2.

0

CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL ORGANISATION

2.1

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

1.

All living things are made up of basic units called cells.

2.

A cell consists of the plasma membrane and the protoplasm.

3.

The plasma membrane surrounds the protoplasm and isolates it from the external environment.

4.

Protoplasm, the living component of a cell consists of the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

5.

The nucleus consists of the nuclear membrane, nucleolus and nucleoplasm.

6.

The cytoplasm contains organelles, the cellular components that carry out specific functions
within the cell which enable the cell to function as a unit of life. Each of these organelles is
enclosed by its own membrane.

2.1.1 CELLULAR COMPONENTS / ORGANELLES OF ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL
CELLULAR COMPONENT /
ORGANELLE
Plasma membrane (PM)

STRUCTURE & CHARACTERISTIC

FUNCTION

Made up of phospholipid bilayers
with various types of protein
molecules embedded within it.

Separates the protoplasm from
external environment.

A semi-permeable membrane.
It is flexible and shows fluidity
characteristic.
Cytoplasm

Forms the largest part of the cell.
Made up of jelly-like medium
where the organelles are found
within it.

Acts as a selective barrier as it
allows
only
certain
substances to move into or
out of the cell.

As
a
medium
where
biochemical reactions take
place.
Provides substances required
by the organelles.

Contains organic and inorganic
substances essential for cell survival.
Cell wall (present only in plant cell)

A rigid outer which surrounds the
PM of plant cells.

Gives and maintains
shape of plant cells.

Made up of cellulose, a tough and
fibrous carbohydrate.

Provides support to plant cells.

Fully permeable layer.

Nucleus

Allows all substances
pass through it.

the

to

The largest organelle.
Controls all activities take

1

Spherical in shape.

place in the cell.

Consists of
a- the nuclear membrane
(NM) which is perforated
consists
of
outer
membrane and inner

Contains chromosomes which
carry genetic information
to be transferred from
parents to offspring

membrane,

Vacuole (found in plant cell)

b-

the nucleolus and

c-

nucleoplasm whereby the
chromosomes are found
within it.

A fluid-filled sac enclosed by a semipermeable
membrane
named
tonoplast.
Contains fluid called cell sap.
Cell sap contains water, organic
acids,
sugars,
amino
acids,
mineral salts, pigments, waste
product and metabolic by-products.

The
NM
separates
the
nucleoplasm
from
the
cytoplasm and controls the
movement
of
substances
through it.
Nucleolus
ribosomes.

synthesizes

Stores water, organic acids,
sugars,
amino
acids,
mineral
salts,
pigments,
waste product and metabolic
by-products.
Gives
support
herbaceous plants.

to

Regulates
the
water
content (osmoregulation)
Contributes to cell elongation
by
absorbing
water
and
causing cell to expand.

Mitochondria

Cylindrical-shaped
layer membranes.

with

doubled

The outer membrane is smooth
while the inner membrane is
folded.
Contains respiratory enzymes.

Ribosome

Site of cellular respiration
which generates energy by
oxidation of glucose in the
present of oxygen.
Energy produced is in form of
heat
energy
and
ATP
(Adenosine triphosphate), a
chemical energy which is used
by cells to carry out cellular
activities.

A compact, spherical organelle.

Site of synthesizing protein.

Can be found attached to the
surface of rough endoplasmic
reticulum
(rough
ER)
or
suspended
freely
in
the
cytoplasm.

The information of synthesizing
protein is obtained from the
chromosomes.

Consists of two sub-units : one
large unit of ribonucleic acid (rRNA)
and one small unit of protein.

Golgi apparatus

Consists of a stack of flattened
membranous sacs.

Processes,
packages

modifies,
proteins,

2

New membrane is continuously
added by the fusing of transport
vesicles from the ER to one end of
Golgi app. and buds off as secretive
vesicles at the other end.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Consists of a network of folded
membranes
forming
the
interconnected tubules/sacs.
These
membranes
continuous with the
membrane.

are
nuclear

There are two types of ER : Rough
ER and Smooth ER.
The outer surface of rough ER is
attached with ribosomes while
smooth ER does not have
ribosomes.
Lysosome

Single membrane-bound sac which
contains
hydrolytic
enzymes
(HE).

carbohydrates
and
glycoproteins and transports
them
by
forming
the
secretive vesicles.

