Swati Devabhaktuni et al, International Journal of Computer Science & Communication Networks,Vol 1(3), 264-269

Design of Excitation Capacitance for Self-Excited Induction Generator
Swati Devabhaktuni1 , S.V.Jayaram kumar2

Associate professor,Gokaraju Rangaraju Insitute Of Engineering And technology,Hyderabad,A.P.,India

Professor, J.N.T.Ucollege of engineering,Hyderabad,A.P.,India
E-mail: swatikjm@gmail.com1, svjkumar101@rediffmail.com2

This paper presents simple and accurate approach to
compute the minimum value of capacitance required
for initiating the voltage build-up in a three-phase selfexcited induction generator. Based on the steady-state
equivalent circuit model different numerical methods
for solving frequency are known from previous
literature, which are of 6th order polynomial. In this
paper the order of the polynomial is reduced to the 4th
order frequency with a new, simple and direct method
is developed to find the capacitance requirement.
Critical values of the impedance and speed, below
which the machine fails to self excite irrespective of the
capacitance used, are found to exist. Closed form
solutions for capacitance are derived for no-load and
RL loads. Experimental results obtained on a 3.5kW
induction machine confirm the feasibility and accuracy
of the proposed method.
Keywords— capacitance requirements, self-excitation, induction
generator, steady state analysis, saturation

1. Introduction
In recent years, the strong drive to conserve the
global energy resources has initiated rigorous research
on electricity generation using wind and mini hydro
power. Much emphasis has been placed on the squirrel
cage induction machine as the electromechanical
energy converter in such generation schemes[1].
Notable advantages of the induction generator over the
synchronous generator are low cost, robustness,
absence of moving contacts and the need for d.c.
excitation[4]. Owing to its many advantages, the self
excited induction generator has emerged from among
the known generators as suitable candidate to be driven
by wind power.
Beside its application as a generator, the
principle of self-excitation can also be used in dynamic
braking of a three phase induction motor. Therefore
methods to analyze the performance of such machines

are of considerable practical interest. The terminal
capacitance on such machines must have a minimum
value so that self-excitation is possible [5].
In is paper, a simple method to compute the
capacitance requirements of a self-excited induction
generator are introduced. The proposed method differs
from previously published methods in the following
aspects [4]:
(a).It is based on the nodal admittance method for
steady-state analysis of the SEIG without considering
the saturation.
(b).The load and excitation capacitance branches in the
equivalent circuit are decoupled to facilitate the
solution of the self-excited frequency.
(c).No trial-and-error procedure is involved; hence it
may be regarded as a direct method.
(d).Reduced computational effort as only a 4thdegree
polynomial need to be solved to yield the value of
When the nodal admittance concept is used in
the analysis of the equivalent circuit, the process of self
excitation is satisfied by equating the sum of the nodal
admittances to zero. Using K.C.L at node 1.we get a
complex equation from which two simultaneous
equations for C and f are obtained [3]
When the SEIG has successfully built up its
voltage, the next question of interest is to maintain the
terminal voltage at a preset value as the load increases.
Using the same proposed method for computing
capacitance, an iterative procedure is also developed
for calculating the capacitance requirements of the
SEIG for maintaining a given terminal voltage under
load [2]. Experimented results obtained on a laboratory


