1 THE CATECHETICAL LECTURES OF

SAINT CYRIL, ARCHBISHOP OF JERUSALEM
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THE PROCATECHESIS, OR,
PROLOGUE TO THE CATECHETICAL LECTURES
DELIVERED IN JERUSALEM IN 348 A.D.
1. Already there is an odor of blessedness upon you, O you who are soon to be enlightened: already you
are gathering the spiritual flowers, to weave heavenly crowns: already the fragrance of the Holy Spirit
has breathed upon you: already you have gathered round the vestibule of the King’s palace; may you be
led in also by the King! For blossoms now have appeared upon the trees; may the fruit also be found
perfect! Thus far there has been an inscription of your names, and a call to service, and torches of the
bridal train, and a longing for heavenly citizenship, and a good purpose, and hope attendant thereon. For
he lies not who said, that to them that love God all things work together for good. God is lavish in
beneficence, yet He waits for each man’s genuine will: therefore the Apostle added and said, to them that
are called according to a purpose (Romans 8:28). The honesty of purpose makes you called: for if your
body is here but not your mind, it profits you nothing.
2. Even Simon Magus once came to the Laver (Acts 8:13): he was baptized, but was not enlightened;
and though he dipped his body in water, he enlightened not his heart with the Spirit: his body went down
and came up, but his soul was not buried with Christ, nor raised with Him (Romans 6:4; Colossians 2:12).
Now I mention the statements of falls, that you may not fall: for all these things happened to them as
examples, and they were written for the admonition (1 Corinthians 10:11) of those who to this day draw
near. Let none of you be found tempting His grace, lest any root of bitterness springing up cause trouble
(Hebrews 12:15). Let none of you enter saying, “Let us see what the faithful are doing: let me go in and
see, that I may learn what is being done.” Do you expect to see, and not expect to be seen? And do you
think that while you are searching out what is going on, God is not searching your heart?
3. A certain man in the Gospels once pried into the marriage feast (Matthew 22:12), and came in, sat
down, and ate: for the bridegroom permitted it. But when he saw them all clad in white, he ought to have
assumed a garment of the same kind himself: whereas he partook of the like food, but was unlike them in
fashion and in purpose. The bridegroom, however, though bountiful, was not undiscerning: and in going
round to each of the guests and observing them (for his care was not for their eating, but for their seemly
behavior), he saw a stranger not having on a wedding garment, and said to him, Friend, how did you come
in hither? In what a color1! With what a conscience! Did the door-keeper not forbid you, because of the
bountifulness of the entertainer? Were you ignorant in what fashion you should come in to the banquet?
You still came in, and saw the glittering fashions of the guests: should you not have been taught even by
what was before your eyes? Should you not have retired in good season, that you might enter in good
season again? But now you have come in unseasonably, to be unseasonably cast out. So he commands
the servants, Bind his feet, which daringly intruded: bind his hands, which knew not how to put a bright
garment around him: and cast him into the outer darkness; for he is unworthy of the wedding torches.
You see what happened to that man: make your own condition safe.
1

The Greek word (χρῶμα) is used by Ignatius of Antioch in the beginning of his Epistle to the Romans of a discoloring stain.

“Though I have failed once. would you not have disregarded all else. A long notice is allowed to you. and with a will defiled. but you must not look for the grace: for the water will receive. because men are to receive a title of God. hearing mysteries. I pray you.Father. but by killing to make alive: for you must die and rise again. Let there be no Simon among you. though you came with an evil purpose.” 4 St. and welcome you. Hear St. Put off your former fashion. God is faithful (1 Corinthians 1:9). 5. You have entered into a contest. because the former was no baptism. The echo is no longer around you. put on another fashion and come in. and were allowed: your name was inscribed. and be taught by what you see. A slave also perhaps wishes to please his master. and live to righteousness. else it might be said. I accept this bait for the hook. yet as one to be saved by a good hope. Tell me. live from this very day. fornication and uncleanness. and put on the brightest robe of chastity. the place of doorkeepers we left the door open: and it is possible that you entered with your soul stained with sins. But beware lest you have the title of “faithful. Dead indeed unto sin. let him arise.iv-p53. Great Lent St. and set about the preparation for the feast? And on the eve of consecrating your soul to the heavenly Bridegroom. Foreseeing this. for the indwelling Spirit (Romans 8:9. the Psalmist. and enter most opportunely tomorrow. (Ephesians 4:5): for only the heretics are rebaptized. no hypocrisy.4 2 i. not in order to kill. Son. See. and a friend his friend. that you may win spiritual things? 7. And think not that you receive a small thing: though a miserable man. the ministers of Christ. and are all sons of the Most High (Psalm 81(82):6). You have come within the Church’s nets (Matthew 13:47): be taken alive. Die to your sins. and occupying. and to put on and enter. 11) henceforth makes your mind a house of God. you have forty days for repentance2: you have full opportunity both to put off. 13). the thing cannot be set right. The remark applies in like manner to women also in their turn. as is held by some Orthodox to this day. Put off. the reading of Scriptures. let him take the salve. Perhaps you knew not where you were going. no idle curiosity about the matter. as it were. Hear another Scripture saying. For we. have admitted every one. how great a dignity Jesus bestows on you. If anyone is conscious of his wound. do not simply cover it up. John Chrysostom expresses 3 . and one baptismjavascript:toggle('fnf_ii. the course of instruction? Be abashed at the place. while the word echoed3 round you from without. You are Gods. and came here on that account. Were it your weddingday before you.” which has the same root as “echo. hearing of hope. If the clothing of your soul is avarice.1'). I pray you. hearing Scriptures. before Jesus the Bridegroom of souls come in and see their fashions. will you not cease from carnal things. for there is one Lord. We may not receive Baptism twice or thrice. Paul saying. and one faith. However. It is possible that a man is wishing to pay court to a woman. you receive one of God’s titles. toil on through the race: another such opportunity you cannot have. When you have heard what is written concerning the mysteries. and not knowing their depth. spoke thus in the person of God: I said. and knowing it not. St. and wash. This charge I give to you. but the Spirit will not accept you. You entered. if any has fallen. 6. flee not: for Jesus is angling for you. Possibly too you have come on another pretext. do you behold this venerable constitution of the Church? Do you view her order and discipline.e. You were called a Catechumen. and not understanding them. many other Orthodox hold to the prevailing practice of the Orthodox Church and accept all those baptized in the Name of the Holy Trinity . For you have heard the Apostle say. the speaker is blameless. the presence of the ordained. Cyril seems to hold to the belief that only Orthodox baptism is valid. but within you. nor in what kind of net you are taken. and Holy Spirit – as having received the “one baptism” from God. but living unto righteousness (Romans 6:11. Cyril plays upon the word “Catechumen. I shall set it right a second time”: whereas if you fail once.4. God is faithful and just (1 John 1:9). Go out opportunely now.” but the will of the faithless. then you will understand things which you knew not. But if you persist in an evil purpose.