The rough ER transports
proteins (synthesized by
ribosomes)
by
forming
transport vesicles.
Smooth ER
a- synthesizes
lipids,
steroids/sex hormones
eg eostrogen, mucus
and phospholipids,
b- detoxifies
drugs,
poisons and other
metabolic by-products

Acts as the cell digestive
compartment as HE breakdown
proteins, lipids, nucleic acids,
and polysaccharides.
Eliminates
worn
out
mitochondria and damaged
organelles and enable cell
to renew itself.

Centrioles (present only in animal
cells)

A pair of small cylindrical structures
consists of microtubules.

Forms spindle fibres during
cell division in animal cell

Chloroplast (present only in plant
cells)

Lens-shaped
membrane.

Carries out photosynthesis
as
chlorophylls
can
trap
sunlight

with

doubled-layer

Consists of grana and stroma.
Grana are stacks of flattened
membranous-bound structures which
contain chlorophylls, the green
photosynthetic pigments.
Stroma is a gel-like matrix which
contains photosynthetic enzymes
and starch granules.

2.2

CELL ORGANIZATION

2.2.1

LIVING PROCESSES IN UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS

3

Amoeba sp
Found in fresh water & soil water

No fixed shape

Aspect

Paramecium sp

Habitat

Found in stagnant fresh water which
rich in decaying plant materials.

Shape
Class of
microorganism
s

Protozoa

Changes its shape as it meets obstacles
The outer part of cytoplasm which is
thicker is called ectoplasm and the inner
part is called endoplasm.

General
characteristics

Gaseous exchange done through the cell
membrane.
O2 from the watery environment diffuses
into the cytoplasm by simple diffusion.

Fixed shape

Protozoa

The surface of the cell membrane is
covered with cilia.

Gaseous exchange done through the
cell membrane.
Respiration

O2 from the watery environment diffuses
into the cytoplasm by simple diffusion.

CO2 diffuses out of the cell by simple
diffusion.

CO2 diffuses out of the cell by simple
diffusion.

Feeds

Rhythmic beating of the cilia around the
oral groove brushes the food particle
(FP) down to the cytostome and FV is
formed.

on

small

phagocytosis.

particles/

bacteria

by

1- Amoeba uses its pseudopodia to trap
bacteria and engulfs it into the cytoplasm.

Feeding
HE is secreted into the FV.

Food vacuole (FV) is formed, hydrolytic
enzymes (HE) eg : lysozyme from lysosome is
secreted
into the FV and bacteria is
digested.

As digestion is carried out, FV moves in
a circular path around the cell – a
process known as cyclosis.

Nutrients diffuse into the cytoplasm and
the waste is left behind when the Amoeba
sp. moves away.

Nutrients diffuse into the cytoplasm
and waste is released via anal pore.

Done by binary fission. One parent cell
divides to form two daughter cell.

Done by binary fission. One parent cell
divides to form two daughter cell.

Under unfavourable conditions, eg : during
drought season, high acidic / alkaline condition
or lack of food particles, formation of spores is
carried out.

No sexual reproduction.

Asexual
reproduction
No formation of spores

Sexual
reproduction
(SP)

By
conjugation
between
two
Paramecium.
Controlled
by
micronucleus.
SP takes place under
unfavorable conditions.

Shows

4

(a) positive phototaxis responses towards
low light intensity,

Irritability –
ability to
respond to
external
stimulus.

-same-

Done by cytoplasmic projection, known as
pseudopodia, an extension of cytoplasm
which can be extended out in any direction.

Movement /
Locomotion

Rhythmic beating of the cilia enables it
to move forward while rotating and
spiraling along its axis.

Osmoregulation is done by the contractile
vacuole (CV).

*
Osmoregulatio
n

(b) positive chemotaxis towards neutral
pH and nutrients / food particles

The cilia act as sensory structures that
sensitive and detect stimuli.

(c) positive thermotaxis towards medium
temperature (25o – 35oC).

1- Water continuously enters the cytoplasm by
osmosis so the volume of cytoplasm increases.

Osmoregulation
is
done
contractile vacuole (CV).

by

the

Has 2 CVs, anterior CV and posterior CV
*OsmoRegulation – a process to

2- The CV collects the excess water and the CV
expands until it full.

(i)regulate the osmotic pressure/
water content within the cell

3- Next, the CV fuses with the cell membrane
and removes the excess water.
Grows to a certain size by synthesizing new
cytoplasm.

