1070 MPa.05 3200 Cast 7 A stress gradient in direction of stress is supposed not to cause any effect. Condition for the application of a KjK.. constants.25 2000 0.2.15). 100 mm 1.. 2/ do = r 0. .27 for Rm = 400 MPa and smallest value: "cr = 1. (4. valid for the material test specimen of the diameter do = 7. for 1 mrrr ! < GO".15) . Figure 4.1 0.01 0..3. Ocr. 10 ( . (4.3. Chapter 5.65' / / 1 10.0 General The KjK.
was not specifically established for hardened surface layers. Ig(2Rm / Rm.16) G...3. Figure 4. ratios of which are n 1 and n2 according to the related stress gradients G I and G 2 .'t2a) . fw" Table 4.3. a forging skin or the skin of castings an average roughness value R.3.cr .3.g.3. = 4. where fw" is the fatigue strength factor for shear stress.2 provided by an FE analysis. ay . Figure 4. itistobe applied with caution. The roughness factors valid for polished surface is KR. 19 (R.24) If the distance of notches is 2 r or above (where r is the larger one of both radii) *13 a superposition is not to be considered.. Rm .cr = 1. In general a stress gradient normal to the direction ofstress and normal tothe surface does exist for the stress components ax . ) in the core material has decreased from its maximum value atthe surface..1. Rm Rm. necessary to compute the KcK r ratios.2.3 Design parameters KtK.3. ratio for superimposed notches For superimposed notches . according to DIN 4768.N.3.. G a and G.3. 19 (Rz / urn) ."s ". being calculated.4. Chapter 3. ()a .4. then na = n. The roughness factors for normal stress. If stress amplitudes below the surface (as in Figure 4.2 1/ r (4.2.a2a). .17) + 2 / d. an approximate computation of the related stress gradients for normal stress and for shear stress is as follows: With the radius r at the reference point (influence of the contour) and the dimension d (influence of a loading in bending or torsion) there is *12 Related stress gradients a la 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 'tla stress amplitudes at the reference point."s "."s a la (4.2 Stress amplitudes at the reference point and below the surface. If no stress gradient exists. constant."aa =_1 . /um) .Kf ratio for a crack origklating i!!.1.. (4. at and cr2 . A stress gradient in direction ofstress isnot considered.cr = KR" = 1. In particular the fatigue strength value aw zd ofthe hardened surface layer must not be derived from that estimate of the tensile strength (aW.3. and for shear stress. KR" = 1.3.3.3 Roughness factor Figure 4.cr R. are to be determined from the stress amplitudes for normal stress. G a=_l. The related stress gradients normal to the direction of stress .109 4. that is"cr.3. 'tla ala.3. If a value of a radius is missing. and for shear stress are *14 (4. 't a .min constant.1. N. according to Eq. average roughness of the surface of the component in um. after having replaced a by 't and the tensile strength Rm by fw" . ".2 * 11.3.aR. (4.3 .a most favorable KjK. Table 4. (1.3. e. ratios for shear stress The KjK.2. 'tla a2a.25) For a rolling skin. aR.zd* fW.a' Rm)· 10 11 For Eq.the core material is lower because the related stress gradient Oa (or 0. KtK. ratio n is to be computed for a related stress gradient G=Gl+ G 2 ' (4."s below.2. Table 4.for example a boring located in a groove. tensile strength. ratio for a crack originating inthe hardened surface layer is lower because the tensile strength Rm ofthe hard surface layer is higher than the tensile strength Rm ofthe core material according tothe material standard. =_1_ .15).. KR. n. G. Table 4.16) the tangent at al.f w" . aR."'t a =_1 '(1. at the reference point and a point below the reference point. is approximately replaced by the secant.3. Figure 4. miJ. is to be computed from the related stress gradient G.."s "..a . 4. = 200 urn applies.3. (4. HV) MPa .N.2. where HV is the Vickers hardness number.26) The Kt .) are not available. .3. however. the partial KK.. t . Ig(2Rm1Rm.1. stress amplitudes in a distance ". G a = 2 / r + 2 / d. 9 The Kt ."s The point below the surface is to be chosen such that the maximum values of Ga and G.13) to (4. (4.Kf The tensile strength of the surface layer may be estimated approximately as Rm = (3.17)(for example r:::o 2/G a ) .3 = I. a fictitious radius may be estimated fromEq.3. fatigue strength factor for shear stress. = I .min ). The roughness factors KRcr or KR" accounts for the influence of the surface roughness on the fatigue strength of the component. As this equation. ". ratio for shear stress. distance between the reference point and the neighboring point below the surface. ". 't2a ".
N.:::: r. Bottom: Cast iron material with skin.16 0.. rather than the surface roughness.2 . so the traditional equations based on aroughness value have tobe accepted for the time being.11 l" ' 0 II 0..3 Roughness factor KR..3. q and Goo.. 1ll·''Y.:X.min .3.. According to the current state of knowledge.Q.GG.3.oo l ~ ~ r. allows for the influence of a treated surface layer on the fatigue strength of the component. Z.3.>:1'\.:::::1 ~ .12 0. because of the higher tensile strength Rm of the hardened surface layer *10.4 (provisional values).6 .0 ..20 0.7 Steel t.. 0.22 Cast aluminum alloys 0.. 12 For shellshaped (2D) componen~ Goo. 0. as well as the ratio of the local stress values on the surface and in the core just below the surface layer..j0 . 0.31) Ks for example after Figure 4. .06 ~ 25 Rm. GS GGG GT GG 0.rlH 600 800 IOOO GS. improved regulations to allow for the surface effect are not yet developed.++~. R ~ "'~ i' 0.I... rxan. r2 " 13 The Ks = 1. :. GT Rut in .l.110 4. Top: Steel.o aR.0 Table 4.8 83 400 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses ! 300 400 in MPa fiir cc 200 (4.. however.N.20 20o Rm.. (4. of the kind of material considered.3 Design parameters 1.3. Figure 4.3.!Goo. the Ko values for cast iron.3. For blockshaped (3D) components Goo..3a 1.3b Rm • 14 For steel and cast iron materials there is For surface hardened components '8 and an expected crack origin at the surface the roughness factor is less favorable (smaller) than for components not surface hardened. O9 l. (4.~. steel with rolling skin for comparison The coating factor Ks allows for the influence of a surface coating on the fatigue strength of a component made of an aluminum alloy. Rm.30) For aluminum alloys with coating there is Ks < 1.MPa fiir • '.29) For aluminum alloys without coating there is Ks = 1.5. 1 r . .4 300 2. Upper and lower limits of the surface treatment factors for steel and cast iron materials are given in Table 4.min inMPa 400 400 400 350 100 ~ Kind of material J. (4. 1.oo Wrought aluminum alloys 0. A definite value is to be determined by the user *15.oo and minimum tensile strength.28) For components with surface treatment ·8 the surface treatment factor depends on whether a crack origin is to be expected at the surface or in the core.oo .. 15 Provided that the procedures ofthe surface treatment can be applied to components ofaluminum alloys.6 0.8 Without a surface treatment there is k y = 1. 14 In particular residual stresses as a result of manufacturing and ofa surface treatment are determining the influence of the surface on the component fatigue limit. ('. Essential factors of influence are the ratio of the fatigue limits of the surface layer and of the core material.4 Constant aR. <I'~~.22 0..4 Surface treatment factor and coating factor The surface treatment factor.3. material may approximately be taken into account. Kv .3.8 "~ 500 700 1000 2000 RminMPa ~r' KR..N.3..5 0.. value 2r is likely to be on the safe side.min inMPa 133 133 3. ry.3.x . 100 4..2 ~ ~ r f" ~'" ~ ~ r. = == e Kind of material aR..y .
III
4.3 Design parameters
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
Ks
Table 4.3.5 Upper and lower limits of the surface
treatment factor for steel and cast iron materials ?1?2.
...,J.
.. r
0.9
0.8
1""__
~._~.j .j WW
I I i I! i
I
.Lu.u
I
II
I
0,7
Surface
treatment
unnotched
components
notched
components
0;1
1,20  2,00
(1,50  2,50)
(1,80)
Mechanical treatment
Cold rolling
1,10  1,25
(1,20  1,40)
Shot peening
1,10  1,20
(1,10  1,30)
Thermal treatment
1,20  1,50
Inductive hardening
(1,30  1,60)
Flamehardening
1,30  1,80
(1,50  2,20)
1,101,50
(1,40  2,50)
1,50  2,50
(1,60  2,80)
Depth of case 0,9 ... 1,5 nun
Surface hardness
51 to 64 HRC
Cast iron materials
Nitriding
1,10 (1,15)
Case hardening
1,1 (1,2)
Cold rolling
1,1 (1,2)
1,1 (1,1)
Shot peening
Inductive hardening,
1,2 (1,3)
Flamehardening
1,3 (1,9)
1,2 (1,5)
1,3 (1,5)
1,1 (1,4)
1,5 (1,6)
1 Concerning typical component values and further kinds of treatments,
see also FVA·worksheet "Schwingfestigkeitssteigerung (increasing the
fatigue strength)".
? 2 The given values typically apply to the component fatigue limit.
Values applying to the variable amplitude fatigue strength are in general
somewhat lower.
The values are valid for specimens of 30 to 40 nun diameter; values in
parenthesis for specimens of 8 to 15 nun diameter.
3 For unnotched or slightly notched components .
'+1;
L.LLL~.!.J.
i. II ,I
!I
I !
rn rr
10
1
100
Thickness of layer in /lID
Figure 4.3.4 Influence of anodic coating on the fatigue
limit (at 106 cycles) of a component from aluminum
alloys as a function of the layer thickness (after Wilson).
Provisional values.
4.3.5 Constant KNL,E
The constant KNL,E accounts for the nonlinear elastic
stress strain behavior of GG when loaded in tensioncompression or bending.
For all kinds of material except for GG there is
KNL,E =
KNL,E
?
?
i I I i 111.1
I·Tit.ii.. t·i~
I
0.2
o.t
o
"1
2.3.•
1,10  1,50
(1,20  2,00)
Carbonitriding
Depth of case 0,2 ... 0,8 nun
Surface hardness
670 to 750 HV 10
L..LJ._l.~.
: r_.t i l.....ll···Tr
!i
I
0."
Surface hardness
700 to 1000 HV 10
Depth of case 0,2 ... 0,8 nun
Surface hardness
670 to 750 HV 10
. ,l_LLU+
i
I , I. II :
. __.4_,__
0,6
Steel
Chemothermal treatments
Nitriding
1,101,15
1,30  2,00
Depth of case 0,1...0,4 nun
(1,15  1,25) (1,90  3,00)
Case hardening
+.llllif
~
?3
I
ffirTf1
for GG after Table 4.3.6.
Table 4.3.6
Kind of
material
KNL,E
?
(4.3.32)
1.
Constant KNL,E
GG
10
I GG
15
1,075
?
1.
I
GG
GG
20
25
1,05
I
GG
GG
30
35
1,025
1 For unnotched or slightly notched components in tensioncompression
1.
KNL,E =
4.3.6 Fatigue class (FAT)
Calculation with structural stresses
The fatigue classes (FAT) for structural stresses allow
for the influence of the toe of a weld on the fatigue
strength *16 (For the root of a weid a fatigue class FAT
for structural stresses is not applicable up to now; only
effective notch stresses are applicable).
16 Fatigue classes for structural stresses do not depend on the of design
of a component, because the influence of design on the fatigue strength is
allowed for when computing structural stresses, see Chapter 5.5 (This is
different from computing nominal stresses, Chapter 2.3.)
112
4.3 Design parameters
A complete catalogue of the fatigue classes of structural
stresses according to the IIWRecommendations is given
in Chapter 5.4.2 *17.
Calculation with effective notch stresses
Effective notch stresses are applicable for the toe and for
the root of a weld and do not require a fatigue classes to
be considered as the fatigue strength values given by Eq.
(4.3.8) or (4.3.9) are those determined for effective
notch stresses (normal stress or shear stress,
respectively) *18.
4.3.7 Thickness factor
When using structural stresses for the calculation of
transversely loaded welds the thickness factor ft
accounts for the influence of the sheet metal thickness
on the fatigue strength *19.
The thickness factor ft is of no effect, however,