Computed Results and Discussions Fig1. The derivation for these constant coefficients A4 to A0 is given in Appendix-A. All the circuit parameters are assumed to be constant and unaffected by saturation. Considering these losses increases the mathematical work involved in obtaining the results.1. The corresponding capacitance can be calculated. without increasing the accuracy of the analysis substantially. number of experiments are conducted using three phase induction machine coupled with a wind turbine. This paper introduces a new and simple and direct method of finding minimum capacitance required for self excitation. The induction machine was three.ISSN:2249-5789 Swati Devabhaktuni et al. 2.Equation(4) can be solved numerically to yield all the real and complex roots. star connected stator winding.5kW. Machine parameters except capacitance and frequency all are known values [6].there are in general two real roots and a pair of complex roots. this minimum value decreasing as speed decreases[4]. International Journal of Computer Science & Communication Networks. A 3-Φ variable capacitor bank or a single capacitor was connected to the machine terminals to obtain selfexcited induction generator action.1 condition yields the minimum value of excitation capacitance below which the SEIG fails to self-excite For the circuit shown in Fig.The In this paper. 2. 415V. the iron and rotational losses are neglected.p. the impedance line corresponding to the parallel combination of the load impedance and excitation capacitance should intersect the magnetisation characteristic well into the saturation region[7].by Kirchhoff’s law. Therefore in the following analysis the parameters of the induction machine are assumed constant except the magnetizing inductance which varies with saturation [5].. Real(YL+YC+Y2)=0 Imag(YL+YC+Y)=0 2. the main flux path saturation is accounted for while the saturation in the leakage flux path . Where k=30. phase3. hence VY=0 (1) Where Y is the net admittance given by Y=YL+YC+Y2 (2) The terminal voltage cannot be equal to zero hence Y=0 (3) By equating the real and imaginary terms in equation(3) respectively to zero. the computed results are obtained by the procedures and calculations outlined above. the sum of currents at node(1) should be equal to zero.Only the real roots have physical significance and the largest positive real root yields the frequency. 264-269 machine are presented to verify the accuracy and validity of the present approach. Three Phase Self-excited Induction Generator Model For the modelling of the self-excited induction generators. (5) (6) (7) Here the machine core losses are having been ignored. The measured machine parameters were: Fig. 1500r.5A. Steady-state circuit model: The steady state circuit of a self-excited induction generator under RL load is shown in Fig.Vol 1(3).For on load self-excitation.1. Proposed method to find general solution for capacitance The real part yields A4f4+A3f3+A2 f2+A1 f+A0=0 (4) And the imaginary part yields C= 𝑎𝑓 +𝑏 𝑐𝑓 3 +𝑑𝑓 2 +𝑒𝑓 (𝑌𝑅 +𝑌𝑀 )𝑌𝑠 Y2= 𝑌𝑅 +𝑌𝑀 +𝑌𝑠 𝑘𝑓 Slip.𝑠 = 𝑘𝑓 −𝑁 . The computed results reveal that there exist critical values of load impedance or speed below which the induction generator fails to excite irrespective of the value of capacitance used. the excitation capacitance must be larger then some minimum value.shows the per phase equivalent circuit commonly used for the steady state analysis of the SEIG.Equivalent circuit of SEIG 265 . 7.For the machine to self excite on no load. An investigation on the solutions for various load impedances and speed conditions reveals that for RL loads.1.m. 2.2Mathematical model 3.3.

The value of load impedance that results in repeated real roots of the polynomial thus defines a region of no-generation and it may be termed the critical load impedance for a given speed and power factor. f4=1. Since all these values and capacitance and sufficient to guarantee self-excitation of induction generator. 264-269 r1=11. however the two roots will approach rapidly.3567Hz. f3=1.shows the computed variation of the self excited frequencies f and f2 with load impedance at 80Ω. When load impedance is less than80Ω. 266 . If the polynomial is having no real roots.78Ω. The solution yielded the following complex and real roots. Correspondingly no excitation is possible. the two roots are equal. However such condition is unpractical as the corresponding excitation current would far exceed the rated current of the machine.Variation of capacitance with speed Fig. It is noted that for R-L loads. The computed values reveals that there exist critical values of load impedance or speed below which the induction generator fails to excite irrespective of the value of capacitance used. there is a minimum speed value. It is also noted 𝑘𝑓 that Ns<N. The smaller real root on the other hand gives the value of the excitation capacitance above which the machine fails to excite.the Slip.Variation of capacitance with load impedance.Solve the frequency polynomial using MATLAB software.06Hz. At load impedance 80Ω. while all value below 80Ω yield imaginary roots. f2=17. As only the real roots have physical significance and the largest real root yields the maximum frequency that corresponds to the minimum frequency. International Journal of Computer Science & Communication Networks.88H. r2=3. then no excitation is possible. L1=L2=10.Variation of frequency with load impedance Fig. there are in general two real roots and one pair of complex conjugate roots. below which equation (4) have no real roots.39H Consider the case when the machine is driven at rated speed with a connected load impedance of 200Ω.3567Hz.33Hz. f1=50.4. it follows that the minimum capacitor value required.5.2.3. It is seen that only the larger positive real root gives the feasible value of the capacitance. Lm=227.Variation frequency with speed should be for generator action.It is noticed that the roots vary only slightly with the load impedance.78Ω. Fig. This restricts the set of two capacitors.ISSN:2249-5789 Swati Devabhaktuni et al. Also.2.𝑠 = 𝑘𝑓 −𝑁 is always negative as it Fig. One is slightly decrease with load impedance and another is increasing with the same.275-j0.Fig.275+j0.Vol 1(3).