let your eye abstain from sin. lest the eye by roving make the heart rove also. “How are my sins blotted out?” I tell you. And many things there are to be discussed in succession. 11.) are re-baptized. and tin. on fire in the crucible of the body. he corrects this error likewise saying. and corner match with corner. even our former labor is of no use. and so find what they are seeking. and become invincible against every heretical attempt. and of the Resurrection. Your face has been veiled. It is not the priest who performs the Sacrament. and dig deep. Say not. that your mind may henceforward be free. 9. and blowing up the gold which is hidden in the crucible stir the flame which surrounds it. Think not that they are the ordinary homilies. and Gentiles. as it were. He knows the heart. For in like manner as those who are skilled in the goldsmith’s craft throw in their breath upon the fire through certain delicate instruments.8. your ears are not hindered from receiving the means of salvation. copper. who judges you. while your lips declare you willing. Suppose you had gold unwrought and alloyed. But if the teaching concerning the laver of regeneration delivered in a consecutive course be neglected today. and the building become unsound. but God. and set the soul. For you are receiving armor against the adverse power. against Jews. having been collected out of the divine Scriptures. brethren. yet if we should neglect them today we may study them tomorrow. and His call is to you. how to contend against heretic. But unless you fit them together in the one whole. and hope. Let your feet hasten to these teachings. and these exorcisms are divine. .’ says he. for you have many to hurl them at: and you have need to learn how to strike down the Greek. in order that the God of all may see our purpose. is the subject of enquiry. as it were. for this is He who forgives our sins’” (Homilies on 1 Corinthians iii. But when your eyes are veiled. and overcome adverse powers. You have many enemies. Let not your tongue speak unseemly words. and iron. receive with earnestness the exorcisms: whether you are breathed upon or exorcised. etc. pray. Let us then. and Samaritans. which though now dropped one by one are afterwards to be presented in harmonious connection. save a good purpose. “For since this also was a cause of schisms. the act is to your salvation. and grant us repentance that brings salvation. Jehovah’s Witnesses. Mormon. even so when the exorcists inspire terror by the Spirit of God. let not your mind be wearied out. For God seeks nothing else from us. Study our teachings and keep them forever. that this teaching is a kind of building: if we do not bind the house together by regular bonds in the building. you must hear of Judgment. Attend closely to these teachings. since the Name of the Holy Trinity was not invoked. can gold be purified from the foreign substances without fire? Even so without exorcisms the soul cannot be purified. In like manner we are bringing to you stones. abide in hope. and remember what is first. ‘who baptized. it in this way. your heart be silent. the builder may build. and cleanse us from our sins. You must hear concerning the living God. and what is second. those who have received baptism in a religion that does not recognize the Holy Trinity (i. and the soul henceforth is cleansed from its sins and has salvation. by believing. their being called after the name of those who baptized them. God has called. but into whose Name. But stone must follow stone by course. And the armor is ready.5). As a result. Whose Name is invoked. and by our smoothing off inequalities the building must thus rise evenly.e. and surrender ourselves. when else can that be planted rightly which has once been planted ill? Suppose. and though we should prolong our discourse. and impart to us good hopes of our estate. and there abide salvation and the hope of eternal life. mixed with various substances. and lead: we seek to have the gold alone. but you will find the building unsound. armor against heresies. Let me give you this charge also. ‘Were you baptized into the name of Paul?’ ‘Tell me not. For not he that baptizes. lest some gap be found. and most ready the sword of the Spirit (Ephesians 6:17): but you also must stretch forth your right hand with good resolution.” What can be shorter than this? But if. take to yourself many darts. and from roving after things unprofitable. Cease from this day from every evil deed. of knowledge. that you may war the Lord’s warfare. “By willing. but he who is invoked in the Baptism. when shall it be made right? Suppose it is the season for planting trees: if we do not dig. for though they also are good and trustworthy. the hostile demon flees away. 10. must hear of Christ. against Jew and Samaritan.

but her voice be unheard. When. When by experience you have learned how high the matters of our teaching are. 1 Timothy 2:12). and two evils arise. And when the Exorcism has been done. and your barren soul give birth to the salvation of “God who has heard your prayer. pray. the sick man dies. let the men when sitting have a useful book. Further. If the Church is shut. You were once yourself a Catechumen. and the physician is blamed. and women with women:7 lest the pretext of salvation become an occasion of destruction. and finds fault with the thing. they are in possession of grace. and pray. if I also know it?” So too the sick ask for wine. 8 Women. what the city has done. let passions be put away. let one pray. so there was a period of time where they waited outside for the others to return. For though the ark was one. thus they had no authority to speak in the Church. and his wife and his sons’ wives. tell nothing to him that is without. either singing or reading quietly. For we deliver to you a mystery. Let none ever say to you. for I have heard from my elders that there were not these walls in old times. Be still. Thus is it also with the Catechumen. but others’ ears catch not the sound: for I suffer not a woman to speak in the Church (1 Corinthians 14:34. let each one of you speak things tending to godliness: and if any of your number be not present. did not study theology. “What harm to you. men with men. would you not wait for your fellow guest? If you had a brother. our fathers have thought it necessary to separate you at least by these boards. but if it be given at a wrong time it causes delirium. And again let the party of young women sit together in like manner. and I described not what lay before you. and a hope of the life to come. and let one read. and scoffs at what is said). but because his ear is unworthy to receive. nor the Presbyter. seek for him. and women with women. John Chrysostom in his Homilies on Matthew 74.12. and another speak something useful. if a Catechumen ask you what the teachers have said. yet let there be a separation. While in many countries the congregation is separated – men on the right and women on the left – this is not generally the practice in the United States.” for this is the interpretation of the name Samuel. not that the things spoken are not worthy to be told. If you were called to a banquet. Guard the mystery for Him who gives the reward. and do speak. 13. would you not seek your brother’s good? Afterwards busy not yourself about unprofitable matters: neither. that is what your present hour needs. and another listen: and if there be no book. until the others who are being exorcised have come.5 When you have come in before the hour of the exorcisms. You who have been enrolled are become sons and daughters of one Mother. and the believer is condemned as a traitor. 6 . women who have been theologically trained in the Church have spoken. and let her lips move. Even if there be a fair pretext for sitting near each other. to be received or not: copy not those who have freedom from anxiety. If you see the believers ministering. but cherish fear. to tell nothing out. and the door was shut. 7 St. nor the village. and showing no care. they enjoy security. In modern times. they know what they have received. 14. in ancient times. For now I need the example of Noah’s ark: in which were Noah and his sons.3: “You ought to have within you the wall that separates you from the women: but since you will not.8 And let the married woman also follow the same example. then you will know that the Catechumens are not worthy to hear them. Look upward.6 let men be with men. But you stand just now in the turn of the scale. yet things had been suitably arranged. the Lecture is delivered. that a Samuel may come. so that their lips speak.” These barriers are no longer used in the Orthodox Church. with the permission of the bishop. 5 The Church The Candidates were brought in before the congregation one by one. therefore. nor the King. But you are now standing on the border: take heed. and know that I am God (Psalm 45(46):10(11)). if he hear anything from the believer: both the Catechumen becomes delirious (for he understands not what he has heard. nor the Bishop. and you are all inside.

