Digital System Design

Lecture 14

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Fixed Point Arithmatic

Floating & Fixed Point Arithmetic
Two Types of arithmetic
Floating Point Arithmetic
• Used where precision and dynamic range are important
• Most algorithms are developed in FP
Ease of coding
• More Cost (Area, Speed, Power)

Fixed Point Arithmetic
• Place of decimal is fixed
• Simpler HW, low power, less silicon
• Converting FP simulation to Fixed-point simulation is time
consuming
• The code is less readable, need to worry about overflow
and scaling issues
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Fixed Point Arithmatic

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Fixed Point Arithmatic

Fixed-point v/s Floating-point Hardware
 Algorithms are developed in floating point format using tools



4

like Matlab
Floating point processors and HW are expensive
Fixed-point processors and HW are used in embedded
systems
After algorithms are designed and tested then they are
converted into fixed-point implementation
The algorithms are ported on Fixed-point processor or
application specific hardware

Fixed Point Arithmatic

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Number Representation  In a digital design fixed or floating point numbers are represented in binary format Types of Representation one’s complement sign magnitude canonic sign digit (CSD) two’s complement  In digital system design for fixed point implementation the canonic sign digit (CSD). and two’s complement are normally used 6 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

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IEEE-754 64-bit Double-Precision FloatingPoint Numbers 16 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

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Floating Point Addition/Subtraction 21 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

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Fixed Point Arithmetic 24 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

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Best way to learn DSD is to do it! 44 Fixed Point Arithmatic .