Consumer Behavior

1. Abstract information: Pallid information, lacking concreteness and communication
effectiveness.
2. Absolute threshold: The lowest level at which a stimulus can be detected 50% of the time.
3. Acceptable risk: The level of risk that a consumer will tolerate when purchasing a product or
service.
4. Acculturation: The difficult task of learning a new culture.
5. Achievement motivation: The motivation identified by David McClelland to strive for success
and to perform up to one's capabilities.
6. Adaptation: A process in which an organism has repeated experience with a stimulus and
habituates to it.
7. Adaptation level: The level of intensity of a stimulus to which a consumer has become
accustomed or adapted
8. Advertising clutter: Too many ads on TV or radio impeding the ability of consumers to
remember the ads.
9. Advertising wear-out: Occurs when consumers are overexposed to an advertisement, resulting
in decreased positivity.
10. AIO statements: Used in psychographic inventories to obtain information on consumers'
activities, interests, and opinions.
11. Altruistic Marketing: A field of study that (1) researches the causes of negligent consumer
behavior and (2) applies the findings to develop treatment and/or preventive methods to reduce
the maladaptive actions of consumers.
12. Alternative evaluation: The formation of benefits and attitudes regarding choice alternatives.
13. Applied behavior analysis: A process in which environmental variables are manipulated to alter
behavior.
14. Articulation: A component of consumer knowledge that describes how finely a person can
discriminate differences along a dimension.
15. Aspiration group: A group to which an individual would like to belong. If it is impossible for
the individual to belong to the group, it becomes a symbolic group for the person.
16. Attention: The allocation of cognitive capacity to an object or task, so that information is
consciously processed.
17. Attitude: The amount of affect or feeling for or against a stimulus.
18. Attributes: The characteristics or features that an object may or may not have.

knowledge. 24. Cluster analysis: The use of demographic variables to identify where groups of neighborhoods with households of similar consumers arc located geographically. a path to persuasion in which a person diligently processes the arguments of the source of information. Closure: A principle of perceptual organization that describes the tendency of people to fill in missing information to create a holistic 32. Behavioral learning: A process in which experience with the environment leads to a relatively permanent change in behavior or the potential for a change in behavior. benefits. Cognitive consistency: The tendency of people to maintain a logical and consistent set of interconnected attitudes. Channels: The media through which information flows. Choice uncertainty: The degree of uncertainty about which of several brands to select. and objects. Central route to persuasion: In high-involvement information processing. Central cues: Those ideas and supporting data that bear directly on the quality of the arguments developed in the message. . Awareness set: A subset of the total universe of potential brands and products available of which a consumer is aware. 20. 31. 33. 34. 27. 29. Behavioral segmentation: A complementary approach to using demographic variables to segment the market by dividing consumers into homogeneous groups based on various aspects of their buying behavior. Attribution theory: Identifies the various means through which people determine the causes of action of themselves. others. Beliefs: The cognitive knowledge people have of the relations among attributes. 25. Cognitive complexity: A personality characteristic that describes the degree of structural intricacy of the organizing schemas used by different groups of consumers to code and store information in memory. 35. 30. the conditioned stimulus will eventually elicit a conditioned response. Clutter: An overabundance of advertisements that decreases communications effectiveness. 26. Classical conditioning: A type of learning in which a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus through repetition. and objects.19. 22. 21. Choice: The process in which consumers make a choice between two or more alternative courses of action. 23. 28. Childhood consumer socialization: Processes by which young people acquire skills. and attitudes relevant to their functioning as consumers in the marketplace.

48. disposing. Consumer knowledge: The amount of experience and information that a person has about particular products or services. Consumer search behavior: All actions consumers take to identify and obtain information on the means of solving a problem. Consumer ritual: Standardized sequences of actions that are periodically repeated. information. services. place it in memory. . Consumer satisfaction/ dissatisfaction: The general feelings that a consumer develops about a product or service after its purchase and use. Cognitive dissonance: An unpleasant emotional state that is felt when there is a logical inconsistency among cognitive elements. and even other people that are perceived to satisfy a need. 53. Cognitive responses: The thoughts that consumers may develop in response to messages. 43.-made products. Consumer information processing: The process in which consumers are exposed to information. 51. 45. Consumer environment: It is composed of factors existing independently of individual consumers and firms that influence the exchange process. 42.36. 37. 38. Consumer decision making: The analysis made in choosing between two or more alternative acquisitions and the processes that take place before and after the choice. and retrieve it for later use. benefits. 44. a service or an idea. 39. Consumer beliefs: The cognitive knowledge people have of the relations among attributes. 49. 47.S. 46. and learn. think. and using products and services. solve problems and gain insights. Consumer involvement: The perceived personal importance and/or interest consumers attach to the acquisition. learn sequences of concepts. 54. Consumer ethnocentrism: A scale measuring the tendency of consumers to prefer to purchase U. Cognitive learning: The process through which people form associations among concepts. Consumer behaviors: consist of all the actions taken by consumers related to acquiring. consumption and disposition of a good. Cognitive personality theories: Personality theories positing that individual differences result from variations in how people process information. and objects. Consumer complaint behavior: A multiple set of actions triggered by perceived dissatisfaction with a purchase episode. attend to it. 52. Consumer incentives: The products. comprehend it. 40. Consumer marketing: The marketing of a good or service by one consumer to another. 41. 50. Consumer expectations: A person's prior beliefs about what should happen in a given situation.