a remission of offences. and God the Lord of all there sitting. as it were. He sees so many receiving salvation. the darkness which shines like the day. and brace up our souls. a new-birth of the soul. and silver. Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven.15. I beseech you. (Isaiah 27:1) who is laying these plots against you. then let your mind be free for prayer. How then may you pass him? Have your feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace (Ephesians 6:15). Let your mind be refined as by fire unto reverence. and precious stones (1 Corinthians 3:12. each woman’s reverence. but for you to set your mind upon what is said. lift up the eye of the mind: even now imagine the choirs of Angels. from our work being burnt up: but make our work gold. May God sometime show you that night.iv-p86. in Christ Jesus Our Lord: to whom be the glory forever and ever! Amen. lest we suffer loss. is able both to guard the sincere. he may not hurt you. concerning which it is said. and enter into the presence of your Lord. when over your salvation the angels shall chant. I shall observe each man’s earnestness. that God may make you worthy of the heavenly and immortal Mysteries. We for our part as men charge and teach you thus: but do not make our building hay and stubble and chaff. that even if he bite. steadfast hope. but you are going past that serpent. Gregory of Nyssa. a garment of light. 17. Have faith indwelling. Prepare your own heart for the reception of doctrine. Romans 6:13): may He fill you with the heavenly things of the New Covenant. a death of sin. Even now let your ears ring. and every man of you and every woman receiving salvation. the gift of adoption! But there is a serpent by the wayside watching those who pass by: beware lest he bite you with unbelief. and prepare our hearts. turn to meditation upon Judgment to remind you of Salvation. a welcome into the Kingdom. that you may pass the enemy. Let us set our minds. Cease not day or night: but when sleep is banished from your eyes.” (Oration iv) .9 Then may the gate of Paradise be opened to every man and every woman among you. and whose sins are covered (Psalm 31(32):1): when like stars of the Church you shall enter in. and to give faith to the hypocrite: for even to the unbeliever. “Are you then going in. Great is the Baptism that lies before you: a ransom to captives. Then may you receive the Name of Christ. but to God who works in you. Even now. the delight of Paradise. and the power of things divine. and the Spirit present with them. by mingling the flames of torches with the morning rays of the sun. and Thrones and Dominions doing service. Attend not to the lips of the speaker. 16. The race is for our soul: our hope is of things eternal: and God. Give your mind wholly to study. let your soul be forged as metal: let the stubbornness of unbelief be hammered out: let the superfluous scales of the iron drop off. and for God to make it perfect. that it may forget base things. has made one continuous day. and the true metal remain. Pray more frequently. and what is pure remain. And if you find any shameful thought rise up in your mind. bright in the body and radiant in the soul. not divided by the interposition of darkness. a strong sandal. may He plant you into His Church. and His Only-begotten Son sitting with Him on His right hand. If you find any one saying to you. and put on you the armor of righteousness (2 Corinthians 6:7. with that glorious sound. Then may you enjoy the Christ-bearing waters in their fragrance. and the night shall shine as the day (Psalm 138(139):12). 9 On Easter Eve the faithful carry candles. who knows your hearts. You are coming in unto the Father of Spirits. God is able to give faith. to the end that abiding in hope you may become an heir of everlasting salvation. and who a hypocrite. preaching on the Resurrection describes the scene: “This brilliant night. a chariot to heaven. The darkness shall not be hidden from you. which are representative of the candles held by the newly-baptized. and give you the seal of the Holy Spirit indelible throughout all ages. 15)! For it is my responsibility to speak. to descend into the water? Has the city just now no baths?” take notice that it is the dragon of the seajavascript:toggle('fnf_ii. and enlist you in His own service. if only he give his heart.2'). for fellowship in the Holy Mysteries. let the rust of the iron be rubbed off. and observes who is sincere. Guard your own soul. and grant you forgiveness of your former trespasses. So may He blot out the handwriting that is against you (Colossians 2:14). and is seeking whom he may devour (1 Peter 5:8). that you be not ensnared. a holy indissoluble seal.

”—you crafty and most subtle 10 This lecture was given on Bright Monday. establish. that I might not be made subject to bondage forever. that most bitter and cruel tyrant. that Moses might lead forth an afflicted people out of Egypt.LECTURE XIX FIRST LECTURE ON THE MYSTERIES “Be sober. To Him be the dominion forever and ever. after their rescue. especially as you have been made fit to receive the more sacred Mysteries. By Silvanus. and this present one disappears in the water of salvation. God sent Moses to bring them out of the evil bondage of the Egyptians. She who is at Babylon. a faithful brother as I regard him. that the destroyer might flee from the houses which had the sign of the blood. here. after having been found worthy of divine and life-giving Baptism.”—you wicked and most cruel tyrant. looking with a symbolical meaning towards the West. Christ. sends you greetings. The tyrant of old was drowned in the sea. was oppressing the free and high-born people of the Hebrews. meaning. nevertheless he went on. . and so does my son Mark. but since I well knew that seeing is far more persuasive than hearing.10 Since therefore it remains to set before you a table of the more perfect instructions. 15). for it is necessary. And after you have suffered a little while. Since the West is the region of sensible darkness. firm in your faith. therefore. the blood of a lamb was the spell against the destroyer. here. pursued after them (Exodus 14:9-23). that finding you more open to the influence of my words from your present experience. I have written briefly to you. was following you even to the very streams of salvation. But nevertheless you are bidden to say. O true-born and dearly beloved children of the Church. “I renounce you. What then did each of you stand up and say? “I renounce you.” (I Peter 5:8-14) 1. For when Pharaoh. stand fast in it. that Christ might rescue those who are oppressed in the world under sin: there. having partaken with me of flesh and blood. Resist him. the tyrant was pursuing that ancient people even to the sea. seeking someone to devour. Satan. 4. be watchful.” I wish also to say wherefore you stand facing to the West. following close in their footsteps. and the Hebrew people were marvelously delivered. however. knowing that the same experience of suffering is required of your brotherhood throughout the world.” “I renounce you. the blood of the Lamb without blemish Jesus Christ is made the charm to scare evil spirits: there. There we have Moses sent from God to Egypt. 3. and as in the presence of Satan you renounced him. let us now teach you these things exactly. and here the daring and shameless spirit. Peace to all of you that are in Christ. here. I have long been wishing. and saw the sea wondrously parted for them. will Himself restore. with arm outstretched towards him as though he were present. and he being darkness has his dominion also in darkness. and strengthen you. and there facing towards the West you listened to the command to stretch forth your hand. Greet one another with the kiss of love. for that Christ has overthrown. Now turn from the old to the new. Now you must know that this figure is found in ancient history. sent forth from His Father into the world: there. you renounce that dark and gloomy potentate. Satan. “I fear your might no longer. that through these He might by death destroy death (Hebrews 2:14. and was all at once overwhelmed and engulfed in the Red Sea. First you entered into the vestibule of the Baptistery. the God of all grace. to discourse to you concerning these spiritual and heavenly Mysteries. from the figure to the reality. Then the door posts were anointed with the blood of a lamb. the Monday after Pascha (Easter). exhorting and declaring that this is the true grace of God. the author of evil. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion. The enemy. who has called you to His eternal glory in Christ. that you may know the effect wrought upon you on that evening of your baptism. I might lead you by the hand into the brighter and more fragrant meadow of the Paradise before us. 2. after they had been baptized. Amen. I waited for the present season. who is likewise chosen.