if the calculation uses effective notch stresses,
if there is no weld,
if there is no transversely loaded weld, or
if the sheet metal thickness is t < 25 mm.
In these cases the thickness factor is
(4.3.33)
For a transversely loaded weld and a sheet metal
thickness t > 25 mrn the thickness factor is a function of
the sheet metal thickness t (in mrn):
it = (25 mm / t)
n.
(4.3.34)
n after Table 4.3.7.
17 All fatigue classes for structural stresses given in the IIWRecommendations are considered except those for the base material.
Considered are for steel FAT::; 140 for normal stress and FAT:::;; 100 for
shear stress, or for aluminum alloys FAT::; 50 for normal stress and
FAr::; 36 for shear stress.
The calculation for the base material of welded components is to be
carried out as for nonwelded components.
18 The generally applicable fatigue strength values do not depend on the
design of a component nor on the shape of the weld, because all these
influences on the fatigue strength are considered when computing
effective notch stresses. Chapter 5.5 (This is different from computing
nominal stresses or structural stresses, see Chapter 5.5).
19 'Thethickness factor is supposed to be valid for steel, but also for
aluminum alloys
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
Table 4.3.7 Exponent n for the thickness factor.
Type of the welded joint
cruciform joints, transverse Tjoints, plates with
transverse attachments
 as welded
 toe ground
transverse butt welds,
 as welded
butt welds ground flush, base material, longitudinal welds or attachments,  as welded or ground
n
0,3
0,2
0,2
0,1
113
4.4 Component strength,
4.4.1 Fatigue limit for completely reversed stress
4.4 Component strength
1R44 EN.dog
Content
Page
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
aWK
= aW,zd I KwK,cr ,
aW,zd,1:W,s
4.4.0
General
4.4.1
Component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress
4.4.2
4.4.2.0
4.4.2.1
4.4.2.2
4.4.2.3
4.4.2.4
Component fatigue limit
according to mean stress
General
Mean stress factor
Calculation for type of overloading F2
Calculation for type of overloading FI
Calculation for type of overloading F3
Calculation for type of overloading F4
Individual or equivalent mean stress
Residual stress factor
Mean stress sensitivity
113
KWK,cr ...
114
115
116
117
118
4.4.3
Component variable amplitude fatigue
119
strength
4.4.3.0 General
4.4.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor 120
Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum
Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum
Elementary version of Miner's rule
based on the damage potential
Calculation according to the consistent
version of Miner's rule
121
Calculation using a class of utilisation
123
4.4.3.2 Component constant amplitude SN curve
4.4.0 General
According to this chapter the component fatigue
strength
is
to
be
calculated as follows:
 Step 1: component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress in considering the design factor,
Chapter 4.4.1,
 Step 2: component fatigue limit in considering the
mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2,
 Step 3: component variable amplitude fatigue
strength in considering the variable amplitude
fatigue strength factor, Chapter4.4.3.
4.4.1 Component fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress
According to this chapter the component fatigue limit
for completely reversed stress is to be calculated in
considering the design factor.
(4.4.1)
1:WK = 1:w,s I KWK;t ,
material or weld specific fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1
design factor, Chapter 4.3.1
Eq. (4.4.1) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (4.2.1), (4.2.3) or (4.2.4), and on the
design factor, Eq. (4.3.1), (4.3.4), (4.3.6) or (4.3.8). It
applies to nonwelded components for calculations with
local stresses and to welded components both for
calculations with structural stresses or with effective
notch stresses *2.
The component fatigue limits of shellshaped (2D)
components for completely reversed normal stresses in
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
aWK,x = aW,zd I KWK,crx ,
(4.4.2)
awK,y = aW,zd I KWK,cry ,
1:WK = 1:w,s I KwK,s ,
aW,zd, 'tw,s
KwK,crx,...
material or weld specific fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1
design factor, Chapter 4.3.1
Eq. (4.4.2) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (4.2.1), (4.2.3) or (4.2.4), and on the
design factor, Eq. (4.3.2), (4.3.5), (4.3.7) or (4.3.9). It
applies to nonwelded components for calculations with
local stresses and to welded components both for
calculations with structural stresses or with effective
notch stresses.
The component fatigue limits of blockshaped (3D)
components for completely reversed principal stresses in
the directions 1, 2, and 3 are
al,WK = aW,zd l KWK,crl ,
(4.4.3)
a2,WK = aW,zd l KWK,cr2,
a3,WK = aW,zd l KWK,cr3,
aW,zd,1:W,s
K WK, I ...
material or weld specific fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1
design factor, chapter 4.3.1
Eq. (4.4.3) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (4.2.1), and on the design factor,
Eq. (4.3.3). It applies to nonwelded components.
For certain applications blockshaped (3D) components
may be welded at the surface, for example through
surfacing welds. Then the calculation is to be carried
out as for shellshaped (2D) welded components.
Caution: See the comment in the second paragraph of
Chapter 4.4.2.
Rodshaped (lD), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped
(3D) components are to be distinguished.
The component fatigue limits of rodshaped (lD)
components for completely reversed normal stress and
shear stress are *I
1 The component fatigue limits for completely reversed stress are
different for normal stress and for shear stress, and moreover because of
different stress gradients or different weld characteristics depending on the
type of stress.
2 Structural stresses crWK, ... or effective notch stresses crWK,K . The
index K is to be added where appropriate.
r
I
114
4.4 Component strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to
mean stress
1R442 EN.dog
4.4.2.0 General
According to this chapter the amplitude of the
component fatigue limit is to be determined according to
a given mean stress and, where appropriate, in
considering a multiaxial state of stress.
Comment: For nonwelded components of austenitic
steel, or of wrought or cast aluminum alloys the
component fatigue limit is different from the component
endurance limit for N = 00 , Chapter 4.4.3.2.
Observing the specific input values the calculation
applies to nonwelded components (with local stresses)
and to welded components (with structural stresses or
effective notch stresses) *1.
An improved procedure for nonwelded components of
steel to compute the component fatigue limit in the case
of synchronous multiaxial stresses is given in Chapter
5.9.
In combination with a stress spectrum the indicated
stress ratio R, , ... commonly refers to step I of the
stress spectrum (maximum amplitude), Ra,I, ... *2 *3.
The mean stress factor, Figure 4.4.1, allows for the
influence of the mean stress on the fatigue strength.
Without mean stress the mean stress factor is
KAK,cr
= KAK;t = 1.
(4.4.4)
The residual stress factor accounts for the influence of
the residual stress on the fatigue strength. For nonwelded components the residual stress factor for normal
stress and for shear stress is
K E,cr = KE;r
= 1.
(4.4.5)
Rodshaped (10), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped
(3D) components are to be distinguished.
4 assessment of the fatigue strength
with nominal stresses
Rodshaped (ID) components
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit of rodshaped (10) components for normal
stress and for shear stress are
0'AK = KAK,cr . KE,cr . O'WK ,
1:AK
=
KAK,cr, .. ,
KE,cr,
.
O'WK,
.
(4.4.6)
KAK;t . KE,~ . 1:WK ,
mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.1,
residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1.
Eq. (4.4.6) applies' to nonwelded and to welded
components.
Shellshaped (2D) components
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit of shellshaped (2D) components for
normal stress in the directions x and y as well as for
shear stress are
0'AK,x = KAK.,x . KE,cr . O'WK,x ,
= KAK.,y . KE,cr
= KAK.,~ . KE,~
0'AK,y
1:AK
KAK.,x, ...
KE,cr, '"
O'WK,x' .. ,
(4.4.7)
. O'WK,y ,
. 1:WK ,
mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.1,
residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1.
Eq. (4.4.7) applies to nonwelded and to welded
components.
Blockshaped (3D) components
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit of blockshaped (3D) components *4 for
principal stresses in the directions I, 2 and 3 are
O'I,AK = KAK.,crl . KE,cr . O'I,WK ,
O'2,AK
= KAK.,cr2
(4.4.7)
. KE,cr . 0'2, WK ,
O'3,AK = KAK.,cr3 . KE,cr . O'3,WK ,
KAK.,crl , ...
KE,cr,
.
O'I,WK, ..
mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.1,
residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1.
1 Struktural stresses crWK' ... or effective notch stresses crWK.,K . In
the following the missing index K is to be added where appropriate.
2 This definition is necessary only for mean stress spectra, not for
stress ratio spectra or for fluctuating stress spectra, for which the
stress ratios of all steps are identical.
3 For more details see Chapter 5.6.
4 For certain applications blockshaped (3D) components may be
welded at the surface, for example by surfacing welds. Then the
calculation may be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) components.
i
I
115
4.4 Component strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
Figure 4.4.1 Amplitude of the component fatigue
strength as a function of mean stress or stress ratio
(Haigh diagram), described in four fields of mean stress
Example: Normal stress, types of overloading FI and F2.
Given:
Component fatigue strength for completely reversed
4 assessment of the fatigue strength
with nominal stresses
R :=
"
Q
@
(M~=O)
CD
stress crwK ' service stress amplitude cra ,
stress ratio
Derived:
(M~=MQ/3)
Ra ,
(M~=O)
®
Amplitudes of the component fatigue limit oAK
for the types of overloading FI and F2.
Type of overloading
The mean stress factor, KAK,cr or KAK,~, depends on
the type of overloading, Fl to F4. It distinguishes the
way how the stress may increase in the case of a possible
overload in service (not by crash). Therefore it is to be
determined in the sense of a safety of operation in
service, that is for normal stress as follows:
 Type Fl:
the mean stress am remains the same,
 Type F2:
the stress ratio Rcr remains the same,
 Type F3:
the minimum stress amin remains the same,
 Type F4:
the maximum stress a max remains the same.
For shear stress a is to be replaced by L. Intermediate
types of overloading are possible. Dependent on the type
of overloading the amplitude of the component fatigue
limit is different, Figure 4.4.1.
Shear stress: *5:
Field I:
Field II:  1S; R~S; 0
Field III: 0 < R~ < 0,5
Field IV: R~~ 0,5
(not existing),
(lower boundary changed),
(unchanged),
(unchanged).
4.4.2.1 Mean stress factor
The mean stress factor for normal stress, KAK,cr , or
shear stress, KAK,1: , depends on the mean stress and on
the mean stress sensitivity.
Calculation for the type of overloading F2
*6
In case of a possible overload in service the stress ratio
Rcr remains the same.
Normal stress:
Fields of mean stress
In determining the mean stress factor, KAK,cr , ... , four
fields of mean stress are to be distinguished. These
depend on the stress ratio Rcr or on the mean stress am
respectively, see Chapter 4.4.2.2.
Field I:
n, > 1:
KAK,cr=
1/ (1  Ma),
(4.4.9)
(4.4.10)
Normal stress:
Field I: Rcr > I, field of fluctuating compression stress,
where Rcr = + or  00 is the zero compression stress.
Field II: 00 S; Rcr S; 0, where R, < 1 is the field of
alternating compression stress, R, = 1 is the
completely reversed stress, R; > 1 is the field of
alternating tension stress.
Field III: 0 < Rcr < 0,5, field of fluctuating tension stress,
where R, = 0 is the zero tension stress.
Field IV: R,
stress.
~
0,5, field of high fluctuating tension
5 The fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for normal stress shows
increasing amplitudes for R < 1 (compression mean stress). For
negative mean stress the fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for shear
stress is the same as for positive mean stress and symmetrical to ~m = O.
Practically it is restricted to the fields of positive mean stress or a
stress ratio R~ 2: 1 , as the mean stress in shear is always regarded to
be positive, ~m 2: 0 .
6 The type of overloading F2 is described first because it is of primary
practical importance.
(4.4.11)
Using the term crm / cra instead of (1 + Rcr ) / (1  Rcr ) avoids
numerical problems, when the stress ratio becomes Ra =  00.
there is *9 IM cr Normal stress: Field I (4.4. Chapter 4. is replaced by M'[ Calculation for the type of overloading F3 In case of a possible overload in service the minimum stress amin remains the same.2. (KE.18) For sm= crm / (KE.4.2. the same equations are valid if M. Chapter 4. . Chapter 4. Q< n.cr  n.4.4.cr aWK M. mean stress sensitivity.2.4.16) KAK.4.5: Field IV I+M cr /3 K AK. 8 9 In the following the abbreviation sm= crm I accordingly tosmin . I. For positive mean stresses. crWK) < 1 / (l M cr ) there is *9 (4.4.4.cr  Field IV. Chapter 4. residual stress factor. component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress.. mean stress sensitivity.116 4 assessment of the fatigue strength with nominal stresses 4.4.4. mean stress *8.a .Smin.4.2..4. Chapter 4.15) Field III Field III for °< Smin <  2 3 (4. Chapter 4. crWK) < .2.20) . equivalent maximum stress. or R'[ ~ I . mean stress *8. stress ratio *8.. 3+M cr there is (I+M cr ) 2 1+ M cr /3 M cr ·s· I+M cr 3 mm ~~ I+M cr /3 (4..2.12) (4. smax .cr .4 Component strength 4.2. stress amplitude.2.'[ Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted to positive mean stresses ~ tm = Om / (KE.2.2 /(1  Field II for I / (l .zd I+M cr + M cr ) there is (4.14) Field II for . crm 3 ca n.4. Chapter 4.4. Chapter 4.4. equivalent minimum stress. Calculation for the type of overloading Fl Normal stress: In case of a possible overload in service the mean stress am remains the same.4.13) ' am KE. is replaced by M'[ . 2 For smin = crmin / (KE.3. am aa ~ (4. . For positive mean stresses the same equations are valid if Sm is replaced by t m and M.19) (4. K I+M cr M ' I+~.4. 0"Wl() applies .' . 0WK) ~ 1 / (1 + M'[) .2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress Field III.2. Shear stress: For KAK.M cr ) ~ sm s 1 / (l Mcr)~ Smin ~ ° there is 1M cr .17) 0.5: 3+M cr ( 3· 1 + Mcrl (4.4. tm .'[ Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted to positive mean stresses R'[ ~ I . ° Shear stress: For KAK.. cr = Field IV Or equivalent mean stress.2. M.a .4.4. < 0. AK.
For shear stress (4. For shear stress 0" is to be replaced by t .v individual stress amplitude. equivalent minimum stress. minimum stress.v = O"m. O"max = O"m + O"a .:::. component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress. Ra.v = q . . For positive mean stresses.25) maximum stress *8.q) . Chapter 4. 1.4.M cr ' (4. O"min .24) Field IV O"a Ra..27) 0" is to be replaced by r .4. 'tWK ) :::.J3 (lIfc) .v are to be used.29) ' .a .4. KE. the variables O"min.1..smax = .t .4. O"m. that is . 2 I (I + M a ) there is KAK.4.a = 1 I (1 .: . Normal stress: For Smax= CY max I (KE.2.v .:.< Smax < 1+ M cr 3 (I + M cr ? there is O"min. Chapter 4.O"a .4.. . (4.4.21) ' minimum stress *8.O"a .v .v and Ra. CYWK) < 0 there is *9 KAK...117 4. Ra = O"min I O"max .. Chapter 4.NH + (1 . They are derived from an equivalent mean stress O"m.4. O. 3 +M cr for . I+M cr 13 M cr l+M 3. The equivalent mean stress. equivalent maximum stress. 4..v.(1 + M cr)2 O"min (4.M. mean stress sensitivity.2.4.2. mean stress sensitivity.v O"min.J31 (4.4. (4.2.v. 4 assessment of the fatigue strength with nominal stresses Shear stress: For shear stress the type of overloading F4 ('tmax remaining constant) can practically not being realized.4.2.1.4.v + O"a. . smax :::.2. Individual mean stress As a rule the individual mean stress O"m is used to determine O"min . (4. O"max. the same equations are valid if Smin is replaced by tmin and Mcr is replaced by M.v l O"max.4. smax cr KAK. .4.. (4.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress In each case Ra . O"a O"min O"max Ra stress amplitude.v.4. The mean stress may be taken either as the individual mean stress according to type of stress or as an equivalent mean stress from the individual mean stresses of all types of stress. O"max and Ra .2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress K  3+M cr AKa . equivalent stress ratio.1 :::. where normal stresses are combined with shear stresses. Chapter 4. for 0:::. for normal stress is O"m.. Eq.v = O"m.4.2.22) Equivalent mean stress *10.3. Eq. For normal stress there is (4. residual stress factor. ). O"m.4. Chapter 4.26) O"min = O"m . Calculation for the type of overloading F4 In case of a possible overload in service the maximum stress O"max remains the same.:. IM cr 13 In the case "bending and torsion which is typical for numerous applications in machine design. Shear stress: For KAK" Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted to positive mean stresses.4. : .. stress ratio. residual stress factor. O"max..a = .4.4 Component strength 4.v .o IM cr .:.a O"WK M.27). Chapter 4.4.v O"max. (4. 'tm 2: 0 . maximum stress. Chapter 4.28).v = O"min.GH..28) where q= . and O"max are determined by mean stress and stress amplitude.2. component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress.. Chapter 4. tmin = 'tmin I (KE.. and in similar cases.3.4.2.4.4. to be computed as a function of the respective individual mean stress values.23) Field III 2 4 . For normal stress the respective equations are (4.
[ = 1. 10. For welded components of structural steel and of aluminum alloys the residual stress factor is different for high.[ 1. Table 4.x.31) and (4.1.577.3 Residual stress factor The residual stress factor for nonwelded components is KE. (4. Values are given in Table 4.5. Table 4.4.v = f w.30 fw. . moderate or low residual stresses.0 0. M. fw .2.15 0. 4.35 0.4.< shear strength factor.4. = 0. . individual mean stresses.4.26 1.34) M. but independent of the tensile strength R.28) is to be computed only if am.4.32) am..0 . = aM . Table 4. of the base material.4.2.35 0.4. is dependent on the intensity of the residual stress.1.00 1. Tm Individual mean stresses.28) is to be computed only if am~ O.4. applicable in case of normal or elevated temperature. Figure 4. (4.x (or am = am.x ~ 0 (or in reverse).4. applicable in case of normal or elevated temperature.0.. see also Chapter 5.5 Kind of material Wrought aluminum alloys 1.33) . for example by observing a suitable weld sequence. Table 4.0.17 " 10 The equivalent mean stress applies to rodshaped and shellshaped components as indicated.05 0. (4. It is given for normal stress and for shear stress in Table 4. 11 Not applicable to components being cold rolled or shotpeened.13 0 0.04 aM bM Cast aluminum alloys 1. K E. Residual stress high moderate low M KE.< • Ma: ' Shellshaped (2D) components • 1>1 0 0. or if residual stresses may evidentially be excluded.2 1> 1 also stainless steel.< .1 am .2.30 1.1.[ and mean stress sensitivity Mcr . see also Chapter 5.00 1.4 Component strength 4.· M cr fw.4.118 4. Rm / MFa + bM.cr.2.1. (4. For shear stress there is Tm. . . for welded components. Chapter 4.1. but not to blockshaped components. = fw. Eq.30) am.4. = Table 4.35 .4.15 1. Moderate residual stresses are to be assumed in case of welding with residual stress reducing precautions. For nonwelded components the mean stress sensitivity for normal stress and for shear stress.1 0. 1> 1 For Shear Stress there is M.2.2 Constants aM and bM .y = 0 and am. q Material dependent parameter after Table 4.09 0.32). For welded components the mean stress sensitivity for normal stress and for shear stress.cr = KE. Kind of material aM bM Steel 1>1 GS GGG GT GG 0.2.v. describes to what extent the mean stress affects the amplitude of the component fatigue strength.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress 4 assessment of the fatigue strength with nominal stresses High residual stresses are to be assumed in case of welding without residual stress reducing precautions.4.1.5.08 0.< shear fatigue strength factor. It is am = am.1 Residual stress factor KE. Low residual stresses are to be assumed in case of welding with subsequent stressrelief heat treatment. in connection with the mean stress factor.4.35 0.1.2.54 0 0.y). 3 For shellshaped (2D) components the equivalent mean stress after Eq. Table 4. 4. For components that have been surface hardened *11 the mean stress sensitivity is greater because of the tensile strength Rm of the hardened surface is higher than that of components not surface hardened.4 Mean stress sensitivity Rodshaped (ID) components The mean stress sensitivity M. M.1.4.6. For rodshaped (ID) components the equivalent mean stress after Eq. aM.cr Ma K E.. bM constants. (4. or M. (4.4. (4. is fw.
' Rp' Kp.in case of a variable amplitude spectrum .in case of a constant amplitude spectrum . 0. number of cycles N after the component constant amplitude SN curve.1. Highest amplitude in stress spectrum GSK.N 7 O. The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK•a . as well as on the component constant amplitude SN curve.. (4. 4 N. and in addition it depends on the type of stress (normal stress or shear stress). It isN = N + (N' . crAK.1 + crBK.o s 0. Table 1. but the variable amplitude fatigue strength factors are different.1 and the minimum value crrn.0 General 'tBK According to this chapter the amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength is to be derived from the stress spectrum and the component constant amplitude SN curve.4.N) DM. 2 In a simplified manner the variable amplitude fatigue strength can be derived on the basis of a damageequivalent stress amplitude.1.o .4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength 1R443 EN.••2 N.. The calculation for a constant amplitude stress spectrum is a special case of the more general case of calculation for a variable amplitude stress spectrum.3 Restriction of the amplitudes of the variable amplitude fatigue strength. Kp. 1 Required total number of cy~les and required component fatigue life are corresponding denotations.3.1.4. '!Ii Figure 4. shear strength factor.3: crSK ~ 4. Rodshaped (lD). whether .3.4. displayed in terms of the Haighdiagram.4 Component fatigue strength 4.41) variable amplitude fatigue strength factor. lOB 2.o . Figure 4.4...3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength 4. In any case the way of calculation is the same.4. or whether . . Kp.2.. '!Ii. Chapter 1. Table 1. component fatigue limit GAJ(.dog 119 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses Except for GG.. number of cyclesN after the component fatigue life curve for DM < 1 or N' for DM = 1. Rp Observing the specific input values the calculation applies to both nonwelded components (component constant amplitude SN curve model I or model II) and to welded components (component constant amplitude SN curve model I only)..75 f.•.4. (4. to be calculated depends on the stress spectrum.an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength is intended *2. .4. that is on the required total number of cycles *1 and on the shape of the stress spectrum.4.2. K p.5.3.75 Rp .4. and influence of the critical damage sum DM .4. Then the assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength turns out to be an assessment of the fatigue limit.2 Component constant amplitude SN curve.crBK. Rodshaped (ID) components The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum) of rodshaped (lD) components for normal stress and for shear stress are. in relation to the yield strength. c AK .. This formula implies that a number of cycles N 7 N is obtaine~ for spectra of increasing damage potential and a nu~er of cycles N = N for the constant amplitude stress spectrum as N' .4. 'tAK. f. . Component fatigue life curve N Component sN curve 2 It has to be distinguished. plastic notch factors. the following restrictions apply.. . Figure 4.3. Figure 4.1 respectively. Chapter 4. = KsK. Chapter 4.1 . In German the fatigue life curve is usually termed 'Gassner curve' and the constant amplitude SN curve is usually termed' Woehler curve'. KSK. crSK 'tSK = KsK. Chapter 4.42) .2. .o .2. shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) components are to be distinguished. component fatigue limit. or of the maximum value crrn.2.an assessment of the fatigue limit (or endurance limit) or of the fatigue strength for finite life is intended. component fatigue life curve derived by the consistent version of Miner's rule.4. yield strength.2.
.crl .4.crZ . 0.cry. Figure 4.cr . Figure 4. .x. In an even more simplified manner the variable amplitude fatigue strength can be derived on the basis of a damageequivalent stress amplitude. Except for GG.2.n number of cycles at second knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve.2.crx.46) (4.2.cr= (No.BK :<:.3. ko. . Table 1.4. not model II. f n.4.3.4.cr. 'tBK = KBK.5. may be obtained by using the consistent version of Miner's rule. (4..4.2.cr3 .4. component fatigue limit.3.2.2. For effective notch stresses the index K is to be added. O"l.3.cr = (N D.2.n .4. .4.4.3. N required number of cycles.x = KBK.cr = I forN > No. .cr<N:<:.4 Component fatigue strength 4.'t. but applies to other types of stress accordingly. 0"AK. Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite Life: KBK. O"BK. Chapter 4. KBK. Moreover. Kp.BK O"Z. O"BK.4. k.4. the following restrictions apply. O"z. the so derived results approximately correspond to those obtained by the elementary version of Miner's rule.cr slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N > No.BK = KBK. the following restrictions apply. Chapter 4.crl .2.crx· O"AK.o ..4..3.4.4. Figure 4.2. (4. 0.52) N number of cycles of the component constant amplitudeSN curve. 4 For welded components model 1 of the component constant amplitude SN curve is of concern only.4.75 Rp' Kp. 0"3. ka slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N < No. Table 1.BK = KBK.3.cr. Chapter 3.4.crl . Chapter 1.1.3. No. No.4. Kp.BK s 0. *4 (4.44) KBK.75 Rp . 4. O"l..75 Rp . .e. Somewhat more favourable results.43) Assessment ofthe fatigue limit = endurance Limit: variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.crl .cr.2. 120 Component constant amplitude SN curve model I: horizontal for N > No. O"Z. .cr. 'tAK. Chapter 4.cry . O"BK.1. KBK. 2 and 3 are.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength Shellshaped (2D) components The amplitudes of the component variable fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress of shellshaped (2D) components for normal the directions x and y as well as for shear Figure 4. 0"3.4. KBK.4.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor The variable amplitude fatigue strength KBK. (4. 0. Kp.3. (4. yield strength. .x :<:. No. Chapter 1. Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum Rp yield strength.AK .4. Chapter 4.75 Rp .4.crx. Except for GG.crx .2. .51) forN > NO. O"BK. Kp.4.cr for No..crz.4. however.'t .2. Chapter 4.49) (4. Chapter 4.4.cr (nonwelded aluminum alloys) Rp O"l.BK = KBK. 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum amplitude spectrum) stresses in stress are. the classes of utilization can be applied as a simplified method of calculation. .3: O"l.4.x.cr = I forN > No.. Chapter 4.cr number of cycles at knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve.2. Chapter 3.48) Component constant amplitude SN curve model II: sloping for N > Nn. Chapter 4.50) Assessment ofthe fatigue Limit: KBK. .cr/N cr forN:<:.1.No. Blockshaped (3D) components Assessment ofthe endurance Limit: The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum) of blockshaped (3D) components for the principal stresses in the directions I.5.AK.« I N)lIk o..1. No.1. component fatigue limit.3.47) (4.3. Table 4.AK. Chapter 4.2.cr (steel and cast iron material) Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite Life: )lIk KBK.75 f't' R p' Kp... s 0.cr.1. Chapter 4. f't shear strength factor.e.4.cr. plastic notch factors. (4. are to be derived as follows *3: factors 3 The following is written for axial stress.y :<:. Kp.cr.e factor by which the endurance limit is lower than the fatigue limit..2 f't shear strength factor.crz plastic notch factors. 0"3.0. 'tBK :<:.4.. Kp.45) variable amplitude fatigue strength factor. KBK.. O"AK.4.y .« I N) IIk cr for Nz.ll..4. As a rule the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computed by using the elementary version of Miner's rule (not necessary for a constant amplitude stress spectrum).3.2.75 Rp ..e KBK. (4.y = KBK.cr = (N D.AK.cr = f n.
DM = 1.2.4.11•• 1 +f r~·· J:.equired total number of cycles can be replaced by the values hi and H according to the total number ofcycles inthe given standard type spectrum. N = Eni(summed up for I toj).0 1. that the component fatigue limit will decrease asthe damage sum increases. GS.52) is to be used. )k G a.4. until a value N equal to the required total number of cycles N is obtained.i )k J L=' .1 is used to derive the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.4. N Required total number ofcycles according tothe required fatigue life.4.a (Steel and cast iron material) In case of a component constant amplitude SN curve model I ( horizontal for N > No. number of the step in the spectrum.3 Critical damage sum DM. = L: hi (summed up for i = 1 to j). component constant amplitude SN curve according toChapter 4.4.cr is obtained from Eq.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength 121 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses Calculation using the elementary version of Miner's rule based on the damage potential The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computed directly as follows *5.cr [( (v zd1)ka I)D M k a . a .4. Component constant amplitude SN curve model I: horizontal for N > ND. see Chapter 4.4 Component fatigue strength 4. (4. stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum.4. critical damage sum. NO. Table 4.55) 8 hi / H may also be replaced by n.4.3.1 is (4.54) slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N < No.57) a N = {[ Akon 1] . hi [Ga. If for a component constant amplitude SN curve model I (horizontal for N > No. (4. The results from the elementary version ofMiner's rule approach the results from the consistent version of Miner's rule on the safe side. Table 4. Characteristics ofthe stress spectrum according toChapter 4. (4. (4.GG nonwelded components 0.4. (4.56) If for a component constant amplitude SN curve model II (sloping for N > NO. DM + I}' [G AI< .5 1.4. ni number ofcycles instep i according tothe required fatigue life. 10 The consistent version ofMiner's rule was first developed byHaibach.53) that is smaller than the value obtained from Eq.GT. (4:4.1.63) ishere A ele = I / (va) ke .4.s 2': 10 6 .4. The decrease applies tocomponent constant amplitude SN curves model Ias well astomodel IIfor N D.52).4.50) or (4.l 1\r...cr < 1 is obtained from Eq. Figure 4. / N . simplified version allowing for the decrease ofthe fatigue limit became known as the modified version orthe Haibach method ofMiner's rule.a ) a value KBl<.4.4.4. Both for model I and for model II of the component constant amplitude SN curve the elementary version of Miner's rule yields.. Hi = L: hi (summed up for i = 1 to i) *8. then the value to be used is (4. number of cycles at knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve. Chapter 4. related number of cycles in step i.4. i=1 H H h·I j Ga.4. 5 Direct calculation without iteration. Chapter 4.i Ga.53) K BK.l where 9 The consistent version of Miner's rule allows for the fact.1 Ga.3. H = H.53). (4.1. N (4. total number of steps in the spectrum.57) and (4.l . recommended values.a .4.a ) a value KBK. component constant amplitude SN curve model I. Aluminum alloys GGG.4.3.4. The respective value of Ga.a. 6 When computing the d~ge potential (and also in the following equations) the values ni and N according toth.:.a or slope kD. 7 Instead ofAJcon after Eq.4 Elementary version of Miner's rule. total number of cycles of the given spectrum.3. A . then the higher value from Eq.0 Calculation according to the consistent version of Miner's rule *9 *10 Using the consistent version of Miner's rule the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computed iteratively for differing values of Ga. stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum.2.50) or (4. where the damage potential is *6 *7 _ Vcr  l1 a (lg) Figure 4.4. Steel.3 welded components 0.o = (0) the number of cycles N to be computed for a value Sa.2.
