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Lecture 14

1

Fixed Point Arithmatic

**Floating & Fixed Point Arithmetic
**

Two Types of arithmetic

Floating Point Arithmetic

• Used where precision and dynamic range are important

• Most algorithms are developed in FP

Ease of coding

• More Cost (Area, Speed, Power)

**Fixed Point Arithmetic
**

• Place of decimal is fixed

• Simpler HW, low power, less silicon

• Converting FP simulation to Fixed-point simulation is time

consuming

• The code is less readable, need to worry about overflow

and scaling issues

2

Fixed Point Arithmatic

3

Fixed Point Arithmatic

**Fixed-point v/s Floating-point Hardware
**

Algorithms are developed in floating point format using tools

4

like Matlab

Floating point processors and HW are expensive

Fixed-point processors and HW are used in embedded

systems

After algorithms are designed and tested then they are

converted into fixed-point implementation

The algorithms are ported on Fixed-point processor or

application specific hardware

Fixed Point Arithmatic

5 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

Number Representation In a digital design fixed or floating point numbers are represented in binary format Types of Representation one’s complement sign magnitude canonic sign digit (CSD) two’s complement In digital system design for fixed point implementation the canonic sign digit (CSD). and two’s complement are normally used 6 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

7 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

8 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

9 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

10 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

11 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

12 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

13 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

14 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

15 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

IEEE-754 64-bit Double-Precision FloatingPoint Numbers 16 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

17 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

18 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

19 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

20 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

Floating Point Addition/Subtraction 21 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

22 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

23 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

Fixed Point Arithmetic 24 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

25 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

26 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

27 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

28 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

29 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

30 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

31 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

32 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

33 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

34 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

35 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

36 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

37 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

38 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

39 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

40 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

41 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

42 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

Best way to learn DSD is to do it! 44 Fixed Point Arithmatic .

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