Introduction to Phonetics/Phonology

Wintersemester 2003-2004 Potsdam
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Course Topics
• I • II • III • IV •V Articulatory Phonetics Segments, Features, Feature Geometry The Syllable and Other Prosodic Constituents Segmental Alternations Phonological Theories

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General Issues
• Assignments (to be corrected two weeks later in class) • Final exam • Slides are on my homepage
(http://www.ling.uni-potsdam.de/~fery/)

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Part I Articulatory Phonetics

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Production of a Sound
• Airstream Process (initiation)

• Phonation Process (vibration of the vocal cords) • Oral-Nasal Process: The velum either closes off the nasal cavity or opens it. • Articulation Process

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Components of Articulation
• The subglottal components (lungs and

respiratory tract), which produce the airstream. Sounds are usually pulmonal egressive

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Components of Articulation

• The larynx, which converts the regular stream of air into a series of periodic bursts of air (source of acoustic energy).

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Components of Articulation
• The supralaryngeal vocal tract (also

(supraglottal) vocal tract) consists of the pharynx, the oral cavity and the nasal cavity. The pharynx runs from the larynx to the tongue root. From the pharynx the air can escape through either the nasal cavity or the oral cavity. The supralaryngeal vocal tract functions as an acoustic filter.
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English Noun Glottis Larynx Pharynx Epiglottis Tongue back/dorsum Corona Tongue tip/apex Tongue blade/lamina Alveolar ridge Hard palate Soft palate/velum Uvula Lungs Teeth Lips Nasal cavity

Adjective glottal laryngeal pharyngeal epiglottal dorsal coronal apical laminal alveolar palatal velar uvular pulmonal dental labial nasal

Latin Noun glottis larynx pharynx epiglottis dorsum corona apex lamina alveolae palatum velum uvula pulmo dentes labia cavum nasi

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Articulators
• labial [b, p, f, m…] (cover term for bilabial and labiodental): At least one lip is involved in the articulation. • coronal [t, d, l, n…] : The tip or blade of the tongue is involved in the articulation. • dorsal [k, g, N, X]: The back of the tongue is involved in the articulation.
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Places of Articulation
• bilabial [p, b, m]: Complete closure by both lips. • labiodental [f, v]: Closure or constriction between the lower lip and upper teeth.

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Places of Articulation
• dental [t, d] : The front part of the tongue forms a constriction with the upper teeth. • alveolar [t, d, l, n, s, z]: A constriction is formed at the alveolar ridge with the tip or blade of the tongue; the articulation is then apical (when the tongue tip forms the constriction) or laminal (the tongue blade is involved).

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Places of Articulation
• Retroflex: The tongue tip is bent back and up behind the alveolar ridge. • palatoalveolar (or postalveolar) [∫,Z]: The tongue blade forms a constriction behind the alveolar ridge and/or at the hard palate. • palatal [ç, j]: The back of the tongue forms a constriction or a closure with the hard palate.

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Places of Articulation
• velar [k, g, N]: The back of the tongue forms a constriction or a closure with the soft palate (velum). • Uvular [X]: The back of the tongue and the uvula form a constriction or a closure.

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Places of Articulation
• pharyngeal [˛, ¿]: A constriction is formed in the pharynx. • glottal/laryngeal [h, ?]: Closure of the glottis causes a glottal stop. An /h/ is produced with an open glottis.

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bilabial labiodental alveolar palatoalveolar palatal velar uvular
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Place of Articulator Sound Articulation (movable organ) (German) upper lip lower lip p, b, m upper teeth lower lip f, v alveolar tongue t, d, ridge blade s, z, l, n palate palate palate uvula tongue blade back of tongue ∫, Z ç, j

back of tongue k, g, x, N back of tongue ë, X
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Manners of Articulation
Manner of the narrowing or constriction

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Manners of Articulation

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Plosive (also stop or occlusive)
[p]: Voiceless, bilabial plosive. Very common sound. The glottis is wide open. [b]: Voiced counterpart, articulated approximately the same.