it is to be observed that aaj+! = O.1 hi (aa.v+! _ a (4. (4. component fatigue limit.4.m _ a a.4. NI + v~m N2 ' kI ( )k I ( ) kI ( )k I ( ) ZI = a AK a a a.4.64) If a value N = N* > N is obtained then the calculation of N.4.a = aa.58) a )k a In case of a component constant amplitude SN curve model II (sloping for N > No.« number of cycles at knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve.58) to (4.4.4.a < (0) the number of cycles N is first to be computed for a single value aa. (4. a .4.4.65) Akon after Eq. H total number of cycles in the given spectrum. Chapter 4.2.60) a a. is to be continued fqr differing values aa.1 / aAK· 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses N= For the summation of the term Z2. factor by which the endurance limit is lower than the fatigue limit.I ) [ ZI J.4.l Nl = a (4. Table 4.1 the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as KSK.63).61) ..1 > a AK / ( fn.1 fn.4. then the value to be applied is KSK. (4.a .) with (4.v mJ a a a.1 . N D.4.a = 1.a < I is obtained from Eq. i number of the step in the spectrum.I ] ..1 i=1 H N2 = v hi (aa.a (nonwelded aluminum alloys) *11 (4. Hi = L: hi (summed up for I to i) '8. h·I number of cycles in step i. j total number of steps in the spectrum. KSK. Table 4.67) If a value KSK. (4. slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N < No.4. Z2 ] . DM + I}' (aa a AK ) k a. (4. stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum.i L ='  )k a a. Calculation using a damageequivalent stress amplitude When using a damageequivalent stress amplitude the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor for both constant amplitude SN curves model I and model II is KSK.59) a a.4.a is to be determined according to the appropriate class of utilization *12 .a or slope kD. Component constant amplitude SN curve model II: sloping for N > ND. Eq.4.4. Chapter 4.a < fn.4. (4.1 = a AK / (fn.I > a AK .a )1/3/ aAK (4.4. m number i = m of the first step below a AK .a is obtained from Eq.a = fn.62) and the explanations as before. Eq.i L='  i=1 H (4.4.a < kD.66) If a value N = N *:s N is obtained then the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is (4.3. stress amplitude in step 1 of the spectrum.l Z2 = a a.3.4.68) Calculation using a class of utilization The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KSK.a N number of cycles of the component constant amplitude SN curve. It isan approximately damage equivalent combination oftherequired total number ofcycles N with theshape ofa particular standard stress spectrum thefrequency distribution ofwhich is ofbinomial orexponential type modified bya spectrum parameter p. Chapter 4. Chapter 5.60). The computation is to be repeated iteratively for differing values a a.4 Component fatigue strength 4.3.1 the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as (4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength Akon = ( aaI a~ ka .a 122 (4.4.7. From the respective value of aa. DM critical damage sum. rule .3.2.67) then the value to be applied is KSK. = aa.a )1/3 as follows {[ Akon . (4.4.4.65).4. H = Hj = L: hi (summed up for 1 to j). From the respective value of aa.69) 12Class ofutilization asa characteristic ofthestress spectrum. until a value N equal to the required total number of cycles N is obtained.I a a.2.62) aa. It provides a result that corresponds toa calculation based ontheelementary version ofMiner's II Simplified and approximate calculation.a = 1.a )1/3 until a value N equal to the required total number of cycles N is obtained.4. (fn.l N D:" / 3 ([n. (4.63) If a value KSK.4.
are given in Table 4.~ remain unchanged... 123 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses . 13 With reference to IIWRecommendations and Eurocode 3.5.4. Instead of the values of slope kcr = 5 and k. It follows from Chapter 4. The particular number of cycles at the knee point No.4 and Figure 4. Table 4. the values that apply to surface hardened components are kcr = 15 and k.4... For SN curves Model I the fatigue limit crAK and the endurance limit o AK. and the values of slope kcr. see also Chapter 5.6.4 Component fatigue strength 4.3.4.cr . Table 4.4.cr .. while the number of cycles at the knee point No. .4.4. . = 25 .cr and No.4. .4. The component fatigue limit crAK .4.5 and 4.8.2 Component constant amplitude SN curve Component constant amplitude SN curves for nonwelded components (without surface hardening) and for welded components *13 are shown for normal stress and for shear stress in Figure 4. while for SN curves Model II (valid for nonwelded components of austenitic steel or of aluminum alloys) they are different by a factor fII. 14 Not applicable to cold rolled or shotpeened components. A lower boundary of the numbers of cycles is implicitly defined by the maximum stress being limited according to the static strength requirements. is the reference fatigue strength value for calculation.II for N = 00 are identical. = 8 for not surface hardened components.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength 4.4. Chapter 1.2.4. For surface hardened components "14 the slope of the component constant amplitude SN curves is more shallow.4. The component constant amplitude SN curves for welded components are valid for the toe section and for the throat section..
0 13 1Aluminum alloys (SN curve modell II nonwelded 1106 1108 /5 /15 0.4.6 Component constant amplitude SN curve for welded components *13 Top: Bottom: Normal stress a..4.0 13 1 Component IND..T =10 8 N (lg) Figure 4. kO.II = co.:~~~ 2 '10 Steel and cast iron materials.~ O"AK. kO a = co or for N > NO' ~. slope of the component constant amplitude SN curves. k ~ = co NC is the reference number of cycles D corresponding to the characteristic strength values a AC and ~ AC.. and values of flI.< IND.4.<.14 Normal stress a. k O.~ = co horizontal for N > NO.lI. Shear stress t.0 115 16 welded 15 . N (lg) etra bild.4 Number of cycles at the knee point.II ' kO.a.1I = co or for N > N0.5 Component constant amplitude SN curve for nonwelded components *14 Top: Bottom: I+~~ Nc = 6 ND.a.736 and ~AK / ~AC = (Nc / NO." " O"AK f~l!ji.cr and flI.< IflI. kO:~' Nn. cast iron materials and aluminum alloys.1I fl~'~.D =10 6 aifa bild'W13 N (lg) N (lg) !Iifa bildll'JI (Ig) TAK f~""_=~TAK. welded (Model I): horizontal for N > NO a.cr flI.11.II Ik. 10 11.0 110 15 11Aluminum alloys (SN curve model II ) nonwelded 1106 1108 18 125 10. aAK / aAC = (Nc / NO...II Ik.cr. Aluminum alloys and austenitic steel (Model II): sloping for N > NO a.0 11086 118 1welded 11.<' Normal stress Component Shear stress IND. IkD. Steel. 106 1welded 1. except austenitic steel.. IkD.~.0 1 (lg) 1 O"AC 1 . .. kO. (Model I): horizontal for N > NO.. ~.1I f'~: (JAK I+~ ~~='T':...4.< Steel and cast iron materials (SN curve model I ) nonwelded 11.4 Component fatigue strength 4.~) 11kr = 0.83 8 welded 110 15 1.457.a = co or for N > NO.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength 124 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses Table 4.cr Steel and cast iron materials (SN curve model I ) 6 nonwelded 110 1.a ) 11ko = 0.~~ ND. ~. Shear stress t. or for N > NO:~.4.T =10 6 Bifa bildwl7 TAK Figure 4.74 15 .a.cr IND. kO a.
1.3.5.5.5 Safety factors *1 IR25 EN .35 1. ? 2 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring.1 an additional partial safety factor = 1.5.5.1 Ductile cast iron materials 69 Cast iron materials with an elongation A5 ~ 12.3.7 castings subject to nondestructive testing ?4 4.1.5 %).5.9 I I 1.2.2. for which it is assumed that a higher quality ofthecastings isobviously guaranteed when testing.1 Safety factors for steel *3 (not for GS) and for ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A~ 12.7 I I 1. .9 1.5.8 1.2. 2 Statistical confidence S = 50 % . regular inspection I I 1.0 General According to this chapter the safety factors are to be determined.5.2 Cast iron materials General Ductile cast iron materials Nonductile cast iron materials 4.docl Contents Page 4. that is depending on the possibilities of inspection and on the consequences of failure.5.1 an additional partial safety factor = 1.5. Compared to Table 4.5.5 are identical.5.2. 4. A safety factor jF = 1. 4 In mechanical engineering cast components are of standard quality for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jF = 1. Table 4.3.125 4.2 Wrought aluminum alloys General Ductile wrought aluminum alloys Nonductile wrought aluminum alloys 4.5 % are considered as ductile cast iron materials.2.5 Safety factors 4. regular inspection no yes?3 I I 2.12.5.3 4.5. have to meet special demands on qualification and checks of the production process.4 Cast aluminum alloys 4. This value may be reduced under favorable conditions. Consequences of failure moderate ?1 severe jo regular inspections no yes ?3 I I no yes?2 1.0 General Ductile and nonductile cast iron materials are to be distinguished. Those high quality cast components.5.5 % *2.1. Reduction by about 15 %. jp ?3 Regular inspection in the senseof damage monitoring.4 is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects in castings.5.2 Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials (GS. ?4 Compared to Table 4.5 %).5.0 4.5.1) 1. 4. Reduction by about10 %. GGG) (A5~ 12.0 General 4.1 4. Consequences of failure Severe moderate? 1 I castings not subject to nondestructive testing ?2 The safety factors apply both to nonwelded and welded components.1 they are higher because of an additional partial safety factor jp that accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in castings *4.5.1 Steel The basic safety factor concerning the fatigue strength is Jo = (4.2 ? 1 Moderate consequences of failure of a less important component in the sense of "non catastrophic" effects of a failure.65 1.1 Steel 4. for example because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statical indeterminate system.5 1. 1 Chapters 4.1 1.5 and2.5. ?2 Compared to Table 4.0 does not seempossible up to now.25 is introduced. The factor is different for severe or moderate consequences of failure and moreover for castings that have been subject to nondestructive testing or have not.2 Cast iron materials 4.3 1.5.5. Reduction by about 10 %. jF Table 4.5. Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given in Table 4.0 may be applied to high quality cast components in the aircraft industry however.5.5. as well as on the extent of quality and product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their mechanical properties.2. in particular all types of GS and some types of GGG. 3 Steel is always considered as a ductile material. The safety factors are valid under the condition that the design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and that the material properties correspond to an average Table 4.5.2 4.0 4.5.5 Total safety factor 68 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 4.1 4.5 ? 1 See footnote? I of Table4.5. Values of elongation see Table 5. I Jo probability of survival of Po = 97.
5. Eq.2) AS Elongation.5 + 0. to be replaced by A3 for GT.1.12 or 5. defined as a function of the elongation As or A3 .22 to 5.5. Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation A < 12.1 are to be increased by adding a value Aj .5.5. Table 4. For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety factors from Table 4. All safety factors from Table 4.1.0 (4.5 % are considered as ductile materials.5 %) are considered as nonductile materials.5 after Eq.5 = 2.2).1 or 4.4 Cast aluminum alloys Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as nonductile materials. _ In Jges~ .5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys 4.1. S For example the safety factor for GG is at least Jn = (Jn 1.5. Safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are the same as for steel according to Table 4.2. A3 in % .30.5.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value 4i .1 *s: ~j = 0.5 20 As. T.1.5. GG 0. For nonductile cast iron materials the safety factors from Table 4. 1. Eq.3.5. a "total safety factor" .5 % (for GT A3 < 12. 4. safety factor.38.3. 4.2 are to be increased by adding a value ~j.13.5 Total safety factor GT ~j Similar to an assessment of the component static strength.2.1 Value ~j to be added to the safety factor Jn .3.5.2. 4. temperature factor.O Figure 4. in particular some types of GGG as well as all types of GT and GG.5.1.2 Nonductile wrought aluminum alloy Cast iron materials with an elongation As < 12. (4.2).0 General Ductile and nonductile wrought aluminum alloys are to be distinguished.lges is to be derived: o 10 12.30.r~1 4.5 Safety factors 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 4.4) 1 I .5.5 ~.1.GGG.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation A~ 12. (4.5. Values of elongation see Table 5. (4. (4.2) for AS = 0). Values of elongation see Table 5. Chapter 3.2. The value for GG is As = O.5.5.1. Figure 4.126 4.3. Values of elongation see Table 5.5.22 to 5. respectively.5.5. Chapter 4. 31 to 5. j = 0.3) = 1. (4.5 ~ As /50%.5. Values of elongation for GGG and GT see Table 5.5.5.1.5.5 from Table 4.5.5 % are considered as nonductile materials.2 Nonductile cast iron materials 4.
5. For nonproportional stresses the Eq.6. or Ga .6.3. but using the respective local stresses and fatigue classes FAT as these are in general different for the toe and the root of a weld.1 4. . In each case the calculation is the same when using the appropriate variable amplitude fatigue strength factors KBK. or an assessment of the fatigue limit or of the endurance limit are to be distinguished.3. The procedure of assessment applies to both nonwelded and welded components.9) and (4. (4.1.6. For welded components the assessment is to be carried out with structural stresses or effective notch stresses *2. in case of a constant amplitude spectrum. synchronous and nonproportional multiaxial stresses are to be distinguished.0. For example the extreme stresses from bending and shear will . both the individual types of stress and the combined types of stress are to be considered as described below *5.0 General 127 4.6.6.6.. shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) components are to be distinguished. (4. (4.2 4. and when taking G a. so that different reference points W are to be considered.6. An assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength...6. Ga"eff.4.9.6 Assessment Contents 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 1R46 EN.6.6.5 and Figure 0.. ..1. They can be both nonwelded or welded. . Degree of utilization The assessment is to be carried out by determining the degree of utilization of the component fatigue strength.3.. GBK . . Superposition For proportional or synchronous stress components of same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter 4.1 4. and in particular if these may occur separately. Chapter 0.4). 3 The reference point is the critical point of the considered component that observes the highest degree of utilization.1) (4. .9.6. . They are applicable for proportional stresses and approximately applicable for synchronous stresses. If different types of stress like normal stress and shear stress act simultaneously and if the resulting stress is multiaxial.2.4. (4.6. divided by the total safety factor jges. In the general context of the present Chapter the degree of utilization is the quotient of the (local) characteristic stress amplitude Ga.2 Rodshaped (lD) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress 128 4. an improved procedure for nonwelded components is given in Chapter 5.6. (4.o . divided by the allowable (local) stress amplitude of the component fatigue strength at the reference point *3.6.9) and (4. . Assessments are generally to be carried out separately for the toe and for the root of a weld.9) and (4. characteristic constant amplitude stress for which the required number of cycles is N..3.6. The degree of utilization is always a positive value *4.4)..10. In general the assessments for the individual types of stress and for the combined types of stress are to be carried out separately *1. (4. . Ga .0 General According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses is to be carried out.6.1 4.1 4. .6 Assessment 4.1. Chapter 0...6. They are to be carried out in the same way.14) is that of a strength hypothesis from a materialmechanics point of view.2 Shellshaped (2D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress 4.as a rule . . an approximate procedure applicable for nonproportional stresses is proposed in Chapter 5.14) have the character of an empirical interaction formula. As a rule bending will be more important.14) are not suitable.6.3. .2) in case of a damageequivalent stress amplitude.3. l = Ga. (4. .6.eff 4. damageequivalent stress amplitude. Chapter 2.doq Page 4.2.6. .3 4.l = G a . The allowable stress amplitude is the quotient of the component variable amplitude 1 It is essential to examine the degree of utilization not only of the combined types of stress but also of the individual types of stress in general. Kinds of component Rodshaped (10). Only under special conditions of proportional stresses the character of Eq.127 4. 2 The additional index K marking effective notch stresses is to be added to the stress symbols where appropriate. 5 Proportional.l> .2 Blockshaped (3D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress 129 fatigue strength after Chapter 4.occur at different points of the crosssection.. an assessment of the constant amplitude fatigue strength for finite life. 4 As the degree of utilization is the quotient of two amplitude which always are positive. More general the Eq.6.4).6..
6.14) is a combination ofthe normal stress criterion (NH) and the v.6. related amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength.).6. (4. (4.7) shear fatigue strength factor.y.6.q) .6. For instance q = 0 forsteel sothat only thev. I = 0' BK.x .264 GG 0.85 0....5.4.1) or (4.1 Individual types of stress The degrees of utilization of shellshaped (2D) components for variable amplitude types of stress like normal stress in the directions x and y as well as shear are aSK.2. 6 Eq. characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress amplitude in the spectrum) according to type of stress.544 Steel.3) f w< q ~1 A GT.x. aoH s 1.1.759 Exceptions: For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation < 12. Chapter 4. Otherwise there is.5. aoH~ 1.1 Rodshaped (ID) components 4. (4.6. (4. .2 Combined types of stress The degree of utilization of shellshaped components for combined types of stresses is *6 aSK.y= aSK.6.. .x + sa.x.5..6) Sa= aSK.. Chapter 4.10) aNH =1{lsa.2). For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12.1. related amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength. ta = aSK.4.Mises criterion areof partial influence. (4. For surface hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be applied..crx.1.6.264 for GGG so that both the normal stress criterion and thev..8) j erf j erf (4.6.x J 2 +Sa. while q = 0.1 . Chapter 4. . 4.6. x.< according to Eq. Mises criterion is of effect. for surface hardened or welded components q = I.< ~1 4.9) (4.4).1. GGG wrought Al alloys 0..4) where aNH =1 {Isal + aoH ~s. Depending on the ductility ofthematerial thecombination is controlled bya parameter q as a function of fw. 2 2 aoH = sa. jges total safety factor.1.6.crx 0'. (4. (4.6.. ~ 1.6. Mises criterion (GH). 4.] aSK.cry = 0' BK.2 Shellshaped (2D) components O"a. . .1 Values of q as dependent on f w .x 4.y)2 +4.1 or 4.1.6. ..1. Chapter 4.cr .6. +t.6. + 4· t..6. .t.5 is to be applied..y + t a ' sa.3)."t .cr. aSK.1) or (4.9) and (4.sa.6.x Sa. cast Al alloys 0. (4.3.6.1.7).6.577 0.2. ). Table 4.128 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 4.6 Assessment Table 4.11) sa. sa. Table 4.5. (4.5 .12) or (4. aSK.6. Chapter 4.1.75 0.6.1.6.crv = q .y / ~ 1.1.3.crx . (4.y .6.6.6. aNH + (l .q) .2). characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress amplitude in the spectrum) according to type of stress.yl+~(Sa.8) .6.6. where (2D) (4.5) =Js.65 0 0.6. degrees of utilization after Eq. 0"a.1 Individual types of stress The degrees of utilization of rodshaped (ID) components for variable amplitude types of stress like normal stress and shear stress are ~ I.2 Combined types of stress The degree of utilization of rodshaped components for combined types of stress is *6 aSK. Chapter 4.5 %) q = 0. O"SK.x = aSK. (4.'t J3 (l/fw"t) J3 1 (4.1 and Eq.5 %) q = 0. (4.Sv = q' aNH + (l . q fw. 4. (ID) / O'.6.17) and Table 4.cry . degrees of utilization after Eq. jges total safety factor. (4...6. O"SK.2 and Eq.
Table 4. If they act always proportional or synchronous 1800 out of phase.16) with the same (positive) signs. .15) 2 Sa. (4. If the individual types of stress act nonproportional.10 is to be applied instead.6. (4. Then assessment can becarried out as for shellshaped (2D) welded components.16) with opposite signs *12.6.a3 are to be inserted in Eq.d Sa. If they act always proportional or synchronous 1800 out of phase..3 Blockshaped (3D) components ~ 1.3. Chapter 4.6.2 (4.31) .11) with the same (positive) signs. q f w" (4. (4.4. (4. ay and. (4. 4. ~ 1.3 Sa.21 Sa. Chapter 4. (4.6.cry are to be inserted in Eq.11) are not applicable and the procedure proposed in Chapter 5. *8 4. Sa.6.5.5 %) q = 0. If the individual principle stresses act nonproportional (that is in a nonconstant direction). 9 MAX means themaximum ofthevalues inparenthesis to bevalid..2) +(Sa.2 Combined types of stresses J3(l/fw.al . a2 and a3 always act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of utilization aSK. Tab.10 is to be applied instead. Table 4. areofinterest only. (4. however. the Eq..16) are not applicable and the procedure proposed in Chapter 5.6. aNH = MAX (Isa. .12) J3 1 shear fatigue strength factor.6. that is neither proportional nor synchronous. 7 For example normal stresses iii thedirections x and ythatresult from the same single external load affecting the component.) aSK. jges total safety factor. .6.I = aSK. 4. For surface hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be applied.3) +(Sa.14) . aSK.I .6. q fw" The degrees of utilization of blockshaped (3D) components for the principle stresses in the directions 1. the degrees of utilization aSK.a3 = (J3 BK / jerf (4.SK.16) Sa.a.1) or (4. Otherwise there is.6 Assessment For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12.a3 are to be inserted in Eq.14) to (4. aNH + (1 . the Eq.ax and aSK.2).3 and Eq. al.6.al .l) 2) .2.1.I aoH = 1/ 2 "2\(Sa. 8 Sometimes blockshaped (3D) components may be welded at the surface.2.1 Rules of signs: If the normal stresses ax and a y always act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of utilization aSK.3. aSK. (4.11) with opposite signs *7 . if the stresses ax.1 Sa.6.6..q) .l . Rules of signs: If the principle stresses al .6..cry are to be inserted in Eq. degrees of utilization after Eq. the respective degrees of utilization aSK.a2 and aSK. al.a2 and aSK.5 %) q = 0. (4. 2 and 3 are = q . Otherwise there is.a2 = (J 2.a2 . however. aGH~ 1.9) to (4.1 or 4.6. for example by surfacing welds. For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12. Table 4. (4.6.0.3.6. related amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength.3 = aSK.5 is to be applied.13).1 The degree of utilization of blockshaped (3D) components for combined types of stresses is *6 *9 aSK.ax and aSK.1 aSK. characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress amplitude in the spectrum) ofthe particular principle stress.1 Individual types of stress (J l.sv J3(l/fw.6.1. ~ 1.0. For surface hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to' be applied.aI .1.2 = aSK. aSK.al = 4.6.a3 .129 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 4.6.al . Chapter 4. Sa.1.5 is to be applied.6.5.BK / j erf (J 3.1 (J 2.a.6.6.17) J3 1 shear fatigue strength factor.13) (J I BK / j erf aSK.1..) (4.6.
130 4.6 Assessment 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses .
is achieved at a number of cycles N = ND.3. (2.1) (5. fILo.22 .o.2.5).o Fatigue strength factor for completely reversed normal stress. Material fatigue strength for completely reversed bending stress c W. (2.. It is lower than crW. . an average probability of survival PO = 97.4.N or Rm are the minimum value.4..2 or 4.0 5.. etc.zd. Table 2.2. (2.g.74 (kD. Tab. M.zd. component values and component properties according standards are to be distinguished.= 0.zd instead of crW. ... All following equations are supposed to be valid for a material test specimen of the diameter do = 7.II. the guaranteed value or the lower boundary of the specified range of the tensile strength.b = K(b). Material fatigue strength for completely reversed shear stress Cw.3.b = ncr(do) . .. nonalloyed structural steel) and types of material within the kind ofmaterial (e.1).. "'. crW.2. The minimum value or the guaranteed value ofthe yield strength are Rp. Eq.II. The data given are not to be used for selecting the material in design since this would require additional material properties to be considered that are not contained in the tables below.. For aluminum alloys (constant amplitude SN curve model II.N ' "" crW. .t Shear fatigue strength factor. 4 Rp stands both for the yield stress R. Rm= = 0.3.g.(2.. (2.fw.zd.3. . I) (crW.zd or cw.2 . (2. For steel and cast iron materials (constant amplitude SN curve modell. (5. *5. (5. while the endurance limit crW.1 Material tables Contents 5.zd / Sa.b ) . Example:  fw. .zd.. is the fatigue limit = endurance limit.4.267 mrn I ). ncr(r) = I . Rm. = 108 .1 Material tables 5 Appendices IRT51 EN. Material fatigue strength for zerotension axial stress (amplitude) crSch.) *6.14) 5.2 Page General Material tables for steel and cast iron materials Material tables for for aluminum alloys 131 132 132/ 142 5 Appendices fw.3) for bending (and Eq.2. Rm . (2. Eq.1.4.N . The newest versions of the standards are decisive. Material fatigue strength for completely reversed normal stress crW. 2.o. .2.zd .14) (ncr(d) with d = do = 7.t = 10 .1.. Properties according to standards.4 and Table 2. in the case of cast iron materials and cast aluminum alloys for the test piece. of the semifinished product indicated. or for zerotension loading.2. (5.5 mrn for the material in question..o.1) (KWK..o..Eq. apply to a number of cycles N = ND.5) The tables *I contain mechanical properties according to standards Rm. (5. *3 *4.5) follows from Eq.b = I .N or R. (5..1 5.Eq.4.). . respectively. zd .2) fW. 5 Eq. .zd = I. derived therefrom. 3.4) crW.2. Material fatigue strength for completely reversed torsional stress CW. is the fatigue limit..N .1).zd = fILo.t = nldo)' cw. Rm ' Rp .s.Eq.= 0.s = fW.Eq. Eq. .= ND. Rm .zd. K(b = 11 ncr(d) ).= (108/106 ) 1/15 = 0. Mean stress sensitivity. 3 For the values Rm. In the case of wrought aluminum alloys the tables give component values Rm= Rm.II. 2.131 5.2.5 mm.t = 25 for shear stress). 6 .14) *5.t : The material fatigue strength values in the tables for completely reversed loading. see page 3 "Terms of liability".30 (Tab.5 mm. 10) (Kt..1.zd / (1 + Mo..83 (kD. dog 5.1.74 .zd. 2 Ifdifferent dimensions ofa semifinished product are given.74.N ' Rp.= 0.zd = crW.fatigue limit crW.s by a factor fII. .1.. (5.1. St372) are distinguished. 0. crSch zd N ' .4 and Table 2.. as explained in the Chapters 1.o. crW. fw.17) (Ocr (do) = 2/ do = 0. 2.3.5 mm independent of the real dimension of the semifinished product or of the raw casting (index N left out.g.(2. with do = 7.N.3) with do = 7. crW.34) (5. Rm = 0.1) (5. Figure 2..1) I Kinds of material (e.2 proofstress RpO. e.4) for torsion in analogy) results from a combination ofthe following equations: .o= 15 for normal stress) and _ fILt = (108/106 ) 1/25 = 0. (2.30 . They apply in the case of steel to the smallest dimension of a semifinished product *2.1)6to (5.5 % is supposed that should also apply to the further values crW. Figure 2.t' crW.45 Rm .o.2.zd.3. Example: Quenched and tempered steel. Eq.2.b in the meaning ofa component value SWK.s = ND.Eq.zd. . Comment: The values crw..N. 0 _ fILo. orthe 0. .4) nldo) KtKfratio..4.10) with Rzrl = 0 orSm. . (2. are intended for information only. Rm = 0.45 (Tab.4.4) crW.zd = fw.N . no(do) KjKj ratio.zd = fw. Eq. II. because they can be computed as described below and are not necessary for the assessment therefore. Endurance limit crW. or fn. (2.0 General No responsibility can be taken for the mechanical material properties indicated in the material tables below.
0117 1.2.0569 1.2 Re.0045 1. for cast aluminum alloys according to the type of material and its condition..zd.0036 1. contain material properties according to standards.N O"W.1.0570 1.N .b. R. nodular cast iron (GGG). .. after DIN 17 100 S185 S235JR S235JRGI S235JRGlC S235JRG2 S235JRG2C S235JO S235JOC S235J2G3 S235J2G4 S235J2G3C S275JR S275JRC S275JO S275JOC S275J2G3 S275J2G4 S275J2G3C S355JR S355JO S355JOC S355J2G3 S355J2G4 S355J2G3C S355K2G3 S355K2G4 E295 E335 E360 St 33 St 372 USt 372 UQSt 372 RSt 372 RQSt 372 St 373 U QSt 373 U St 373 N QSt 373N St 442 QSt 442 St 443 U QSt 443 U St 443 N QSt 443N St 523 U QSt 523 U St 523 N QSt 523 N St 502 St 602 St 702 Material No. from page 143 on. Rrn•N . Table 5..N < 0.zd..1 Material tables for steel and cast iron materials 5.0038 1.21 on page 142 gives a survey of the aluminum materials.zd.0044 1.N O"Sch. however.0121 1. O"W. Rm. 'tW. for the following kinds of material: for rolled steel (nonalloyed structural steel.1. quenched and tempered steel.1 Material tables 5 Appendices 5. .ll .1.and according to Chapter 1. . O"W.2.0553 1.0577 1.. The fatigue limit values endurance limit as well. . malleable cast iron (GT) and cast iron with lamellar graphite (GG)).0595 1.N / Rrn.0145 1.0143 1.0141 1.0114 1.0554 1. case hardening steel.0140 1. are different from those of the endurance limit. contain mechanical properties according to standards. from which .zd . from page 172 on. .1..N 310 360 185 235 140 160 138 158 155 180 80 95 90 105 430 275 195 185 215 110 125 510 355 230 215 255 130 150 490 590 690 295 335 360 220 265 310 205 240 270 245 290 340 125 155 180 145 170 200 <> 1 Effective Diameter del(N = 40 mm.31 to 5.0037 1.N s.0050 1.2.0122 1..30. correspond to the Table 5. contain component properties according to standards.. for forging steel and for cast iron materials (cast steel.38.zd.1 ..1 to 5. nitriding steel and stainless steel).0128 1.N 'tW.0115 1.1 or 3.0596 1. for wrought aluminum alloys according to the type of material and its condition.1. . .14.0060 1. The tables 5.1 or 3..2 Material tables for aluminum alloys The tables 5.0144 1. The tables 5. weldable fine grain structural steel. from page 132 on.0035 1.1.0070 c.22 to 5.. From these and according to Chapter 1..N.1.N .1. heat treatable steel castings. 1.1. .N <>2 O"W. The fatigue limit values O"W.I..N.1.1 Mechanical properties in MPa for nonalloy structural steels.2.s..1.the component properties according to standards. respectively. c.132 5.0118 1.75 for all types ofmatenal hsted. see page 131. . Rm . They are valid for the indicated dimensions. . are to be computed under observation of the technological size factor according to the width of the raw casting. after DIN EN 10 025 (19940300) Type of material Type of material. Rm.1 the component properties according to standards Rrn are to be computed under observation of the technological size factor according to the diameter or width of the semifinished product or of the raw casting.0116 1.
N 1:W.b. 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1. 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.N ()W.30 355 205 190 225 115 130 0.28 260 135 150 0.31 0.8903 1.3 Mechanical properties in MFa for weldable fine grain structural steels in the normalized condition.0562 360 390 440 490 255 285 315 355 160 175 200 220 160 170 190 205 180 195 220 245 95 100 115 125 105 115 130 145 0.30 0.26 0.00 0.24 0.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.23 0.0545 1.zd.p ~3 ~3 110 0.8905 1.8900 1.25 0.N ~2 ad.t.8827 1. .2.34 0.30 0.N ()Sch.28 0. Table 5.0461 1.8902 1.0505 1.0486 1. after DIN 17102 (19831000) ~1.rn ad.N / ~N > 0.75 from S 355 Non.75 from StE 380 on.30 StE StE StE StE 380 420 460 500 1.1.28 500 420 225 210 250 130 145 0.75 up to and including StE 355.2.2.zd. for the yield strength deff. after DIN EN 10 113 (19930400) c.30 0.8836 1.33 0.1.N Re.30 225 275 140 160 0.22 Re.N 1:W.N ~ 2 Re.75 up to and including S 275 NL.8902 1.8818 1.41 0.N ~2 I Effective Diameter for the tensile strength deff.N = 30 mm. = 100 mm.s.8834 1.22 0.8838 370 275 165 160 185 95 470 355 210 200 235 520 420 235 215 550 460 245 360 275 450 ad.t. < 0.25 0.rn ad.23 0.N = 40 mm.30 120 140 0.22 160 158 180 95 105 0.zd.0490 1. Type of material Material No.133 5.8825 1.N 1:W.2 Mechanical properties in MFa for weldable fine grain structural steels in the normalized condition.00 0.p ~3 ~3 StE StE StE StE 255 285 315 355 1.N ~ 2 Re.N ()W.s.8901 1.N ()W.N 1. Type of material S 275 N S 275 NL S 355 N S 355 NL S 420N S 420 NL S460N S 460 NL S275M S 275 ML S 355M S 355 ML S420M S 420 ML S460M S 460 ML ~ Rrn.N / ~N > 0.zd.N ()W.8912 1.1.26 0.23 0.38 0. Re.8823 1.31 0.1 and 3.1 and 3.N 1:W. Re.8907 500 530 560 610 380 420 460 500 225 240 250 275 210 220 230 245 250 265 280 300 130 140 145 160 145 155 165 180 0. < 0.1.N / ~N ~ = 70 mm.35 0. for the yield strength deff. Rm.N ()Sch.N / ~N ~ Material No.2.30 530 460 240 220 265 140 155 0.b.31 ~ 1 Effective Diameter for the tensile strength deff.1.0491 1.0546 1.8819 1.
1209 1.zd.32 0.s.t.20 0.1223 1.36 0.7035 1. after DIN 17200 Ck 22 Cm22 C 22 Ck 25 Cm25 C25 Ck 30 Cm30 C 30 Ck 35 Cm35 C 35 Ck40 Cm40 C40 Ck45 Cm45 C45 Ck 50 Cm50 C 50 Ck 55 Cm55 C 55 Ck60 Cm60 C60 28Mn6 38 Cr 2 38 CrS 2 46 Cr 2 46 CrS 2 34 Cr4 34 CrS 4 37 Cr4 37 CrS 4 41 Cr 4 41 CrS 4 25 CrMo4 25 CrMoS 4 34 CrMo 4 34 CrMoS 4 42 CrMo 4 42 CrMoS 4 50 CrMo4 36 CrNiMo 4 34 CrNoMo6 30 CrNiMo 8 50 CrY 4 Material No.1180 1.49 1000 800 450 360 480 260 285 0.28 0.0501 1.1163 1.39 650 460 295 260 320 170 190 0.52 900 650 405 335 435 235 260 0.7227 1.26 0.b.38 0.134 5 Appendices 5.12 0.54 900 700 405 335 435 235 260 0.N LW.1241 1.1 36NiCrMo16?1 51CrV4 Type of material.38 0.0540 1.7037 1. 1.1206 1.29 0.0511 1.35 850 580 385 320 415 220 245 0.7033 1.N LW.1.1189 1.1201 1.18 0.1170 1.N crW.p ?2 ¢3 ¢3 ?3 ?3 ?3 ?4 ?4 340 225 210 250 130 145 0. Type of material.32 0.43 1100 900 495 1100 900 495 1200 1000 540 1250 1050 565 1250 1050 565 1100 900 495 385 385 410 420 420 385 525 525 570 595 595 525 285 285 310 325 325 285 315 315 340 355 355 315 0.1149 1.0535 1.N 500 550 .6580 1.0402 1.N ad.zd.19 0.8159 R.0503 1. after DIN EN 10 0831 (19961000) ¢1.7034 1.7003 1.7038 1.33 0.6582 1.6511 1.28 0.1221 1.4 Mechanical properties in MFa for quenched and tempered steels in the quenched and tempered condition.35 800 550 360 305 390 210 230 0.33 0.0601 1.7226 1.7023 1.30 0.44 900 700 405 335 435 235 260 0. after DIN EN 10 0271 C22E C22R C22 C25E C25R C25 C30E C30R C30 C35E C35R C35 C40E C40R C40 C45E C45R C45 C50E C50R C50 C55E C55R C55 C60E C60R C60 28Mn6 38Cr2 38CrS2 46Cr2 46CrS2 34Cr4 34CrS4 37Cr4 37CrS4 41Cr4 41CrS4 25CrMo4 25CrMoS4 34CrMo4 34CrMoS4 42CrMo4 42CrMoS4 50CrMo4 36CrNiMo4 34CrNiM06 30CrNiMo8 ¢.N crW.42 0.39 0.38 0.30 0.1158 1.28 0.1178 1.46 1000 800 450 360 480 260 285 0.33 Rm.7213 1.32 0.0528 1.44 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0.36 750 520 340 290 365 195 215 0.1191 1.1 Material tables Table 5.32 0.21 0.7025 1.37 630 430 285 255 310 165 185 0.40 600 400 270 245 295· 155 175 0.41 0.30 0.7225 1.36 700 490 315 275 345 180 205 0.19 0.37 0.49 950 750 430 345 460 245 270 0.33 0.43 370 250 225 275 145 160 0.1179 1.7006 1.1181 1.34 800 800 590 360 550 360 305 305 390 390 210 210 230 230 0.1151 1.6773 1.7218 1.rn llci.16 0.0406 1.N crSch.7220 1.1186 1.7228 1. Notes? 1 to ¢4 see next page.1203 1.7039 1.