Cross-cultural analysis: The study of foreign cultures and their values. 61. 69. 67. attitudes. Dissociative group: A reference group with whom the person does not wish to be associated. 66. 64. Encoding: The process of transferring information from short-term to long-term memory for permanent storage. to interpret other social units from the perspective of their own group. 58. beliefs. Evoked set: Consists of those brands and products recalled from long-term memory that are acceptable for further consideration. 56. Difference threshold: The minimum amount of difference in the intensity of a stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time. 62. and customs. Ego: The component of the personality defined in psychoanalytic theory as standing for reason and good sense and as following the reality principle. 59. 65. It is a way of life. languages. Dissonance: An imbalanced state that results when a logical inconsistency exists among cognitive elements. and to reject persons who are culturally dissimilar similar. Enculturation: The process of learning one's own culture." "correct. Consumer self-control: The ability of people to avoid making purchases that involve pleasure in the present. Drive: An affective state in which a person experiences emotions and physiological arousal.55. and ways of doing things as specified by one's own culture are "right. 68. The highly involved consumer engages in greater amounts of information processing than the less involved consumer. Elaboration likelihood model (ELM): A model proposing that the route to persuasion depends on the involvement of the consumer. Dogmatism: A personality characteristic marked by closed-mindedness and rigidity in the. but pain in the future. . Defense mechanisms: Psychological logical adjustments made by people to keep themselves from recognizing personality qualities or motives that might lower self-esteem or heighten anxiety. 63." and generally better than those of other cultures. Ethnocentrism: The universal tendency for people to view their own group as the center of the universe. 57. 70. approach to the social environment. Cultural ethnocentricity: The feeling among some consumers that the values. Culture: A set of socially acquired behavior patterns transmitted symbolically through language and other means to the members of a particular society. 60.

Interpersonal processes: The communications that occur between two people at any particular point in time. 83. in which the consumer attempts to retrieve from long-term memory information on products or services that will help to solve a problem. Hedonic consumption: The consumption of products and services based primarily on the desire to experience pleasure and happiness. interacting in an open ended fashion with the assistance of a moderator to provide information on their beliefs and attitudes about specific topics. Focus groups: Small number of consumers (usually 6 to 10). Halo effect: The concept that positive or negative feelings about one characteristic will generalize to influence feelings about other. 80.71. : Qualitative methods in which the researcher attempts to identify the meanings of the symbols and rituals employed by consumers. possibly unrelated. 73. 77. Internalization: Occurs when an individual accepts influence because it is intrinsically rewarding. Family life cycle: The idea that families may move through a series of stages in a developmental fashion. characteristics. 76. memory. 85. Internal search: The first phase of the search process. and expectations to interpret and attach meaning to a stimulus. 72. Habitual purchases: Purchases that occur as a result of a habit. High-involvement decision making: The decision process that occurs when consumers perceive high personal importance in a decision. 79. Interpretation: A process whereby people draw upon their experience. Fashion: A set of behaviors temporarily adopted by a people because they are perceived to be socially appropriate for the time and situation. 81. . 84. The ground is the context or background within which the figure is observed. Figure-ground: A principle of perception whereby the figure is the object observed moving against the ground. 78. External search: The consumer's soliciting information from outside sources rather than from his or her memory. 75. 74. 82. Hedonism: The desire to gain pleasure through the senses. It is marked by extended decision making and high levels of information processing. Family decision stages: The steps in the decision process used by a family to purchase products or services.Interpretation process: 86.

99. 98. Just noticeable difference (JND): The minimum amount of difference in the intensity of a stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time. 92. Repetition effects: The impact on consumers of repeating an advertising message a number of times. It is concerned with consumers’ overt actions and behavior. forms. Perceptual organization: How people perceive the shapes. 90. novel. Operant conditioning: A process in which the frequency of occurrence of a behavior is modified by the consequences of the behavior. Opinion leader: Consumers who influence the purchase decisions of others. Reference group: A group whose value. norms. without any particular product for it. . and lines in their visual world. Personal influence: Refers to the idea that one individual may intentionally or unintentionally influence another in his or her beliefs. Involuntary attention: An innate response that occurs when a consumer is exposed to something surprising. 93. 96. threatening. 95. Problem recognition: The discovery of discrepancy between an actual and a desired state of being. Lifestyle: How people live. 89. 100. attitudes or beliefs are used as a guide for behavior by an individual. (p. Involvement: The level of perceived personal importance or interest evoked by a stimulus (or stimuli) within a specific situation. or unexpected. figures. 94. or intentions about something. 88. and how they allocate their time. Repeat purchase behavior: The consumer is merely buying a product repeatedly. 97. Peripheral route to persuasion: Persuasion that occurs in low involvement circumstances when little information elaboration is provided. Perception: The process through which individuals are exposed to information.87. how they spend their money. attitudes. 220) 91. attend to that information and comprehend it.