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Plosives
[t, d]: articulated by the tongue tip or blade. Fr. tout doux: ‘soft’. In German d and t are alveolar. [k, g]:The place of articulation is the velum, sometimes the hard palate, occasionally the uvula, depending on the environmental context: Kuh vs. Kühe, Kiel [k™]. In Arabic [k] and uvular [q] form two contrastive sounds.
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Plosives
[c, Ô]: Palatal articulation of the dorsal plosives. These plosives are found in many West African languages, e.g., Akan. [q, G]: Uvular articulation of the dorsal plosives. These sounds can be found in, e.g., Quechua. [?]:
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Glottal stop.
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Voice Onset Timing (VOT)

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Fricatives
[ƒ,]: Bilabial voiceless or voiced fricatives. Japanese: Fujiyama. In some African languages such as Ewe these sounds are phonemic (éƒá ‘ he polished’ vs. éfá ‘ he froze’). [f, v]: Labiodental fricatives, very common. The upper teeth form a constriction with the lower lip.
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Fricatives
[†, d]: There are two different articulations of this pair of sounds. In English [†] thigh and [d] thy are two phonemes. [s, z]: can be apical or laminal. [∫,Ω]: an apical and a laminal (predorsal) articulation. The lips are often somewhat rounded, sometimes even protruding.
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Fricatives
[ç]: [‚]: [x]: [©]: Palatal fricative (ich-sound) Voiced counterpart of [ç]. Velar fricative (ach-sound). Voiced counterpart of [x].

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Fricatives
[X, Ë]:[X] is a fricative which is formed at the uvula; auditorily it differs little from [x]; in Swiss German, e.g., they are variants of the same sound, as in Küchenkasten [XuXiXat\]. The [Ë] is a variant of/r/. [¿,˛]: pharyngeal fricatives. [H, ¿]: epiglottal fricatives.

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Fricatives
[h, Ó]: A glottal fricative formed by constriction of the vocal folds. In German the constriction is not very narrow; the breathing position is retained.

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Affricates
An affricate is a plosive followed by a homorganic, i.e., articulated with the same articulators, fricative. Examples are [ts], [t∫] and [pf].

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Nasals
With the nasal sounds (consonants, vowels, pre- or postnasalized sounds) the velum is lowered, and the majority of the air flows out through the nose. Nasals are usually voiced, but in Icelandic, for example, there is also a voiceless n [n≤], written hn.

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Nasals
[m]: The bilabial nasal is very common. [n]: The coronal nasal occurs in almost every language. [˜]: Often a position-dependent variant of [n] before [k, g]. In English and German [g] has often even disappeared, so that only [˜] remains: lang, long (cf. lungo in Italian).

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Nasals
[ñ]: The labiodental nasal is commonly only an articulation-dependent variant of m. [µ]: The palatal nasal is rarer. It occurs, e.g., in French (agneau ‘lamb’, gagner ‘to win’) and in Spanish (cañon). [N]: The uvular nasal is articulated even further back in the mouth than the velar nasal [˜].

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Nasals
Consonants can also be partially nasalized, like the prenasalized plosives (md, nd, ˜g).

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Laterals
For [l] the tip of the tongue is placed at the alveolar ridge and impedes the airstream in the middle of the mouth. On the sides the tongue is not placed against the molars, as with [t], but is lower, so that the air can escape at the sides.

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Laterals
[l]: Clear and dark l in Russian differ in the form of the tongue. With clear l the surface is fairly flat, slightly concave and the contact is apical; with dark l, in contrast, the tongue is further in front and the blade of the tongue is raised towards the velum. The contact is laminal. This produces an ucolor. In German and French the l is light; in English it varies depending on the environment: cf. little

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Laterals
[˚, ]: In Welsh there is a voiceless fricative lateral, [˚] or also sometimes [l≤], written ll (Lloyd). The voiced counterpart is transcribed [ ]. [Ò, L]: palatal and velar lateral approximants.

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r-Sounds (Vibrants, Trills, Rhotics)
[B]: Bilabial vibrant. [r]: Prototypical r-sound. It is a front trill (tongue tip-r); in Spanish perro ‘dog’. In German, this sound is only used in a few dialects.

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r-Sounds
[®]: Front fricative or approximant, as in English after t and d. [ë]: Back trill (uvular-R), as in Dutch or in the Scandinavian languages.