1221 1.1 Effective diameter deff. 46 CrS 2.08 0.1 and 3.18 510 280 230 215 255 135 150 0.2 Re.N < 0.1186 1.N CJSch. deff.1170 Rn.1181 1.75 for all types of material listed.19 470 260 210 200 235 120 140 0.75 up to and including 46 Cr 2.2.0528 1.p 93 93 430 240 195 185 215 110 125 0.1 and 3.0406 1.s.135 5 Appendices 5.3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.4 M ore specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.1151 1.1 Effective diameter deff.zd. after DIN EN 10 0831 (19961000) 91.19 620 340 280 250 305 160 180 0.0535 1.3 The fatigue strength values of the sulphur bearing steels 38 CrS 2 to 42CrMoS 4 are lower than the values listed for 28 Cr 2 to 42 CrMo 4.1178 1.10 0.1149 1.N = 16 rom for all other types of material listed. .N = 16 rom.N crW.1179 1. Re.0540 1. Notes referring to Table 5.N / Rm.0402 1.09 0.1203 1.N CJW.= 40 rom for 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16.0511 1.2.19 680 370 305 270 335 175 195 0.20 710 380 320 280 350 185 205 0.2 Re.1163 1.10 0.1189 1.1180 1.N.1158 1. 9.N 't W.1.0503 1.17 9.09 0.10 0.19 630 345 285 250 310 165 185 0.1201 1.09 0.1.b.N 'tW. Type of material.1209 1.1191 1.19 580 320 260 235 285 150 170 0. after DIN 17200 Material No.1206 1.5 Mechanical properties in MPa for quenched and tempered steels in the normalized condition.N < 0.N / Rm.20 650 355 295 260 320 170 190 0.N 92 ~m ad. Ck22 Cm22 C 22 Ck 25 Cm25 C 25 Ck 30 Cm30 C 30 Ck 35 Cm35 C 35 Ck40 Cm40 C40 Ck45 Cm45 C45 Ck50 Cm50 C 50 Ck 55 Cm55 C 55 Ck60 Cm60 C60 28Mn6 1.1 Material tables Table 5.0601 1.2. 9.19 550 300 250 225 275 145 160 0. after DIN EN 10 0271 C22E C22R C22 C25E C25R C25 C30E C30R C30 C35E C35R C35 C40E C40R C40 C45E C45R C45 CSOE C50R C50 C55E C55R C55 C60E C60R C60 28Mn6 Type of material.10 0.I.4: 9.2.N > 0. 9. 9.1.0501 1. 9.zd.75 from 34 Cr 4.N Re.1. 34 CrS 4 on.1223 1.07 0.10 0.1241 1.N / Rm.
zd. :> 3 More specific values for the individual types of materiaI compared to the average values for the kind of material given in Table 1. after DIN EN 10 084 (19980600) (selected types of material only) :>2.N 1.8505 1. c.7243 1.8523 1.1 and 3.8515 1.N Re.s.N O'Sch.24 0.23 0.7030 1.N / ~N > 0. types of material marked by * up to 100 mm diameter. :> 2 Re.N :>2 O'W.N = 40 mm.N 1: W.27 0.3 Only up to 40 mm diameter.17 0.1121 1.6566 1.N O'W.5752 1.61 0.1. after DIN EN 10 085 (20010700) :>1.N = 16 mm.7131 1.52 0.21 0.t.37 0.N < 0.1 Material tables Table 5.8507:>4 1000 1030 1030 1100 1150 900 950 950 800 800 835 835 900 950 680 750 750 600 450 465 465 495 520 405 430 430 360 360 370 370 385 395 335 345 345 305 480 495 495 525 550 435 460 460 390 260 270 270 285 300 235 250 250 210 285 295 295 315 330 260 275 275 230 0. :> 5 Re.2 Effective diameter deff.23 0.8516 1. 7 Mechanical properties in lPa for nidriding steels in the quenched and tempered condition.5918 1.1148 1.7321 1.8519 1.31 0.6657 500 800 800 800 900 1000 1200 1100 1100 1100 900 900 1000 900 1200 1200 1000 1100 1200 1200 1200 1200 310 545 545 545 620 695 850 775 775 775 620 620 695 620 850 850 695 775 850 850 850 850 200 320 320 320 360 400 480 440 440 440 360 360 400 360 480 480 400 440 480 480 480 480 185 270 270 270 295 320 365 340 340 340 295 295 320 295 365 365 320 340 365 365 365 365 220 345 345 345 385 430 510 470 470 470 385 385 430 385 510 510 430 470 510 510 510 510 115 185 185 185 210 230 280 255 255 255 210 210 230 210 280 280 230 255 280 280 280 280 130 205 205 205 230 255 305 280 280 280 230 230 255 230 305 305 255 280 305 305 305 305 10084 Appendix F ("tensile strength values after quenching and tempering at ad.p :>3 1. c. :> 6 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.37 0.N Re. :> 4 Only up to 100 mm diameter.300.8522 1. however.rn :>3 ad.N :> 4 :> 5 O'W.36 0.1141 1.zd.N ad.30 0. Rm.27 0.37 0. :> 4 Re.N after DIN 17210 (Draft 19841000).5810 1.52 0.1. Table 5.7244 1.68 0.30 0.21 0.35 0.00 :> 1 Effective diameter deff.75 for all types of material listed.8509 1.6571 1.zd.2. Rm.8550 1.28 0.N 1: W.33 0.75 for all types of material listed.5805 1.1 and 3.N / ~.37 0.rn :> ad.37 200°C") given for information only.52 0.6523 1.2.N 1:W.56 0.s.6587 1.37 0.N O'W.N O'Sch.1.24 0.N 1:W.22 0.2.p 6 0. Type of material 24CrMo136 31CrMo12 32CrAIMo71O 3lCrMoV5 33CrMoV129 34CrAINi71O 41CrAlMo71O 40CrMoV139 34CrAIMo51O Material No.1.136 5 Appendices 5.b.2. fitted.b.17 0.7320 1.t.48 0.33 0.7016 1.68 0.44 0.33 0.37 0.zd.7147 1.00 0.6 Mechanical properties in MPa for case hardening steels in the blank hardened condition :> 1.7333 1.26 0. Type of material :>3 ClOE C15E C16E 17Cr3 28Cr4 * 16MnCr5 * 20MnCr5 * 18CrMo4 * 18CrMoS4 * 22CrMoS35 * 20MoCr3 20MoCr4 16NiCr4 10NiCr54 * 18NiCr54 * l7CrNi66 * l5NiCr13 * 20NiCrMo22 * l7NiCrMo64 * 20NiCrMoS64 * 18CrNiMo7~6 * * 14NiCrMo134 :> 1 Values after DIN EN Material No.5714 1. .
1. as there is no technological size effect within the dimensions covered by the standard. .4542 P(50) P1070 1070 1000 P950 950 800 P850 850 600 qualities.  . special X5CrNiCuNb164 1.4003 1.4311 X5CrNil810 X5CrNi 18 10 P(75) 520 220 1. tll e heat treate d condition.N '"CW.zd. after DIN EN 10 0882 (19950800) (selected types of material only) v I v 2 Type of material Type of material... Austemtic steeIs 'ill t h e soiution oualiti stan dar d qua ities.4310 600 250 X2CrNiNI81O X2CrNi 18 10 P(75) 550 270 1. v 2 An effective diameter deff.4571 P(75) 520 220 X2CrNiMoN17135 X2CrNiMoN17135 1.b. H(12) hot rolled strip up to 12 mm thickness. v 3 Kind of product: P(2S) hot rolled plates up to 25 mm thickness.4541 X6CrNiMoTil7122 X6CrNiMoTi 1722 1.Kind of rial product v3 No.N CJSch. X20Cr13 X20Cr 13 1. martensitic steeIs ill .137 5 Appendices 5.4021 P(75) QT650 650 QT750 750 X4CrNiMo1651 P(75) 1..4002 1. .N '"CW. C(6) X10CrNi188 X12CrNi 177 1.N CJW.N CJW. QT650 heat treated to a tensile strength of650 MPa.4439 P(75) 580 270 v I The fatigue strength values are provisional values. C(6) cold r~l1ed strip up to 6 mm thickness. Rm. PI070 hot rolled plate with a tensile strength of 1070 MPa. ' anneaIed condiition.4418 QT840 840 450 550 260 300 230 260 290 330 150 175 170 195 680 335 280 410 195 220 430 380 340 335 310 285 460 410 370 245 220 195 275 245 220 240 220 210 200 210 230 215 200 190 185 190 210 270 245 235 225 235 260 140 125 120 115 120 135 160 145 140 135 140 155 .t.4113 P(25) P(25) P(25) H(12) P ecipitation .zd. after DIN / SEW Mate.N R. F emtic stee 1s ill stan dar d qualiHIes.N 450 400 430 450 250 210 240 260 180 160 170 180 170 155 165 170 205 180 195 205 105 90 100 105 120 110 115 120 Martensitic steeIs 'ill th e h eat treate d con d" inon. X2CrNi12 X6CrAl13 X6Crl7 X6CrMo171 X6CrAI13 X6Cr17 X6CrMo 17 1 1.4016 1. tl ie annealed con diition.N is not required.4301 X6CrNiTi181O X6CrNi 18 10 P(75) 500 200 1. stan dar d oualiti qua ities. h ar demng .1 Material tables Table 5.8 Mechanical properties in MFa for stainless steels.
1181 1. Ck22 Ck 35 Ck45 Ck 50 Ck60 20Mn5 28Mn6 20 MnMoNi 45 22 NiMoCr 47 24 CrMo 5 34 CrMo4 42 CrMo 4 50 CrMo 4 32 CrMo 12 34 CrNiMo 6 30 CrNiMo 8 28 NiCrMoV 85<>' 2 33 NiCrMo 145<0 1. Type of material Material No.6932 1.N = 500 nun for 28 NiCrMoV 8 5 und deff.zd.6311 1.N = 250 nun for all other types of material listed.18 0.6582 1. Effective diameter deff. after SEW 550 (19760800) <.00 0.138 5 Appendices 5.16 0.1206 1.00 0.t.6755 1.16 0.00 0.1206 1.26 0.2.m Quenched and tempered condition.23 0. <> 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values for the kind of material given in Table 1.1 and 3.19 0.zd.27 0.7258 1.1133 1.7225 1.37 1. .19 0.22 6.23 0.7220 1.00 0.6580 1.35 0.31 0.00 0.22 0.N 1: W.14 Normalized condition.1191 1.1170 1.N R.00 0.6956 410 490 590 630 690 490 590 580 560 640 690 740 780 880 780 880 780 930 225 295 345 365 390 295 390 420 400 410 460 510 590 685 590 685 635 785 165 195 235 250 275 195 235 230 225 255 275 295 310 350 310 350 265 315 155 185 215 280 240 185 215 210 205 230 240 255 265 290 265 290 225 260 185 215 260 275 300 215 260 255 245 280 300 320 340 380 340 380 290 340 95 115 135 145 160 115 135 135 130 150 160 170 180 205 180 205 155 185 105 130 155 165 180 130 155 150 145 165 180 190 200 225 200 225 170 200 0.N <.2.N O"W.26 0.b.26 0.1221 410 490 590 620 680 225 275 325 345 375 165 195 235 250 270 155 180 215 220 220 185 215 260 270 295 95 115 135 145 155 105 130 155 160 175 0.N = 1000 nun for 33 NiCrMo 145.1151 1.1151 1. Rn.22 0.1181 1.7228 1.30 0.3 ad.24 0.26 0.37 0.1191 1.00 0.7361 1.N O"W.22 0.00 0.19 0. I <. Ck22 Ck 35 Ck45 Ck 50 Ck60 <> I <> 2 The fatigue strength values are provisional values.23 0.27 0.p <03 ~.00 0.1.19 0.16 0.00 0.30 0.1.9 Mechanical properties in MFa of steels for bigger forgings.00 0.34 0.N O"Sch.1221 1. deff.1 Material tables Table 5.00 0.25 0.15 0.33 0.2.00 0.s.N 1:W.
t.N 1.139 5 Appendices 5. after DIN 17205 (19920400).6740 800 700 800 800 800 ~ 2 crW. after DIN 1681 (19850600) ~ 1. 9) ~5 ~ 1 Effective diameter defT.N crSch.6570 1.7225 1.2) 255 195 285 750 600 145 255 195 285 GS34 CrMo 4 1.7725 850 700 175 (No.0446 1.5 The mechanical properties for GS30 NiCrMo 8 5 and GS33 NiCrMo 74 4are the same. ~ 3 Effective diameter deff.6) GS25 CrNiMo 4 1. 5.8 (strength levels VI and VII).2. 4 (strength levels VI and VII).7755 (No.zd.zd. 4 Numbers indicating types of material for Table 1.N crSch.11 Mechanical properties in:MFafor quenched and tempered steel castingsfor general applications.N = 100 mm for type of materialNo.1.N / ~N > 0.7.2 and 3. strength level V I (upperline) or V II (line below) ~ 3. ~ 2 Airhardened condition: Re.s.N LW.0420 1.0558 380 450 520 600 Re.7218 205 160 235 600 450 145 (No.N 700 850 550 650 700 800 700 950 700 950 290 355 240 270 290 340 290 355 290 355 215 250 185 205 215 225 215 250 215 250 mm for GS30 Mn 5 and defLN = 500 mm for GS25 CrMo 4.N / ~N ::. c.6515 1.N 90 105 125 140 1 Effective diameter deff.2 (strength level VII only) and for type of materialNo.8) GS30 NiCrMo8 5 1.10 Mechanical propertiesin:MFafor steelcastingsfor general applications. Rm. A'Ifhardened and tempered condiinon (LV) ~ 1 Type of material Material No.t.7755 1.75 for all types of material listed.6582 1.b.6740 850 1050 700 800 850 900 850 1050 850 1050 Re.0552 1.4) 800 900 165 290 215 320 GS30 CrMoV 64 1. ~ 2 Re.6582 (No.6.7220 750 600 165 (No.7725 520 550 650 700 650 GS35 CrMoV 10 4 GS25 CrNiMo 4 GS34 CrNiMo6 GS30 NiCrMo 8 5 GS33 NiCrMo 7 4 4 1.N / ~N < 0.b.7218 1. Type of material GS38 GS45 GS52 GS60 ~ Material No.N = 200 mm for type of materialNo.7225 780 650 305 225 340 175 (No.N L W.N GS30 Mn 5 ~1 GS25 CrMo 4 ~ 1 GS34 CrMo 4 GS42 CrMo 4 GS30 CrMoV 6 4 1.5) 305 225 340 900 750 125 160 140 175 175 195 180 205 195 205 165 205 135 155 165 195 165 205 165 205 195 235 160 185 195 225 195 235 195 235 GS35 CrMoV 10 4 1.1165 175 145 205 520 400 (No.N crW.7220 1.zd.N 260 300 380 400 400 175 185 220 240 220 145 150 175 185 175 205 215 250 270 250 100 110 130 135 130 125 130 150 160 150 650 400 550 600 600 270 240 270 270 270 205 185 205 205 205 305 270 305 305 305 155 135 155 155 155 185 160 185 185 185 Liquidhardened and temperedcondition.6570 (No.1165 1.N = 100 mm. Liquidhardened condition: Re.N ~ 2 200 230 260 300 crW.1.75 for all types of material listed.1 Material tables Table 5. 3) 290 215 320 850 700 265 200 295 155 GS42 CrMo 4 1. deff. 0. 9 (strength levels VI and VII). . 1. 2 (strength level VI only) and for type of materialNo.N LW.N crW. Table 5.7) GS34 CrNiMo 6 1. 100 GS30 Mn 5 1.75 for all types of material listed.N ~ = 500 mm for type ofmaterialNo.2. defLN 320 390 270 305 320 370 320 390 320 390 = 300 mm for all other materials listed. Rm. LW.N 130 150 175 205 125 130 145 160 150 180 205 235 75 90 100 120 .zd. deff.s.2. J) ~4 240 185 270 135 700 550 120 GS25 CrMo 4 1.6515 (No.N = 800 1.. 3. 9) ~5 GS33 NiCrMo 7 4 4 (No.
75 for all types of material listed.N 22 120 100 160 75 110 240 18 135 110 185 90 120 400 250 250 250 15 135 110 185 90 120 450 500 310 320 10 7 155 170 125 135 205 225 100 110 135 150 600 370 3 205 160 265 135 180 700 420 2 240 180 305 155 205 800 480 2 270 200 340 175 235 900 600 2 305 220 380 200 260 {o 1 Effective diameter deff.N RpO.. not to be used for an assessment of strength.N CYW.N / ~.zd.. {o3 Elongation in %. .7060) ENJS1070 (0.30.N Material No.3) ENGJS40018RT ENGJS40018 ENGJS40015 (GGG40) ENGJS4501 0 ENGJS5007 (GGG50) ENGJS6003 (GGG60) ENGJS7002 (GGG70) ENGJS8002 (GGG80) ENGJS9002 Material No.s. {o 21)J0.b. ENJL 1010 (0. after DIN EN 1563 (19970800) or after DIN 1693/01 (19731000) (namings given in brackets) {ol.12 Mechanical properties in MPa for spheroidal graphit cast irons.5.t.6010) ENJL1020 (0. Type of material ENGJS35022LT (GGG35.b. Chapter 1.2.N .140 5 Appendices 5.5. 3.1. and all safety factors are to be increased by adding a value 6. .N 350 220 400 {o 2 As {o3 1:W. Type of material ENGJL100 (GG10) {>4 ENGJL150 (GG15) ENGJL200 (GG20) ENGJL250 (GG25) ENGJL300 (GG30) ENGJL350 (GG35) {> 1 Effective diameter deff.N = 60 mm. Table 5.N CYW.6035) = {o2 Rm.N 1:W.7043) ENJS1024 ENJS1020 ENJS1030 (0.N 1: W.zd.N 3 CYW.7040) ENJS1040 ENJS1050 (0.7033) ENJS1014 ENJS 1010 ENJS1025 (0.5%.7080) ENJS1090 Rm.5 or 4. {o 4 Not to be used for load carrying components.I. Eq.0.N 1: W.N < 0.N {o CYW.zd.N CYSch. after DIN EN 1561 (19970800) or after DIN 1691 (19850500) (namings given in brackets) {> 1. {o3 0W.13 Mechanical properties for malleable cast irons see next page.2).N RpO. A 5 < 12.2. Table 5.6030) ENJL1060 (0.5 .3) ENGJS35022RT ENGJS35022 ENGJS40018LT (GGG40. the assessment ofthe static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses.7050) ENJS1060 (0.N = 0.s.1.1.j.6025) ENJL1050 (0.1 Material tables Table 5. {> 2 After supplement 1 of the standard.14 Mechanical properties in MPa for grey cast irons. see Chapters 2.zd. (2. respectively.N 100  30 20 45 25 40 150 100 45 30 70 40 60 200 130 60 40 90 50 75 250 165 75 50 110 65 95 300 195 90 60 130 75 115 350 230 105 70 150 90 130 20 mm.6020) ENJL1040 (0. different from DIN EN 1561.zd. ENJS1015 (0.6015) ENJL1030 (0. CYSch.N / Rrn. For nonductile materials.7070) ENJS1080 (0.t.
8035) 350  4 105 85 150 80 115 ENGJMW36012 ENJM1020 (GTWS 3812) (0.5%. A5 < 12. 3 Elongation in %.8170) 700 530 2 210 155 285 160 220 ENGJMB8001 ENJM1200 800 600 1 240 170 320 180 250 () () ENGJMB3006 White heart malleable (decarburized) cast irons.) 300  6 90 75 130 70 100 (.1 Material tables Table 5.j .8155) 550 340 4 165 125 230 125 175 ENGJMB6003 ENJM1l70 600 390 3 180 135 250 135 190 () () ENGJMB6502 (GTS6502) ENJMl180 (0.N > 0.N Black heart malleable (nondecarburized) cast irons.N ~ 2 A 3 ~3 O"W. see Chapters 2. and all safety factors are to be increased by adding a value t. except for GTS7002 there is R pO.N RpO. c.b. Rm. the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses. . Table 5.13 Mechanical properties in MPa for malleable cast irons.. respectively.14 Mechanical properties for grey cast irions see previous page.0. Chapter 1.5.1.N = 15 mm.2 Table on top: R pO. Type of material Material No.N O"W..2).2.N / Rm. .N ~ < 0.t.2.N / Rm. For nonductile materials.5. after DIN EN 1562 (19970600) or after DIN 1692 (19820100) (namings given in brackets) ~ 1. Table below: R pO.N < 0.2.N 'tW.s.zd.5 .N O"Sch.141 5 Appendices 5. ENJMlllO (.N 'tW.zd.8038) 360 190 12 110 85 155 80 120 ENGJMW4005 (GTW4005) ENJM1030 (0.5 or 4.75.2.3.8145) 450 270 6 135 105 190 100 145 ENGJMB5005 ENJMl150 500 300 5 150 115 210 115 160 () () ENGJMB5504 (GTS5004) ENJM1160 (0.8045) 450 260 7 135 105 190 100 145 ENGJMW5504 ENJM1050 550 340 4 165 125 230 125 175 () () ENGJMW3504 (GTW3504) ~ 1 Effective diameter deff.) ENGJMB3501O (GTS351O) ENJMl130 (0. .8040) 400 220 5 120 95 170 90 130 ENGJMW4507 (GTW4507) ENJM1040 (0.8165) 650 430 2 195 145 265 145 205 ENGJMB7002 (GTS7002) ENJM1l90 (0. Eq.8135) 350 200 10 105 85 150 80 115 ENGJMB4506 (GTS4506) ENJMl140 (0.N / Rm.75. (2. ENJM1010 (0.1.75 throughout.
1.38 give the respective values of elongation: For nonductile materials.5.< (see also page 131):  fIl.1. 2 (02/86) 5. The endurance limit values GW.83 (kD.O' = ND.zd.II = 108 cycles. Table Kind of material 5.22 Wrought Strips.38 Alloys for high pressure die castings DIN 1725 T.36 Alloys with special mechanical properties DIN 1725 T.1.24 Cold drawn rods / bars and tubes DIN EN 7542 (08/97) 5.142 5.5.27 Extruded profiles DIN 1748 T. 1.zd . the assessment of the component static strength is to be carried of using local stresses. A < 12.23 Semifinished product / Type of casting 5 Appendices IRT51Ala.< = 25 for shear stress).22 to 5.1. 1 (02/83) 5.. 1. .O' or fIl. 1.1.21.1.1. = 0.O'.1 Material tables Table 5.1.. 1 (02/83) 5.38 refer to the knee point of the SN curve at N = ND. given in the Table 5.. .35 Casting alloys for general applications DIN 1725 T. and are lower than the fatigue limit by a factor fIl. 2 (02/86) Tables 5.25 Rods / bars DIN 1747 T. (2. Survey of the Aluminum materials. and all safety factors are to be increased by adding a value ~j .5 or 4.33 Investment castings DIN EN 1706 (06/98) 5.< = 106 cycles.1.1.74 (kD. 3. respectively.Il.26 Extruded rods / bars.O' = 15 for normal stress).5%.32 Cast Sand castings Aluminum alloys Permanent mould castings 5.31 5. Chapter 1.1.30 Hand forgings DIN 17606 (12/76) DIN EN 1706 (06/98) DIN EN 1706 (06/98) 5.< = (108 / 106 ) 1/15 1/25 = 0.2).5.1.< .0. sheets.28 Forgings DIN EN 5862 (U/94) 5.do~ Material standard (Edition) DIN EN 4852 (03/95) DIN 1745 T.1.O' = (108 / 106 ) fIl. refer to a number of N = ND. . .II = ND.1.1.1. 1 (02/83) 5. in Chapter 2..1.1. tubes and profiles DIN EN 7552 (08/97) 5. 2 (02/86) 5.37 Alloys for special applications DIN 1725 T. 1 (12/76) 5. 2 (02/86) 5..22 to 5. see Eq.34 High pressure die castings DIN EN 1706 (06/98) 5.29 Die forgings DIN 1749 T. plates Aluminum alloys Strips..1. Attention: The fatigue limit values GW. sheets 5.
0 1.5 6.0 60.0 12.5 3.0 1.0 40.5 6.5 6. or (with*) Elongation A5 for gaugelength of 5 x specimen diameter 14 14 14 14 14 10* 7* 14 14 12* 6 7 7 6* 5* 4* 4* 4* 7 6* 14 15 13 12* 10* 8* 4* 14 15 12* 12 14 12 14 14 13 11* 8* 7* 5* 5* 15 12 8* 5 6 5 4* 4* 5 4* Hardness number HB III 112 110 110 112 112 111 110 III III 133 133 135 138 135 131 126 123 133 135 110 110 III 110 108 105 101 109 109 109 120 120 123 123 124 124 122 120 115 110 104 119 119 118 138 138 138 137 136 129 128 .5 1. strips.5 12.0 40.0 12.0 12.5 6.0 25.0 12.4 6.0 100.0 100.0 40.b ~W.0 120.0 100.0 80.5 12.0 12. pJates.5 1.0 12.5 Rm Re crW.t 395 400 395 395 400 400 395 395 400 400 440 440 450 460 450 435 420 410 440 450 390 390 390 390 385 370 350 390 390 390 425 425 435 435 440 440 430 420 400 380 360 425 425 420 460 460 460 455 455 440 435 245 245 240 240 250 250 250 230 235 235 390 390 395 400 390 380 360 350 390 395 245 245 260 250 240 240 240 235 235 235 275 275 290 290 290 290 290 290 285 270 250 260 260 260 400 400 400 400 395 345 345 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 130 130 135 140 135 130 125 125 130 135 115 115 115 115 115 110 105 115 115 115 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 125 120 115 110 130 130 125 140 140 140 135 135 130 130 85 90 85 85 90 90 85 85 90 90 95 95 95 95 95 95 90 90 95 95 85 85 85 85 85 85 80 85 85 85 90 90 95 95 95 95 95 90 90 85 80 90 90 90 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 150 150 155 160 155 150 145 145 150 155 135 135 135 135 135 130 125 135 135 135 145 145 150 150 150 150 150 145 140 135 130 145 145 145 160 160 160 155 155 150 150 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 75 75 80 80 80 75 75 70 75 80 70 70 70 70 65 65 60 70 70 70 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 70 65 60 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 80 75 75 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 95 95 95 100 95 95 90 90 95 95 85 85 85 85 85 80 75 85 85 85 90 90 95 95 95 95 90 90 85 85 80 90 90 90 100 100 100 95 95 95 95 A{>1 % 1 Elongation A for gaugelengthof 50 mm.5 12.0 100.0 6.5 6.5 25.0 1.0 80.5 40. Material Condition EN AW2014 T3 AlCu4SiMg T4 T451 T451 T42 T6 T651 T651 T62 EN AW2017A T4 T451 AICu4MgSi(A) T451 T42 EN AW2024 T4 AICu4Mgl T3 T351 T351 T42 T8 T851 T851 T62 c Nom.4 12.5 40.5 1.0 <:0.0 80.4 6.5 1.0 25.0 120.0 120.5 <: 0.0 120.0 12.s ~W.143 5.4 12.5 40.0 40.4 3.4 6.5 6.0 1.4 25.0 25.1.0 25.0 12.0 80.0 120.5 <: 0.0 40.5 <:0.0 12.0 3.0 <:0.4 12.0 100.4 6.5 <: 0.0 6.zd crW. s h eets.0 1.0 1.0 3.5 <: 0.0 <: 0.0 150.5 6.4 6.5 12.22 Mechanical properties in MPa for wrought aluminum alloys.4 6. I aft er DIN EN 4852 (03/95) (selected types 0 f matenial onlly).0 12.4 25.5 <: 0.0 12.5 6.zd crSch.0 12.5 <:0.0 100.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.0 100.0 1.5 <:0. thickness inmm from to 1.5 40.0 60.5 <: 0.0 150.5 1.5 1.0 12.
0 6.5 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.S 1W.5 25.5 0.t 120 120 120 140 140 140 120 120 120 120 110 110 110 110 110 140 140 140 190 190 190 190 190 190 210 200 190 190 220 220 220 220 220 220 240 240 240 240 240 240 265 265 265 265 290 290 290 220 220 220 220 220 220 240 240 240 240 240 240 265 265 265 265 290 290 290 90 90 90 120 120 120 55 55 55 55 45 45 45 45 45 110 110 110 80 80 80 80 80 80 140 120 80 80 170 170 170 170 170 170 190 190 190 190 190 190 220 220 220 220 250 250 250 130 130 130 130 130 130 160 160 160 160 160 160 190 190 190 190 230 230 230 35 35 35 40 40 40 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 40 40 40 35 35 35 35 35 35 65 60 55 55 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 80 80 80 80 85 85 85 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 80 80 80 80 85 85 85 35 35 35 40 40 40 35 35 35 35 30 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 55 .2 0.5 1.0 12.0 12.5 0.0 6.2 0.5 40.0 0.0 12.0 6.0 3.0 3.5 3.2 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 6.5 3.5 12.0 1.0 6.2 0.0 6.0 12.0 25.5 1.5 0.5 100.2 0.5 12.5 3.5 0.5 3.0 0.5 12.5 40.0 0.5 3.5 3.5 12.0 6.5 3.5 1.0 3. 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 50 50 50 55 55 55 50 50 50 50 45 45 45 45 45 55 55 55 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 75 75 75 85 85 85 85 85 85 90 90 90 90 90 90 100 100 100 100 105 105 105 85 85 85 85 85 85 90 90 90 90 90 90 100 100 100 100 105 105 105 20 20 20 25 25 25 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 25 25 25 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 30 30 30 35 35 35 30 30 30 30 25 25 25 25 25 35 35 35 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 A~l % 4 4 5 3 3 3 14 16 18 21 15 16 19 21 25 4 4 5 12 14 16 18 18 17* 12 10* 12* 14* 4 5 6 7 9 9* 3 3 4 4 5 6* 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 7 8 10 11 10 9* 6 6 7 8 10 8* 4 4 5 6 3 3 4 Hardness number HB 38 38 38 45 45 45 35 35 35 35 32 32 32 32 32 44 44 44 52 52 52 52 52 52 62 58 52 52 66 66 66 66 66 66 72 72 72 72 72 72 80 80 80 80 88 88 88 63 63 63 63 63 63 70 70 70 70 70 70 78 78 78 78 87 87 87 .b 1W.5 0.5 1.5 ~0.5 0.0 6.5 1.0 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.1.5 0.0 3.0 0.zd crW.0 80.22 Continued.0 6.0 25.0 40.2 0.0 3. Material EN AW4006 Condition H12 AISi1Fe H14 T4 EN AW4007 O1H111 AISi1.0 3.5 0.5 1.5 1.0 12.0 3.0 12.8 Hl12 H12 H14 H16 H18 H22/H32 H241H34 H26/H36 H28/H38 Nom.5 3.5 1.5 ~6. page 1 of 7.0 3.5 1.2 0.0 6.0 12.5 1.5 3.5 0.5 3.0 6.5 1.0 12.0 6.2 0.5 3.5 1.0 0.2 0.5 1.5 3. 5Mn H12 EN AW5049 O/H111 AI Mg2MnO.5 1.0 6.5 3.2 0.5 25.5 1.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.5 1.5 1.zd crSch.5 1.5 0.0 Rm Re crW.5 0.5 1.5 0.5 12.5 1.5 0.0 3.5 1.144 5.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 6.5 3.5 1. thickness inmm from to 0.5 1.0 6.5 40.5 1.
5 0.0 0.5 1.5 3.0 6.0 H12 H14 H16 H18 H22IH32 H24/H34 H26IH36 H28IH38 EN AW5251 OIHIlI AlMg2 H12 Hl4 H16 0.0 12.0 6.5 1.5 0.5 40.2 0.5 50.5 1.5 0.5 1.1.5 3. Material EN AW5052 Condition OIHIlI AI Mg2.5 3.0 3.b ~W.zd crW.5 25.2 0.0 6.5 1.5 3.5 1.0 12.5 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.5 80.5 1.2 0.2 0.5 25.5 3.0 0.5 3.0 6. page 2 of 7.5 12.0 6.2 0.5 3.0 6.t 170 170 170 170 165 165 190 170 170 65 65 65 65 65 65 110 70 70 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 50 50 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 45 45 65 65 65 65 65 65 75 65 65 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 40 40 12 14 16 18 19 18* 7 10* 14* 210 210 210 210 210 210 230 230 230 230 230 230 250 250 250 250 270 270 270 210 210 210 210 210 210 230 230 230 230 230 230 250 250 250 250 270 270 270 160 160 160 160 160 160 190 190 190 190 190 190 210 210 210 210 210 230 230 160 160 160 160 160 160 180 180 180 180 180 180 210 210 210 210 240 240 240 130 130 130 130 130 130 150 150 150 150 150 150 180 180 180 180 210 210 210 60 60 60 60 60 60 150 150 150 150 150 150 170 170 170 170 170 200 200 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 50 50 50 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 80 80 80 80 80 80 85 85 85 85 85 85 95 95 95 95 100 100 100 80 80 80 80 80 80 85 85 85 85 85 85 95 95 95 95 100 100 100 65 65 65 65 65 65 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 80 85 85 35 35 35 35 35 35 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 35 35 35 35 35 35 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 30 30 30 30 30 30 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 40 40 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 4 5 6 8 10 9* 3 3 4 4 5 4* 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 5 6 7 % 10 12 12* 4 5 6 7 9 9* 3 4 5 6 3 3 4 13 14 16 18 18 18 3 4 5 8 10 10* 2 2 3 4 5 1 2 Hardness number HB 47 47 47 47 46 46 55 47 47 63 63 63 63 63 63 69 69 69 69 69 69 76 76 76 76 83 83 83 61 61 61 61 61 61 67 67 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 74 81 81 81 44 44 44 44 44 44 58 58 58 58 58 58 64 64 64 64 64 71 71 .5 0.5 1.0 12.5 1.5 3.0 12.2 0.0 12.5 0.0 12.0 6.0 0.5 25.5 3.5 1.5 3.5 3.0 12.2 0.2 0.5 1.5 3.5 1.5 3.0 6.5 1.2 0.5 1.5 HIl2 Nom.0 6.0 6.5 3.s ~W.5 1.0 12.5 0.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.5 40.0 0.5 1.0 12.0 12.0 0.0 6.0 12.5 1.5 1.2 0.5 3.5 1.0 0.0 12.5 0.0 0.0 6.5 1.0 6.thickness inmm from to 0.5 3.0 80.5 3.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 0.5 0.5 3.0 12.5 1.2 0.0 12.5 <: 6.0 40.5 3.0 6.5 3.5 A~1 Rm Re crW.5 1.2 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.22 Continued.0 12.0 6.145 5.0 12.0 6.0 6.0 6.zd crSch.5 1.5 40.0 0.0 0.
5(A) H112 H12 H14 H18 H19 H221H32 H241H34 H261H36 H28/H38 Nominal thickness inmm from 1. page 3 of 7.5 40.0 12.2 0.5 3.0 12.5 3.2 0.5 40.5 1.5 Rm Re crW.5 1.5 1.5 50.5 3.0 12.5 3.2 0.0 12.5 3.5 0.5 3.0 6.0 12.2 0.0 0.s "tW.5 3.5 1.5 1.0 0.0 A?1 3 3 1 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 12* 3 5 6 8 10 3 4 5 7 2 3 3 12 13 15 17 18 16* 8 9 13* 3 4 5 6 7 6* 2 3 3 4 5 4* 1 1 1 1 1 5 6 7 8 10 9* 4 5 6 7 8 7* 3 3 4 5 3 3 3 Hardne ss number HB 71 71 79 79 79 56 56 56 56 56 56 62 62 62 62 62 69 69 69 69 77 77 77 58 58 58 58 58 58 63 59 59 75 75 75 75 75 75 81 81 81 81 81 81 94 94 94 100 100 74 74 74 74 74 74 80 80 80 80 80 80 87 87 87 87 93 93 93 .0 0.0 6.0 6.5 3.2 0.zd crW.0 0.5 1.5 3.5 3.0 6.5 1.0 0.5 3.5 0.5 3.t 230 230 255 255 255 190 190 190 190 190 190 210 210 210 210 210 230 230 230 230 255 255 255 215 215 215 215 215 215 220 215 215 250 250 250 250 250 250 270 270 270 270 270 270 310 310 310 330 330 250 250 250 250 250 250 270 270 270 270 270 270 290 290 290 290 310 310 310 200 200 230 230 230 120 120 120 120 120 120 140 140 140 140 140 170 170 170 170 200 200 200 85 85 85 85 85 85 125 90 90 190 190 190 190 190 190 220 220 220 220 220 220 270 270 270 285 285 180 180 180 180 180 180 200 200 200 200 200 200 230 230 230 230 250 250 250 70 70 75 75 75 55 55 55 55 55 55 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 80 80 95 95 95 100 100 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 80 80 85 85 85 85 95 95 95 60 60 65 65 65 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 65 65 75 75 75 75 75 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 85 85 95 95 95 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 80 85 85 85 85 95 95 95 80 80 80 80 80 80 85 80 80 95 95 95 95 95 95 100 100 100 100 100 100 110 110 110 120 120 95 95 95 95 95 95 100 100 100 100 100 100 105 105 105 105 110 110 110 40 40 45 45 45 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 35 35 35 35 35 35 40 35 35 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 55 55 55 55 55 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 70 70 70 75 75 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 % to 3.0 0.5 1.2 0.5 1.zd crSch.0 12.5 0.5 40.5 1.0 6.1.0 12.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 ~6.5 3.b "tW.5 1.5 1.0 0.0 12.0 6.5 1.5 25.0 0.5 1.5 1.5 1.0 12.5 25.5 3.0 0.5 3.5 1.0 0.2 0.5 1.0 6.5 0.0 12.2 0.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.2 0.0 6.0 12.5 3.0 6.0 6.0 6.5 3.0 12.5 1.0 6.0 12.0 80.5 1.5 25.5 1.5 40.0 0.5 0.2 0.0 6.5 1.5 3.5 1.2 0.5 0. Material AlMg2 continued Condition H16 H18 H221H32 H241H34 H26/H36 H281H38 EN AW5154A OlHlll AIMg3.0 0.0 12.0 0.22 Continued.5 3.5 0.0 0.5 1.5 1.2 0.5 3.0 12.5 1.5 3.0 0.2 0.0 6.5 1.0 0.2 0.146 5.5 0.5 0.0 4.5 3.5 3.0 6.0 4.
5 3.2 0.5 1.5 1.0 6.5 12.2 0.5 0.5 40.5 12.5 0.0 12.5 3.5 1.5 3.5 3.2 0.5 80.0 3.5 0.0 12.5 1.0 3.5 1.0 3.5 1.5 12.0 12.0 6.5 3.5 100.0 0.5 40.0 0.0 6.0 6.0 6.2 0.5 1.0 12.147 5.5 40.0 6.2 0.s vw.5 3.5 0.b 'tW.2 0.0 3.0 120.5 40.5 1.0 6.0 40.5 1.5 0.5 1.2 0.5 1.2 0..5 1.5 3.0 6.0 3.5 25.5 0.2 0.5 0.5 1.0 3.0 0.5 1.0 6.0 6.0 0.0 6. T a ble 5122 Contmued.5 12.0 0. page 4 0 f 7 Material EN AW5454 Condition O1H111 AIMg3Mn Hl12 HI2 H14 H221H32 H24/H34 H26/H36 H28/H38 EN AW5754 O/HU1 AI Mg3 HIl2 H12 H14 H16 H18 Nominalthickness inmm from to 0.5 0.5 1.1 Material tables 5 Appendices .5 3.5 1.0 Rm Re crW.0 6.5 0.5 1.5 12.0 25.5 0..5 1.5 3.0 6.0 6.5 1.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 6.5 1.0 12.0 12.2 0.5 1.0 12.0 3.5 25.5 12.0 6. A 215 215 215 215 215 215 220 215 215 250 250 250 250 250 250 270 270 270 270 270 270 250 250 250 250 250 250 270 270 270 270 270 270 290 290 290 290 310 310 310 190 190 190 190 190 190 210 200 190 190 220 220 220 220 220 220 240 240 240 240 240 240 265 265 265 265 290 290 290 85 85 85 85 85 85 125 90 90 190 190 190 190 190 190 220 220 220 220 220 220 180 180 180 180 180 180 200 200 200 200 200 200 230 230 230 230 250 250 250 80 80 80 80 80 80 140 120 80 80 170 170 170 170 170 170 190 190 190 190 190 190 220 220 220 220 250 250 250 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 80 80 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 80 80 85 85 85 85 95 95 95 55 55 55 55 55 55 65 60 55 55 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 80 80 80 80 85 85 85 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 65 65 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 80 80 80 80 80 80 85 80 80 95 95 95 95 95 95 100 100 100 100 100 100 95 95 95 95 95 95 100 100 100 100 100 100 105 105 105 105 110 110 110 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 75 75 75 85 85 85 85 85 85 90 90 90 90 90 90 100 100 100 100 105 105 105 35 35 35 35 35 35 40 35 35 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 30 30 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 12 13 15 17 18 16* 8 9* 13* 3 4 5 6 7 6* 2 3 3 4 5 4* 5 6 7 8 10 9* 4 5 6 7 8 7* 3 3 4 5 3 3 3 12 14 16 18 18 17* 12 10* 12* 14* 4 5 6 7 9 9* 3 3 4 4 5 5* 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 % Hardness number HB 58 58 58 58 58 58 63 59 59 75 75 75 75 75 75 81 81 81 81 81 81 74 74 74 74 74 74 80 80 80 80 80 80 87 87 87 87 93 93 93 52 52 52 52 52 52 62 58 52 52 66 66 66 66 66 66 72 72 72 72 72 72 80 80 80 80 88 88 88 .5 3.5 ?: 6.2 0.0 80.0 0.0 12.0 25.5 1.5 12.0 3.5 3.0 0.5 25.5 1.5 3.2 0.0 0.zd crSch.5 0.0 0.5 0.5 40.0 6.0 6.zd crW.0 3.0 12.0 12.0 12.5 12.5 1.
2 0.2 0.0 3.0 6.1.0 6.0 120.5 1.0 12.5 6.148 5.5 12.2 0.0 3.5 12.0 3.5 3.5 1.0 3.5 1.5 1.0 6.22 Continued.0 0.0 12.5 3.0 6.5 1.5 25.0 6.0 150.5 40.0 12.5 1.0 0.5 3.0 6.0 6.5 0.5 0.0 12.5 3.0 <: 1.5 3.0 6.0 12.5 1.5 1.2 0.0 Rm Re crW.0 12.2 0.5 1.0 3. Material EN AW5754 AlMg3 continued Condition HI8 H22/H32 H24/H34 H26/H36 H28/H38 EN AW5083 O/Hll1 AI Mg4.0 3.r 290 290 290 220 220 220 220 220 220 240 240 240 240 240 240 265 265 265 265 290 290 290 275 275 275 275 275 275 270 260 255 275 275 270 305 305 305 305 285 315 315 315 315 315 315 340 340 340 340 340 340 360 360 360 360 305 305 305 305 305 305 340 340 340 340 340 340 250 250 250 130 130 130 130 130 130 160 160 160 160 160 160 190 190 190 190 230 230 230 125 125 125 125 125 125 115 110 105 125 125 115 215 215 215 215 200 250 250 250 250 250 250 280 280 280 280 280 280 300 300 300 300 215 215 215 215 215 215 250 250 250 250 250 250 85 85 85 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 80 80 80 80 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 80 80 75 85 85 80 90 90 90 90 85 95 95 95 95 95 95 100 100 100 100 100 100 110 110 110 110 90 90 90 90 90 90 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 70 70 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 70 70 70 70 70 70 80 80 80 80 80 80 105 105 105 85 85 85 85 85 85 90 90 90 90 90 90 100 100 100 100 105 105 105 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 95 95 100 100 100 110 110 110 110 105 115 115 115 115 115 115 120 120 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 130 110 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 120 120 50 50 50 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 50 45 55 55 55 55 50 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 70 70 70 70 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 70 70 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 75 75 75 A<? 1 % 1 2 2 7 8 10 11 10 9* 6 6 7 8 10 8* 4 4 5 6 3 3 4 11 12 13 15 16 15* 14* 12* 12* 12 10* 10* 8 10 12 10* 10* 3 4 5 6 7 6* 2 3 3 3 4 3* 1 2 2 2 5 6 7 8 10 9* 4 5 6 7 7 7* Hardness number HB 88 88 88 63 63 63 63 63 63 70 70 70 70 70 70 78 78 78 78 87 87 87 75 75 75 75 75 75 73 70 69 75 75 73 89 89 89 89 83 94 94 94 94 94 94 102 102 102 102 102 102 108 108 108 108 89 89 89 89 89 89 99 99 99 99 99 99 .0 3.5 12.0 0.5 1.5 1.0 12.2 0.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.0 40.5 80.0 0.b ToW.0 6.5 6.0 6.0 0.5 0.2 0.5 12.5 40.0 12.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 3. page 5 of 7.0 50.5 1.5 12.5MnO.0 6.5 80.0 40.0 12.5 25.0 0.0 6.5 50.5 1.0 80.0 3.5 1.5 40.5 <:6.0 12.5 0.5 3.0 120.0 6.5 0.0 3.2 0.2 0.5 1.5 3.5 0.0 3.0 0.5 0.zd crSch.5 1.5 1.S vw.0 40.0 4.5 0.5 25.0 0.0 6.zd crW.5 3.0 40.5 3.5 1.5 12.5 0.5 0.0 80.5 1.0 3.5 1.5 1.0 6.2 0.7 H112 H116"} HI2 HI4 H16 H22/H32 H24/H34 Nominal thickness inmm from to 0.2 0.0 12.5 12.5 1.5 3.
