CHEMISTRY ORIENTATION

CHEMISTRY ORIENTATION

Workshop 1: What is Chemistry?
1. The Elements
2. Atoms & Molecules
3. The Role of Electrons
4. Ions
5. Makin' Molecules
6. Naming Molecules

Workshop 2: The Properties of Atoms & Molecules
1. Counting atoms & Molecules: The Mole
2. Mixtures Elements and Compounds
3. Allotropes
4. States and Phase Transitions
5. Solutions: Concentration
6. Density: Partitions
7. Pressure: Pressure Explosion
8. Heat and Energy

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CHEMISTRY ORIENTATION

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CHEMISTRY ORIENTATION

Workshop 3: Stoichiometry and Valency
1. Sodium Chloride at the Molecular Scale
2. Carbon Dioxide at the Molecular Scale
3. Balancing Chemical Equations
4. Molecules: How They Shape Up
5. Matter & Electromagnetic Radiation

Chemistry Orientation
Workshop #1
What IS Chemistry?
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1.1 The Elements

1.1 The Elements

• The Periodic Table is made up of elements.
• There are a finite number of elements (~ 111) and these
are very well known and understood.
• Perhaps there are other kinds, but they certainly haven’t
been found on Earth or identified elsewhere in the
universe.
• 91 of these occur naturally, and the remainder have all
been produced in laboratory experiments.
• Each element is given a chemical symbol.
• These symbols are either one or two letters.
• Many are obvious, others are not what you think due to
their latin origins!

H – Hydrogen
He – Helium
Li – Lithium
Be – Beryllium
B – Boron
C – Carbon
N – Nitrogen
O – Oxygen
F – Fluorine
Ne - Neon

Na – Sodium (Natrium)
K – Potassium (Kalium)
Fe – Iron (Ferrum)
Ag – Silver (argēentos)
Au – Gold (Aurum)
Hg – Mercury (Hydrargyrum,)
Sn – Tin (Stannum)
Sb – Antimony (Stibium)

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1.1 The Periodic Table of Elements

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1.1 The Periodic Table of Elements
Problems;
(a) Which element can be found in Group 3, Period 4?
(b) Which halogen can be found in Period 3?
(c) How many transition metals are in the 4th Period?
(d) Which element has an atomic number of 16.
(e) Which element has an atomic mass of 16.
(f) What is the group number of the noble gases?
(g) Which element can be found in Group 5, Period 2?
(h) Is Mo a metal or a non-metal?

Atomic Number
Atomic Mass

Group Number

Noble gases

1

6

3
4
5
6
7

Transition Metals

Halides
I’m a bar-man you idiots

Lanthanoids
Actinoids
7

8

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com/watch?v=sNdijknRxfU Ca Sr http://www. They all react with water and oxygen very readily. I2 11 12 3 . F2 These elements have different reactivities toward H2O and O2 compared to Groups 1 & 2.1 The Elements 1. with “____________ bonds”. Cl2. They all react with water and oxygen readily.com/watch?v=5UJTR-LA1z4 9 10 1.youtube. Just like the Group 1 elements. The Group 2 elements are all characterised by the fact that they have two outer electrons. however not Mg as violently as their Group 1 counterparts. Br2 These elements like to be “diatoms” (F2. *The relative mass of an electron is not actually zero. all of these "alkali earth metals" are very reactive.1 The Elements The Group 1 elements are all characterised by the fact that they have one outer electron. but it is so small that it appears as zero when expressed to the nearest whole number. http://www.1 The Elements The Group 17 elements are all characterised by the fact that they have 7 outer electrons.1. We also call this a "valence electron". Br2. Cl2 If you like.com/watch?v=822QcMbpKZg http://www.youtube.2 Atoms – What’s Inside? 1. two molecules “share” electrons.youtube. I2). Be All of these "alkali metals" are very reactive.