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r-Sounds
[Ë]: Back Engelaut or approximant, as in German and in French. The air passes around the uvula on the sides. Very similar to [≈], which is the voiceless variant. In Arabic [r] and [Ë] are two different phonemes. Rhotacism is the conversion of [z] into [r]: Etrusci/Etruria, was/were.
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Flaps and Taps
Flaps (sudden short closure plus glide) or Taps (sudden short closure) are plosives of very short duration produced with a single muscle contraction. English: marry or very, in American: instead of an intervocalic [t] matter, pity.

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Approximants (Glides)
[w]: The approximants are always voiced. [w] or [˘] is a bilabial sound. [j]: In German the palatal glide is sometimes articulated as a fricative [‚] (voiced counterpart of [ç]).

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Approximants (Glides)
[¥]: The sound which is realized, e.g., in the French words huit ‘eight’ and puis ‘afterwards’. [º]: Velar vibrant.

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Retroflexes
[ˇ, Î, ¯, ö, Í, ¸, Æ], also sometimes transcribed with dots under the letters. These sounds are special forms of many of the consonants which are articulated at the alveolar ridge or at the adjoining part of the hard palate.

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Retroflexes
The tongue tip is bent back so that the closure (or constriction) is formed with the underside of the tongue blade. Common in Sanskrit, in Arabic, in the Dravidian languages of India (Malayalam), in Swedish and in Norwegian. The English r is retroflex.
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Secondary Articulation
Labialization: a consonant is articulated with rounded lips. This can also occur with labial sounds, as when both articulations are realized with the lips. Examples from Kwakw’ala (Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996:356-7) and from Arrernte:

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Secondary Articulation
Labialization in Kwakw’ala kasa ‘beat soft’ kwesa gisgas ‘incest’ gwesu Labialization in Arrernte pwape ‘whirlwind’
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‘splashing’ ‘pig’

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Secondary Articulation
Palatalization: Raising of the front part of the tongue in the direction of an i-articulation. Russian contrasts palatalized vs. nonpalatalized articulation in many consonants, e.g.: pjotr ‘Peter’ with pjot ‘drinks’ and pot ‘sweat’.

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Secondary Articulation
Velarization: Raising of the back part of the tongue. According to Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), the English l in little, for example, is velarized.

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Secondary Articulation
Pharyngealization: A constriction is formed in the pharynx. Some dialects of Arabic contrast emphatic vs. normal coronals: s¿ vs. s.

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Vowels
1) Height or vertical tongue movement 2) Front-back-dimension or horizontal tongue movement 3) Lip rounding

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Cardinal Vowels

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Vowels
IPA 1 2 3 4 5 [i] [e] [´] [æ] [a] [å] Lips unrounded unrounded unrounded unrounded unrounded unrounded Example Fr. si, Eng. beat Ger. See, Fr. chez Ger. Bett, Eng. bet Eng. cat Ger. kann, Fr. la Dt. dam
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Vowels
IPA 6 7 8 9 10 11 [ø] [o] [u] [y] [ø] [œ] Lips rounded rounded rounded rounded rounded rounded Examples Fr. sotte, Eng. hawk Ger. Stroh, Fr. beau Ger. gut, Fr. cou Ger. Tür, Fr. bu Ger. Goethe, Fr. eux Ger. Götter, Fr. beurre
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Vowels
IPA 12 13 14 15 16 [Œ] [Å] [] [{] [}] Lips rounded rounded unrounded unrounded unrounded Examples Ger. Hölle Eng. hock, Dt. dom Eng. but, luck Vietnamese ó Japanese u

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Vowels
IPA [\] [á] Lips unrounded unrounded Example Ger.: be-,Fr. le Ger.: ver-

(from Clark & Yallop 1990:67)

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Vokale
i e ´ ø a Italian u o i e a Spanish u o

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German Vowels
i ˆ y Á e ´ ø œ front á a central å back low \ ø o mid u u high

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Vowels
Nasal vowels in French [´~] as in bain ‘bath’ [õ] as in monde ‘world’ [ã] as in enfant ‘child’ [œ~] as in un ‘one’

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German v owels
Long, tense vowels: Miete, Huhn, wohnen, Düne, Höhle

Short, lax vowels: Mitte, Hunne, Wonne, dünne, Hölle

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Diphthongs
Three German Diphthongs /aiª/ (Hai) ‘shark’ /auª/ (Bau) ‘building’ /øyª/ (neu) ‘new’

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