0 240 6.5 360 1.5 360 3.0 310 6.0 275 0.149 5.5 3.5 1.5 1.2 0.0 12.5 345 1.5 310 3.7 continued H26/H36 EN AW5086 OlHlIl AlMg4 H1I2 H1I6 H12 H14 H16 H18 H22/H32 H24/H34 H261H36 EN AW6082 T4 T451 AISiMgMn T451 T42 T6 T651 T62 from 0.0 12.5 1.5 275 3.0 275 6.5 0.0 0.2 0.0 12.0 275 12.0 205 1.5 3.5 0.5 325 1.5 240 3.5 3.5 300 1.zd crW.0 2:0.0 205 6.0 300 0.5 325 3.0 300 6.0 6.0 205 12.5 40.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5. page 6 of 7.0 2: 0.0 275 0.2 0.0 275 0.5 0.2 0.5 275 1.5 3.0 275 12.0 240 3.0 2: 0.0 325 4.0 205 1.22 Continued.0 12.2 0.thickness Rm Re crW.5 40.5 3.5 275 3.0 240 12.2 0.5 310 AV 1 % 2" 3 3 3 11 12 13 15 17 16* 8 9* 12* 8 9 10 9* 3 4 5 6 7 6* 2 3 3 3 4 3* 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 5 6 7 8 10 9* 4 5 6 7 8 7* 2 3 3 3 12 14 15 14 13* 12* 12 14 15 14 13* 12* 6 7 10 9 Hardness number HB 106 106 106 106 65 65 65 65 65 65 69 65 65 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 90 90 90 90 90 90 98 98 98 98 104 104 104 80 80 89 80 80 80 88 88 88 88 88 88 96 96 96 96 58 58 58 58 58 58 57 57 57 57 57 57 94 94 94 91 .5 250 40.5 2: 6.5 205 3.5 240 150.0 325 0.5 3.0 12.0 6.5 3.0 12.0 360 4.t 280 280 280 280 100 100 100 100 100 100 125 105 100 195 195 195 195 200 200 200 200 200 200 240 240 240 240 240 240 270 270 270 270 290 290 290 185 185 185 185 185 185 220 220 220 220 220 220 250 250 250 250 110 110 110 110 110 110 95 95 95 95 95 95 260 260 260 260 110 110 110 110 70 70 70 70 70 79 75 70 70 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 90 90 90 90 90 90 100 100 100 100 105 105 105 85 85 85 85 85 85 90 90 90 90 90 90 100 100 100 100 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 95 95 95 95 80 80 80 80 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 75 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 75 75 75 75 130 130 130 130 90 90 90 90 90 90 95 90 90 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 110 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 125 125 125 100 100 100 100 100 100 110 110 110 110 110 110 115 115 115 115 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 110 110 110 110 60 60 60 60 40 40 40 40 40 40 45 40 40 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 55 55 55 55 80 80 80 80 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 60 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 65 65 70 70 70 70 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 70 70 70 70 m mm EN AW5083 AI Mg4.2 0.0 0.0 205 12.5 3.0 12.5 40.0 300 12.2 0.0 6.5 1.5MnO.5 3.0 300 0.5 3.0 205 80.0 205 6.0 275 12.5 275 50.2 0.5 1.5 325 3.5 205 3.0 12.5 1.0 325 4.5 1.0 12.5 1.0 240 12.5 300 3.s ~W.0 6.5 1.0 300 12.4 1.0 360 0.5 300 25.0 6.0 345 0.0 310 12.5 300 1.0 325 1.5 300 3.0 205 80.zd crSch.0 6.5 205 40.5 275 40.5 3.5 275 40.0 275 6.5 3.0 6.5 275 1.5 240 1.5 345 3.5 " 300 25.0 2: 1.1.4 1.0 6.5 0.5 325 1. Material Condition Nom.0 to 0.4 1.5 0.0 300 6.b ~W.0 275 6.0 240 80.0 6.5 205 40.5 0.
1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.5 3.0 6.5 60.0 6.5 1.0 175.0 150.5 25.0 21.5 25.0 6.0 20.8 1.0 100.0 6.0 6.0 60.0 1.0 50.5 EN AW7022 AIZn5Mg3Cu EN AW7075 AIZn5.0 12.0 120. page 7 of 7.0 175.4 0. Material Condition Nom.0 0.150 5.0 50.0 60.b ~W.0 3.0 80.0 150.0 6.thickness Rm Re crW.0 100.22 Continued.4 1.5 60.5 3.0 12.0 50.zd crW.0 6.0 80.0 to 60.5 40.5Mg1.zd crSch.0 60.5 3.0 12.0 100.0 100.0 100.5 3.5 3.0 21.4 1.0 175.0 90.0 100.5 3.0 12.5Mg1 T6 T651 T62 T651 EN AW7021 AIZn5.0 100.0 6.0 12.4 1.0 90.5 3.5 3.0 50.0 12.0 20.5 3.0 200.0 50.0 20.0 12.8 1.s ~W.0 150.0 150.0 12.0 21.0 60.0 150.0 6.0 6.0 >3.5 40.0 80.0 12.0 120.0 100.0 1.5 25.5 25.0 50.5MgCu T6 T6 T6 T651 T6 T651 T62 T651 T62 T76 T7651 T73 T7351 T7351 from 12.5 25.0 100.0 12.0 6.5 3.5 3.0 6.5 3.0 150.5 60.0 6.0 80.0 150.0 20.0 3.0 100.0 % 8* 7* 6* 4* 10 11 11 12 12* 10* 9* 8* 11 12 13 14 7 8 10 10 9* 8* 7* 6* 7 8 8 8* 7* 5* 3* 6 6 7 8 8 6* 5* 4* 4* 4* 3* 2* 2* 7 8 7 7 8 7 6* 5* 5* 5* 5* Hardness number HB 89 89 84 83 82 82 82 82 81 81 81 81 92 92 92 92 104 104 104 104 104 101 98 98 121 121 133 133 133 127 121 157 160 161 163 160 161 158 155 147 144 135 119 104 149 149 146 137 137 140 140 140 133 129 126 .0 100.0 12.5 25.t 295 295 275 275 280 280 280 280 275 275 275 275 320 320 320 320 350 350 350 350 350 340 330 330 400 400 450 450 450 430 410 525 540 540 545 540 540 530 525 495 490 460 410 360 500 500 490 460 460 475 475 475 455 440 430 240 240 240 230 205 205 205 205 200 200 200 200 210 210 210 210 280 280 280 280 280 270 260 260 350 350 370 370 370 350 330 460 460 470 475 460 470 460 440 420· 390 360 300 260 425 425 415 385 385 390 390 390 360 340 340 90 90 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 95 95 95 95 105 105 105 105 105 100 100 100 120 120 135 135 135 130 125 160 160 160 165 160 160 160 160 150 145 140 125 110 150 150 145 140 140 145 145 145 135 130 130 70 70 65 65 70 70 70 70 65 65 65 65 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 80 80 75 75 90 90 95 95 95 90 90 105 110 110 110 110 110 105 105 100 100 95 90 80 105 105 100 95 95 100 100 100 95 95 95 110 110 100 100 105 105 105 105 100 100 100 100 115 115 115 115 125 125 125 125 125 120 120 120 140 140 155 155 155 150 145 175 180 180 180 180 180 180 175 170 165 160 145 130 170 170 165 160 160 160 160 160 155 150 150 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 55 55 70 70 80 80 80 75 70 90 95 95 95 95 95 90 90 85 85 80 70 60 85 85 85 80 80 80 80 80 80 75 75 65 65 60 60 65 65 65 65 60 60 60 60 70 70 70 70 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 85 85 95 95 95 95 90 110 115 115 115 115 115 110 110 105 105 100 90 80 105 105 105 100 100 100 100 100 95 95 95 A}I in mm EN AW6082 AlSiMgMn continued T651 T62 T61 T6151 T6151 EN AW7020 T4 T451 AI Zn4.0 12.1.
35 mm on.0 0.35 10 0.0 50  .s ~W.23 Mechanical properties in MFa for wrought aluminum alloys.0 0. Material DIN notation A1Mg2.28 G27 . 3.0 0.26 G24 .35 3.35 10 0.07 F22 .35 3.0 0.10 F19 .3523 . I (19830200) (selected types of material only).35 10 0.28 G25 .35 3.35 3.35 4.0 0.35 3.35 10 0.35 3. wg = hot rolled.0 F21 .10 .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. strips and sheets with a thickness from 0.07 Thickness inmm from to 0. .0 0.0 10 0.26 G24 .35 4.07 F20 .35 3.0 0.0 0.10 . w = softannealed.30 3.27 F27 ~ 1 see page153 .1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5. after DIN 1745 T.07 F21 .0 0.24 022 .35 3.0 10 0.35 3.0 0.35 3.35 6.31 3.0 0.07 F20 .26 G23 .35 10 0. rg = recrystallization annealed.3527 .0 0.0 0.10 .25 F24 .24 G22 .35 3.0 0.35 3.5 W17 F21 No.35 10 0.35 3.35 3.35 3.0 0.0   6.35 3.35 3.35 3.151 5.0 0.28 ~ crW.35 3.25 F24 .0 0.35 10 0.24 G21 .35 10 0.29 F27 .35 10 0.35 4. 25 50  Rp 170 0.0 0.0 0.8 W19 W19 .zd crW.07 F22 .0 50   25 50   10 25 3  5.35 6.35 3.0 0.0 0.35 3.35 10 0.35 3.0 0.35 3.35 10 Rm 25   6.27 F27 .0 0.35 10 0.b ~W.35 3.25 F23 .29 F29 A1Mg2MnO.10 F19 .30 G27 A1Mg3 W19 W19 .35 4.0 0.0 6.35 10 2 kg = coldrolled.35 4.t A5 AlO % % ~1 ~1 Hardness Condo number HB ~2 50 w 60 50 45 65 30 40 20 17 210 160 65 55 80 35 50 10 8 65 kg 210 130 65 55 80 35 50 12 10 65 rg 230 180 70 60 85 40 55 5 4 73 kg 230 150 70 60 85 40 55 10 8 73 rg 250 210 75 60 95 45 55 4 3 80 kg 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 7 6 80 rg 270 240 80 65 100 45 60 3 2 85 kg 270 210 80 65 100 45 60 6 5 85 rg 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 20 17 50 w 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 18  50 w 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 12  50 wg 200 120 60 50 75 35 45 10  60 wg 210 140 65 55 80 35 50 12  60 wg 220 165 65 55 85 40 50 9 7 65 kg 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 14 12 65 rg 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 5 4 73 kg 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 10 8 73 rg 265 215 80 65 100 45 60 4 3 80 kg 265 190 80 65 100 45 60 7 6 80 rg 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 3 2 85 kg 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 20 17 50 w 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 18  50 w 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 12  50 wg  200 120 60 50 75 35 45 10  60 wg 210 140 65 55 80 35 50 12  60 wg 220 165 65 55 85 40 50 9 7 65 kg 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 14 12 65 rg 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 5 4 73 kg 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 10 8 73 rg 265 215 80 65 100 45 60 4 3 80 kg 10 0.35 10 0.0 0.27 F25 .1.35 3.zd crSch.3535 .
27 .10 F28 G28 G30 AlMg4.35 . ·60 9  85 rg 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 7  85 rg 240 310 70 60 90 40 55 18  65 w 240 95 70 60 90 40 55 17  60 w 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 7  80 kg 275 190 85 65 100 50 60 12  80 rg 300 230 90 70 110 50 65 8  90 rg 275 125 85 65 100 45 60 17 15 70 w 275 125 85 65 100 45 60 12  70 wg 310 205 95 75 110 55 70 10  85 rg 345 270 105 80 125 60 75 6 5 100 rg  :S: 85      18 15 35 w 10 0.72 t'"1 AlO 1. w = softannealed.10 0.27 3.51 0.0 6.0 0.71 .35 50   4.0 0.0 290 240 85 70 105 50 65 10 8 90 wa 290 240 85 70 105 50 65 9  90 wa 3.b 12 F21 F32 crSch.0 50  65 100 45 60 7 6 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 3 2 85 kg 215 100 65 55 80 35 50 17  55 wg 215 100 65 55 80 35 50 12  55 wg 245 180 75 60 90 40 55 10  75 rg 245 180 75 60 90 40 55 8  75 rg 270 200 80 65 100 45.0     6.t 40 F28 F30 'tW.27 3.0 6.0   1.0  25 G25 G25 .0 .3537 .35 3.3547 .0 0.0 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 16 14 65 ka 3.    18 15 40 w  :S: 80      17 14 40 w 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 14 12 60 ka  205 110 60 55 80 35 50 12 10 60 ka 12 3. page 1 of2.35 F29 190 0.25 .s 6.35 .0 G27  Rm .35 3.0 0.72 crW.07 Thickness inmm from to 0.0 .0 20 205 110 60.35 3.5Mn W28 F28 G31 G35 AlMgSil W F21  .71 0.35 .0 3.0 2. .29 .7Mn F22 F22 No.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.72 'tW.35 3.71 F21 265 0.3545 W24 .35 20   2. rg = recrystallization annealed.2315 .10 .35 3.0 3.0 6.0 0.35 F30 A5 1.25 G27 .0 .0  . .152 5.35 10 0.0 F28 ~ .24 6.27 AlMg4Mn 3.35 3.51 . wa = artificially aged.35 10 F29 80 3.35 6.07 .51    4.0 0.0 F21 ¢>1 Hardness Condo number HB ~2 rg 80 6. Material DIN notation AlMg2MnO.0   1.25 .0 60   0.zd 50  Rp 25 4.35 3.0 12 2 ka = naturallyaged.51 0.0 12 3. kg = coldrolled.25 .0 6.0 6.23 Continued.10 0.10 .10 W24 .35 3.0 0.8 G27 F29 AlMg2.35 3.0 1.0 .0 AlMglSiCu W W % 3.07 .0 100 .0 3.35 3.zd 12 0. 55 80 35 50 14 12 65 ka 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 14 12 85 wa 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 12  85 wa 315 255 95 75 115 55 70 10 8 95 wa 295 245 90 70 110 50 65 9  95 wa 295 240 90 70 110 50 65 8  90 wa  :S: 80  .1.0 0.0 50   1.0 6.30 3.0 crW.35 10 4.71 0.0 6. wg = hot rolled.27 .
71 F45 .71 AlZn4.1355 W .1.0 3.71  1.zd 60 6.5 25 .0  O'W.0 12 530 450 160 105 180 90 110 5  140 wa 530 450 160 105 180 90 110 3  140 wa  500 430 150 105 170 85 105 2  130 wa 63  480 410 145 100 165 85 100 2  130 wa 480 390 145 100 165 85 100 2  130 wa    12 25  50 .10 F35 . page 2 of2.35 3.10 F40 .51 . Material DIN notation No.0 12 12 25 F43   15 O'W.71 F48 F48 .35 0.51 AlCuMg2 3.5 0.51 .35 Rm 50 75 100 1 The elongation As is to be usedfor the assessment.5 3..35 F39 F39 . .51  12  0. AlCuMgI 3.1255 W .0 0.0 0.71 F34 . w = soft annealed.2 HB w 50  s 140      13 II 395 265 120 85 140 70 85 13 II 100 ka 390 265 115 85 135 70 85 13  100 ka 385 245 115 85 135 65 85 12  95 ka  s 140      13 II 55 w 440 290 130 95 150 75 95 13 II 110 ka      13  55 w  ~ 140 140 70 85 12  105 ka 400 250 120 90 140 70 85 II  100 ka 390 250 115 85 135 70 85 8  100 wa 460 400 140 95 160 80 100 7  125 wa  s 140      15 13 45 w 3.1325 W .71 .71 AlZnMgCuO.zd 400  25 50 F41 3.0  0. 2 ka = naturallyaged.35 Rp 3.10 F44 .71 63  75 c ~W.0 15 350 275 105 80 125 60 75 10 8 105 wa  340 270 100 80 120 60 75 9  105 wa 60  450 370 135 95 155 80 95 8  125 wa   50 100   1.51 .1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.71 F53 .4335 W .35 AlCuSiMn 3.b 250   O'Sch.35 3.35 0..35 6.5Mg1 3.23 Continued.35 12 0.51 Thickness inmm from to 0.51 F40 F39 F46 . .4365 F53 ..4345 F45 ..71 A5 AIO ~I % }1 Hardness Condo number .0 12 0..10 F40 .0 12 3.5 25   1..5 3.153 5.0 25  450 370 135 95 155 80 95 7  125 wa 50 100 430 350 130 95 150 75 95 5  110 wa   410 330 125 90 145 70 90 3  100 wa 100  200  530 450 160 105 180 90 110 8  140 wa 6.s 120 50 6.t 90  25 F50 ~W. wa = artificially aged.71 AlZnMgCu1.71 F53 .71  .
cold drawn rods / bars and tubes.zd crsch.1255 EN AW2014A AlCu48iMg(A) EN AW2017A AlCu4Mg8i(A) 3.zd crW.0517 Condition Rods/ Bars D.1355 EN AW2030 AlCu4PbMg EN AW3003 AlMnlCu 3.1655 EN AW2011A AlCu6BiPb(A) EN AW2014 AlCu48iMg 3. EN AW2007 AlCu4PbMgMn 3. Material.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5. EN notation DIN notation No.b 'tW.1325 EN AW2024 AlCu4Mgl 3.t A A50 ~2 ~2 MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa % % 370 340 370 370 370 240 220 250 240 240 110 100 110 110 110 85 80 85 85 85 130 120 130 130 130 65 60 65 65 65 80 75 80 80 80 7 6 7 5 5 320 300 280 310 290 370 370 <240 270 250 210 260 240 270 275 < 125 95 90 85 95 85 110 110 70 75 70 70 75 70 85 85 60 115 110 105 110 105 130 130 90 55 50 50 55 50 65 65 40 70 70 65 70 65 80 80 55 10 10 10 10 8 8 8 12 8 6 8 6 10 380 380 380 290 290 290 115 115 115 85 85 85 135 135 135 65 65 65 85 85 85 8 6 6 6 4 4 380 380 380 380 220 240 220 240 115 115 115 115 85 85 85 85 135 135 135 135 65 65 65 65 85 85 85 85 12 12 10 10 10 10 8 8 380 380 380 135 135 135 95 95 95 155 155 155 80 80 80 95 95 95 8 6 6 6 4 4 5  5 3 3 8  20   20 450 450 450  80  20 <240 < 125 <70 <60 <90 40 55 12 10  80 80  20   20 400 400 400 250 250 250 120 120 120 90 90 90 140 140 140 70 70 70 85 85 85 10 8 8 8 6 6 10  80  <250 <240 425 425 440 420 425 420 < 150 < 140 310 290 290 270 310 290 <75 <70 130 130 130 125 130 125 <60 <60 90 90 95 90 90 90 <90 >90 145 145 150 145 145 145 <45 <40 75 75 75 75 75 75 < 55 < 55 90 90 95 90 90 90 12 12 10 9 10 10 8 8 10 10 8 7 8 8 6 6  80 80 80 80 30 80 80 425 425 455 455 370 340 370 370 315 315 400 400 240 220 240 240 130 130 135 135 110 100 110 110 90 90 95 95 85 80 85 85 145 145 155 155 130 120 130 130 75 75 80 80 65 60 65 65 90 90 95 95 80 75 80 80 5 4 4 3 7 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 5 95 95 130 130 160 160 180 180 35 35 110 110 130 130 145 145 30 30 40 40 50 50 55 55 25 25 35 35 45 45 45 45 40 40 50 50 65 65 70 70 15 15 25 25 30 30 30 30 25 25 30 30 40 40 40 40 25 25 6 6 4 4 3 3  30 T351 T3510 T3511 0.154 5.1. after DIN EN 7542 (19970800).1645 EN AW2011 AlCu6BiPb 3. 8 ~ 1 Tubes e~ I mm mm von T3  30 T351 T3510 T3511 T3  40 50 T8 0 Hill T3 T351 T3510 T3511 T4 T451 T4510 T4511 T6 T651 T6510 T6511 0 HIll T3 T351 T3510 T3511 0.24 Mechanical properties in MPa for wrought aluminum alloys. Hill T3 T351 T3510 T3511 T6 T651 T8 T851 T3  HI4 H16 HI8 von to    40 50 80   80  80  80  80 80  80 80    80 80    5  20 20   5 20   20 20  20  20  20 20 Rp crW.s 'tW. HIli to 30 80 Rm   10 80  80    20  5 5 20  20     80  (D) (8) (D) (8) (D) (8) 40 10 15 5 10 3       20  20 10  5  3   3 3 16 10 4 4 3 3 2 2 .
7 3.zd O"sch. HIll H12.1.155 5.H111 H14 EN AW·5005A AlMg1(C) 3. HIll H12. H22. H34 H16. HIll H14 H18 0. H26. H34 (D) (8) ~~? ~~?  to 80 60 40 10 15 5 10 3 80 60 40 10 15 2 80 60 40 25 25 10 von · · to 20 · 10  5  3  20  5  3 · 20 · 10 Rp O"W.zd O"W. H38 0. H36 H18. H24.5MnO.3315 EN AW5019 AlMg5 3. H24. H34 H16. H26. Material EN notation DIN notation No.3525 EN AW·5052 AlMg2. H34 H18. H38 0.s 'tW. H22. H24.5 3. EN AW3103 AlMnI 3. H22. H34 H18. H22. H36 0. H32 H14. H28. H36 H18. HIll H12.b 'tW. H32 H14. H26. H34 H16. H28. H28.3523 EN AW5154A AlMg3. H24.0515 Condition 0.3555 EN AW5251 AlMg2 3. H111 (D) (8) (D) (8) H12.8~ I H18 0. H24.24 Continued. H24. H32 H14.3547 Tubes e e. H32 H14. page I of 2.  35 35 45 50 50 65 45 45 60 60 70 70 65 65 70  4 4 3 2       ·        55 55 55 70 70 85 85 80 80 85     80 80 180 180 240 240 110 110 200   45   .  · · . H38 0. H28.       2 ·   30 30 40 40 50 50 45 45 50 40 40 55 55 65 65 60 60 65 16 16 4 4 3 3 16 16 6 14 14 3 3 2 2 14 14 4 50 65 4 3   .t A A50 ~2 ~2 MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa % % 95 95 130 130 160 160 180 180 100 100 140 140 185 185 250 250 270 270 300 300 300 320 35 35 110 110 130 130 145 145 40 40 110 110 155 155 110 110 180 180 210 210 220 260 30 30 40 40 50 50 55 55 30 30 40 40 55 55 75 75 80 80 90 90 90 95 25 25 35 35 45 45 45 45 30 30 40 40 50 50 60 60 65 65 70 70 70 75 40 40 50 50 65 65 70 70 40 40 55 55 70 70 95 95 100 100 110 110 110 115 15 15 25 25 30 30 30 30 15 15 25 25 30 30 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 55 25 25 30 30 40 40 40 40 25 25 35 35 45 45 55 55 60 60 65 65 65 70 25 25 6 6 4 4 3 3 18 18 6 6 4 4 16 16 8 8 4 4 4 2 20 20 4 4 3 3 2 2 16 16 4 4 2 2 14 14 7 7 3 3 3 2 15 15 4 ·  · · · 5 3  ·  ·   ·  80 60 · · 20 150 150 180 60 60 110 40 40 45 60 60 70 25 25 30 35 35 40 17 17 5 ·  45 45 55 200 200 200 220 160 160 160 180 60 60 60 65 50 50 50 55 75 75 75 85 35 35 35 40 45 45 45 50 5 5 4 3 ·   · · 240 240 170 170 210 200 200 65 65 160 70 70 50 50 65 60 60 45 45 55 90 90 65 65 80 40 40 30 30 35 55 55 40 40 50 2 2 20 20 7 2 2 17 17 5 5 230 180 70 60 85 40 55 5 250 200 75 60 95   · 30 5  20 3 80 60 40  25  15 · 10  80 60 25  10  80 60 25 5 10 3 80 60 30   ·  Rm  · ·  10  3  · 5 5 ·    ·  ·  ·  · · · 20  5      270    220  ·   80  10 85 85 200 60 60 80 5 310 240 95    20   10   20 · 10 5 300   3     ·    · 200 200 260 20 180 180 240 240 280 280 270 270 280      · .3535 EN AW·5083 AlMg4.I mm mm von H16 EN AW5005 AlMg1(B) Rods/ Bars D. H38 0. HIll ~~? (D) (8) (D) (8) (D) (8) (D) (8) (D) (8) ~~? (D) (8) (D) (8) (D) (8)  (D) (8) (D) (8) (D) (8) (D) (8) ~~? (D) (8) (D) (8) (D) (8) ~~? (D) (8) (D) (8) ~~? H14.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5. HIll (D) (8) (D) (8) H14.     65     100 45 60 70 110    · 2 14 14 4 55 70 3 110 90 3  16 16 5 75 235 2 4  45 45 60 75 75 95 70 70 90 90 105 105 100 100 105 3 .     .5(A) EN AW5754 AlMg3 3.
 20 385 385 385 135 135 135 95 95 95 155 155 155 80 80 80 95 95 95 10 8 8 · · · ·  20 455 455 455 · · · ·  ~ 1 D diameter of roundrods.24 Continued. H24. H34 H16.2315 EN AW7020 AlZn4.4365 mm ~~? (D) (S) ·  to 80 60 30  von  to 20  10  Rm Rp A A50 ¢o2 ¢o2 MPa MPa MPa % % 240 240 270 95 95 190 70 70 80 60 60 65 90 90 100 40 40 45 55 55 60 16 16 5 14 14 4 230 90 70 110 50 65 3 2 95 75 115 ·  3 320 260 5 ~W.7Si(A) mm  T8 T9 EN AW6063 AlMgO.b MPa 295  crsch. . .  5 20 20 500 530 530 < 165 175 175 175 <85 115 115 115 <65 195 195 195 < 100 100 100 100 < 50 120 120 120 <60 7 6 7 10 5 4 5 8 80 80 · 20   · · · · · · 20 540 540 540 485 485 485 160 160 160 110 110 110 180 180 180 95 95 95 115 115 115 7 5 5 6 4 4 8 6 6 · · · · · ·  5 20 20  80 T73511 5  590 590 590 <275 80  5 · · · · · T73510 · · 80 80  5 · · · · · · · .4335 EN AW7022 AlZn5Mg3Cu 3.5Mgl 3. HIll T4 T6 T6 T4 EN AW6082 AlSilMgMn 3. EN AW5086 AlMg4 3. ~ 2 The elongation A is to be usedfor the assessment. HIlI H12. T6511 0. S thickness of rectangular rods. HlIl T4 T6 0. H36 T4 T6 T4 0. page 2 of2.156 5. e wall thickness of tubes.3211 Rods! Bars D.  .0615 EN AW6060 AlMgSi 3.s MPa 20 20 crW.1.3545 EN AW6012 AlMgSiPb 3. H32 H14. T651O.zd   ·  200 310 100 260 60 95 65 65 65 160 40 40 40 65           55 2 1  70 · 50 75 75 110 35 55 45 70 10 8 8 5 35 35 35 55 50 50 50 80 25 25 25 35 30 30 30 50 15 12 15 12 13 10 13 10    80 80  80  5  80  20 20 130 130 130 215 80  20 < 150 < 110 <45 <40 <60 <25 <35 16 14 80 80 80  20 20 5 20 10 10 205 290 290 290 345 360 150 150 150 220 230 275 < 140 110 240 240 240 315 330 75 75 75 190 195 240  60 85 85 85 105 110 45 45 45 65 70 85 <40 55 70 70 70 80 80 40 40 40 55 60 65 <40 80 105 105 105 125 130 60 60 60 85 85 100 < 55 35 50 50 50 60 60 25 25 25 40 40 50 < 25 50 65 65 65 75 80· 35 35 35 50 55 60 < 35 16 10 10 10 4 4 15 12 15 10 10 5 15 14 8 8 8 3 3 13 10 13 8 8 3 13 ·  ·    50 50 80  5     80 80  T66 T832  0.5MgCu 3. EN notation DIN notation No.3206 Condition EN AW·6262 AlMglSiPn 0. . T6511 T73 T7351      ·       · · · · · .7Si Tubes e ¢o 1 von T6 EN AW6061 AlMglSiCu 3.zd MPa 5  crW. H22.4345 EN AW7049A AlZn8MgCu EN AW7075 AlZn5.S ¢ol T6 T6 T6 T6. HIll T6 T651 T651O.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5. HIll T4 T6  80  5 20 20 20 5 20  80 80 80  20 20 20 150 230 < 160 90 190 < 110 45 70 <50 40 60 <45 60 85 <65 25 40 <30 35 55 <40 16 9 15 14 7 13  80 80  20 (D) (S) 80 50   205 310 310 310 350 350 110 255 255 240 280 280 60 95 95 95 105 105 55 75 75 75 80 80 80 110 110 110 125 125 35 55 55 55 60 60 50 70 70 70 75 75 4 10 8 10 10 10 12 9 7 9 8 8  80  20 460 380 140 95 155 80 100 8 6 · T6 EN AW6063A AlMgO. Material. H26.t MPa   ~W. S gaugeof squareor hexagonal rods.
p = extruded.Z 75 wa.1325 . Material DIN notation Rods/ Bars No. p ka.71  80  80  50 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 14 12  60  60  50 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 12 13 F31 .51 .z 80 wa p. p 100 wa.4335 .10 . Z 120 ka.72  60  60  50 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 10 8 F30 F27 AlCuMgl F38 F40 F36 F33 AlCuMg2 F44 F47 F40 AlCuSiMn F44 F46 F43 AlZn4.51 100 3.71 120 80 120 200 80 120 80 120 200   . 50 80 HB 1 D diameterof roundrods.71 .3206 .p .10 60 35 aile 60 25 aile 15 10 aile 255 280 200 145 200 100 75 85 60 65 70 50 95 105 75 45 50 35 60 65 45 10 6 13 8 5 11 70 80 50 w p. Z = extruded and drawn.7 8 60 80 200 50 50 50 150 30 490 470 510 420 400 440 145 140 155 100 100 105 165 160 170 85 80 90 105 100 105 7 7 7 50 80 150 520 510 500 460 450 440 155 155 150 105 105 105 175 170 170 90 90 85 110 105 105 7 7 5 F25 AlMgSil F21 F22 ~ 3. p 125 wa. ~ 8  8 7  8 6 6 6 6 5  P 60 110 110 110 115 ka. rods / bars.5 F51 F52 F51 F50 .z 105 wa.z 95 wa.51 .z F25 AlMg4.p 95 wa.2315 .zd O'Sch.24 .5 F13 F22 3.71 .Z 95 wa p. 80 .3547 .72 .4365 . p 140 wa.Z Z P aile aile aile 250 110 75 60 95 45 55 14 12 60 . is to be usedfor the assessment.26 3.71 100 3. D~1 S~2 rom rom AlMg3 F18 W18 F25 AlMg5 F25 W25 3.08 .4345 .71 . I (19830200) (selected types of material only).1.71 .p 130 wa.s 'tw.157 5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.z 80 200 250 50 30 70 200 30 400 360 330 440 270 220 200 310 120 110 100 130 90 80 75 95 140 130 120 150 70 60 55 75 85 80 75 95 10 7 6 10 8 30 70 100 200 50 60 150 30 470 400 440 330 260 360 140 120 130 100 90 95 160 140 150 80 70 75 100 85 95 8 6 8 6 60 100 200 50 60 150 30 460 430 350 400 350 280 140 130 105 95 95 80 160 150 125 80 75 60 100 95 75 7 6 10 6 60 100 250 50 60 200 30 350 350 460 290 270 380 105 105 140 80 80 95 125 125 160 60 60 80 75 75 100 10 7 .p ka.zd Q"W.b 'tW. p 105 ka.8 F20 W18 Rm R" (JW.p 120 wa.z 140 wa. w = softannealed.3555 .08 .51 80 .08 . after DIN 1747 T. p 140 wa.t A.p ka.5Mn F27 W27 .1255 .51 .51 . Z 70 wa P.26 3. wa = artificially aged. p.71   .z 65 ka.08 . p.1355 .p 100 wa.71  80 200 250 50 80 200  100 200 50 100  100 200 50 100 100 250 50 100 80 200 50 80 .20 300 270 380 240 200 260 90 80 115 70 65 85 110 100 135 50 45 65 65 60 85 8 6 10  w P.3527 .71 80 3. % A IO % ~4 ~4 Hdn Condo ~5 no.71 .z 125 wap 120 wa.72 60 200 200 250 50 60 200 200 250 50 50 100 100 200 .10 aile F26 F28 AlMg2MnO.72  50  50  50 145 195 45 40 55 25 35 10 8 3.51 200 3. 4 The elongation A.z Z Z P aile aile aile 180 80 55 50 70 30 40 16 14 45 w p.51 . Z 45 ka p.p 110 ka.5 F46 F49 F47 AlZnMgCul.71 .10 20 aile 10 aile 5 aile 250 270 180 140 75 80 60 65 95 100 45 45 55 60 4 12 3 10 75 65 Z aile aile aile 270 110 80 65 100 45 60 12 10 AlMgSiO.3535 . ~ 3 S thickness of rectangular rods.71 100 3.5Mgl F35 F35 F35 AlZnMgCuO.25 Mechanical properties in MFa for wrought aluminum alloys. ~ 5 Condition: ka = naturallyaged.71 .26 3.71 aile aile aile 130 65 40 35 50 25 30 15 13  50  50  50 215 160 65 55 80 35 50 12 10 .z 130 wa.51 . ~ 2 S gaugeof squareor hexagonal rods. p 140 wa. aile S~ 3 mm aile 180 80 55 50 70 30 40 14 12 45 P aile 20 aile aile 10 aile aile 5 aile 180 250 250 80 180 110 55 75 75 50 60 60 70 95 95 30 45 45 40 55 55 16 4 13 14 3 11 45 75 60 P.
1655 eR eP T6 D S eR S eR eP AW2011A  T4 D S eR eP T6 D S eR AW2014A T4 T4510 T4511     30    295 195 90 70 110 50 65 6 200 200 20 <250 <135 <75 <60 <95 <45 <55 12 370 230 110 85 130 65 80 13 410 270 125 90 145 70 90 12 D S D S eR   eP  D eR >25 >25 >25 eP  D >75 >75 S S  all 25 25 20 25 20 25 75 75 75   150 150 D >150 >150  S eR eP  10 390 250 115 85 135 70 85 10 350 230 105 80 125 60 75 8  eP eR v 1 to 6 see page 159.zd O'sch.t A Rods/BarsS Tubese ENnotation Profiles e DINnotation No.doJ Table 5. extruded rods / bars.1. v3 mm v 1 AW2007 AICuMgPb 3.1645 T4 T4510 T4511 250 110 85 130 65 80 v5 8 200 200 340 220 100 80 120 60 75 8   >200 >200 250 250 330 210 100 75 120 55 75 7  200 60 275 125 85 65 100 50 60 14 75 60 25 310 230 95 75 110 55 70 8 eP  D >75 200 295 195 90 70 110 50 65 6 200 60 275 125 85 65 100 50 60 14 75 60 25 310 230 95 75 110 55 70 8 D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP AW2011 T4 D AICuBiPb S 3.1255   >75 eP AICuSiMn bis D eR 0 HIll von eP S AW2014 % v4 370 v 2 .1 Material tables 5 Appendices IRT51Alb. Material notation Condition Rods/Bars D Rm Rp O'W.s ~W.b ~W. >80 >80 200 eP and 80 80 25  eR 3.158 5. tubes and profiles after DIN EN 755A W2 (19970800).zd O'W.26 Material properties in MFa for wrought aluminum alloys.
s ~W. means. c A . e. that only upper bound values ofR".t ~3 mm c. are given in DIN EN 755AW2.1355 0 Hill eP D S eR eP >25 >25 >25 >75 >75 >150 >150  % bis 25 25 10 25 75 75 ~4 415 ~5 370 125 90 145 ~ 70 90 6 7 460 415 140 95 160 80 100 7 465 420 140 95 160 80 100 7 430 350 130 95 150 75 95 6 420 320 125 90 145 75 90 5 75 150 150 200 200 >200 250 >200 250 >10 40 450 400 135 95 155 80 95 6 200 <250 <135 <75 <60 < 95 < 45 < 55 12 380 260 115 85 135 65 85 12 400 270 120 90 140 70 85 10 10 390 260 115 85 135 70 85 9 370 240 110 85 130 65 80 8 360 220 110 80 130 60 80 7 <250 <150 <75 <60 <95 < 45 < 55 12  >25 >25 >10   200 20  25 25 10 30 75 75 75  >75 >75 150 >150 200 >150 200  150  >200 250 >200 250  .and R. e wall thickness of tubes and profiles. whereas lower bound values are required for an assessment of strength..4. S gauge of square or hexagonal rods.b ~W.   200 200 30 all 1 Sequence and material notation after DIN EN 755AW2.26 Continued.I continued AW2014 AICuSiMn 3. page 1 of 9 Material notation Condition Rods/Bars D Rods/BarsS Tubes e Profiles e ENnotation DINnotation No.zd crsch. hollow = hollow profil. and R. page 2.zd crW. ~ 6 open = open profil.1255 ~2 T6 T6510 T6511 and AW2014A  AW2017A AlCuMg1 3.159 5. ~ 5 Elongation referring to an initial length of the specimen of 5.1.1325 0 Hili T4 T4510 T4511 von D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D Is eR eP D Is eR eP D IseR eP D IseR eP D IseR AW2024 AlCuMg2 3. 2 The values "F" are for information only.65x (section of specimen) 1/2. ~ 3 D diameter of round rods. Rm Rp crW.<" for R".1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.
1355 AW2030  AW3003 AlMnCu 3.zd crW. Rm Rp crW.8 3.3326 F H112 0 H111 ~ von ~2 T8 T8510 T8511  A 1 to 6 seepage 159.1. page 2 of 9 Rods/Bars D Rods/BarsS Tubese Profiles e Material notation Condition ENnotation DINnotation No.b 'tW.26 Continued.zd crsch.0515 F H112 0 H111 AW5005  F H112 0 H111 AW5005A AlMg1 3.s 'tW.t ~3 % mm ~1 continued AW2024 AlCuMg2 3.3315 F H112 0 H111 AW5051A AlMg1.0517 T3 T3510 T3511 T4 T4510 T4511 F H112 0 H111 AW3103 AlMn1 3.160 5. D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR eP  bis 50 50   >50 >50 100 100    >100 >100  >15 >200 >200   450 310 135 95 155 80 95 8 440 300 130 95 150 75 95 8 420 280 125 90 145 75 90 8 400 270 395 290 120 125 120 90 90 85 140 145 140 70 75 70 85 90 85 8 8 8 455 380 135 95 155 80 95 5 370 250 110 85 130 65 80 8 340 220 100 80 120 60 75 8 330 210 100 75 120 60 75 7 95 35 30 25 40 15 25 25 95 35 30 25 40 15 25 25 100 40 30 30 40 15 25 18 100 40 . 30 30 40 15 25 20 100 40 30 30 40 15 25 18 100 40 30 30 40 15 25 20 all 150 50 45 40 60 25 35 16 all all all 150 60 45 40 60 25 35 16 all 150 50 45 40 60 25 35 18 all all 150 60 45 40 60 25 35 18  200 200 30 50 250 250 15  >80 >80 150 150 30 50 80 80 25 30 200 200   >200 >200 250 250   ~5 ~4   all all all all all all all all all all all all all all all  all all all all all all all   .1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.
3 Rm  all aLL all all all aLL all .3555 D S eR eP 0 Hlll D S eR eP F 0 Hlll D S eR eP D S eR eP ~ 40 16 160 60 50 45 65 30 40 17 170 70 50 45 65 30 40 15 170 70 50 45 65 30 40 17 200 85 60 50 75 35 45 16 200 85 60 50 75 35 45 18 200 85 60 50 75 35 45 16 · 1 to 6 see page 159.3523  'tW. 200 200 25 25  200 200 25  200 200 25 200 85 60 50 75 35 45 18 ·  · 150 150 25 180 80 55 45 70 30 40 14 >150 >150 250 250 180 70 55 45 70 30 40 13 150 150 25 180 80 55 45 70 30 40 17 200 200 30 250 110 75 60 95 45 55 14 200 200 30 250 110 75 60 95 45 55 15 200 200 all 270 110 80 65 100 45 60 12 260 100 8B 65 95 45 60 12  · >200 >200  25 200 200 25 25 25   30  all 250 250  .  · D S eR 3.161 5.5 O"sch.26 Continued.3537  D eR AW5454 A % S eP  'tW.3535 160  0 AW5754A all aLL  eP AlMg2. page 3 of 9 Material notation Condition Rods/Bars D Rods/BarsS Tubese ENnotation No.5Mn 65  eP AW·5083 45 D S eR eP 0 AlMg5 50  ~5 all all eP AW5019 60  Hlll AlMg3 3.zd ~3 ~1 AW5251 Rp Profiles e DINnotation A IMg2MnO.s bis 0 eP AW5154A O"W.t ~4 Hlll 3.b von all all aLL eR AlMg2.zd mm ~2 3.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.3547 30 eP eP AlMg4.1.7Mn 3. F H1l2 D S eR eP F H1l2 D S eR 0 D HIll S F H1l2 F H1l2 Hlll D S eR D S eR D S eR F H1l2 D S eR eP 0 D HIll S eR eP F H1l2 3.3525 AW5052 O"W.
page 4 of 9 Material notation Condition Rm Rods! Bars D Rp Cl"W.3545 D S eR eP 0 Hlli D S eR eP AW61OIA T6 AW6101B T6  D S eR eP EAUvIgSiO. 5 3. ¢1 continued AW5083 ¢2 ¢6 H1l2 AUvIg4.7 3.3210 D S eR eP D S eR eP D S eR T4 open T4 hollow T6 open eP eP ¢6 eP ¢6 T6 hollow ¢1 to 6 see page 159.1.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.162 5.t A Tubese Profiles e ENnotation ¢3 DINnotation % mm No.26 Continued.b ~W. 125 80 65 100 45 60 ¢5 12 240 95 70 60 90 40 55 12 240 95 70 60 90 40 55 18 200 170 60 50 75 35 45 10 215 160 65 55 80 35 50 8 170 120 50 45 65 30 40 12 25 25 5 270 225 80 65 100 45 60 10 50 50 5 270 225 80 65 100 45 60 8 100 100 10 260 215 80 65 95 45 60 8 25 180 90 55 45 70 30 40 15 270 260 250 255 250 225 215 200 215 200 80 80 75 75 75 65 65 60 65 60 100 95 95 95 95 45 45 45 45 45 60 60 60 60 60 8 270 225 80 65 100 45 60 10  150 150 all all 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 ·    10 5 >5 10 >10  25 5 15 25 25 5 >5 AW6005A ¢4 270 bis 200 200 all all 250 250 all all 200 200 all ·  >25 >25 8 · 270 225 80 65 100 45 60 8  50 50 5 >50 >50 >5 100 100 10 260 215 80 65 95 45 60 8  25 180 90 55 45 70 30 40 15 270 260 250 255 250 225 215 200 215 200 80 80 75 75 75 65 65 60 65 60 100 95 95 95 95 45 45 45 45 45 60 60 60 60 60 8   · ·  10 5 >5 10 >10 25 5 >5 15  I .3207 T7 S eR eP AW6005  T6 D S  eR eP D S eR eP D S eR T4 open T4 hollow T6 open  eP eP ¢6 eP ¢6 T6 hollow >25 >25 >50 >50 >5  T6 AUvIgSiO.s ~W.zd Cl"W.5Mn 3.zd Rods r Bars S Cl"sch.3547 AW5086 AUvIg4Mn von D S eR D S eR  eP  D ·  eP F H1l2 3.
t A Profiles e ENnotation {>3 DINnotation % rom No.1.zd O"sch. page 5 of 9 Material notation Condition Rods/Bars D Rods/BarsS Tubese Rm Rp O"W.zd O"W.s ~W.163 5. {>1 AW6106 {> 2 {> 6 T6 AW6012 T6 T6510 T6511  D S eR eP AlMgSiPb 3.3206  >150 >150  eP  D S eR eP eP {>6 eP {>6 D S eR eP T5  >150 >150 D S eR open hollow open hollow bis  D S eR eP T4 von D S eR eP  >5  >5 T6 D S eR eP  >3 T64 D S eR eP T66 D S eR eP  >3 AW6061 0 AlMg1SiCu Hill 3.5 3.3211 D S eR eP {> 1 to 6 see page 159.26 Continued.0165 D S eR eP D S eR eP AW6018  T6 T6510 T6511 D S eR eP AW6351 0  Hill  AW6060 T5 T5 T6 T6 T4 A lMgSiO.  {>5 {>4 250 310 200 260 75 95 60 75 95 110 45 55 60 70 8 8 200 200 260 200 80 65 95 45 60 8 150 150 30 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 8 200 200 260 200 80 65 95 45 60 8 200 200 25 < 160 < 110 <50 <45 < 65 <30 <40 14 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 14 270 230 80 65 100 45 60 8 290 300 120 250 255 60 85 90 35 70 70 35 105 110 50 50 50 20 50 65 30 8 10 16 160 120 50 45 60 30 40 8 140 190 100 150 40 55 40 50 55 75 25 35 35 45 8 8 170 180 140 120 50 55 45 45 65 70 30 30 40 40 8 12 215 160 65 55 80 35 50 8 195 < 150 150 < 110 60 <45 50 <40 75 <60 35 <25 45 < 35 8 16 10 150 150 30 30  30  all 200 200 25 25 5 5 25 150 150 15 25 150 150 15 5 25 150 150 15 3 25 50 50 15 15 150 150 15 3 25 200 200 25 25 .1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.b ~W.
zd crsch. ~ continued von ~2 ~6 T4 D S AW6061 eR AlMg1SiCu eP 3.3211 T6 D S eR   >5 eP  >5 AW6261 0 D Hill   S   T4 eR eP D  S eR eP T6 D S >5 10  5 25  5   >5 eP T5 open eP ~6 T5 hollow T6 open .  HilI T4 D S eR eP D S eR T5  .s tW.9 10 14 180 100 55 45 70 30 40 14 290 245 85 70 105 50 65 8 100 45 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 45 60 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 60 9 8 9 8 9 9 8 9 8 8 8 9 60 10 < 130  <40 <35 < 50 < 25 <30 18 150 150 10 25 200 200 25 130 65 40 35 50 25 30 14 120 65 35 35 50 20 30 12 200 200 25 3 25 175 130 55 45 70 30 40 8 160 110 50 45 65 30 40 7 200 200 25 25 200 200 25 eP 240 45  D 260 95 10 >150 >150 >10 IS 65 >5  40 80  5 25 5 . 30 240 >5  70 260  ~6 0 45 65 65 60 65 65 70 70 70 65 10  AW6063 55 80 80 75 80 80 85 85 85 80   110 230 220 210 230 220 245 235 245 230 >5 T6 180 270 260 250 270 260 290 280 290 270 eP T6 hollow AW6262 >5 >25 ~5 ~4 10   >20 eR bis 200 200 25 25 200 200 5 25 5 25 100 100 10 100 100 10 25 20 100 20 100 5 10 5  >20  % mm I 100 95 95 100 95 lOS 105 lOS   .164 5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.zd crW.1.t A Rods r Bars S Tubese Profiles e ENnotation ~3 DINnotation No. 80 65 95 45 60 8 < 170 < 120 < 50 <45 < 65 <30 <40 8 10 . page 6 of 9 Condition Material notation Rods/ Bars D Rm Rp crW.  S eR eP  >3 ~ I to 6 see page 159.26 Continued.b tw.
1. eP eP ~6   65 55 80 35 50 10 195 160 60 50 75 35 45 8 10 245 200 75 60 90 40 55 8 10 225 180 70 55 85 40 50 8 8 180 < 150 120  55.b 'tW.s 'tW. page 7 of 9 Material notation Condition Rods/Bars D Rods/BarsS Rm Rp crW.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.165 5.zd crsch.t A Tubese Profiles e ENnotation ~3 DINnotation No. Hll1  eP D S eR T4 eP D S eR eP D S eR T5 eP D S eR eP    >150 >150 >10 eP   D  150 150 eP D AW6463  T4 S eR T5 eP D S eR T6 eP D S eR AW6081  T6 S eR T6 open T6 hollow ~ eP D 1 to6 seepage 159. < 45 45 <40 70 <60 30 < 25 40 < 35 12 16 150 90 45 40 60 25 35 12 140 90 40 40 55 25 35 10 200 160 60 50 '75 35 45 7 190 230 150 190 60 70 50 60 75 85 35 40 45 55 6 7 220 160 65 55 85 40 50 7 220 180 65 55 85 40 50 5 125 75 40 35 50 20 30 14 150 110 45 40 60 25 35 8 195 160 60 50 75 35 45 10 275 240 85 65 100 50 60 8 275 240 85 65 100 50 60 8 10 S eR S eR  170  200 200 25 25 150 150 25 10 200 200 25 D 215  15 200 200 25 150 150 10 25 200 200 25  ~5   >150 >150 >10 ~4  25 200 200 25 10 25  >10 T6 % bis 150 150 25 10 200 200  50 150 150 50 150 150 25 50 250 250 25 25 15 .zd crW. 1 continued c mm von ~2 ~6 T6 AW6063  D  S eR  eP D  S eR T66 eP D S eR eP >150 >150  >10  >10 T64 D S eR AW6063 0.26 Continued.
166
5.1 Material tables
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.26 Continued, page 8 of 9
Material
notation
Condition
Rm
Rods/Bars D
Rods r Bars S
Rp
crW,zd
crsch,zd
crW,b
~W,s
~W,t
A
Tubese
Profiles e
ENnotation
>3
DINnotation
%
mm
No.
>1
AW6082
von
>2 >6
AlMgSiI
S