Paul’s argument against eating meats offered to idols in 1 Corinthians 10:14-21. thinking to find a cure even for their bodily ailments. and a symbol of this was your turning from West to East. who under the guise of friendship did contrive all disobedience. and hunting. because he treated you of old as his own. 9. you shall find the tyrant more bitter. Take heed therefore to yourself. Only know this. sorceries. “And all his pomp. the lighting of lamps. are reckoned in the pomp of the devil. Then you were told to say.—nor in the madness of them who in hunts expose themselves to wild beasts. which has filled the world. The watching of birds. When therefore you renounce Satan. You renounce therefore the works of Satan. their belly. is included in the works of the devil. that all that you say. Be not interested in the madness of the theatre. and in one Baptism of repentance. are services of the devil. or burning of incense by fountains or rivers. where for his transgression our first father was banished. Moreover. omens. “and all your works. though in their own nature simple. as some persons cheated by dreams or by evil spirits do. especially at that most thrilling hour. and all such things. having put your hand to the plough.—just as one who has escaped a tyrant has surely escaped his weapons also. I mean. . Have you not heard the old history which tells us of Lot and his daughters? Was not he himself saved with his daughters. that stone hewn without hands (Daniel 2:35. who. or other such things polluted by the invocation of the unclean spirits. so you will be bereaved of Christ. when therefore you do anything contrary to these promises. that frantic and soul-subverting spectacle. or other evil arts. things done in honor of lifeless idols. while after the invocation the Bread becomes the Body of Christ. “and all your service. and relieved you from his hard bondage.” Now the pomp of the devil is the madness of theatres. and then turning back to the salt savor of this life’s doings. that they may pamper their miserable appetite.” Now the service of the devil is prayer in idol temples. and to speak justly. Then you say.” Of which things we spoke to you at length in the former Lectures. all deeds and thoughts which are contrary to reason. when he had gained the mountain. For all these are the pomp of the devil. but has now been greatly exasperated by you. in remembrance of her depraved will and her turning back. and work apostasy in our first parents. either meat or bread. Satan. the things which are hung up at idol festivals. and have experience of the other. set up as a monument forever. and the frantic dancing of effeminate men. For if after renouncing Satan and associating yourself with Christ.”—plotter as you are. and horseraces.”—the artificer and abettor of all wickedness. perchance. 6. for the sake of their own god. and in the Son.11 8. there is opened to you the paradise of God. but escape to the mountain. “Turn away my eyes from beholding vanity” (Psalm 118(119):37). 45). as God’s grace allowed us. utterly breaking all your covenant with him. Shun also horseraces. which also you must renounce.serpent. which He planted towards the East. or amulets. to serve their belly with meats. divination. where you will behold the wanton gestures of the players. For as the Bread and Wine of the Eucharist before the invocation of the Holy and Adorable Trinity were simple bread and wine. is written in God’s books. the place of light. to Jesus Christ. “I renounce you. become profane by the invocation of the evil spirit. therefore shun them. and in the Holy Spirit. 11 Compare to St. Go not after such things. of every kind. Then in a second sentence you are taught to say. carried on with mockeries and all unseemliness. you fall under their influence. while his wife became a pillar of salt. you shall be judged as a transgressor (Galatians 2:18).” Now the works of Satan are all sin. 5. that ancient league with hell (Isaiah 28:15). and all such vanity: from which that holy man praying to be delivered says unto God. All sin therefore. become themselves in reality meat for the belly of untamed beasts. and the Wine the Blood of Christ. so in like manner such meats belonging to the pomp of Satan. they cast away their life headlong in single combats. “I believe in the Father. and turn not again to what is behind (Philippians 3:13). 7. After this you say. “I renounce you. or charms written on leaves.

be glory. 2. Do not yield your members to sin as instruments of wickedness. walks about. and we might no longer be enslaved to sin. are profitable to us. as you entered. which grows corrupt in the lusts of deceit (Ephesians 4:22). but yield yourselves to God as men who have been brought from death to life. But though in former times death was mighty and devoured. but the life He lives He lives to God. I have put off my garment. These daily introductions into the Mysteries. you may no longer wear that old garment. we believe that we shall also live with Him.10. who was stripped naked on the Cross. but say with the Spouse of Christ in the Song of Songs. we shall there know the symbolical meaning of the things which are there performed. and were made partakers of the good olive-tree. at the holy Laver of regeneration God has wiped away every tear from off all faces (Isaiah 25:8. For since the adverse powers made their lair in your members. Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into His death? We were buried therefore with Him by baptism into death. and were not ashamed12. and openly triumphed over them on the tree (Colossians 2:15). May the soul which has once put him off. that you may learn of what those things. how shall I put it on (Song of Songs 5:3)? O wondrous thing! You were naked in the sight of all. As soon. forever and ever. and by His nakedness put off from Himself the principalities and powers. I shall necessarily lay before you the sequel of yesterday’s Lecture. and this was an image of putting off the old man with his deeds (Colossians 3:9). clothed in the garment of salvation (Isaiah 61:10). even Jesus Christ. The death He died He died to sin. who have been renewed from an old state to a new. for truly you bore the likeness of the first-formed Adam. as was just now read. For he who has died is freed from sin. (Romans 6:3-14) 1. in this also imitating Christ. now that you have put off the old man. and your members to God as instruments of righteousness. . Then. For we know that Christ being raised from the dead will never die again. which were done by you in the inner chamber. And these things were done in the outer chamber. since you are not under law but under grace. and power. For you shall no more mourn. So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus. seeking whom he may devour (1 Peter 5:8). Now to God the Father. and the Holy Spirit. as a roaring lion. 11. which are the announcements of new truths. For sin will have no dominion over you. we shall certainly be united with Him in a resurrection like His. be sober. This was in imitation of Adam and Eve in the Garden. I do not at all mean this visible one. and was symbolic of putting off the old man. you were naked. when in the succeeding lectures on the Mysteries we have entered into the Holy of Holies. Therefore. Jesus Christ. death no longer has dominion over Him. both children and adults. from the very hairs of your head to your feet. For you were cut off from the 12 Everyone who came to the font to be baptized was naked. and majesty. We know that our old self was crucified with Him so that the sinful body might be destroyed. who was naked in the garden. Revelation 7:17). For our adversary the devil. when you were stripped. and was not ashamed. and most of all to you. then. 3. we too might walk in newness of life. and new instructions. Lecture XX Second Lecture on the Mysteries – On Baptism. never again put him on. For if we have been united with Him in a death like His. Having stripped yourselves. to make you obey their passions. But if God will. so that as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father. were symbolical. Amen. but you shall keep holy-day. But if we have died with Christ. but the old man. and being clothed in the new – the baptismal garments. you put off your tunic. once for all. you were anointed with exorcised oil. Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal bodies. with the Son. Guarded therefore by these discourses.