(ii)to avoid from being burst because
of the incoming of excess water .
Growth

Grows to a certain size by synthesizing
new cytoplasm.

2.2.2 CELL ORGANIZATION
CELL

TISSUE

ORGAN

SYSTEM
The basic unit of all organisms.
Undergoes
Cell
Differentiation to acquire
special features and becomes
specialized cell which carries
out a specific function.

A group of similar cells
that work together to
perform
a
specific
function. Name of a
tissue is based on the
name of the cells.

Eg : neurone / nerve cell

Eg : Nerve tissue

A group of different
tissues
that
work
together to perform a
specific function.

Several organs which
work
together
to
perform
a
specific
function.

Eg : Brain

Eg : Human
system

nervous

2.2.3 TYPES OF ANIMAL TISSUES
TYPE OF ANIMAL
TISSUE

CHARACTERISTICS ( C ) & FUNCTION ( F )

5

Epithelial tissue (ET) eg:
Skin epithelial,
Small intestine
lining

epithelial

C- consists of epithelial cells arranged in a continuous layer.
Specialized ET might have cilia or tiny projection.
F –
cells

Skin epithelial covers the entire external body surface, protects underlying

from injuries and forms a protective barrier against infections and
dehydration.
Lines the cavities within the body and lumen of the tubes and vessels.
absorbs water and nutrients.
Forms secretory glands which produce secretions eg: sweat gland secretes
sweat.
Forms goblet cells which secrete mucus.

Nervous tissue

C – consists of many neurons. Each neuron has a cell body and cytoplasmic
projections called dendrites/dendrons and axon(s).
There are 3 types of neurons : sensory/afferent neuron, inter/relay neuron &
motor/efferent neuron.
F – transmits and receives impulses to coordinate the human nervous system so
that all activities can be controlled by the brain.

Muscle tissue eg :
Cardiac muscle,
Skeletal muscle &
Smooth muscle

C – consists of muscle cells.
Cardiac muscle tissue found in the wall of the heart, skeletal muscle tissue is
attached to the skeletal bone & smooth muscle tissue is found in the wall of the
tubes and vessels.
F – Muscle tissue contracts and relaxes to enable the body movement.

Connective tissue (CT) eg:
Loose CT.,
Dense fibrous CT
Blood,
bone,
cartilage,
adipose tissue,

C – Consists of elastic and non elastic fibres.
-Loose CT contains loosely packed collagenous fibres is the most widespread CT.
-Dense fibrous CT contains closely packed collagenous fibres which can be found
in tendons and ligaments.
-Cartilage is a strong and flexible CT.
-Bone consists of cells embedded in a matrix of collagen which are hardened with
mineral deposits eg: Calcium.
-Blood cells are produced in the bone marrows.
-Adipose tissue consists of tightly packed cells.
F – Loose CT joins epithelial tissue with underlying tissues, holds and supports
cells and tissues in the body and holds organ in place.
- Tendon connects skeletal muscles to bones.
- Ligaments join bones at joints.
- Cartillage provides support to the nose, ears, covers the ends of bones to
reduce frictions and absorbs shocks.
- Stores and transports material eg: adipose tissue stores fat, RBC transports
oxygen

2.2.4 TYPES OF PLANT TISSUES
TYPE OF PLANT
TISSUE

CHARACTERISTICS ( C ) & FUNCTION ( F )

6

Meristem tissue

C - Consists of undifferentiated cells which are able to divide.
Each cell has thick cytoplasm, thin cell wall, large nucleus and without
vacuole and no chloroplast.
Found at the tip of shoot, tip of root and in the vascular bundles.
F – produces new/daughter cells by mitosis (cell division)

Epidermal tissue (ET)

C – consists of one layer of epidermal cells. Each cell has no chloroplast.
ET of the leaf differentiates to become guard cell which has chloroplast.
ET of the root differentiates to become root hair cell which has tiny hair likestructured projection.
F – protects underlying tissue from physical damages.
- produces waxy cuticle, a water proof substance which covers the
entire external surface of the plant (excepts the root) to prevent water
loss.
-allows the penetration of sunlight as ET is transparent so that the
underlying mesophyll tissues can trap sunlight.
- absorption of water/soil water and minerals by the root hairs.
- carrying out photosynthesis by the guard cells.