3.2315
eR

0, HIll
D

all

200
200
25
25
5
>6
>5
5
15
D

all
all
eP
D
S
T4
eR
7003
T5
T5
T6
T6
T5
open
hollow
open
hollow

eP
eP
>6
eP
S
eR
T6
eP
D
S
eR
eP
D
S
eR
7005
T6


eP
D
S
<30
<40
>5
14
205
110
60
55
80
35
50
14
270
230
80
65
100
45
60
8
290
310
310
250
260
260
85
95
95
70
75
75
105
110
110
50
55
55
65
70
70
8
10
10
350
290
105
80
125
60
75
10
340
280
100
80
120
60
75
10
350
290
105
80
125
60
75
10
all
all
50
50
10

10
150
150
25
25
50
50
15

40
200
200
340
270
100
80
120
60
75
10
50
50
15
350
290
105
80
125
60
75
10
200
200
340
275
100
80
120
60
75
10
80
80
30
490
420
145
100
165
85
105
7
470
400
140
100
160
80
100
7
eR
eP
D
S
eR
eP
D
S
eR
eP
D
S
eR
eP
> 1 to 6 see page 159.
< 65
>50
>50
3.4335
T6,
T6510
T6511
<45
eR
AIZn4,5Mg1
7022
AlZn5Mg3Cu
3.4345
< 50

>50
>50
>10
>10
< 110
eP
D
S
eP
D
S
T6


>4
< 160

eR
7020
bis
200
200
25
>50
>50
>80
>80

40
30
200
200
167
5.1 Material tables
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.26 Continued, page 9 of 9
Material
notation
Condition
Rods/ Bars D
RodslBarsS
Tubese
A IZnMgCu 0,5
3.4345
Rp
Cl"W,zd
Cl"sch,zd
Cl"W,b
'tW,s
'tW,t
A
Profiles e
ENnotation
?3
DINnotation
No.
? 1
7049A
Rm
%
mm
?2
T6,
T6510,
T6511
von
D
S
eR
eP
D
S
eR
eP
D
S
eR
eP
D
S
eR
eP
·7075
0
AIZnMgCu1,5
Hill
D
S
eR
T6
T6510
T6511
D
S
eR
3.4365
eP
eP
D
S
eR


150 .
150


>150
>150
180
180
>25
>25
>25
5
200
200
10
D
S
eR
500
170
110
185
95
115
5
520
430
155
105
175
90
110
5
450
400
35
95
55
80
95
3
<275
< 165
<100
< 65
<100
< 50
<60
10
540
480
180
110
180
95
115
7
110
185
95
115
530
470
180
105
175
90
110
6
25
200
200
530
470
460
400
180
160
105
110
175
160
90
80
110
100
6
5
485
420
145
100
165
85
100
7
475
405
145
100
160
80
100
7