O surpassing lovingkindness! Christ received nails in His undefiled hands and feet. we also by partaking in the Baptism of death have been planted together with Him. and of the Holy Spirit. so in the descent. “For if we have been planted together with His death. as John’s was a baptism conferring only remission of sins: whereas we know full well. but has not further the fellowship also. Well has he said. Christ was actually crucified. the night. for His holy body was wrapped in pure linen. like fiercest flame. and truly rose again. and were made to share the fatness of the true olive-tree. remains in the light. Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into His death? We were buried therefore with Him by baptism into death (Romans 6:3). you saw nothing. you were led to the holy pool of Divine Baptism. but in your case there was only a likeness of death and sufferings. and grafted into the good one. and you made that saving confession. He said not. and descended three times into the water. and adoption. we shall be also with the likeness of His resurrection. and all these things He has freely bestowed upon us. and real burial. For if we have been planted together with the likeness of His death. whether he believed in the name of the Father. and suffered anguish. as Christ was carried from the Cross to the Sepulcher which is before our eyes.” but. but he who is in the day. no longer sees. and ministers to us the gift of the Holy Spirit. and everything happened really to Him. we were not really crucified and raised again. might gain salvation in reality. The exorcised oil therefore was a symbol of the participation of the fatness of Christ. in the reverse order. by representation. There is a time to bear and a time to die (Ecclesiastes 3:2). in that case. represented the first day of Christ in the earth. and by your descent. 4. whereas of salvation there was not a likeness but a reality. so you also in your first ascent out of the water. for us and for our salvation. and that we also are made partakers of His sufferings. or further. for His soul was really separated from His body. And each of you was asked. we were not really buried. of Christ’s true sufferings. O strange and inconceivable thing! We did not really die. 5. but in ascending again you were as in the day. that we. For since the true Vine was planted in this place. and of the Son. And what Solomon spoke of others will suit you also. and the invocation of the Name of God. and actually buried. For in Christ’s case there was death in reality. Paul cried with all exactness of truth.wild olive-tree. for as he who is in the night. and that Water of salvation was at once your grave and your mother. In order therefore that we might learn. For as the breathing of the saints. planted together (Romans 6:6). but to you. For as our Savior passed three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. And at the self-same moment you were both dying and being born. and our salvation in reality. scorch and drive out evil spirits. here also hinting by a symbol at the three days burial of Christ. For this cause Paul just now cried aloud and said. After these things. while on me without pain or toil by the fellowship of His suffering He freely bestows salvation. and one and the same time effected both of these. And fix your mind with much attention on the words of the Apostle. but also to chase away all the invisible powers of the evil one. there was a time to die and a time to be born. with the likeness of His death. that of adoption. but our imitation was in a figure. and your birth went hand in hand with your death. . and ascended again. sharing His sufferings by imitation. for he said. as not only to burn and cleanse away the traces of sins. 6. that as it purges our sins. that whatsoever things Christ endured. being a charm to drive away every trace of hostile influence. so also this exorcised oil receives such virtue by the invocation of God and by prayer. These words he spoke to some who were disposed to think that Baptism ministers to us the remission of sins. so also it is the counterpart of the sufferings of Christ. Let no one then suppose that Baptism is merely the grace of remission of sins. as in the night. He suffered them in reality and not in appearance. 7.

because you are images of Christ. (1 John 2:20-28) 1. David also the Prophet cried. And God. Having been baptized into Christ. I beseech you.On Chrism But you have been anointed by the Holy One. a scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. because you always remember me. and this is the Holy Spirit. Now I love you. because He has anointed Me: He has sent Me to preach glad tidings to the poor (Isaiah 61:1). unworthy though I be. 3. and having imparted of the fragrance of His Godhead to the waters. of whom also the blessed Isaiah. is for ever and ever. And this is what He has promised us. because His is the glory and the power. there was given an Unction. For as the Bread of the Eucharist. and is true. And to you in like manner. because He is the author of spiritual gladness. after you had come up from the pool of the sacred streams. saying. And now. so you were anointed with ointment. made us to be conformed to the body of Christ’s glory (Philippians 3:21). Having been sufficiently instructed in these things. abide in Him. having been made partakers and fellows of Christ. Now you have been made Christs. No one who denies the Son has the Father. keep them. he who denies the Father and the Son. Touch not My Christs (Psalm 104(105):15). And as Christ was in reality crucified. so that when He appears we may have confidence and not shrink from Him in shame at His coming. Amen. who has presented you as it were alive from the dead (Romans 6:13). Jesus of Nazareth. and you are in Baptism accounted worthy of being crucified. It is symbolically applied to your forehead and your other senses. and is no lie. but the anointing which you received from Him abides in you. but the Father having before appointed Him to be the Savior of the whole world. and while your body is anointed with the visible ointment. But beware of supposing this to be plain ointment. just as it has taught you. after the invocation of the Holy Spirit. You have loved righteousness and hated iniquity. it causes in us the Holy Spirit. so is it with the unction also. your soul is sanctified by the Holy and life-giving Spirit. like resting upon like. He came up from them. and buried. The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me. Lecture XXI Third Lecture on the Mysteries . after invocation. then you will abide in the Son and in the Father. said in the person of the Lord. Having therefore become partakers of Christ (Hebrew 3:14). O God. and put on Christ (Galatians 3:27). so also this holy ointment is no more simple ointment. and raised together with Him in a likeness. I write this to you about those who would deceive you.8. is mere bread no longer. Let what you heard from the beginning abide in you. but because you know it. in your remembrance. and of you God said. you are properly called Christs. and know that no lie is of the truth. as Peter says. He washed in the river Jordan. by receiving the antitype of the Holy Spirit. and the Holy Spirit in the fullness of His being lighted on Him. and raised. He who confesses the Son has the Father also. buried. may say of you. for God having foreordained us unto adoption as sons (Ephesians 1:5). not because you do not know the truth. now and forever. As He was anointed with the spiritual oil of gladness. I write to you. whom God anointed with the Holy Spirit (Acts 10:38). anointed Him with the Holy Spirit. which I delivered unto you (1 Corinthians 11:2). abide in Him. and all things have been wrought in you by imitation. . Who is the liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the antichrist. and hold fast the traditions. you have been made conformable to the Son of God. who is so called. 2. therefore God even Your God has anointed You with the oil of gladness above Your fellows (Psalm 44(45):7-8). and you have no need that any one should teach you. If what you heard from the beginning abides in you. and by the presence of His Godhead. For Christ was not anointed by men with oil or material ointment. the Holy Spirit. that I also. and you all know. or anointed. but the Body of Christ. in his prophecy respecting Him. eternal life. Your throne. but the gift of Christ. nor (so to say) common. is able to grant unto you to walk in newness of life (Romans 6:4). little children. the anti-type of that wherewith Christ was anointed. as His anointing teaches you about everything.