Fig.10. As the load is increasing the magnetizing reactance is also increasing. It is noticed that. The increase in more gradual at large values of impedance but becomes more abrupt as the critical value 80Ω is approached.8.Variation of magnetizing reactance with Capacitance Fig. 264-269 Fig.10. International Journal of Computer Science & Communication Networks. however it is unlikely that the SEIG will be operated at such low speeds.Ofcourse.for stable operation of the machine Fig.7 the minimum capacitance required for the self-excited induction generator. In practice. Capacitance is maximum having slip s=1. It is seen that the capacitance increases rapidly with the decrease in speed. At speeds nearly to the critical value. the magnetization reactance is greater the unsaturated reactance. Fig.8. As for the no-load case close solutions exist for the self excitation frequency which is maximum and capacitance which is minimum.shows the variation of the capacitance with slip.and then 267 . The self excitation frequency and the critical speed for the inductive load were same as for the no-load case.Variation of magnetizing reactance with load impedance Fig. resistive loads and corresponding output frequencies are derived. capacitance increases with decrease in load impedance. typically hundreds of microfarads. Exact expressions for capacitor values under no-load..9. These values can be used to predict the theoretically the minimum values of the terminal capacitance required for selfexcitation.Again a region of no-generation is identified and the critical speed yields the repeated roots of the polynomial may be termed the critical speed for a given load impedance.7.shows the computed variations of minimum capacitance with speed at different load impedances.6.shows the variation magnetization reactance of generator with various capacitances .4 shows the computed variation of self-excited frequencies with speed for load impedance 200Ω.3.Variation of capacitance with lowest real root of frequency Fig. Below the value of load impedance 80Ω there will not be any excitation. Fig.Vol 1(3).shows the variation of magnetizing reactance with the value of the load impedance.6.Variation of Capacitance with slip Fig.9.ISSN:2249-5789 Swati Devabhaktuni et al. in general. minimum capacitance is very large.shows the computed variations of capacitance with the load impedance.5. Fig. Fig.If the capacitance value is below the minimum value of the capacitance. in which case the machine is failed to excite and the voltage will be zero. Fig.Variation of capacitance with highest real root of frequency C must be slightly greater than the minimum capacitance. and fig.

Experimental Frequency Calculated Frequency 29. This verifies the accuracy of the proposed method for computing minimum value of the capacitance for SEIG.Hence proved that the experimental capacitance value must be greater than the computed capacitance value. The magnetization curve drawn from the experimental result is as shown in Fig.01 50.ISSN:2249-5789 Swati Devabhaktuni et al.12. using the magnetization curve. the final value of the frequency could be obtained in 4to10 iterations.Comparision between Experimental and calculated frequency Fig13.Magnetization Characteristic The calculation of air-gap voltage is given in APPENDIX-A.Flow chart to determine the frequency and capacitance 268 . Fig. 264-269 decreases as the slip decreases. It is advised to use MATLAB software to solve the polynomial.35μF.Vol 1(3). 5. It is found that if a sufficiently large residual flux existed in the rotor core.09 Fig.For different values of capacitances the experiment were conducted and it was found that the value of the frequencies calculated from the polynomial and experimental verification are nearly equal.98 37.The flow chart of the computer program is given by 4.5 47. Very good correlation between the computed and experimental results is observed as shown in fig. International Journal of Computer Science & Communication Networks.12. Depending on the circuit conditions. As the slip decreases the values of the frequency also decreases.2 47.Similrly from the experiment. The value of the capacitance required for the machine to self excite from the computation result is obtained as C=14.01 41. computed resulted is of C=15μF.88 30. Since only one single root is required.11. the machine would always self-excite whenever the capacitance was slightly higher than the computed value. to develop a computer algorithm to determine capacitance for self-excitation of SEIG using the techniques described in section it is desirable to have a program or subroutine to calculate the roots of a polynomial with complex coefficients .45 36.11.67 41. Computer Algorithm In order. the NewtonRaphson method was used in solving the polynomial equation. Experimental results And Discussions Experiments were performed on the above mentioned induction machine to verify the validity of the computed results.11 49.

