Speech and Oral Communication

Introduction
Speech: Its Nature and Importance

The Nature of communication can be explained by the following characteristics of
communication:

Two – way process: Communication can take place only when there are at least two
persons. One peron has to convey some message and another has to receive it. The
receiver, however, need not necessarily be an individual. Information may be conveyed ta
a group of persons at a time. For example, in classroom, the teacher conveys information
to a group of students. Communcation can also be sent by means of letters, circulars, etc.
Knowledge of language: Forcommunication to be successful, the recceiver should first
of all understand the message. For this, the sender must speak in a language that is known
to the receiver.
Meeting of minds necessary: the reciever must understand the message in the way the
sender wants him to understand. For this consensus is required. Consensus is nothing but
identity of minds.
The message must have substance: the message has substance only if the receiver
shows interest in the subject matter. In other words, the sender of message must have
something really worthwhile for the receiver.
Communication may be made through gestures as well: Communication need not
necessarily be made orally or in writing. Certain gestures or actions may also convey
one’s willingness or understanding of a given problem.
Communication is all-pervasive: Communication is Omni=present. It is found in all
levels of management. The top management conveys information to the middes
management and vice versa.
Communication is a continuous process: in any workplace someone will be conveying
or receiving some information or the other always. Sharing or exchanging information is
an on going activity. As long as there is work – personal, officaila or unofficial, there will
be communication.
Communication may be formal or informal: formal communicaiton follows the
hierarchy – the official channel established..

While the relationship between meaning and the symbols used is an arbitrary one. Language is a highly organized system in which each unit plays an important part. It is rule-governed. It is a social interactive tool. in fact. It is culturally transmitted. Language is a system consisting of to subsystems: the subsystem of sound and the subsystem of meaning. ideas and desires to on another because they want to communicate. the greatest achievement of culture and is adequate for the communication needs of the people who use it. and which when put together consitute a whole. Language – is our most effective medium of communication. Language Example     Writing Natural gestures Body Posture Facial expressions   Writing Semaphore Verbal .Communication and Language Communication – It is the dual or two-way process of transmitting messages from one person to another. Language has the following properties or characteristics: 1. the arrangement of the symbols in relation to one another in an utterance is not arbitrary. 3. There is no necessary connection between the sounds people use and the objects to which these sounds refer. This refers to the speaker’s ability to understand and produce any number of sentences/utterances in the native tongue by recursion or by relativisation. 7. It is a part of. That makes language creative and productive. language thus exist as a tool used in expressing ideas and feelings to achieve understanding. It is a skil acquired as one grows up in society. It is a shared code that enabes its users to transmit feelings. It is systematic. It has but one purpose: to serve as the code for the transmission of messages between and among people. Language cannot be considered without communication because it is the very reason for its existence. A speaker learns the language to which he is exposed. 4. It is arbitrary. It is the symbolic interaction between two or more people that influences each other’s behavior. 6. 2. which is related to other parts. The relationship between meaning andthe symbols employed is a matter of convention. It has a dual structure. By virtue of convention or social agreement. 5. It is generative. It is a socially learned behavior.

 Listening begins with expression as heard in context.  In speaking. The Process of Oral Communication Communication is the process of mutual interaction of people through sensory stimuli – anything that brings about a response in the nervous system. The Act of Transmitting Messages  Stage 1 – Stimulus/Stimuli The process starts with a stimulus in the form of an occurence such as an idea. . and it consists of the speaking and listening processes. a disagreeable remark or a positive comment that activates the sensory processes of a person whom we shall identify as the sender of the message. the sensory system or the feelings of a person. a startling news.  Morse Code Sign Language Non-Verbal     Natural Gestures Body Posture Facial Expression Cosmetic Make-up Two Broad Division of Non-verbal Communication   Static Dynamic ORAL COMMUNICATION Oral communication is the sound representation of a language. followed by recall of content through association between expression and ideas. the process begins with expression of ideas through association with words.

Encoding His thoughts are being encoded into language symbols or words which must be in the same language that the listener knows and understands. causing the hand to move in meanigful gestures.  Stage 9 – Feedback / Receiver The sounds and subsequently the language and message are heard.  Stage 8 . Pressure waves are created in the air and at the same time properly coordinated muscles tighten or relax.Action The response is now carried by the wave lengths to the first speaker. then he must rearrange or rephrase his symbols into a language which he thinks is right. .  Stage 3 .Understanding The receiver now decodes from sound to language and encodes from thought to words. The listener now changes his role by becoming the sender of the response.  Stage 7 . He senses what is happening because his visual and auditory nerves are activated by the sound (voice) and light stimuli (gestures). the original source of the message. He is now ready to “externalize” his thoughts into the environment. The sender’s brain identifies the event and evaluates it on the merit of the stimulus.  Stage 5 .  Stage 6 .  Stage 4 .Reception Speech sounds are uttered in proper sequences to transmit the message. He acts.Transmission Now the speaker is ready to say his thoughts aloud in the language and the symbols he has chosen. The listener now evaluates them and reacts using the same channel in the same manner of exchange. however.Decoding The sounds containing the message are heard and the gestures that accompany them are seen by the receiver. the sender of the message thinks in a language that the receiver does not understand or will find offensive.Ideation The stimulus is transmitted by the nerve fibers to the brain which in turn recognizes the event. If. Its perception is affected by the sender’s experience. environment. Stage 2 . This mutual interaction takes place and feedback keeps coming to and from speaker and listener until both feel that the purpose of the interchange is fulfilled. or culture. He chooses a language which the sender will understand and utters his response.

 MESSAGE The message is organized and encoded in a language understood by both participants.The Elements of Speech Communication  SENDER The sender of a message first receives stimuli from the environment.  Verbal  Non-verbal . He organizes his response by decoding the information and encoding his response.  RECEIVER Receives the encoded message. He forms his own response to these stimuli and encodes them so that they can be transmitted as messages.  FEEDBACK Feedback is the receiver’s response that provides information to the sender. then he transmits his response throught a channel that is accessible to both sender and receiver.  *NOISE – an element that may interfere with or break the whole process which may distort hearing. This message is transmitted oraly through channels for sound and light waves.