Vascular tissue eg :
Xylem and phloem

C – consists of xylem and phloem tissues.
Xylem vessels are formed by the end to end joining of xylem cells. Cell wall at
the ends of the xylem cells is degenerated and yet, enables the xylem vessels to
carry out transport function. Xylem vessels are lignified by a water proof and
hard substance named lignin.
Phloem tissue is also formed by the end to end joining of the phloem cells.
Each phloem cell has thread-like structured cytoplasm and enables it to
carry out transport function.
F – Xylem transports water and mineral salts from the root to the entire
parts of the plant.
- Xylem supports and strengthens the plant.
- Phloem transports glucose (product of photosynthesis) from the leaves
to the entire parts of the plant.

Ground tissue eg:
Parenchyma,
aerenchyma
schlerenchyma,
,collenchyma,
Mesophyll

C – consists of many types of tissues which occupy empty spaces in the cortex of
the stem and root and form the bulk of a plant.
Parenchyma and aerenchyma have thin cell wall and one large vacuole.
Schlerenchyma has cell wall which is uniformly thickened by lignin.
Collenchyma has unevenly thickened cell wall.
Mesophyll has chloroplast abundantly.

7

F – Mesophyll carries out photosynthesis as it has chloroplast abundantly.
- Schlerenchyma and collenchyma have thick cell wall so they support
and strengthen the plant.
- Aerenchyma traps air within it cell and enables aquatic plants to float.
- Parenchyma helps xylem and phloem to carry out their functions and
helps in food (starch) storage.

2.2.5

THE UNIQUENESS OF CELLS

1.

Every cellular component (cell structures and organelles) has its own function.

2.

Each cell is unique and depends on its cellular components to carry out its function. Eg:
a- without mitochondria cell respiration cannot be done so energy cannot be produced.
b- without chloroplast, photosynthesis cannot be carried out so no glucose can be produced and
thus, the plant growth will be retarded.

3.

Various cellular organelles in a cell working together to enable the cell to be functioned.
Eg : Function of the cell – produces an (extracellular) enzyme eg : digestive enzyme.

Organelle involved

Function of the organelle

Nucleus

Contains chromosomes/DNA/genes which have the information of the enzyme to be
produced in form of mRNA .

Ribosomes

Receive the information from mRNA and start to produce the raw protein / enzyme.

Rough ER

Receive the raw protein/enzyme from the ribosomes and next, form the transport
vesicles to transport the raw protein to the Golgi app.

Golgi apparatus

Modifies and completes the formation of the enzyme. Golgi apparatus forms the
secretion vesicles (SV) and the enzyme is transported to the cell membrane as the
SVs are budded off from the Golgi app.

Cell membrane

Fuses with the SVs and SVs secrete the enzyme out of the cell.

Mitochondria

Generates energy in form of ATP by oxidation of glucose as the production
of enzyme requires a lot of energy.

2.2.6 INVOLVEMENT OF SYSTEMS IN MAINTAINING AN OPTIMAL INTERNAL
ENVIRONMENT.
1.

The environment of an organism is the condition under which it exists.
a- external environment (EE) is the external conditions, the physical and chemical factors
imposed on the organism. Organism cannot control the EE but it can adapt with EE.
b- internal environment (IE) is the conditions, the physical and chemical factors inside the body
which is created by the intercellular / extracellular / interstitial / tissue fluid and can be
controlled.

8

2.

Stimuli are changes of the physical and chemical factors in the environment. There are 2 types of
stimulus. These are
(i) external stimulus and
(ii) internal stimulus.

3.

Receptors can be found in the sensory organs and have the ability to detect and accept specific
stimulus and convert it into impulses.

4.

HOMEOSTASIS is a process to regulate and maintain the physical factors eg : body
temperature and chemical factors eg : blood glucose level in the internal environment at
constant value / range so each cell can functions efficiently in its optimal condition.

5.

Homeostasis is regulated by the negative feed back mechanism which means any changes of
the physical and chemical factors in the IE will be corrected and the optimal condition can be
maintained.

6.

Homeostasis mechanisms in the human’s body are:
a- regulation of body temperature
b- regulation of blood glucose level
c- osmoregulation of osmotic pressure and
d-. regulation of oxygen level and carbon dioxide level of the blood

7.