D
S
eR
>25
>25
>25
eP


D
S
eR
>75
>75
>5

eP
D
S
eR

100
100
25
5
>100
>100
150
150

560
185
eP
eP
125
500
25
25
25
25
75
75
50
5
105
560
100
100
10


200
8
6
7
150
150
eP
115
60

>150
>150
185

25
25
5
>100
>100

530
?5
5


D
S
eR
D
S
eR
? 1 to 6 see page 159.
125
125
>125
>125
?4
610
30
>100
>100
eP
eP
T73
T73510
T73511

bis
100
100
30
8
470
470
485
470
390
400
420
400
140
140
145
145
100
100
100
100
160
160
165
160
80
80
85
80
100
100
105
100
6
7
8
7
440
360
130
95
150
75
100
6


168
5.1 Material tables
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.27 Material properties in MFa for wrought aluminum alloys,
extruded profiles after DIN 1748 T. I (19830200) (selected types of material only).
Material
Wall
Rm
Rp
crW,zd
crSch,zd
crW,b
"tW,s
"tW,t
thi'*Y ess
DIN notation
AlMg3
F18
AlMg5
F25
AlMg2MnO,3 F15
AlMg2MnO,8 F20
AlMg4,5Mn
F27
AlMgSiO,5
F13
F22
F25
AlMgSiO,7
F26
F27
AlMgSil
F21
F28
F31
AlCuMg1
F38
AlCuMg2
F44
AlCuSiMn
F45
AlZn4,5Mg1
F35
AlZnMgCuO,5 F49
AlZnMgCul,5 F53
No.
3.3535.08
3.3555.08
3.3525.08
3.3527.08
3.3547.08
3.3206.51
.71
.72
3.3210.71
.71
3.2315.51
.71
.72
3.1325.51
3.1355.51
3.1255.71
3.4335.71
3.4345.71
3.4365.71
mm
any
to 10
any
any
any
any
any
to 10
r
J
'0
any
to 10
to 20
2 to 30
2 to 30
2 to 30
3 to 30
2 to 30
2 to 30
180
250
150
200
270
130
215
245
260
270
205
275
310
380
440
450
350
490
530
80
110
60
100
140
65
160
195
215
225
110
200
260
230
315
400
290
420
460
55
75
45
60
80
40
65
75
80
80
60
85
95
115
130
135
105
145
160
50
60
40
50
65
35
55
60
65
65
55
65
75
85
95
95
80
100
105
70
95
60
75
100
50
80
90
95
100
80
100
110
135
150
155
125
165
180
30
45
25
35
45
25
35
40
45
45
35
50
55
65
75
80
60
85
90
40
55
35
45
60
30
50
55
60
60
50
60
70
85
95
95
75
105
110
A5
AlO
%
¢>2
%
¢>2
14
13
14
13
12
15
12 Y 't
12
11
12
11
10
13
lOY't
8
8
14
12
10
io
10
7
10
7
7
lOY't
8 Y 't
6
6
12
10
8
8
8
6
8
6
6
Hardness
No.
HB
45
55
40
50
65
45
70
75
85
90
65
80
95
95
120
135
105
140
150
Con
dW~n
p
p
P
p
p
ka
wa
wa
wa
wa
ka
wa
wa
ka
ka
wa
wa
wa
wa
¢> I The material condition assigned to a profile is determined by the maximum thickness of its wall or web plate.
¢>2 The elongation A5 is to be used for the assessment.
¢> 3 ka = naturally aged, p = extruded, wa = artificially aged.
¢>4 For profiles where the diameter ofthe circumscribing circle is larger than 250 mm the elongation A5 is 8% minimum or AIO is 6 % minimum.
¢>5 For solid sections with 6 mm to 10 mm thickness ofthe web plate and for hollow sections up to 10 mm wall thickness.
¢>6 For solid.sections up to 6 mm thickness of the web plate.
169
5.1 Material tables
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.28 Material properties in MPa for wrought aluminum alloys,
forgings after DIN EN 586AW2 (19941100).
Material
Product
EN AWAW2014
AI Cu4SiMg
Forgings,
any kind
Die
forgings
Condition
Section
size I
Testing
direction
Rm
Rp
crW,zd
crSch,zd
crW,b
'tW.s
'tW,t
A
%
T4
IS 150
L
370
270
110
85
130
65
80
11
IS 50
L
orT
L
orT
L
orLT
orST
L
orLT
orST
L
orLT
orST
L
440
430
440
430
440
430
420
420
420
410
410
410
400
420
380
370
370
360
380
370
360
370
360
350
360
350
340
260
130
130
130
130
130
130
125
125
125
125
125
125
120
125
95
95
95
95
95
95
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
150
150
150
150
150
150
145
145
145
145
145
145
140
145
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
70
70
70
70
75
95
95
95
95
95
95
90
90
90
90
90
90
85
90
6
3
6
3
8
4
3
7
4
3
6
3
2
8
T6
50 < IS 100
Hand
forgings
T652
IS75
75<15150
150 < I S 200
EN AWAW2024
AlCu4Mgl
EN AWAW5083
AlMg4,5MnO,7
EN AWAW5754
AlMg3
EN AWAW6082
AlSilMgMn
EN AW·7075
AI Zn5,5MgCu
Forgings,
any kind
T4
IS 100
Forgings,
any kind
H112
IS 150
L
orT
270
260
120
110
80
80
65
65
100
95
5
45
60
60
12
10
Forgings,
any kind
Hil2
IS 150
L
180
80
55
50
70
30
40
15
Forgings,
any kind
T6
IS 100
L
orT
310
290
260
250
95
90
75
70
110
105
55
50
70
65
6
5
Die
forgings
T6
IS 50
L
orT
L
orT
L
orT
L
orT
L
orLT
or ST
L
orLT
or ST
L
orLT
orST
L
orLT
or ST
510
480
500
470
455
420
445
410
490
480
470
470
460
445
450
440
430
420
410
395
430
410
425
400
385
360
375
350
415
400
390
385
375
370
370
360
350
350
340
330
155
145
150
140
135
125
135
125
145
145
140
140
140
135
135
130
130
125
125
120
105
100
105
100
95
90
90
100
100
100
100
100
95
95
95
95
95
90
90
85
170
165
170
160
155
145
140
165
165
160
160
160
160
155
155
150
150
145
145
140
90
85
85
80
80
75
80
70
85
85
80
80
80
75
80
75
75
75
70
70
105
100
105
100
95
90
95
90
105
100
100
100
100
95
95
95
95
90
90
85
7
4
6
4
6
4
6
3
6
4
3
6
4
3
6
4
3
6
4
3
50 < 15100
T73
IS 50
50<IS 100
Hand
forgings
T652
1< 75
75 < IS 150
T7352
1575
75 < IS 150
~1
L:
LT:
T:
ST:
~1
Direction parallel to the main grain flow,
Direction parallel to larger cross section dimension (width),
Direction not parallel to the main grain flow,
Direction parallel to smaller cross section dimension (thickness) (usually forging direction).
170
5.1 Material tables
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.29 Material properties in MFa for wrought aluminum alloys,
die forgings after DIN 1749 T. 1 (19761200) (Selected types of material only).
Material
DIN notation
No.
A1Mg3
F18 3.3535 .08
A1Mg5
F24 3.3555 .08
A1Mg4,5Mn F27 3.3547 .08
Thickness
Testingdirect.
n,
100
100
100
L
L
L
180
240
270
260
215
275
200
275
260
310
290
380
420
440
430
440
430
350
480
470
470
460
500
480
490
470
450
420
440
410
F22 3.3206 .61
F28 3.2316 .61
F20 3.2315 .41
F28
.61
100
100
100
100
100
A1CuMgl
F31
F38
A1CuMg2
A1CuSiMn
3.1325 .41
F42 3.1355 .41
F44 3.1255 .61
L
L
L
L
T
.62
L
T
100
100
50
L
L
L
T
A1Zn4,5Mgl F35 3.4335 .61
A1ZnMgCuO,5 F48 3.4345 .61
>50 to
100
100
75
L
T
L
L
T
F47
A1ZnMgCul,5 F50 3.4366 .61
>75 to
100
50
L
T
L
T
F49
F34
.63
.63
>50 to
100
50
L
T
L
T
F44
>50 to
100
CYW,zd
CYSch,zd
CYW,b
'tw,s
'tw,t
~I
T
A1MgSiO,5
A1MgSiO,8
A1MgSil
n,
L
T
80
100
120
110
160
200
100
220
200
260?
250
230
260
380
370
370
360
280
410
400
400
390
420
410
410
400
380
360
370
350
~1
L Direction parallelto the main grainflow,
T Direction not parallelto the main grainflow,
~2
Condition ka = naturallyaged, s = forged, wa = artificially aged.
55
70
80
80
65
85
60
85
80
95
90
115
125
130
130
130
130
105
145
140
140
140
150
145
145
140
135
125
130
125
45
60
65
65
55
65
50
65
65
75
70
85
90
95
95
95
95
80
100
100
100
95
105
100
100
100
95
90
95
90
70
90
100
95
80
100
75
100
95
110
105
135
145
150
150
150
150
125
165
160
160
160
170
165
165
160
155
145
150
145
30
40
45
45
35
50
35
50
45
55
50
65
75
75
75
75
75
60
85
80
80
80
85
85
85
80
80
75
75
70
40
55
60
60
50
60
45
60
60
70
65
85
90
95
95
95
95
75
100
100
100
100
105
100
105
100
95
90
95
90
A5
%
14
12
12
10
12
8
12
6
5
6
5
10
8
6
3
6
3
10
6
3
6
3
6
4
6
4
6
4
6
3
Hardness
HB
45
55
65
65
75
60
75
Cnd.
~2
s
s
s
wa
wa
ka
wa
wa
120
ka
ka
wa
95
135
wa
wa
130
135
130
120
115
wa
1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.zd crSch.63 >75 to 150 Rp crW.08 AlMgSil 3. ST: Direction parallelto smallercrosssectiondimension (thickness) (usuallyforging direction).61 100 75 F47 . s = forged. hand forgings after DIN 17 606 (19761200) (selected types of material only).1355.61 75 F46 .1255. 3.08 3.zd crW.61 >75 to 150 F46 . Condition ka = naturally aged.5 F48 ~1 .3547.5Mn F27 No. ~2 s s ka wa wa ka ka wa wa wa wa wa wa .5 F49 ~2 3. LT: Direction parallelto largercrosssection dimension (width).b tW.61 Rm 100 100 L L LT L L L L L L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST 180 270 260 200 275 310 380 420 440 430 420 420 420 410 410 410 400 350 480 470 460 470 460 450 460 450 440 490 480 470 460 450 440 450 440 420 420 410 400 100 100 100 100 100 75 . Material DIN notation AlMg3 F18 AlMg4.61 >75 to 150 F41 .61 >75 to 150 F45 .62 Thickness 3A365 .61 .61 3.61 >150 to 200 3A335.1. 30 45 45 35 50 55 65 75 75 75 75 75 75 70 70 70 70 60 85 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 75 85 85 80 80 80 75 80 75 75 75 70 70 40 60 60 45 60 70 85 90 95 95 90 90 90 90 90 90 85 75 100 100 100 100 100 95 100 95 95 105 100 100 100 95 95 95 95 90 90 90 85 14 12 10 12 6 6 10 8 8 4 3 7 4 3 6 3 2 10 6 4 3 6 3 2 6 4 3 6 4 3 6 4 3 6 4 3 6 4 3 Hardness HB 45 65 65 65 75 90 95 105 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 90 135 135 135 130 130 130 130 130 130 135"" 135 135 135 135 135 120 120 120 115 115 115 Cnd.171 5.2315 Al AlCuMgl AlCuMg2 AlCuSiMn F20 F28 F31 F38 F42 F44 3.3535.1325 Al Testingd~ft.63 75 F42 .s tW.t A5 % 80 120 110 100 220 260 230 260 380 370 370 370 360 360 360 350 350 370 410 400 380 400 390 370 390 360 360 420 410 390 380 370 370 380 370 360 350 350 340 55 80 80 60 85 95 115 125 130 130 125 125 125 125 125 125 120 105 145 140 140 140 140 135 140 135 130 145 145 140 140 135 130 135 130 125 125 125 120 45 65 65 50 65 75 85 90 95 95 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 100 100 95 100 95 95 95 95 95 100 100 100 95 95 95 95 95 90 90 90 90 70 100 95 75 100 110 135 145 150 150 145 145 145 145 145 145 140 125 165 160 160 160 160 155 160 155 150 165 165 160 160 155 150 155 150 145 145 145 140 L: Directionparallelto the main grainflow.5Mgl F35 AlZnMgCuO.61 >150 to 200 AlZnMgCul. F42 AlZn4. wa = artificially aged.30 Material properties in MFa for wrought aluminum alloys.61 3A345.
sand castings. after DIN EN 1706 (19980600).N T4 T6 300 300 280 140 240 140 220 230 250 ISO 220 ISO 220 160 220 230 ISO ISO ISO ISO 140 230 170 230 ISO 135 ISO ISO 140 140 160 160 190 T64 F T6 AC42000 AC42100 AC42200 AC43000 AI Si7Mg AISi7MgO.6 AI SiIOMg(a) F T6 T6 T6 F T6 AC43 100 AI SiIOMg(b) F T6 AC43200 AI SiIOMg(Cu) AC43300 AC44000 AC44100 AC44200 AC45000 AC45200 AI Si9Mg AISill AISiI2(b) AI SiI2(a) AI Si6Cu4 AI Si5Cu3Mn AC45300 AI Si5CulMg AC46200 AC46400 AC46600 AC47000 AC51000 AC5ll00 AC51300 AC51400 AC71000 AI Si8Cu3 AI Si9CulMg AI Si7Cu2 AI SiI2(Cu) AI Mg3(b) AI Mg3(a) AI Mg5 AIMG5(Si) AlZn5Mg F T6 T6 F F F F F T6 T4 T6 F F F F F F F F T1 Rp.N ~W.172 5.b.1.N A50 % 200 200 180 70 180 80 180 190 210 80 180 80 180 80 180 190 70 70 70 90 70 200 120 200 90 90 90 80 70 70 90 100 120 90 90 85 40 70 40 65 70 75 45 65 45 65 50 65 70 45 45 45 45 40 70 50 70 45 40 45 45 40 40 50 50 55 60 60 55 30 50 30 45 50 50 35 45 35 45 35 45 50 35 35 35 35 30 50 35 50 35 30 35 35 30 30 35 35 40 130 130 125 65 lOS 65 100 lOS 110 70 100 70 100 75 100 105 70 70 70 70 65 105 75 lOS 70 60 70 70 65 65 75 75 85 65 65 65 30 55 30 50 50 55 35 50 35 50 35 50 50 35 35 35 35 30 50 40 50 35 30 35 35 30 30 35 35 45 100 100 95 50 80 50 75 80 85 50 75 50 75 55 75 80 50 50 50 50 50 80 60 80 50 45 50 50 50 50 55 55 65 5 3 5 3 3 2 I 2 I 2 I 2 I I 1 2 6 4 5 I I <I 2 <I I I I I 3 3 3 3 4 Hardness HBS 90 95 85 50 85 50 75 75 85 50 75 50 75 50 75 75 45 50 50 60 60 90 80 100 60 60 60 50 50 50 55 60 60 .zd.s.3 AI Si7MgO.zd. test pieces cast separately.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5. Material EN notation AC21000 AC21100 DIN notation AI Cu4MgTi AI Cu4Ti AC41000 AI Si2MgTi Condition Rm.N crSch.N ~W.t.N crW.N crW.31 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminum alloys.
t.N 200 220 180 70 180 90 220 200 210 180 240 210 90 220 200 90 220 200 90 200 210 180 80 80 80 100 180 280 80 230 140 210 110 100 100 100 235 100 90 185 240 70 70 100 110 130 crW.5 1 2 2.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.b.N 320 330 320 170 260 170 260 240 290 250 230 290 180 260 240 180 260 240 180 240 290 250 170 170 170 170 270 320 160 280 230 280 230 170 180 170 275 170 170 170 275 150 150 180 180 210 Rp. permanent mold castings.5 <1 1 <1 3 <1 6 1 1 1 1.5 1 2 4 8 3 6 2.zd.6 AC43000 Al Sil0Mg(a) AC43100 Al SilOMg(b) AC43200 Al Sil0Mg(Cu) AC43300 Al Si9Mg AC44000 AC44100 AC44200 AC45000 AC45100 Al Al Al Al Al Sill Si12(b) Si12(a) Si6Cu4 Si5Cu3Mg AC45200 Al Si5CulMn AC45300 Al Si5CulMg AC45400 AC46200 AC46300 AC46400 Al Al Al Al Si5Cu3 Si8Cu3 Si7Cu3Mg Si9Cu1Mg AC46600 Al Si7Cu2 AC47000 Al Si12(Cu) AC48000 Al Si12CuNiMg AC51000 AC51100 AC51300 AC51400 AC71000 Al Al Al Al Al Mg3(b) Mg3(a) Mg5 MG5(Si) Zn5Mg F T6 T64 T6 T64 T6 T64 F T6 T64 F T6 T64 F T6 T6 T64 F F F F T4 T6 F T6 T4 T6 T4 F F F T6 F F T5 T6 F F F F Tl Rm.N 95 100 95 50 80 50 80 70 85 75 95 85 55 80 70 55 80 70 55 70 85 75 50 50 50 50 80 95 50 85 70 85 70 50 55 50 85 50 50 60 85 45 45 55 55 65 crSch.32 Material properties in MFa for cast aluminum alloys.1.N 70 75 70 40 60 40 60 55 65 55 70 65 40 60 55 40 60 55 40 55 65 55 40 40 40 40 60 70 35 65 50 65 50 40 40 40 60 40 40 45 65 35 35 40 40 45 ~W.zd.N 140 145 140 75 115 75 115 105 130 110 140 130 80 115 105 80 115 105 80 105 130 110 75 75 75 75 120 140 75 125 105 125 105 75 80 75 120 75 75 90 125 70 70 80 80 95 ~W.5 1 2 1 1 4 6 7 5 6 1 2.3 AC42000 Al Si7MgO.N 105 110 105 60 90 60 90 80 100 85 105 100 60 90 80 60 90 80 60 80 100 85 60 60 60 60 90 105 55 95 80 95 80 60 60 60 95 60 60 70 95 50 50 60 60 70 % Hardness HBS 8 7 8 5 5 2. after DIN EN 1706 (l998~0600). Material DIN notation EN notation AC21000 Al Cu4MgTi AC21100 Al Cu4Ti AC41000 Al Si2MgTi Cnd.5 1 2 <1 <1 5 5 4 3 4 95 95 90 50 85 55 90 80 90 80 100 90 55 90 80 55 90 80 55 80 90 80 45 55 55 75 85 110 70 90 85 110 75 75 80 75 105 75 55 90 100 50 50 60 65 65 A50 . test pieces cast separately. T4 T6 T64 F T6 AC42000 Al Si7Mg AC42100 Al Si7MgO.173 5.s.N 65 65 65 35 55 35 55 50 60 50 65 60 40 55 50 40 55 50 40 50 60 50 35 35 35 35 55 65 35 55 50 55 50 35 40 35 55 35 35 45 55 35 35 40 40 45 crW.
33 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminum alloys.t.N crSch.zd.174 5.b.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.t.N 'tW.N crW.s.1. after DIN EN 1706 (19980600).N A50 % hardness HBS F 240 240 220 240 240 240 240 240 200 140 130 120 140 140 140 140 140 130 70 70 65 70 70 70 70 70 60 50 50 45 50 50 50 50 50 45 105 105 100 105 105 105 105 105 90 55 55 50 55 55 55 55 55 45 80 80 75 80 80 80 80 80 70 1 1 2 <1 <1 1 <1 1 1 70 60 55 80 80 80 80 70 70 DIN notation AI SilOMg(Fe) AI SiI2(Fe) AI Si9 AI Si9Cu3(Fe) AI Si11Cu2(Fe) AI Si8Cu3 AI Si9Cu3(Fe)(Zn) AI SiI2Cul(Fe) AlMg9 F F F F F F F F .s. Material EN notation Cnd.N 'tW.zd.N crW. high pressure die castings after DIN EN 1706 (19980600).N 'tW.N Rp.3 AI Si7MgO. investment castings.zd.zd.b. Material EN notation AC43400 AC44300 AC44400 AC46000 AC46100 AC46200 AC46500 AC47 100 AC51200 Cnd. for information only.N crW.6 AI SiI2(b) AI Si5Cu3Mn AlMg5 80 95 Table 5. Rm.1.N A50 % Hardness HBS T4 F T6 T6 T6 F F F 300 150 240 260 290 150 160 170 220 80 190 200 240 80 90 45 70 80 85 45 50 50 60 35 50 55 60 35 35 35 130 70 105 115 130 70 75 75 70 35 55 60 65 35 35 40 100 50 80 90 100 50 55 60 5 2 1 3 2 4 1 3 90 50 75 75 85 50 60 55 DIN notation AC21000 AC42000 AI Cu4MgTi AI Si7Mg AC42100 AC42200 AC44100 AC45200 AC51300 AI Si7MgO.N Rp.N 'tW.34 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminum alloys.N crW. without obligation. test pieces cast separately.N crSch. Rm.
35 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminum alloys. mould c.s.N 'tW. .5) I (0.zd. . 2 (19860200).02 ascast condit.02 3.5) 65 (60) 85 (80) 55 (50) 60 (55) 55 (50) 60 (55) I (0.61 wa 170 (150) 220 (200) 90 (80) 180 (180) 50 (45) 65 (60) 35 (35) 45 (45) 75 (70) 100 (90) 40 (35) 50 (45) 60 (50) 75 (70) 3.02 3.2581 .N O'Sch.02 3. Perm.zd. annealed and quenched Sand castings ascast condit.2581 .2381 .01 ascast condit. 3. mould c. mould c. alloys for general applications. Material DIN ~o:ation GAlSiI2 Material No. Perm.1.2151 .45 GAlSiI2(Cu) GKAlSiI2(Cu) GAlSilOMg GAlSilOMg wa GKAlSilOMg GKAlSilOMg wa GAlSiIOMg(Cu) GAlSiIOMg(Cu) wa GKAlSiIOMg(Cu)I GKAlSiIOMg(Cu) wa GAlSi9Cu3 GKAlSi9Cu3 GAlSi6Cu4 GKAlSi6Cu4 3. Sand castings ascast condit.2163 .5) 55 (55) 80 (75) 70 (60) 80 (75) I (0. line below (in brackets): values for test pieces cast integrally or taken from the casting. mould c. ascast condit. (75) 75 (659 80 (75) % Hardness HB 5 (3) 6 (5) 45 (45) 45 (45) 6 50 (50) 50 (50) A50 (3) 6 (4) (I) 50 (50) 55 (55) 50 (50) 80 (75) 2 (2) I (I) 60 (60) 85 (80) I I (0.62 wa 180 (180) 240 (220) 90 (90) 210 (190) 55 (55) 70 (65) 40 (40) 50 (45) 80 (80) 105 (100) 40 (40) 55 (50) 60 (60) 80 (75) 3.2163 .2381 Perm.01 3.61 ~2 Condition~ delivered I Sand castings ascast condit. .5) I (0.2383 Sand castings .2151 .01 3. sand castings and permanent mould castings.N O'W.2581 . ascast conddit.N ~2 70 (70) 80 (70) 45 (40) 45 (40) 35 (30) 35 (30) 70 (65) 70 (65) 35 (30) 35 (30) 50 (50) 50 (50) 170 (150) 170 (160) 80 (80) 80 (80) 50 (45) 50 (50) 35 (35) 35 (35) 75 (70) 75 (75) 40 (35) 40 (35) 60 (50) 60 (55) 150 (140) 180 (160) 160 (150) 220 (200) 80 (80) 90 (90) 80 (70) 180 (170) 45 (40) 55 (50) 50 (45) 65 (60) 35 (30) 40 (35) 35 (35) 45 (45) 70 (65) 80 (75) 75 (70) 100 (90) 35 (30) 40 (35) 35 (35) 50 (45) 50 (50) 60 (55) 55 (50) 75 (70) 3.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.2381 Perm. mould c. Rp. after DIN 1725 T. Sand castings annealed and quenched Perm.02 ascast condit. Perm. mould c.2583 . Sand castings ascast condit. mould c.N O'W.5) I (0.62 wa 200 (180) 240 (220) 100 (100) 210 (190) 60 (55) 70 (65) 45 (40) 50 (45) 90 (80) 105 (100) 45 (40) 55 (50) 3.02 160 (140) 180 (160) 160 (140) 180 (160) 100 (100) 110 (100) 100 (100) 120 (110) 50 (40) 55 (50) 50 (40) 55 (50) 35 (30) 40 (35) 35 (30) 40 (35) 75 (65) 80 35 (30) 40 (35) 35 (30) 40 (35) GAlSil2g GKAlSil2 GKAlSil2g 3.175 5. mould c.01 3.N 'tW.5) 65 (60) 70 (65) 60 (60) 75 (65) I (l) 2 (I) 2 (2) I (1) .2383 Sand castings . Sand castings wa Rm.01 3.2583 .t.2381 . mould c. 3.5) I (0. Perm.2383 Perm. .2581 .01 3. 3. ascast condit. wa = artificially aged Upper line: values for test pieces cast separately. ascast condit.44 ~I Casting process Sand castings ascast condit.N 150 (140) 150 (140) 3.2383 Perm.b.
62 Perm.zd.1371 .zd.2211 .N 'tW. after DIN 1725 T.2371 .62 Perm.1841 .81 delivered 1 Sand castings Ascast condit.N crW.45 Investm.62 Perm.2211 . Wa 250 (240) 200 (190) 75 (70) 50 (50) 110 (105) 55 (55) 85 (80) 4 (3) 80 (80) 3.63 Investm.mould c.N Rp.s.mould c. Wa 260 (230) 200 (190) 80 (70) 55 (50) 1I5 (105) 60 (50) 90 (80) 3 (3) 80 (70) 3. Ka 300 (270) 220 (180) 90 (80) 60 (55) 130 (120) 70 (60) 100 (90) 5 (3) 90 (85) g GKAlSill GKAlSill g GAlSi9Mg wa GKAlSi9Mg wa GAlSi7Mg wa GKAlSi7Mg wa GFAlSi7Mg wa GAlCu4Ti ta GAlCu4Ti wa GKAlCu4Ti ta GKAlCu4Ti wa GAlCu4TiMg ka GKAlCu4TiMg ka GFAlCu4TiMg ka ~I ~2 ka = naturally aged.mould c.b.221I .82 Perm.mould c.N 'tW. Wa 250 (250) 200 (200) 75 (75) 50 (50) 1I0 (1I0) 55 (55) 85 (85) 5 (3) 80 (80) 3.mould c. Casting process Condition~ Rm. Material ~11' notation GAlSilI GAlSill Material no. Ascast condit.64 Perm.N crW.176 5.2371 . Wa 330 (280) 220 (200) 100 (85) 65 (55) 145 (125) 75 (65) 110 (95) 7 (3) 95 (90) 3.1841 . casts. sand castings. Upper line: values for test pieces cast separately.41 Sand castings Ka 300 (240) 220 (180) 90 (70) 60 (50) 130 (125) 70 (55) 100 (80) 5 (3) 90 (85) 3.61 Sand castings Wa 300 (250) 200 (180) 90 (75) 60 (50) 130 (110) 70 (55) 100 (85) 3 (2) 95 (90) 3. . Ta 320 (260) 180 (170) 95 (80) 65 (55) 140 (1I5) 70 (60) 105 (90) 8 (4) 90 (85) 3.mould c.2371 Sands .N crSch.02 3.2373 . ta = partially aged.61 Sand castings Wa 230 (220) 190 (180) 70 (65) 50 (45) 100 (100) 50 (50) 80 (75) 2 (2) 75 (75) 3.t. Perm.221I .61 Wa 230 (230) 190 (190) 70 (70) 50 (50) 105 (105) 50 (50) 80 (80) 2 (2) 75 (75) 3. alloys with particular mechanical properties. 2 (19860200).2373 .1371 .1371 .36 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminum alloys. Ka 320 (280) 220 (200) 95 (85) 60 (50) 130 (125) 70 (65) 105 (95) 8 (5) 95 (90) 3. permanent mould castings and investment castings. casts.mould c.63 Sand castings Ta 280 (240) 180 (160) 85 (70) 55 (50) 125 (105) 65 (55) 95 (80) 5 (3) 85 (80) 3.42 Perm. Sand castings annealed 150 (140) 150 (140) 70 (70) 70 (70) 45 (40) 45 (40) 35 (30) 35 (30) 70 (65) 70 (65) 35 (30) 35 (30) 50 (50) 50 (50) 6 (5) 8 (7) 45 (45) 45 (40) 3. wa = artificially aged. Annealed 170 (150) 170 (150) 80 (80) 80 (80) 50 (45) 50 (45) 35 (35) 35 (35) 75 (70) 75 (70) 40 (35) 40 (35) 60 (50) 60 (50) 7 (6) 9 (8) 45 (45) 45 (40) 3.1841 .1841 . line below (in brackets): values for test pieces cast integrally or taken from the casting.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5.N A50 % Hardness HB ~2 3.01 3.1.
2 (19860200).05 Casting process.05 3. ~1 G AlMg3 GK AlMg3 GF AlMg3 G AlMg3Si G AlMg3Si wa GK AlMg3Si GK AlMg3Si wa GF AlMg3Si wa G AlMg5 GK AlMg5 G AlMg5Si GK AlMg5Si G AlSi5Mg GK AlSi5Mg GK AlSi5Mg wa ~1 ~2 3.3241 Penn.177 5.05 3. Penn. Sand castings ascast condit.N crSch.62 wa 150 (140) 220 (220) 80 (80) 120 (120) 45 (40) 65 (65) 35 (30) 45 (45) 70 (65) 100 (100) 35 (30) 50 (50) 50 (50) 75 (75) 4 (4) 3 (3) 50 (50) 65 (65) 3. ascast condit. mould c.01 3.37 Material properties in MPa for for cast aluminum alloys.5 (I) I (0. sand castings. permanent mould castings and investment castings.3241 Investment c.N 3. wa ~2 wa = artificially aged Upper line: values for test pieces cast separately. mould c.1 Material tables 5 Appendices Table 5. Sand castings ascast condit. after DIN 1725 T. GO 3. Table 5. Penn. c ascast condition Rm.01 3.N crSch. high pressure casting alloys after DIN 1725 T.38 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminum alloys.05 GO 3. Material DIN nataion Material No. ascast condit. . 2 (19860200). ascast condit.N Rp.t.t.3541 .5) 55 (50) 60 (55) 60 (55) 65 (60) 55 (55) 60 (60) 90 (90) 'tW.0 1 3.5 80 220 140 65 45 100 50 75 1 60 220 140 65 45 100 50 75 I 60 220 140 65 45 100 50 75 1 70 200 140 60 45 90 45 70 I 70 .3561 .N crW.1.zd.3261 . ascast condit. alloys for particular applications.3541 .zd.3541 . c ascast condition High press.61 Casting process. mould c. mould c.N A50 % Hardness HB 140 (130) 150 (150) 150 (140) 140 (130) 200 (180) 70 (60) 70 (70) 90 (80) 80 (70) 120 (120) 40 (40) 45 (45) 45 (40) 40 (40) 60 (55) 30 (30) 35 (35) 35 (30) 30 (30) 40 (40) 65 (65) 70 (70) 70 (65) 65 (60) 90 (80) 30 (30) 35 (35) 35 (30) 30 (30) 45 (40) 50 (45) 50 (50) 50 (50) 50 (45) 70 (60) 3 (3) 5 (4) 3 (3) 3 (3) 2 (2) 50 (45) 50 (50) 60 (55) 50 (45) 65 (60) 3. Sand castings wa Rm. Sand castings ascast condit.1.N 'tW.01 3.3241 .02 3. Penn.3241 . Penn.b.zd.s.2381 . Investment c.2341 .3261 . line below (in brackets): values for test pieces cast integrally or taken from the casting. Condition as delivered High press.3292 .N A50 % Hardness HB Material No.62 Sand castings ascast condit. Material DIN notation Rp.2585 . c ascast condition High press.N crW. c ascast condition High press. ascast condit. mould c.N crW.N 'tW.3561 .zd. Penn.N 240 140 70 50 105 55 80 0. mould c.63 wa 200 (180) 120 (120) 60 (55) 40 (40) 90 (80) 45 (40) 70 (60) 2 (2) 60 (55) 160 (140) 180 (150) 160 (140) 180 (150) 140 (130) 160 (140) 260 (190) 100 (90) 100 (100) 110 (l00) 110 (100) 100 (90) 120 (100) 240 (180) 50 (40) 55 (45) 50 (40) 55 (45) 40 (40) 50 (40) 80 (55) 35 (30) 40 (35) 35 (30) 40 (35) 30 (30) 35 (30) 55 (40) 75 (65) 80 (70) 75 (65) 80 (70) 65 (60) 75 (65) 115 (85) 35 (30) 40 (35) 35 (30) 40 (35) 30 (30) 35 (30) 60 (45) 55 (50) 60 (50) 55 (50) 60 (50) 50 (45) 55 (50) 90 (65) 3 (2) 4 (2) 2 (1) 2 (1) 1 (0. c ascast condition High press. 3.2982 .02 3.02 3. Condition as delivered~ I Sand castings ascast condit.N 'tW.01 3. mould c.02 3.05 AlSi9Cu3 2) AlSi12 GO AlSiI2(Cu) GO AlSilOMg GO AlMg9 3.s.2163 .b.09 3. .2341. .N crW.5) 1.3241 Penn.2341 .02 ascast condit.
178
5.2 Stress concentration factors
5.2.1.1 Round bars with groove or shoulder fillet
5.2 Stress concentration factors
lR52 EN.dog
Content
Page
5.2.0
General
5.2.1
5.2.1.0
5.2.1.1
5.2.1.2
5.2.1.3
5.2.1.4
Round bars
General
Round bars with
Round bars with
Round bars with
Round bars with
5 Appendices
178
groove or shoulder fillet
multiple grooves
relief groove
collar (narrow shoulder)
5.2.2
Flat bars
5.2.2.0 General
5.2.2.1 Flat bars with notches or shoulder
fillets on both sides
5.2.2.2 Flat bars with notch on one side
5.2.2.3 Flat bars with multiple notches
5.2.2.4 Flat bars with transverse hole
5.2.2.5 Flat bars with notches on both sides
or with transverse hole, bending in plane
5.2.2.6 Flat bars with narrow shoulder
The stress concentration factors for round bars with a
groove or shoulder fillet in tension, in bending and in
torsion are to be computed after Petersen from the
equation below, or are to be taken from the Figures
5.2.1 to 5.2.6, r> 0, diD < 1:
(5.2.2)
180
K, = 1 +   ; = = = = = = = = = = =
d
+C{
D
181
r, t, d, D
A'~+2B'~{1+2·~r
A,B,C,z
~r
Constants, Table 5.2.1,
See Figure 5.2.1 to 5.2.6.
..
182
183
184
185
5.2.0 General
Table 5 2 1 Constants ABC
, , , z for round bars
Groove
Shoulder fillet
A
B
C
z
tension
0,22
1,37
bending
0,2
2,75
torsion
0,7
10,3
tension
0,62
3,5