Neutrons 14 1. • But ALL carbon atoms have just 6 protons.2 Atoms – What’s Inside? 1. “mass number”) may be determined by counting the total number of nucleons. • The number of protons determine the identity of the element.1. • Protons are positive. protons and neutrons have the same mass. Atomic Mass = # of Protons + # of Neutrons O2 N2 He Compounds H2 O 15 CO2 16 4 .2 Atoms .7 Elements To the nearest whole number. while electrons are negative 13 1.9% of an atom’s mass is from protons & neutrons • These particles sit together to form the nucleus. others have 8. Always! • The nucleus only occupies a small volume at the very centre of the atom.2 Atoms and Molecules CiC . • An atom with six protons is carbon.Ch. • The electrons ‘orbit’ the nucleus. • ~99% carbon atoms have 6 neutrons • Some have 7. electrons DO NOT orbit the nucleus like planets in the solar system! • The number of electrons in a neutral (uncharged) atom is the same as the number of protons.1. • As we will see in lectures next week.2 Atoms – What’s Inside? • > 99. The atomic mass (also.

it is electrons which form chemical bonds.1.3 Electrons 18 1. • We will talk about electrons a lot during the first two weeks of CHM1011.assembled one atom at a time. 1.Ch. The technique was demonstrated in April 1990 at IBM's Almaden Research Center in San Jose. • Chemical bonds attach atoms to each other to form molecules. we can generally consider it to be stationary • In contrast.2 Atoms and Molecules CiC .Ch.3 Electrons • Electrons are ~2000 times lighter than protons.2 Atoms and Molecules CiC .7 IBM scientists discovered how to move and position individual xenon atoms on a metal surface using a scanning tunneling microscope.7 You’ll often hear that atoms and molecules are too small to be seen with the naked eye. there are two forms of bonding: • Ionic Bonds • Covalent Bonds • Most importantly. it is all about electrons. We can even ‘ write ’ with them!! (CO molecules) 17 1. • Electrons are the glue that hold atoms together! 19 20 5 . • To understand how molecules form. • But when it comes to combining atoms to form molecules. Calif. one must first appreciate how electrons behave! • Because the nucleus is large compared to electrons. electrons are small and highly mobile.. where scientists created the world's first structure: the letters "I-B-M" . • In simple terms. But we do have instruments that allow us to ‘see’ them.1.1.

18 … does that pattern look familiar at all? • Earlier. It is the outer electrons – valence electrons – which are most important here. 8. These electrons arrange themselves in "shells". As atoms increase in size.1. 21 1. 8. they contain more and more electrons. • Negatively charged – an “anion” • C23 24 6 . • HOWEVER … • Carbon atoms can bind an additional electron.so having the same number of each cancels that charge. The next two shells both have 8 electrons. The next two have 18 electrons. • They have equal but opposite charge . and 6 electrons.4 Ions 2.3 Electrons On the right. you can see how these shells contain different numbers of electrons. The lowest energy shell contains just 2 electrons Electrons in the inner shells – core electrons – don’t really play a role in determining the chemical properties of an element. we mentioned that a neutral carbon atom has 6 protons.3 Electrons 1. • Carbon atoms can lose one (or more) of its electrons • This creates a charge imbalance: • Carbon with 6 protons & 7 electrons will be charged.3 Electrons 22 1. 18.

5 Makin’ Molecules 1. • Table salt is a nice example: • Sodium chloride. • Some do NOT readily form ions at all! • The bonding in sodium chloride is considered to be ionic.CCl4 “Iron Hexahydrate” . • Composed of Na+ and Cl-.6 Names and Formulas in Chemistry • An example of a covalent molecule is carbon dioxide.5 Makin’ Molecules 26 1. • Cl is prone to forming anions.C7H16 • In this case. there are no ions. • Positively charged – a “cation” • C+ • Much in the way protons are attracted to electrons. • All elements can form ions! • Some are more likely to form anions.1. 27 “Carbon dioxide” .CO2 “Carbon tetrachloride” . cations are attracted to anions.C10H20 28 7 .PO5 “Heptane” . • This molecule contains: • One carbon atom • Two oxygen atoms “Carbon monoxide” . • But the electrons in the bonded atoms are actually shared.Fe(H2O)6 “Decene” .PO3 “Phosphorus pentoxide” . • How are these ions are formed????? • The driving force for this is for the atom to obtain a full outer shell of electrons. • This is often called the Octet Rule. • NOT composed of Na and Cl.CO “Phosphorus trioxide” . • We will explore this in Workshop 2  25 1. • Some are more likely to form cations. • Na is prone to forming cations.4 Ions • Carbon with 6 protons & 5 electrons will be charged.