he anointed him. they shall anoint themselves with ointment (Isaiah 25:6 LXX).4.)—on this mountain shall the Lord make unto all nations a feast. having put on the whole armor of the Holy Spirit. after supper. in remembrance of Me. and Aaron was called Christ or Anointed. after Holy Baptism and the Mystical Chrism. anointed him after he had bathed in Gihon (1 Kings 1:39). and the Lord Jesus in the Gospel. saying. that receiving the sacred ointment you may say. discoursing much concerning this Chrism. took bread. and salvation of the soul. verifying the name also by your new birth. and vanquish it. To them however these things happened in a figure. so likewise you. keep it unspotted and unblemished in you. evidently from the typical Chrism. I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me (Philippians 4:13). how that the Lord Jesus. you had properly no right to this title. saying. but if the First-fruit be holy. which the first man who transgressed bore about with him everywhere. and being made well-pleasing to the Captain of your salvation. you proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes. and the visitation of the Holy Spirit. and you the lump. as when he says. Then on the nostrils. to whom be glory for ever and ever. of which Isaiah said. as you have just heard declared by the blessed John. therefore. Moreover.” For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup. (1 Corinthians 11:23-26) . Having been counted worthy of this Holy Chrism.On the Body and Blood of Christ I received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you. For before you were deemed worthy of this grace. The Lord gave me also an ear to hear (Isaiah 50:4). but were advancing on your way towards being Christians. He that hath ears to hear let him hear (Matthew 11:15). and that with unveiled face you might reflect as a mirror the glory of the Lord (2 Corinthians 3:18). in advancing Solomon to the kingdom. are to stand against the power of the adversary. 6. went forth and vanquished the adversary. 7. for the counsel of the Lord is unto all nations (Isaiah 25:7 LXX). you may stand against the wiles of the devil (Ephesians 6:14.” In the same way also the cup. Lecture XXII Fourth Lesson on the Mysteries . So also the High-priest. Amen. that you might be delivered from the shame. And on this mountain. In the last days the mountain of the Lord’s house shall be manifest [Isaiah 2:2]. hear what he says of this ointment as being mystical. they shall drink wine. and when He had given thanks.—(now he calls the Church a mountain elsewhere also. pressing forward by good works. He broke it. that having put on the breast-plate of righteousness. 11). if it abide in you. Do this. in them that are saved (2 Corinthians 2:15). And you were first anointed on the forehead. as often as you drink it. Of this the blessed Isaiah prophesying of old time said. you are called Christians. “This is My body which is for you. because you were truly anointed by the Holy Spirit. Having been anointed. Then on your ears. after bathing in water. with this holy ointment. it is manifest that Its holiness will pass to the mass also (Romans 11:16). Christ Jesus. and said. Do this in remembrance of Me. 5. and made him High-priest. For this holy thing is a spiritual safeguard of the body. but in truth. And that he may make you sure. that you might receive the ears which are quick to hear the Divine Mysteries. for He is truly the First-fruit. Afterwards on your breast. “This cup is the new covenant in My blood. they shall drink gladness. you should know that in the old Scripture there lies the symbol of this Chrism. Keep This unspotted: for it shall teach you all things. Deliver all these things to the nations. but to you not in a figure. Christ is the beginning of your salvation. We are to God a sweet savor of Christ. in the night in which He was betrayed. For what time Moses imparted to his brother the command of God. For as Christ after His Baptism.

thus it is that. and went back. that is. with God. saying.1. You have anointed my head with oil. Christ on a certain occasion discoursing with the Jews said. You have prepared a table before me in the presence of my enemies (Psalm 22(23):5). for the seal which you have of God. with which the forehead is anointed. for even though sense suggests this to you. who shall ever hesitate. according to the blessed Peter. That our Lord Jesus Christ on the night in which He was betrayed. that you may be made the impression of the seal. O Lord. which God has prepared for us over against. but since Your coming. 5. you are become of the same body (Ephesians 3:6) and blood with Christ. This is My Body. and is it incredible that He should have turned wine into blood? That wonderful work He miraculously wrought. Consider therefore the Bread and the Wine not as bare elements. turned the water into wine. 4. at His own will. Even of itself the teaching of the Blessed Paul is sufficient to give you a full assurance concerning those Divine Mysteries. and gave thanks. which Jesus took in His hands. but from faith be fully assured without misgiving. . eat. and said. For you have just heard him say distinctly. for that had communion with devils. This is My Blood. What he says. took bread. that you by partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ. of which having been deemed worthy. yet let faith establish you.” This symbolism is transferred to the sacramental Chrism. for as the Bread corresponds to our body. but in the New Testament there is Bread of heaven. and the consummation of this marriage is perfected through the union of bodies in the Mystery of the Eucharist. is to this effect: Before Your coming. polluted and defiled and full of devilish influence. Since then He Himself declared and said of the Bread. contrary and in opposition to the evil spirits? And very truly. You see that cup here spoken of. When the man says to God. 13 In baptism the Christian soul is wedded to Christ. and the soul is sealed unto God. this is My Blood (1 Corinthians 11:23-25). Judge not the matter from the taste. may be made of the same body and the same blood with Him. 7. Take.14 And my cup runs over. and a Cup of salvation. you have no life in you (John 6:53). Except you eat My flesh and drink My blood. according to the Lord’s declaration. the Body and Blood of Christ. and gave to His disciples. which is shed for many for the remission of sins (Matthew 26:28). as it belonged to the Old Testament. but this. so is the Word appropriate to our soul. who shall dare to doubt any longer? And since He has Himself affirmed and said. This is My blood. Saint John Chrysostom says in a Homily on Ephesians. 14 The plate of pure gold that Aaron wore was engraved with the motto: “Holy unto the Lord. Holiness unto God (Exodus 28:36). and shall He not much rather be acknowledged to have bestowed the fruition of His Body and Blood on the children of the bride-chamber?13 3. saying. “In like manner therefore we become one flesh with Christ by participation” (Homily XX). has come to an end. drink. that it is not His blood? 2. Wherefore with full assurance let us partake as of the Body and Blood of Christ: for in the figure of Bread is given to you His Body. that the Body and Blood of Christ have been vouchsafed to you. but this. Take. With oil He anointed your head upon your forehead. for they are. He once in Cana of Galilee. You have prepared before me a table. sanctifying soul and body. because His Body and Blood are distributed through our members. You have prepared a table before me. Also the blessed David shall advise you the meaning of this. They not having heard His saying in a spiritual sense were offended. the evil spirits prepared a table for men. what other does he indicate but that mystical and spiritual Table. and in the figure of Wine His Blood. we become partakers of the divine nature (2 Peter 1:4). and when He had given thanks He broke it. supposing that He was inviting them to eat flesh. 6. saying. this is My Body: and having taken the cup and given thanks. For thus we come to bear Christ in us. In the Old Testament also there was shew-bread. He said. when called to an earthly marriage.