B. Berg. pp. and Malik. At Jabri and A.H. 1984. [6].H.Vol 1(3).F. 1993 [3] AI-Bahrani. 2. on Energy Conversion. IEE Proc. Vol.98-4. Murthy. Alodah. on Energy Conversion. on Power App.5kW laboratory induction machine. and Malik.H.4-3.58-6.. [2] AI-Bahrani.2≤Xm ≤260 E1=1314. IEEE Trans. A2=eg+hd+ic-ma-bl. No.3≤Xm ≤203. 1987. 612.” IEEE Trans. May 1990.A. No. and G.6 E1=1120. which enables the frequency to be determined by solving a single 4th order polynomial . A.65-1. 264-269 6. pp. Using the same analysis technique. 1-6. International Journal of Computer Science & Communication Networks.8Xm 214. 3. To compute the coefficients A4 to A0 of equation(4).618..  Air gap voltage: The piecewise linearization of magnetization characteristic of machine is given by E1=0 Xm≥260 E1=1632. Part.2 E1=1183. No.No.S. The validity of the proposed methods are confirmed by experimental results obtained on a 3. A..Computation studies on the experimental machine reveals that there exist critical values of load impedance and speed below which self-excitation is impossible irrespective of the capacitance used. [7]. Malik. APPENDIX-A References [1]. B. EC-2. pp.11-4. 62-69.H. A1=he+id-pa-bm A0=ie-bp. 725-732. 3.I. pp..9. 1. 1990 [4] T. 1. IEE. but features the separate consideration of the load and excitation capacitance branches. “Selection of the Excitation Capacitor for Dynamic Braking ofInduction Machines”.H. pp. S. IEE. on Energy Conversion. “Excitation of Isolated Three-phase Induction Generator by a single capacitor”. N.2Xm 203.Pt. June 1992.ISSN:2249-5789 Swati Devabhaktuni et al.3 269 .K.H. “Steady State Analysis of Capacitor Self Excited InductionGenerators. A. IEEE Trans. No. Vol.5≤Xm ≤206 E1=557.154-159. an iterative procedure has also been developed for estimating the capacitance requirements for maintaining the terminal voltage constant when the SEIG is on load. “Steady state analysis and Performance Characteristics of a three phase Induction Generator Self-Excited with a single capacitor”. N. 1. Rahim. pp. No.the following equations are first defined: a=2πk(LMr1+L1r1+L2r1+LMr2+Lr2+rLLM+rLL2). A. Chan.” Proc.22Xm 206≤Xm ≤214.Part B.2Xm 233. b=-2 πN*rL(LM+L2) c=-8 π3k(LLMr1+LL2r1+LLMr2-rLL1LM-rLL2LM) d=-8 π3N(rLL1LM+ rLL2L1+ rLL2LM+LL2LM) e=-2πkrLr1r2 g=-4π2k(L1LM+L1L2+L2LM+LLM+LL2) h=4π2N(L1LM+L1L2+L2LM+LLM+LL2) i=r1r2+rLr2 j=-16π4k(LL1LM+LL2LM+LL2L1) l=16π4N(LL1LM+LL1L2+LL2LM) m=4π2k(Lr1r2+rLLMr1+rLL1r2+rLL1r2+rLL2r1+rLLmr2) p=-4π2NrLLMr1. Vol. “Capacitance requirements for isolated Self excited Induction Generators”. Tandon.Vol.. pp. 44-50.6≤Xm ≤233. 140. 304-310. and Sys. Y. 4. 137.5 E1=320.144Xm 197. [5].A.56-0. PAS-103.J. “Capacitance requirements for isolated self-excited induction generator.K. N. No. Vol4. 1993. IEEE Trans. A4=cg-aj A3=dg+hc+-al-bj. CONCLUSIONS A method for computing the minimum value of capacitance to initiate self-excitation in the SEIG has been described. “Capacitance requirements of SelfExcited Induction Generators”.Vol.140. and Mazi.578Xm Xm ≤197. The method is based on the steady state equivalent circuit. A. Proc. 8. Vol.