CO32nitrite . “hex-”.NO2nitrate . “hept-”.SO32sulfate . Rubbish tips. “prop-”.6 Names and Formulas in Chemistry 30 1.NO3sulfite .CO2 Sodium chloride .SO423phosphite – PO3 phosphate – PO43- MgCl2 K3PO4 29 1. “pent-”. “but-”. “eth-”. NaBr These three suffixes can be a little confusing at first.KBr CaCO3 KNO3 BaSO3 “-ite” and “-ate” always correspond to anions with oxygen carbonate .H2S Carbon Dioxide . “-ite” & “-ate” Determine the names of the following compounds.6 Names and Formulas in Chemistry Carbon chains in organic chemistry.predominantly these kind of C5-C12 aliphatic hydrocarbons hexane heptane 31 32 8 .6 Names and Formulas in Chemistry 1.NaCl Potassium bromide . “meth-”.6 Names and Formulas in Chemistry “-ide”.1. “-ide” is used when there are just two elements in the compound. farts & methane Cranbourne ethane housing estates propane butane Cigarette lighters pentane Petrol . Hydrogen sulfide .

of moles = How many molecules are in 0.20x1024 A student measures some anhydrous copper sulfate crystals to have a mass of 2.469x10-2 moles CuSO4 35 Scientific notation 36 9 .01469 moles CuSO4 = 1.0167 “moles”? 1.75 dozen”? 12 24 93 How many objects are in “a bakers’ dozen”? How many objects are in “a bakers’ two dozen”? 13 26 How many objects are in a “score”? How many objects are in 20 “score”? 20 400 How many runs (cricket) are in a “century”? How many runs are in a “double century”? 100 200 33 2.01x1022 mass molecular mass 2. How many moles of CuSO4 is this? (Molecular mass of 159.02x1023 How many molecules are in 2 “moles”? 1.6 g/mol = 0.01x1023 How many molecules are in 0.1 What is a mole? CHEMISTRY ORIENTATION Chemistry Orientation Workshop #2 Properties of Atoms and Molecules How many objects are in “a dozen”? How many objects are in “two dozen”? How many objects are in “7.2.51x1023 How many molecules are in 0.81x1024 No.1 What is a mole? 34 2.1 How to convert from mass to moles.6 g/mol) How many molecules are in 3 “moles”? 1.345g. How many molecules are in a “mole? 6.5 “moles”? 3.345 g = 159.25 “moles”? 1.

00) x (0. •Water is a chemical •Oxygen is a chemical 39 Ahhh. How many grams of material is this equivalent to? {Atomic masses.3404) Mass C2H4O2 = 20.008.” A lab assistant determines they have 0.44 g. = 38 2. and in mainstream media.0345 moles of ethanol (C2H6O).2 Mixtures. & Compounds • In society.008 + 2x16. • “There’s lots of chemicals in processed food. Elements.01. we often hear about ‘chemicals’.01 + 4x1. everything is made of chemicals.1 How to convert from moles to mass. How many grams of material is this equivalent to? {Atomic masses. C = 12. 2.2.1 How to convert from moles to mass. of moles = Mass C2H4O2 = (molecular mass C2H4O2) x (# of moles) = Mass C2H4O2 = (2x12.21 g/mol) A student determines they have 0. O = 16. O = 16. How many moles of amphetamine is this? (Molecular mass of 135. C = 12.00} No.00} Mass C2H6O = Mass C2H6O = Mass C2H6O = • As it happens.1 How to convert from mass to moles. these ‘chemicals’ are usually talked about in a negative context. H = 1.008.01. the dihydrogen oxide stings my eyes!!! 40 10 .3404 moles of acetic acid (C2H4O2). H = 1. it’s full of chemicals.” • “Don’t swim in the lake. 2. A drug manufacturer measures some amphetamine crystals to have a mass of 5.56 g.