torsion
3,4
19
1
2
bending
0,62
5,8
0,2
3

Stress concentration factors for round bars and for flat
bars are to be determined from the following equations
and figures. Stress concentration factors are used
together with KjK, ratios for computing fatigue notch
factors, Chapter 2.3.2.1.
Stress concentration factors are
combination with nominal stresses *1.
applicable
in
Stress concentration factors may be determined by the.
user if he has more detailed knowledge at his disposal.
5.2.1 Round bars
5.2.1.0 General
Stress concentration factors are given for round bars in
tension (load F), in bending (bending moment M, ) and
in torsion (torsion moment M t ) *2.
The related nominal stresses are
nd 2 ,
Szd = 4 F I
Sb = 32 Mbl nd 3 ,
Tt = 16 Mtl nd 3 .
(5.2.1)
The diameter d is shown in the respective figures.
1 Sometimes the nominal stress may be defined in a different way, for
example see Figure 5.2.20.
2 In the following tension or compression or tensioncompression are
mentioned as tension throughout.
Stress concentration factors for shear are not available. Therefore no
formula for the nominal shear stress is contained in Eq. (5.2.1)
1~~~~
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
,
dID
Figure 5.2.1 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with groove in tension, r > 0, diD < 1.
1
Kt,zd = 1 +;===========
r
r
r
022·+274·· ( 1+2·)
,
t
'
d
d
2
(5.2.3)
179
5.2 Stress concentration factors
5 Appendices
t
rl

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F
0.2
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0.06
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l,.y+~H¥'<'1L++ItI+AJ°·4
0.5
0.2
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0.3
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I
2.5
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~,5
I~~~
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
~~~~~t]10
I
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.6
diD
0.9
1
diD
Figure 5.2.2 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with groove in bending, r> 0, d / D < 1.
1
(5.2.4)
Kt,b== 1 +r==========
2
r
r
o,20· rt + 5' 5 ..
1+ 2 . d (
d)
Figure 5.2.4 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with shoulder fillet in tension, r > 0, diD < 1.
1
(5.2.6)
1<
'~,zd == 1 +,=========
2
r
r
r
062·+ 7·· ( 1+2·)
,
t
d
d
t
GMt
MtC
0,06
0.05
'fl'H'HO,07
0,06
0,08
t+fHCf11iO,09
0,07
0.08
0.09
0,1
Kt,t
tttH'loLfMHIH
0.1
4
3
~2:t,.....::::~~~+?<::+~1
2
1
0.4
1.5
2
~;;~~i~t~~~~,5
1~
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.9
0.4
1
10
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
1<
'~,t
==
1
1 +r=========
r
r
o,70· rt + 20' 6 ..
1+ 2·  )
d (
d
(5.2.5)
1
diD
diD
Figure 5.2.3 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with groove in torsion, r > 0, d / D < 1.
0.9
Figure 5.2.5 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with shoulder fillet in bending, r > 0, diD < 1.
(5.2.7)
2
~==l+;=============
,b
062. E+1l6'.!.'(1+2 . .!.)2
,
t
' d
d
+02.(E)3
'
t
d
D
180
5.2 Stress concentration factors
5 Appendices
FormD
The stress concentration factors for round bars with
relief groove, type D, Kt,F , Figure 5.2.8, are to be
computed by superposition of the stress concentration
factors for round bars with groove and with shoulder
fillet *4:
GMt
MtC
r
Kt,t
K, F = (KtU  K, A.>' ~Dld
 + K,'A, (5.2.9)
,
,
,
Dd
4
.04
.05
.06
.07
.08
3
.~;
,2
2
4°,3
l' 0.5
1,5
2.5
1
0.4
°
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Kt,U Stress concentration factor of the round bar
with groove, Figure 5.2.1 to 5.2.3.
Kt,A Stress concentration factor of the round bar
with shoulder fillet, Figure 5.2.4 to 5.2.6.
D 1 Smaller diameter,
d
Reduced diameter,
D
Larger diameter.
1
dID
5.2.8
Figure 5.2.6 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with shoulder fillet in torsion, r > 0, d / D < 1.
(5.2.8)
Figure 5.2.8 Round
bar with relief
groove, type D.
K, = 1 +,============
.t
3.4f+38Hl+2~r +l.O.(f)'
d
D
5.2.1.5 Round bars with collar (narrow shoulder)
The stress concentration factors for the round bars with
bolt head in tension, Figure 5.2.9, are approximately the
same as for the flat bars with shoulder head, Figure
5.2.26 (d = b, D= B).
5.2.1.2 Round bars with multiple grooves
Stress concentration factors for round bars with multiple
grooves in tension, in bending and in torsion are to be
determined as for flat bars with multiple notches,
Chapter 5.2.2.3.
.
5.2.1.3 Round bars with relief groove
FormB
Stress concentration factors for round bars with relief
groove, type B, Figure 5.2.7, are to be determined as for
the round bars with shoulder fillet with the diameters
d and D, Figure 5.2.4 to 5.2.6, *3. The fatigue strength
of type B is lower than that of type D.
Figure 5.2.9 Round bar
with "bolt head".
The stress concentration factors for the round bars with
collar, Figure 5.2.10, in tension, in bending and in
torsion, ~,zd,L,' ~,b,L,' ~,t,L' are to be computed from
Eq. (5.2.10):
~L = 1 + (K,  1)'
,
K, L
,
K,
Figure 5.2.7 Round
bars with relief groove,
type B.
3 11 is assumed that the additional small shoulder does not influence the
stress concentration factor considerably as fl / r ~ 5 .
Kt,b,LlD
1 ,
(5.2.10)
K t ,b,Ll D= 2 1
Stress concentration factor of a collar with
values L / D and d / D according to type
of stress,
Stress concentration factor of the shoulder
fillet with values d / D according to type of
stress, Figure 5.2.4, 5.2.5 or 5.2.6.
4 Different from type B it is accepted, that the additional small shoulder
does influence the stress concentration factor considerably as f3 / r ~ 2 .
181
5.2 Stress concentration factors
5 Appendices
Stress concentration factor in bending for the
actual value LID from Figure 5.2.24 (D = B,
d = b), referring to the diagram providing the
closest approximation ofB lb.
~b,UD=2 Stress concentration factor in bending for the
value LID = LIB from Figure 5.2.24 (D = B,
d = b), referring to the diagram as before.
K
"'1,b,UD
0,2
tJr:o11 0,25
jL.,t44W~r~717''11
0,3
0,4
4
IhW~rl7n"i;i""t1 0,5
1,5
\L.,...:::j,.47Frt1:r::PA1t,5
Figure 5.2.10
Round bar with
collar.
2b"'~+;7hf:7:?1"":t1S
!=~,...1$~~:P""':Y'11
10
1
.
0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0
biB
5.2.2 Flat bars
5.2.2.0 General
Figure 5.2.11 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with notches on both sides in tension, r> 0, biB < 1 .
Stress concentration factors are given for flat bars in
tension (load F) and in bending (bending moment M, )
~zd = 1 + r = = = = = = = = =
'5
r
r
o,22· rt + 17' ..
1+ 2 .  )
(
b
b
The related nominal stresses are normally to be
computed according to the following equations:
Szd = F I (s . b),
Sb = 6 Mb I (s . b2 ) .
(5.2.11)
Otherwise the equations to compute the nominal stresses
are presented with the diagrams in question.
The dimensions sand b are shown in the figures.
MJ t~
Bt'S;),.~. .. ,
Thickness s
The stress concentration factors for flat bars with
notches or shoulder fillets on both sides in tension and
in bending are to be computed from the equations
below, or read from the Figures 5.2.11 to 5.2.14, r> 0,
diD < 1, thickness s:
1
K, = 1 +    ; = = = = = = = =
2
r
r
r
A·+2B·· 1+2·A,B
r, t, b, B
b (
Constants, Table 5.2.2,
See Figures 5.2.11 to 5.2.14.
5
=
0,2
' r:k'
1+7''1;;:)'
t7''hH'r*'''''rtf.Jf+.AI
1,5
f:;;.f:;>""V"74rr:7"ft"7'H2
2,5
2
1"'75""'':rl7'''T""7I'''7'j7"t1 5
1
~~~~JI0
....
bIB
6..2.12
Figure 5.2.12 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with notches on both sides in bending, r > 0, biB < 1.
1
A
B
Tension
0,22
0,85
Bending
0,2
2,1
.
0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0
~b = 1 + r = = = = = = = = =
Table 5.2.2 Constants A and B for flat bars
Notch on both sides
Shoulder fillet
0;25
0,3
3~,.y"V"7lf7';>'t7,,*;t11
(5.2.12)
b)
r
"""'"""""71rTTlrxrm/ t
Kt b
5.2.2.1 Flat bars with notches or shoulder fillets on
both sides
t
(5.2.13)
2
r
r
r
020·+42·· ( 1+2·)
,
t
' b
b
(5.2.14)
2
Tension Bending
0,5
0,5
2,5
6
5 In the following tension or compression or tensioncompression are
mentioned as tension throughout.
.
182
5.2 Stress concentration factors

5.2.2.2 Flat bar with notch on one side
~ ++.,
F
F
. B· b
__
5 Appendices
r/t=
rrrr,.,....,...".,
0,08
0.09
0 1
Thickness s r
5
'
Stress concentration factors for flat bars with a notch on
one side in bending according to Figure 5.2.15.
..
..... 3,8 _.&~b 3,6
, .::rrnnTMb(
r=0,04
~r/b
)
i
I
3,4
Thickne ss s
..
3,2
3,0
.
0,08
.;...t1 I
2,8
2,6
0,1~
2,4
5.2.H
1,&
1,6
1,4
Figure 5.2.13 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with shoulder fillet in tension, r > 0, b / B < 1.
1
~ zd == 1 +;=========
r
r
r
05·+5·_· 1+2·, t
b
b
(
,
it'
1,2
1,0
:
,
I
0,4
0,6
I
I
I
i
I
1,01,21,41,61,& 2,02,2 2,42,62,M 3,0
. .
 "BIb
5:2.15
(5.2.15)
2
Figure 5.2.15 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with a notch on one side in bending, after Sors.
J
5.2.2.3 Flat bars with multiple notches
~
r/t==
MJ ~ )MbrrrTTTTl
Thickness s
0,2
2,0
0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0
bIB
I
I .
2,2
l~~~~Jj
!
r
Stress concentration factors for flat bars with multiple
notches in tension according to Figure 5.2.16.
For a large number of notches arranged in a row on one
side of a flat bar the effective depth t' of an equivalent
single notch is to be computed with a release factor y
from Figure 5.2.17:
5 1+1,.+,tt
Kt,b
t' == y' t .
(5.2.17)
Figure 5.2.17 approximately applies for both tension
and bending. With the effective depth t' of a single
notch the stress concentration factors are to be
determined from Figure 5.2.11 and 5.2.12.
I.~~
0,4 0,5 0,6 0.7 0,8 0,9 I,D
6.2.14
.
)
IB
Figure 5.2.14 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with shoulder fillet in bending, r> 0, b / B < 1.
1
(5.2.16)
r
r
r
05·+12·· 1+2·, t
b
b
(
2
J
3 0. limit value for b / r ..2.8 3.3 0..2.6 0.:. photoelastic study.4 Flat bars with transverse hole 5. Howland).. after Peterson (Ref.. photoelastic study. Mb =.t 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 bIt Figure 5.° 2 4 6 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 8 e/r Figure 5.2 0. after Peterson (Ref.2.20) . photoelastic study.4 2. '"t""'.4 2.SO'b·~FG·~'S. elastic analysis.2.2 0.s\l) D N 3.(\~ I + 3.19 stress concentration factors for flat bars with a circular or slotted transverse center hole in bending.±j H:::. Durelli.18 to 5.B 2/6 (5.183 5.19) b/2 1.2.i+..0 Y I I I 0.(B2t) .4 1.18) Figure 5. hole: t / r = 1.(Br) z bl Thickness s I' 2.1trt 3.2.0: Kt.1 0.Y' 1/ I ""''Kt.2 I tl r= 4 1..2.:tD~.16 Stress concentration factors for flat bars with multiple notches in tension.0 .ro   F F c::r r 2.F rIb Figure 5. Procht and Leven).2. Hole: t / r = 1.f4I...1 0.6 (5.+ \c\es 1 nO c\" ol.6 F 3.0: Kt./ 0.5 06 0.~ . after Peterson (Ref.::::(1(2t1B)3). Frocht and Leven).2 r t I I 01 notch 3.6 1111'"'' r TT1 1 J.17 Release factor y for an infinite number of notches in a row.O~:!7"P:~~4~~~~""":'~. The stress concentration factor is valid for the first (or last) notch in the row. elastic analysis.0 0 0. In addition circular hole after Peterson (Ref.2 o 0 II 2 MJ I I I I I I 1/ 0. limit value for b / r .18 Stress concentration factors for flat bars with a circular or slotted transverse center hole in tension.z = 2. 5 (\o\c\oS~ F  21 '2r 3.7 0& 09 1.2 B I r = 18.±:.4 0.8 2.4 0.=. (5. Nominal stress: S d F s. .16  F F Stress concentration factors for flat bars with a circular or slotted transverse center hole for different types of stress are given in Figure 5..4 2..18 2.J o 0.+.7 1. l~~:::" 1 (1'= 30')f" 1. 1.2.2 Stress concentration factors 5 Appendices 5.b. Neuber).f..2 rib 5.8 J4. Nominal stress: Szd F s.2. Nominal stress (at reference point G): Sb G .2.z = 2. after Peterson (Ref. Thickness s 2. hH0'1n~ ec limit case (b) r:::l ~ 2.2.2. Lake and Phillips).6 p .5 0.20.s.0 m. 2t. Thickness s 1..4 0.~.:..0 1.8 V ll\rJ\lrw ..2 C tb 2r J 'f = i.
2..2 1
r) Figure 5.8 1.13..1 rl b= 5..(/ V 2...0..6 0..1.~5 II o 0.0= _ f. o's:M.. b UB=2 stress concentration factor in bending for ...0 0 1.06 0. 1.6 Flat bars with narrow shoulder Stress concentration factors for flat bars with narrow shoulder in bending after Figure 5.4 I .00 I _ 1' 3.LlB K 1.0 O.2 3.  '/ "..15 1.I" 6.= fO.: Leven and Hartman).8 0.2.4 2.. v..? 0.2.2 1..2 "'( 0. .185 5. (5..4 V 1. f/ 1.05 I r 3b I 3b bis 5b ~ . 2 and 3.LlB2 stress concentration factor for the "narrow" shoulder and values L / Band B / b. / /' r/ .b.080.b..24 F/2 Kt. photoelastic study.24 (Diagram as before) T< '~. K.2 05~ .25 Stress concentration factors for flat bar with shoulder and concentrated compression loads at the specified positions... .zd _ I)' ' Kt..0 1'1 0. 1.0 'I V »: 2..025 I .. ' rIb == Kt. ".25.04 ':"[(f bd4 vf"'" B/b=3 2.: Hetenyi)./.O.. 1.5..  2.8 62 05~ 1.8 v 1..0 'I 1.. 1.8 .8 ...025 .....4 0. 2./ 111// 2.00 rlI »: fl 2. 00\ 3.b OO~ '''C::: p Bib == 2. 9. Figure 5..6 .. 1/ I. II .. / 1.UB shoulder and values L / B in bending after Figure 5.00 foo w.L  l ~I Stress concentration factors for flat bars with narrow shoulder in tension may be approximately computed from Eq.1= I .= .6 d. photoelastic study.. L / B = 2 after Figure 5.2....0 ° " ~ 0'8~ I '/ ..°16 ..r l ..0.24) t..2 Stress concentration factors 5 Appendices 5.02= .M= " 1..0 (b . after Peterson (Ref.24): T< _f  LIB 2.zd shoulder in tension and values b / B after Figure 5...zd..4 I. 2.2. l .0 0.6 I 1 v /' 1.../ .06 I 1...0 1.... 9.0 LIB 2.03~ il 1/ 2.° LIB 2.b rib == Kt..24..zd 6 5 \ 4 3 2 bThickness s \ r. T< Stress concentration factor for the "broad" '~.2..2 / 2.15~ V I.24 (diagram that is closest to the value BIb in question).. Bib == 1.L = 1+ (T< ~"t...0 Stress concentration factors for flat bars with shoulder head and concentrated compression loads at the specified positions according to Figure 5..b Thickness s .. l 1..2 I I 'fT _f. ~ h£: 0. B / b = 1. V 1.. ..zd.0 0.05 0.. '10= '~.8 02= 1. 2..24 stress concentration factors for flat bars with narrow shoulder in bending.2 v: .4 0. .2.6 " V~I '.2..25.O~_ I Ii .. 0.4 O'g:.0 I 1:::fO.25 ./ II I / 2....015 '"  II. " I 05~ . .b.05' .. (5. i!J.2.075 0. rIb == 00~5 Kt.g  P'\= I I o 15 02= .2.05~ 0.2. r.2.08 0. after Peterson (Ref. .2.6 .2. T< Stress concentration factor for the "narrow" '~..6 I / II / 1 / fI ' / 2.~ .0 2.
..:'0./ V ../~\)' 0 S__~~ I' __ :c.v """v' 9\) 9~  ...0 Bib rl/~~oI2Jo . 1\.. \../ \)§Y .100' I .'i:(~".o~~::::::\.~() ~ :.\ .0  I I 1. / ..050 I I I I 3 1..zd ' 2 I ! I r 2.2."..5"./ .: Hetenyi)../ 11 6 9 1/ ~ 3..9°095 '....2= 4 I....2. v 8 5 j ..075. II 1/ / 10 VI). 5../ .. photoelastic study. ~ ~ 6 "" ()~I) ...0 I I 2./ . I)b'> "\)~\)'" 'b0 .: \. 0.0 3. \)01) ...  1)'7~ ".1..5 3./ 9 8 7 _. ...~ ..Zd 11 Kt..  \)r~~..0 2 I J I I 2. ~\/~ bl) ~ /' 5 4 I ~ 8 1/ ~. " 3 . O~i""" V I'..zd 10 13 I 12 I rib =0.. V ~~.. ".. k::...5 2.5l::::::1~ :' I I 7 o~O ~ 1/ II 8 "./V / e~...../ . 4 3 ."':~~\i' ..186 5.. ' .) I ... A 12 ~ ~'''1.zd 10 13 I ~~' I I
.2.5.. . Chapter 5. Fatigue notch factors are applicable in combination with nominal stresses *1.15) for round bars with tranverse hole..3.3.zd = Kt.1) for round bars or Eq. ..3.3.3.3. Kf.zd(d) . 1 The nominal stress may be defined in a different way.4 5.Round bars and flat bars.3.or wedgeshaped portion or with longitudinal hole General Round bars with coneshaped portion Flat bars with wedgeshaped portion Round bars with longitudinal hole 5. . and the KiK.1. Step: Determining the fatigue notch factor for the round bar with coneshaped portion.Ol .3.3.3 Fatigue notch factors 5.2. .2) for round bars. Chapter 5. using the KtKf ratios..zd . Figure 5. the fatigue notch factors for tension.3. Eq.3.0 5.3.3.2 Fatigue notch factors for bars with cone.or wedgeshaped portion or with longitudinal hole 5.Round bars and flat bars with coneshaped or wedgeshaped portion as well as round bars with a longitudinal hole.Components from cast iron materials and from aluminum alloys.Round bars for which experimentally determined fatigue notch factors are available.2. .3.0 General The fatigue notch factors are applicable to round bars and to flat bars.1 5.0 General For round bars and for flat bars with cone. ncr(r). Components with fatigue notch factors determined by the user..3.3.3.3. . Chapter 5. Concerning their determination the following cases are to be distinguished: .. llcr(r).3.3. . (5.3.2.5 5.or wedgeshaped portion or with longitudinal hole the fatigue notch factors are to be determined as follows. .6 Experimentally determined fatigue notch factors General Round bars with groove for a snap ring Round bars with Vgroove Round bars with tranverse hole 191 Shafts with keyway Shafts with pressfitted members Shafts with splines 187 5 Appendices 5. For round bars with coneshaped portion.3..2 Fatigue notch factors for bars with cone.3.3.1 Round bar with coneshaped portion. . 1 5. see Eq. ratio.2.zd .2 5.the fatigue notch factors.3..11) for flat bars *2. Figure 5.. (5.zd . Kt. Chapter 5.3.3. Slope angle ro and length I of slope. Nominal stresses 189 190 193 5.1) 2.3..0 5.0 General 5.3.dog Content Page 5. for which stress concentration factors are given in Chapter 5. (5..3 5..3..187 5.3 5.3.1. Kt. from that of the round bar with shoulder fillet.3.2. Step: Computing the fatigue notch factor for the round bar with shoulder fillet....3..2.2.3.3 5.. Figure 5.zd. . 194 5.1 Round bars with coneshaped portion 5.3.. are to be computed from the stress concentration factors. Chapter 5.for example round bars or flat bars .5 Fatigue notch factors determined by the user The nominal stresses for tension.2.2.4. . .3.3 Fatigue notch factors 1R53 EN. modified according to the slope angle co. Kf.3. Kf.1: Kf. (5.1 Fatigue notch factors derived from stress concentration factors For structural details for which stress concentration factors are given in Chapter 5. Eq. Kf.3.2.5) for round bars with a longitudinal hole or Eq.3. (5. for bending and for torsion are to be computed in two steps: 1. (5.3. according to Chapter 2.2 5.3..zd .3...2..1 Fatigue notch factors derived from stress concentration factors 5. from the stress concentration factor.2 .zd / ncr(r).3.2. 5.4 Fatigue notch factors for components from cast iron materials and from aluminum alloys 5.2. according to Chapter 2. for bending and for torsion are the same as for the stress concentration factors.
8 2.b.b .2 3.3.. special case with two notch radii (top) and equivalent round bar with coneshaped portion (bottom). Kf.03) = 1.9 and co = 15°: Figure Kf..C'O I X' Cll = Figure 5.. Rm = 583 MPa.0 2.3 (bottom).6 2.b.c.b = 1. Mb ).b. Slope angle..b = 2. Therefore no formula for the nominal shear stress is contained in Eq.47 I (1.3.6 2. ) and for torsion (torsion moment M t ) are '2 4 F I 1td2 .3. Ktto Kr.6.2).w I ( llcr(r)' llcr(d) ).53 mrrr".w and .47 and co = 15 0.3. The initial diagram .0 2.24' 1.o 3. ncr(d) = 1.13) Eq.3.2 1.0 0' 1.b. 1.2 2. r = 1 mm.8 I _.6 1. photoelastic study . 25' :Ii 2.9. 5.82.3) Kt. 1.. I Kt.4 Relationship between 2 In the following tension or compression or tensioncompression are mentioned as tension throughout. for bending (bending moment M.3. Step: Determining the fatigue notch factor for the round bar with coneshaped portion from the value Kf.. 1.o Kf.3.3 (top).6.0 .b I (llcr(r) .) ' Kr.. Fatigue notch factor of the bar with coneshaped portion. 15' I 2.4 1. (2.2 Note: The stress concentration factor for the round bar with coneshaped portion that follows from Kt.2 5 Appendices The diameter d is shown in the respective figures..::: t and r .4: Kf.4 3.3.03) = 1.3.2 Influence of the slope angle co on the fatigue notch factor of a round bar with coneshaped portion. Figure 5.t: Kt.8 3..188 5. 2.24. (2.24 .b o~Kt.e = 1.applies to the stress concentration factor for bending of flat bars with a notch on oneside. Figure 5.3. D = 50 mm.82 I (1. (2.w Fatigue notch factor of the bar with shoulder. b.9 mm.8 10' I 1.15) Eq.t: 1.03. Special case For round bars with shoulder fillet and with two different notch radii ro .2.3.3 Round bar with shoulder fillet. G cr (d) = 2 I d = 0.b . 1 = 14.3.0 1.b.<