and saying. and partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ. by washing them. and to the Presbyters who stand round God’s altar. and let your garments be always white. Then the Deacon cries aloud. though sensible to taste. But now. leave your gift there before the altar. may you reflect as a mirror the glory of the Lord (2 Corinthians 3:18). and Chrism.” And so having it unveiled with a pure conscience. rejected by men but in God’s sight chosen and precious. If you are offering your gift at the altar. and “make the face of your soul shine. priests wash their hands as part of the Vesting Service before the Divine Liturgy. Come here. Therefore Solomon also. and proceed from glory to glory. For this cause Christ said. that by it you may grow up to salvation. you must be continually robed in white: of course we mean not this. he calls with the call to salvation and blessing). though the taste will have it so. as he washes his hands from the Royal Doors in the presence of all the people (while the priest usually does so in the vestry). and might. 3. and glory. Come to Him. and that of this David sung of old. and so I will go about Your Altar. first be reconciled to your brother. Lecture XXIII Fifth Lecture on the Mysteries . By the loving-kindness of God you have heard sufficiently at our former meetings concerning Baptism. But the washing of hands is a symbol that you ought to be pure from all sinful and unlawful deeds.” by partaking thereof as spiritual. to be a holy priesthood. for before you came to Baptism. to that living stone. “Receive one another. but the Body of Christ. that you may say with the blessed Isaiah. and there remember that your brother has something against you.On the Eucharistic Rite So put away all malice and all guile and insincerity and envy and all slander. and put a robe of gladness around me (Isaiah 61:10). eat your bread with joy (that is. it is evident. we represent the purity and blamelessness of our conduct. and that the seeming wine is not wine. for you have tasted the kindness of the Lord. your works were vanity of vanities (Ecclesiastes 1:2). saying. for since the hands are a symbol of action.8. long for the pure spiritual milk. and then come and 15 Even today. and let oil be poured out upon your head (you see he alludes even to the mystic Chrism). and been fully assured that the seeming bread is not bread. . meaning to-day to set the crown on the spiritual building of your edification. I will wash my hands in innocence. and oil to make his face shine (Psalm 103(104):15). and banish all remembrance of wrongs. the spiritual wine). He gave it not at all because of bodily defilement. My soul shall be joyful in my God. to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. and put on those which are spiritually white. Come here. it is not that. for ever and ever. “strengthen your heart. for the Lord is well pleased with your works (Ecclesiastes 9:7. Amen. but the Blood of Christ.15 Did you not hear the blessed David opening this very mystery. and go your way. says in Ecclesiastes. and courts entire forgiveness for them. The kiss therefore is the sign that our souls are mingled together. Like newborn babes. for we did not enter the Church at first with defiled bodies. 2. hinting at this grace. It is not such: but this kiss blends souls one with another. the spiritual bread. in Christ Jesus our Lord:—To whom be honor.” Think not that this kiss is of the same character with those given in public by common friends. O Lord (Psalm 25(26):6)? The washing therefore of hands is a symbol of immunity from sin. and now it is necessary to pass on to what is next in order.8). And bread which strengthens man’s heart. (1 Peter 2:1-5) 1. Having learned these things. and like living stones be yourselves built into a spiritual house. and let us kiss one another. This washing is more visible when a bishop is present. that you are always to wear white raiment. You have seen then the Deacon who gives to the Priest water to wash. for He has clothed me with a garment of salvation. having put off your old garments. 9. and drink your wine with a merry heart (that is. but you must be clad in the garments that are truly white and shining and spiritual.

rather. Then you say. while that holy and most awful sacrifice is set forth. that at their prayers and intercessions God would receive our petition. in doing us good. or household anxieties. Then on behalf also of the Holy Fathers and Bishops who have fallen asleep before us. by your avowal. and with two of their wings veiling their face. what is a soul profited. and. 8. . thinking of earth and earthly things. For I know that many say. 10. Holy. Justin the Martyr writes. after the spiritual sacrifice. or without sins. we beseech the merciful God to send forth His Holy Spirit upon the gifts lying before Him. for kings. and in a word of all who in past years have fallen asleep among us. Then we commemorate also those who have fallen asleep before us. There is then brought to the Head Priest bread and a cup of wine mixed with water” (First Apology 65. we make mention of heaven. Then. that so we may be partakers with the hosts of the world above in their Hymn of praise. saying. for whatsoever the Holy Spirit has touched. rational and irrational. that He vouchsafed to us the Spirit of adoption. for all who stand in need of succor we all pray and offer this sacrifice. that He reconciled us when we were His foes. for soldiers and allies. Martyrs. in a word. “Having ended the prayers. of Angels.” but in his thoughts have his mind concerned with the cares of this life. Then the Priest says. when we offer to Him our supplications for those who 16 In the second century. and not below. while with two they did fly. visible and invisible.1). 7. over that sacrifice of propitiation we entreat God for the common peace of the Churches. would he not grant a remission of their penalties? In the same way we. the bloodless service. is this. At all times. and then those who belong to them should weave a crown and offer it to him on behalf of those under punishment. that He may make the Bread the Body of Christ. For the reason of our reciting this confession of God. of stars and all the creation. for whom the supplication is put up. for the afflicted. Virtues. Greet one another with a holy kiss (1 Corinthians 16:20). for the sick. delivered down to us from the Seraphim. And I wish to persuade you by an illustration. of sun and moon. After this. who could say with his mouth.3). with a kiss of love (1 Peter 5:14). Holy. and Peter. of the Cherubim with many faces: in effect repeating that call of David’s Magnify the Lord with me (Psalm 33(34):4). “It is meet and right:” for in giving thanks we do a meet thing and a right. Then having sanctified ourselves by these spiritual Hymns. God should be in our memory but if this is impossible by reason of human infirmity. In effect therefore the Priest bids all in that hour to dismiss all cares of this life. and to have their heart in heaven with the merciful God. 4. and should be continued today. and sea. and for this reason holy: as the blessed Paul somewhere cried. This practice of reconciliation among the brethren is as ancient as Christianity. After this the Priest cries aloud. unworthy as we were. “Let us give thanks unto the Lord. is completed.offer your gift (Matthew 5:23). We make mention also of the Seraphim. if it be commemorated in the prayer? For if a king were to banish certain servants who had given him offence. and counting us meet for such great benefits. we salute one another with a kiss. Principalities. for the welfare of the world. Dominions. is surely sanctified and changed.16 The kiss therefore is reconciliation. but more than right. believing that it will be a very great benefit to the souls. that He called us. Then you answer. Thrones. and with two their feet. which departs from this world either with sins. Prophets. Apostles. whom Isaiah in the Holy Spirit saw standing around the throne of God. 9. and earth. “Lift up your hearts.” For verily we are bound to give thanks. “We lift them up unto the Lord:” assenting to it. and the Wine the Blood of Christ. But let no one come here. in that hour above all this should be our earnest endeavor. 6. but He did not right. Archangels. first Patriarchs.” For truly ought we in that most awful hour to have our heart on high with God. to so great grace. Powers. “We lift up our hearts unto the Lord. 5. crying Holy. is the Lord of Sabaoth (Isaiah 6:2.