H2O.2 Mixtures. H.2 Mixtures. & Compounds 42 2. Elements. • An element is a chemical which includes only one kind of atom. Eg.2. Eg.6H2O • A mixture is defined by having two of more elements or compounds in combination with each other. Fe. H2SO4. He. & Compounds • In the most fundamental sense we can separate matter into pure chemicals and mixtures. O2 (oxygen gas). Eg. Elements. •Swimming Pool Water (H2O + NaClO) •Ocean Water (H2O + NaCl) •Dishwashing water (H2O + soap + food scraps) 41 2. & Compounds 20c coin 43 44 11 .2 Mixtures. O3 (ozone) • A compound is a chemical which includes more than one kind of atom. CO2. Elements. CuSO4. • Pure chemicals can either be elements or compounds.2 Mixtures. & Compounds 2. Elements.

2.3 Allotropes CiC . • These are also referred to as phases. soot & fullerenes are allotropes of carbon. ice H2O(l).Ch.solid. 45 2. Liquid & Gas 2. Additional energy may then cause a further phase transition to the gas phase.2. water H2O(g). liquid or gas.3 Diamond.3 2. Elements may exist in different forms – allotropes. • If enough energy is provided to a substance.4 Solid. • The lowest energy state of any substance is always solid.2.4 Solid. graphite. molecular oxygen and ozone are an example of allotropes. • Phase transitions have the following names. Liquid & Gas • Matter may exist in one of three states .3 Allotropes CiC . The oxygen atom. it may undergo a phase transition to the liquid phase.Ch. • (s)  (l) melting • (l)  (s) freezing • (s)  (g) sublimation • (g)  (s) deposition • (l)  (g) evaporation • (g)  (l) condensation • Think about the phases of water H2O(s). steam 47 Coke & Mentos Mythbusters 48 12 .

• Take hydrogen chloride for example: • A gas at room temperature. • Units: mol/L OR M • Eg. and safest way to handle a chemical. rather than the mass.5 Solutions and Concentration 2. (Polar vs Non-polar!) • What if I diluted this to 100mL? • How many moles of HCl are now in the conical flask? • Has the concentration changed? • But WHY doesn’t the water float on the oil? • Density! • Density is measured in g/cm3 • Water has a density of 1g/cm3 • Oil is less than 1g/cm3. • Readily dissolves in water (to make hydrochloric acid). how many moles of HCl are in solution? • # moles = molarity x volume = 0.6 Density • You are probably quite familiar with the idea that oil floats on water. If a student measures out 20 mL of a 0. 49 2. • The first point is that oil does not dissolve in water.01 moles • It is more useful to a chemist to know the number of moles.5 M solution of hydrochloric acid. we often use chemicals ‘in solution’. • But it is still a hazardous material! • Most commonly. we measure the concentration of solutions in ‘molarity’. • This is the number of moles per litre of solvent.5 Solutions and Concentration 50 2.5 x (20/1000) = 0. • In some cases this is the most convenient. so it floats on top of the water. and very toxic (lungs!).2. • Safer. but we will discuss this in more detail during the CHM1011 lectures.5 Solutions and Concentration • Throughout chemistry. and is a much better way to regulate how much you’re using at a time. 51 52 13 .

heat. • It can apply to solids. liquids or gases.7 Pressure (Gases) • The experiment on the left is using a different non-polar solvent called dichloromethane (“DCM”).6 Density 2. 100kPa • This piece of glassware is called a separating funnel.2. • Units: Pa. • Does not mix with water! • Density = 1. • Water floats on top of DCM. • We will explore this further during Week 6 lectures. pV = nRT 53 2. Hydrogen *Thermite Reaction 2 Al + Fe2O3 → Al2O3 + 2 Fe + HEAT endothermic *‘Salt’ in ice (water) *Ice melting 55 56 14 .g.8 Heat & Energy 54 CHEMISTRY ORIENTATION Chemical reactions can release or absorb energy (e. • The pressure of the atmosphere is approx. light): Chemistry Orientation Workshop #3 Valency & Stoichiometry exothermic *Combustion *Hydrocarbons.33 g/cm3 • Pressure is a term used throughout both physics and chemistry. • The concentration of gases are usually expressed as pressure. or kPa (others!) • In this case DCM is more dense than water.