The importance of homeostasis are:
a- to maintain the optimal conditions so that cells are well functioned.
b- enable human to adapt with the external environment
b- to ensure the survival of human being (as the results of (a) & (b)).

INVOLVEMENT OF SYSTEMS IN MAINTAINING AN OPTIMAL INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.
(1) Regulation of blood glucose level
Pancreas is activated to produce more insulin so that
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
CORRECTIVE

cells are stimulated to carry out cell respiration rapidly so more
glucose is oxidized and more energy is produced.
excess glucose is converted into glycogen which is stored in
the liver and muscles tissues.
excess glucose is stored as fats in the adipose tissue.
CORRECTIVE

9

MECHANISMS
DONE
IS APPLIED

MECH.
Glucose level
decreases

Osmoreceptor

Osmoreceptor

found in the hypothalamus.
Detects stimulus, converts stimulus into impulse and
stimulates brain to carry out corrective mech.
Glucose level increases
after each meal is taken
Normal blood glucose level = 80 mg / 100 ml blood
Glucose level decreases
when vigorous activity is done
Osmoreceptor

Osmoreceptor

CORRECTIVE
MECH. IS APPLIED

Glucose level
increases
CORRECTIVE
MECH. DONE

Pancreas is activated to produce more glucagon so
(i)

more glycogen (which is stored in the liver) is converted into
glucose. Next, glucose is transported by the blood to the whole
body.

(2) Osmoregulation of osmotic pressure
1- Pituitary gland secretes more Antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
ADH increases the permeability of distal convoluted tubule and
collecting duct to water so more water is reabsorbed into the
blood capillaries by osmosis.
2- Cortex adrenal secretes less aldosterone hormone so less mineral
salts are reabsorbed from Loop of Henle into the blood capillaries
by active transport.
3- Concentrated and small volume of urine is produced.
Osmotic pressure

10

decreases
CORRECTIVE
MECH. IS APPLIED
CORRECTIVE
MECH. DONE
Osmoreceptor

- found in the hypothalamus
Detects stimulus, converts stimulus into impulse and
stimulates brain to carry out corrective mech.

Osmoreceptor

Blood osmotic pressure increases because of
excessive sweating after vigorous activity
Normal osmotic pressure of the blood
Osmotic pressure decreases due to
low temperature / rainy day
Osmoreceptor

Osmoreceptor

CORRECTIVE
MECH. DONE
CORRECTIVE
MECH. IS APPLIED
Osmotic pressure
increases
1- The cortex adrenal secretes more aldosterone
hormone.
Aldosterone increases the permeability of Loop of Henle to mineral salts
so more mineral salts are reabsorbed into the blood capillaries by
active transport.
2- Pituitary gland secretes less ADH so less water is reabsorbed from
distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to the blood capillaries
by osmosis.
3- Low concentration and large quantity of urine is produced.

(3) Regulation of the body temperature
Vasodilation – arterioles & blood capillaries dilate so more blood flows
beneaththe skin and ease heat loss from the blood.
Stretch muscles that hold the skin hair relax so the skin hair is lowered.
The thickness of trapped air (by the skin hair which insulates the body
heat) is lessened so heat can be removed easily.
Sweat glands are activated to produce sweat. Sweat is evaporated by
using the excess heat and leaves the cooling effect to the body.
CORRECTIVE MECH.
IS APPLIED

Body temperature
decreases

11

CORRECTIVE
MECH. DONE
Thermoreceptor

- found beneath the skin and
in the hypothalamus

Thermoreceptor

Body temperature increases due to
hot day
Normal body temperature = 36.9

o

C (37 oC)

Body temperature decreases due to
rainy day
Thermoreceptor

Thermoreceptor
CORRECTIVE MECH.
DONE

CORRECTIVE MECH.
IS APPLIED
Body temperature
increases
Adrenal gland secretes more adrenaline which increases the rate of
metabolisms / cell respiration. More heat is produced.
Adrenaline increases the rate of respiration of the skeletal muscles.
Skeletal muscles rapidly contract and relax and thus enable the
increment of 1 oC of the body temperature.
Vasoconstriction of the arterioles and capillaries so less blood flows
beneath the skin and leads to less heat loss.
Contraction of the stretch muscles enables the skin hair to stand and
more air is trapped by the skin hair. The insulating layer is thicker so, less
heat can be removed.

12