and do things worthy of holiness. showing themselves excellent swimmers. according to the words. as it were. Judas having 17 Saint Cyril is deriving the word ἐπιούσιος (super-substantial) from the two words ἑπί (super) and οὐσία (substance). For this Bread goes not into the stomach and is eliminated (Matthew 15:17). 14. though they be sinners. all you Angels of His. dwelling and walking in them (2 Corinthians 6:16). Romans 2:24). O Lord. we pray that in us God’s Name may be hallowed. Considering then what we receive and in return for what.” and again. . and thought. Then. propitiating our merciful God for them as well as for ourselves. and need such mercy as His only is. and they also are a heaven who bear the image of the heavenly (1 Corinthians 15:49). as opposed to the more commonly known “daily”. and not being swept away by them at all. and word. 11. after these things. that we may not be tempted at all? How then is it said elsewhere. Give us this day our super-substantial bread.17 But by this day. The Name of God is in its nature holy. Our Father.” 15. A pure soul can say with boldness. let us not put off nor delay to forgive one another. 13. will say to God. and has cleansed himself in deed. as we also forgive our neighbors their debts. when we are made holy. for he who has heard Paul saying. For we offend both in word and in thought. that do His pleasure (Psalm 102(103):20).” as also Paul said. with a pure conscience entitling God our Father. pass through. but this Holy Bread is super-substantial. 16. in whom is God. but is distributed into your whole system for the benefit of body and soul. and so great participation of grace. Thy kingdom come. Through you My Name is continually blasphemed among the Gentiles (Isaiah 52:5. “as in the Angels Your will is done. appointed for the substance of the soul. but offer up Christ sacrificed for our sins. as John says (1 John 1:8). Take heed therefore. and saying. rather this Bread enters into every part of our body to sanctify us. and very many things we do worthy of condemnation. Bless the Lord. Thy kingdom come. God’s divine and blessed Angels do the will of God. count it all joy when you fall into various temptations (James 1:2)? But does perchance the entering into temptation mean the being overwhelmed by the temptation? For temptation is. as David said in the Psalm. Let not therefore sin reign in your mortal body (Romans 6:12). “a man who is not tempted is a man unproved. 17. O Lord. For we have many sins. So then in effect you mean this by your prayer. whether we say so or not. who art in heaven. Our Father. we say that Prayer which the Savior delivered to His own disciples. “each day. so likewise be it done on earth in me. And we make a covenant with God. And lead us not into temptation. entreating Him to forgive us our sins.have fallen asleep. not that it comes to be holy from not being holy. While it is called to-day (Hebrews 3:13). mighty in strength. Thy kingdom come. while those who are not such. you shut out for yourself forgiveness from God for your very grievous sins. Cyril is trying to make is that this Bread is not as the common bread from the store. but since it is sometimes profaned among sinners. we lie. lest for the slight and trivial sins against you. Thy will be done as in heaven so on earth. My brethren. and easily settled. While both translations have support from various scholars. Hallowed be Thy Name. he means. And forgive us our debts as we also forgive our debtors. the point St. Is this then what the Lord teaches us to pray. O most surpassing loving-kindness of God! On them who revolted from Him and were in the very extreme of misery has He bestowed such a complete forgiveness of evil deeds. and if we say that we have no sin. 12. which we consume for energy and eliminate as part of the natural human process. who art in heaven. enter into them and are overwhelmed. like a winter torrent difficult to cross. Those therefore who are not overwhelmed in temptations. weave no crown. This common bread is not super-substantial bread. but because it becomes holy in us. As for example. The offences committed against us are slight and trivial. that is. as that they should even call Him Father. but those which we have committed against God are great.

would you not hold them with all carefulness.” For One is truly holy. being on your guard against losing any of them. only by participation. but bending.” Holy are the gifts presented. and give thanks unto God. Then you say. not stretching forth your hands. by nature holy. . through the pollution of sins. partake of it. having received the visitation of the Holy Spirit.entered into the temptation of the love of money. Trust not the judgment to your bodily palate no. 20. keep yourselves free from offence. You have tried us by fire like as silver is tried. 18. then the faithful drank from the chalice. but make your left hand a throne for the right. Sever not yourselves from the Communion. now their coming into a place of rest is their being delivered from temptation. but was overwhelmed and was strangled both in body and spirit. who has accounted you worthy of so great mysteries. come not with your wrists extended. for whatever you lose. One is the Lord. not bread and wine. hallow yourself by partaking also of the Blood of Christ. In approaching therefore. Amen. holy are you also. giving heed lest you lose any portion thereof. and was delivered from the temptation. Amen. the clergy still receive in this manner. now and ever. draw near also to the Cup of His Blood. After this the Priest says.” setting your seal to the petitions of the divinely-taught prayer. “One is Holy. and world without end. to a company of unscathed saints. Today. if any one gave you grains of gold. Amen. 18 In the early Church. while the faithful receive both Bread and Wine from a spoon. saying over it. “Holy things to holy men. receive the Body of Christ. Then after you have partaken of the Body of Christ. Jesus Christ. and saying. he was not overwhelmed by it. both clergy and laity received Holy Communion in the same manner: first. having been deemed worthy of the Holy Spirit. Amen. or your fingers spread. touch it with your hands. After this you hear the chanter inviting you with a sacred melody to the communion of the Holy Mysteries. You have caused men to ride over our heads. You. deprive not yourselves. So then after having carefully hallowed your eyes by the touch of the Holy Body. giving thanks for deliverance from temptation. the holy things therefore correspond to the holy persons. in another place. and body be preserved entire without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ (1 Thessalonians 5:23):—To whom be glory and honor and might. for they who taste are bidden to taste. that not a crumb fall from you of what is more precious than gold and precious stones?18 22. And the God of peace sanctify you wholly. But deliver us from the evil one. with the Father and the Holy Spirit. and prayer. a portion of the Bread was placed in the cupped hands of faithful. Then wait for the prayer. but to faith unfaltering. And while the moisture is still upon your lips. which means “So be it. but the sign of the Body and Blood of Christ. and may your spirit. 19. and discipline. and saying with an air of worship and reverence. Hold fast these traditions undefiled and. but having entered. For tell me. But deliver us from the evil one. Peter entered into the temptation of the denial. as for that which is to receive a King. we went through fire and water. But You brought us out into a place of rest. If Lead us not into temptation implied the not being tempted at all. 21. O God have tested us. You laid afflictions upon our backs. we too are holy. He would not have said. You brought us into the net. but manfully swam through it. and suffering loss? Will you not then much more carefully keep watch. is evidently a loss to you as it were from one of your own members. which they consume. and hallow your eyes and brow and the other organs of sense. Now evil is our adversary the devil. Then after completing the prayer you say. by this Amen. and soul. You see them speaking boldly in regard to their having passed through and not been pierced. and You brought us out into a place of rest (Psalm 65(66):10-12). from whom we pray to be delivered. swam not through it. but not by nature. Listen again. of these Holy and Spiritual Mysteries. O taste and see that the Lord is good (Psalm 33(34):9). 23. And having hollowed your palm.