2 Carbon Dioxide • Carbon dioxide gets a lot of bad press in the media! • What is it.1 Sodium Chloride 3. • Black coal is an example of a real material. you know this molecule well . • But can we just take the constituent elements. and how is it formed? The ‘space-filling’ models below show the most basic combustion reaction. even at room temperature.youtube.com/watch?v=Mx5JJWI2aaw Is the following reaction spontaneous? 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) g 2NaCl(s) • We have an abundant source in the ocean. we talked about NaCl. and throw them together? • Why do you think this reaction.1 Sodium Chloride • Earlier today. which is close to pure carbon. very rapidly forms NaCl(aq)? 57 3.  59 60 15 . • Even if you have never studied chemistry before. C + O2  CO2 C(s) + O2(g)  CO2(g) • This is the chemical reaction representing the combustion of pure carbon.2 Carbon Dioxide 58 3.3. but how would we MAKE sodium chloride in the laboratory? • We can make sodium chloride just as easily without being so dramatic! NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) g NaCl(aq) + H2O • Most molecules can be made in a number of different ways. Ball-and-stick models may also be used to display atoms and molecules.table salt! http://www.

left = 2. and count how many atoms are on the left-hand side and the right-hand side.3 Balancing Chemical Equations Balancing chemical equations may often be very straight forward.2 Carbon Dioxide 3. S + O2  SO2 When balancing equations. • Petrol and natural gas are largely composed of hydrocarbons.3. a different reaction can take place … 2C(s) + O2(g)  2CO(g) 61 3. right = 1 ∴ This reaction is balanced for sulfur Oxygen. if carbon is burned in an environment with only a limited amount of oxygen. __S + __O2  __SO2 While in other cases it can be quite complex! Take each element. 63 64 16 . • The combustion reaction above shows that this reaction generates: • Carbon dioxide • Water • Do you think the fuel burnt here is 100% converted to CO2 and H2O? BUT.3 Balancing Chemical Equations 62 3. right = 2 ∴ This reaction is balanced for oxygen ∴ This reaction is fully balanced. left = 1.2 Carbon Dioxide Hydrocarbons + O2(g) C(s) + O2(g)  CO2(g) + H2O (g) • Hydrocarbons are compounds containing just hydrogen and carbon. Sulfur. 2C2H6 + 7O2  4CO2 + 6H2O These numbers are called ‘coefficients’ and they are required to balance the equations. always be careful to do it in a stepwise manner. starting from the front of the equation.

This equation is now fully balanced! 65 3. 3. Right = 7.3 Balancing Chemical Equations 66 3.  unbalanced 2.3 Balancing Chemical Equations 3. Let’s do this one step at a time. Try to balance the # of carbon atoms (start at the front).4 Molecules: How They Shape Up __C8H18 + __O2  __CO2 + __H2O water peroxide chlorine ammonia __C8H18 + __O2  __CO + __H2O __PbO2 + __HCl  __PbCl2 + __Cl2 + __H2O __Pb(NO3)2 + __AlCl3  __PbCl2 + __Al(NO3)3 ethanol hexane __Mg + __Mn2O3  __MgO + __Mn __FeCl3 + __Be3(PO4)2  __BeCl2 + __FePO4 67 17 .  unbalanced 4. Oxygen: Left = 2.  unbalanced 5. Try to balance the # of hydrogen atoms. Let’s try to balance the # of oxygen atoms.3 Balancing Chemical Equations __C2H6 + __O2  __CO2 + __H2O __C2H6 + __O2  __CO2 + __H2O This example is more complex. Double the right-hand side to even up the carbon atoms.3. Triple the right-hand side to even up the hydrogen atoms. Introduce a coefficient of 7/2 for oxygen. 8. Right = 2. Carbon: Left = 2. 1. 6. 7. Coefficients should be whole numbers. Hydrogen: Left = 6. the way to deal with this is to multiply by two. Right = 1.

and so we need to be able to convey this in chemistry. but what about when they have other shapes? hexane ethanol CCl2F2 actually has the following geometry – “___________”.4 Molecules: How They Shape Up water peroxide chlorine 3.3. But we need a system on drawing these structures to convey the geometry. The hydrocarbons ethane.4 Molecules: How They Shape Up Here are the principle molecule shapes. double or triple bonds. Sometimes molecules ARE flat. ethene and ethyne provide good examples of this.4 Molecules: How They Shape Up 3. linear trigonal planar bent trigonal pyrimidal tetrahedral square planar T-shaped trigonal squarebipyramid based pyrimidal Molecules may also have single. disphenoidal octahedral 71 72 18 .4 Molecules: How They Shape Up So is this molecule really flat? ammonia We live in a 3D world. 70 3.

Space-filling This Lewis structure is drawn in 3-D. so the H-to-N-to-H bond angle is compressed. 76 19 . Lewis structures show connectivity.4 Molecules: How They Shape Up 3.4 Molecules: How They Shape Up 74 3. Chargedensity 73 3. one electron pairs is non-bonding and three are bonding. Arrange the outer electrons in pairs to satisfy the octet rule. Four electron pairs as far from each other as possible indicates a tetrahedral arrangement. CH4 = molecular formula. Determine the number of outer electrons associated with each atom in the molecule (Methane: carbon atom has four outer electron. hydrogen has one = 4 + 4x1 = 8 outer electrons).4 Molecules: How They Shape Up Methane How To Draw Lewis Structures 1. • The non-bonding electron pairs take up more space than bonding pairs. does not express connectivity Structural formulas show how atoms are connected: 2.4 Molecules: How They Shape Up Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory NH3 (Ammonia) • Assumes that the most stable molecular shape has the electron pairs surrounding a central atom as far away from one another as possible. but the shape is described only in terms of the atoms present: ammonia is said to be trigonal pyramidal shaped. A tetrahedral shaped molecule has bond angles of 109.3.5o 75 • Unlike methane. • The electron pairs are tetrahedrally arranged.

but the shape is described only in terms of the atoms present: water is said to be bent shaped. so the H-to-O-to-H bond angle is compressed. • The electron pairs are tetrahedrally arranged.3. • The non-bonding electron pairs take up more space than bonding pairs. 77 3. • O3 should be bent. the angle made by the three atoms should be 117o.4 Molecules: How They Shape Up H2O (water) O3 (ozone) • Unlike methane. • Contains a single bond and a double bond and the central oxygen atom carries a nonbinding pair.4 Molecules: How They Shape Up 3. • The non-bonding electron pairs take up more space than bonding pairs.5 Radiation and Matter The colours exhibited by fireworks & “flame tests” correspond to the frequencies emitted when electrons jump between shells inside the atom. two electron pairs are bonding and two are non-bonding.5 Radiation and Matter copper 29Cu 79 80 20 . strontium 38Sr 78 3.

5 3. 81 3. • This is what happens to ozone in the stratosphere.5 • In the same way that excited atoms. • This is called _______________________.5 Radiation and Matter CiC . • Microwaves cause rotational excitation in molecules & infrared radiation causes vibrational motion.3.Ch.5 • While in molecular oxygen higher frequencies (shorter wavelengths) are required for bond dissociation.Ch.2. O2 UV photon l ≤ 242 nm 2O • Ozone experiences bond dissociation at lower frequencies. if sufficient. • Visible radiation typically excites electrons to higher energies (from inner shells to outer shells) • Radiation from different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum excite these species in different ways. molecules and ions can emit radiation. they may also absorb radiation.5 Radiation and Matter CiC .2.Ch.5 Radiation and Matter 82 CiC . UV photon O3 O2 + O l ≤ 320 nm 83 21 .2. may even cause bonds to break. • Ultraviolet energy.